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GO TONG ELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO., INC.

and be the facts, which requirement, likewise, remains absent


GEORGE C. GO, petitioners, vs. BPI FAMILY from the An-
SAVINGS BANK, INC., substituted by PHILIPPINE _______________
INVESTMENT ONE [SPV-AMC], INC.,** respondent.
* FIRST DIVISION.
Remedial Law; Civil Procedure; General Denial; A * * See respondents Manifestation with Motion for Substitution
general denial does not become specific by the use of the with annexes (Rollo,pp. 197-202), which the Court granted in a
word specifically.A reading of the Answer shows that Resolution dated January 27, 2010 (id., at p. 208).
petitioners failed to specifically deny the execution of the 487
Credit Agreement, PN, and CSA under the auspices of the VOL. 760, JUNE 29, 487
above quoted rule. The mere statement in paragraph 4 of
their Answer, i.e., that they specifically deny the
2015
pertinent allegations of the Complaint for being self- Go Tong Electrical Supply
serving and pure conclusions intended to suit plaintiffs Co., Inc. vs. BPI Family
purposes, does not constitute an effective specific denial as Savings Bank, Inc.
contemplated by law. Verily, a denial is not specific simply swer in this case. Thus, with said pleading failing to
because it is so qualified by the defendant. Stated otherwise, comply with the specific denial under oath requirement
a general denial does not become specific by the use of the under Section 8, Rule 8 of the Rules, the proper conclusion,
word specifically. Neither does it become so by the simple as arrived at by the CA, is that petitioners had impliedly
expedient of coupling the same with a broad conclusion of admitted the due execution and genuineness of the
law that the allegations contested are self-serving or are documents evidencing their loan obligation to respondent.
intended to suit plaintiffs purposes. To this, case law enlightens that [t]he admission of the
Same; Evidence; Documentary Evidence; Case law genuineness and due execution of a document means that
enlightens that [t]he admission of the genuineness and due the party whose signature it bears admits that he
execution of a document means that the party whose voluntarily signed the document or it was signed by another
signature it bears admits that he voluntarily signed the for him and with his authority; that at the time it was
document or it was signed by another for him and with his signed it was in words and figures exactly as set out in the
authority; that at the time it was signed it was in words and pleading of the party relying upon it; that the document
figures exactly as set out in the pleading of the party relying was delivered; and that any formalities required by law,
upon it; that the document was delivered; and that any such as a seal, an acknowledgment, or revenue stamp,
formalities required by law, such as a seal, an which it lacks, are waived by him. Also, it effectively
acknowledgment, or revenue stamp, which it lacks, are eliminated any defense relating to the authenticity
waived by him.Section 8, Rule 8 of the Rules further and due execution of the document, e.g., that the
requires that the defendant sets forth what he claims to document was spurious, counterfeit, or of different import
on its face as the one executed by the parties; or that the
signatures appearing thereon were forgeries; or that the direct or personal interest over the obligations nor does
signatures were unauthorized. it receive any benefit therefrom.As established through
Civil Law; Obligations; Payment; When the creditor is the CSA, Go had clearly bound himself as a surety to Go
in possession of the document of credit, proof of nonpayment Tong Electricals loan obligation. Thus, there is no question
is not needed for it is presumed.Of particular note is the that Gos liability thereto is solidary with the former. As
affirmative defense of payment raised during the provided in Article 2047 of the Civil Code, the surety
proceedings a quo. While petitioners insisted that they had undertakes to be bound solidarily with the principal obligor.
paid, albeit partially, their loan obligation to respondent, That undertaking makes a surety agreement an ancillary
the fact of such payment was never established by contract as it presupposes the existence of a principal
petitioners in this case. Jurisprudence abounds that, in civil contract. Although the contract of a surety is in essence
cases, one who pleads payment has the burden of proving it; secondary only to a valid principal obligation, the surety
the burden rests on the defendant, i.e., petitioners, to prove becomes liable for the debt or duty of another although it
payment, rather than on the plaintiff, i.e., respondent, to possesses no direct or personal interest over the obligations
prove nonpayment. When the creditor is in possession of the nor does it receive any benefit therefrom. Let it be stressed
document of credit, proof of nonpayment is not needed for it that notwithstanding the fact that the surety contract is
is presumed. Here, respondents possession of the Credit secondary to the principal obligation, the surety assumes
Agreement, PN, and CSA, especially with their genuineness liability as a regular party to the undertaking, as Go in
and due execution already having been admitted, cements this case.
its claim that the obligation of petitioners has not been
extinguished. Instructive too is the Courts disquisition PETITION for review on certiorari of the decision and
in Jison v. Court of Appeals, 286 SCRA 495 (1998), on the resolution of the Court of Appeals.
evidentiary burdens attendant in a civil proceeding. The facts are stated in the opinion of the Court.
Same; Same; Suretyship; Although the contract of a Molo, Sia, Dy, Tuazon, Ty & Coloma Law
surety is in essence secondary only to a valid principal Offices for respondent Phil. Investment One.
obligation, the surety becomes liable for the debt or duty of Solis, Lacambra & Associates Law
another although it possesses no Office collaborating counsel for respondent Phil.
488 Investment One.
488 SUPREME COURT PERLAS-BERNABE, J.:
REPORTS
ANNOTATED Assailed in this petition for review on certiorari1 are
Go Tong Electrical Supply the Decision2 dated February 17, 2009 and the
Co., Inc. vs. BPI Family Resolution3 dated April 13, 2009 of the Court of
Savings Bank, Inc. Appeals (CA) in C.A.-G.R. CV
_______________
1 Id., at pp. 11-30. Tong Electrical had applied for and was granted
2 Id., at pp. 38-46. Penned by Associate Justice Jose Catral
Mendoza (now a member of the Court), with Associate Justices Portia
financial assistance by the then Bank of South East
Alio-Hormachuelos and Ramon M. Bato, Jr., concurring. Asia (BSA). Subsequently, DBS7 Bank of the
3 Id., at p. 48. Philippines, Inc. (DBS) became the successor-in-
489
interest of BSA. The application for financial
VOL. 760, JUNE 29, 489 assistance was renewed on January 6, 1999 through a
2015 Credit Agreement.8 On even date, Go Tong Electrical,
represented by Go, among others, obtained a loan from
Go Tong Electrical Supply
DBS in the principal amount of P40,491,051.65, for
Co., Inc. vs. BPI Family
which Go Tong Electrical executed Promissory Note
Savings Bank, Inc.
No. 82-91-00176-79 (PN) for the same amount in favor
No. 86749 which affirmed the Decision4 dated of DBS, maturing on February 5, 2000.10 Under the
September 6, 2005 of the Regional Trial Court of PNs terms, Go Tong Electrical
Makati City, Branch 143 (RTC) in Civil Case No. 02- _______________
1203, an action for collection of sum of money,
rendered in favor of respondent BPI Family Savings 4 Id., at pp. 123-128. Penned by Presiding Judge Zenaida T.
Galapate-Laguilles.
Bank, Inc. (respondent).
5 Dated September 2, 2002; id., at pp. 49-53.
6 Id., at p. 52.
7 Mentioned as Development Bank of Singapore in the letters
The Facts dated July 1, 2002 and July 12, 2002. Id., at pp. 107 and 108.
8 Id., at pp. 100-101.
9 Id., at pp. 102-104.
On October 4, 2002, respondent filed a 10 Id., at p. 50.
complaint5 against petitioners Go Tong Electrical
Supply Co., Inc. (Go Tong Electrical) and its President,
490
George C. Go (Go; collectively petitioners), docketed as
490 SUPREME COURT
Civil Case No. 02-1203, seeking that the latter be held
REPORTS
jointly and severally liable to it for the payment of
their loan obligation in the aggregate amount of
ANNOTATED
P87,086,398.71, inclusive of the principal sum, Go Tong Electrical Supply
interests, and penalties as of May 28, 2002, as well as Co., Inc. vs. BPI Family
attorneys fees, litigation expenses, and costs of Savings Bank, Inc.
suit.6As alleged by respondent, as early as 1996, Go bound itself to pay a default penalty interest at the
rate of one percent (1%) per month in addition to the
current interest rate,11 as well as attorneys fees 16 See Demand Letters dated July 1, 2002; id., at p. 107, and
July 12, 2002; id., at p. 108.
equivalent to twenty-five percent (25%) of the amount 17 Id., at p. 51.
sought to be recovered.12 As additional security, Go 18 Dated December 19, 2002; id., at pp. 57-62.
executed a Comprehensive Surety Agreement13 (CSA) 19 Id., at p. 57.
covering any and all obligations undertaken by Go 20 Id., at pp. 57-58.
21 Id., at pp. 58-59.
Tong Electrical, including the aforesaid loan.14 Upon
default of petitioners, DBS and later, its successor- 491
in-interest, herein respondent15 demanded payment VOL. 760, JUNE 29, 491
from petitioners,16 but to no avail,17 hence, the 2015
aforesaid complaint. Go Tong Electrical Supply
In their Answer with Counterclaim18 (Answer), Co., Inc. vs. BPI Family
petitioners merely stated that they specifically Savings Bank, Inc.
deny19 the allegations under the complaint. Of litigation and attorneys fees in the total amount of
particular note is their denial of the execution of the P1,250,000.00.22
loan agreement, the PN, and the CSA for being self- During trial, respondent presented Ricardo O.
serving and pure conclusions intended to suit Suio23(Suio), the Account Officer handling
[respondents] purposes.20By way of special and petitioners loan accounts, as its witness. Sunio
affirmative defenses, petitioners argued, among others, attested to the existence of petitioners loan obligation
that: (a) the real party-in-interest should be DBS and in favor of respondent,24 and identified a Statement of
not respondent; (b) no demand was made upon them; Account25which shows the amount due as of June 16,
and (c) Go cannot be held liable under the CSA since 2004 as follows:
there was supposedly no solidarity of On cross-examination, Suio nonetheless admitted
debtors. Petitioners further interposed counterclaims
21
that he had no knowledge of how the PN was prepared,
for the payment of moral and exemplary damages, as executed, and signed, nor did he witness its signing.27
well as For their part, petitioners presented Go Tong
_______________
Electricals Finance Officer, Jocelyn Antonette Lim,
11 Id., at p. 102. who testified that Go Tong Electrical was able to pay
12 Id., at p. 103; pp. 50-51. its loan, albeit partially. However, she admitted that
13 Dated January 6, 1996; id., at pp. 105-106. she does not know how much pay-
14 Id., at p. 51. _______________
15 Id., at p. 49. See Certificate of Filing of the Articles and Plan
of Merger; id., at p. 68. 22 Id., at p. 59.
23 Sunio in some parts of the Rollo.
24 Rollo, p. 78. obligation. On the other hand, petitioners failed to
25 Respondent formally offered as Exhibit G the aforesaid
Statement of Account. Id., at pp. 109-112.
discharge the burden of proving that they had already
26 Id., at p. 112; emphasis supplied. paid the same, even partially.31 Further, the RTC
27 Id., at pp. 124-125. debunked petitioners denial of the demands made by
492
respondent since, ultimately, the Credit Agreement,
492 SUPREME COURT PN, and CSA clearly stated that no demand was
REPORTS needed to render them in default.32Likewise, the
ANNOTATED argument that Go could not be held solidarily liable
was not sustained since he bound himself as a surety
Go Tong Electrical Supply
under the CSA, which was executed precisely to induce
Co., Inc. vs. BPI Family
respondents predecessor-in-interest, DBS, to grant the
Savings Bank, Inc. loan.33 Separately, the RTC found the penalty interest
ments were made, nor does she have a rough at three percent (3%) per month sought by respondent
estimate thereof, as these were allegedly paid for in to be patently iniquitous and unconscionable and thus,
dollars.28 was reduced to twelve percent (12%)
_______________
The RTCs Ruling
28 Id., at pp. 125-126.
29 Id., at pp. 123-128.
In a Decision29 dated September 6, 2005, the RTC 30 Id., at p. 128.
ruled in favor of respondent, thereby ordering 31 Id., at p. 126.
petitioners to jointly and severally pay the former: (a) 32 Id., at pp. 126-127.
the principal sum of P40,491,051.65, with legal 33 Id., at p. 127.
interest to be reckoned from the filing of the 493
Complaint; (b) penalty interest of one percent (1%) per VOL. 760, JUNE 29, 493
month until the obligation is fully paid; and (c) 2015
attorneys fees in the sum of P50,000.00.30 Go Tong Electrical Supply
It found that respondent had amply demonstrated Co., Inc. vs. BPI Family
by competent evidence that it was entitled to the Savings Bank, Inc.
reliefs it prayed for. Particularly, respondents per annum, or one percent (1%) per month.
documentary evidence the authenticity of which the Attorneys fees were also tempered to the reasonable
RTC observed to be undisputed showed the amount of P50,000.00.34
existence of petitioners valid and demandable Unconvinced, petitioners appealed35 to the CA.
35 See Appellants Brief dated August 18, 2006; id., at pp. 129-
147.
The CAs Ruling
36 Id., at pp. 38-46.
37 Id., at p. 43.
In a Decision36 dated February 17, 2009, the CA 38 Id., at p. 41.
sustained the RTCs ruling in toto, finding the 39 Id., at pp. 43-44.
following facts to be beyond cavil: (a) that Go Tong 494
Electrical applied for and was granted a loan 494 SUPREME COURT
accommodation from DBS in the amount of REPORTS
P40,491,051.65 after the execution of the Credit ANNOTATED
Agreement and the PN dated January 6, 1999, Go Tong Electrical Supply
maturing on February 5, 2000; (b) that as additional Co., Inc. vs. BPI Family
security, Go executed the CSA binding himself jointly Savings Bank, Inc.
and severally to pay the obligation of Go Tong
the existence of the loan documents.40 It added that,
Electrical; and (c) that petitioners failed to pay the
although he was not privy to the execution of the same,
loan obligation upon maturity, despite written
it does not significantly matter as their genuineness
demands from then DBS, now, herein respondent.37 In
and due execution were already admitted.41
this relation, the CA discredited petitioners argument
Petitioners filed a motion for
that respondents sole witness, Suio, was incompetent
reconsideration,42 which was, however, denied in a
to testify on the documentary evidence presented as he
Resolution43 dated April 13, 2009, hence, this petition.
had no personal knowledge of the loan documents
execution,38given that petitioners, in their Answer, did
The Issue Before the Court
not deny under oath the genuineness and due
execution of the PN and CSA and, hence, are deemed
The issue for the Courts resolution is whether or
admitted under Section 8, Rule 8 of the Rules of Court
not the CA erred in upholding the RTCs ruling.
(Rules).39Besides, the CA observed that, despite the
aforesaid admission, respondent still presented the The Courts Ruling
testimony of Suio who, having informed the court
that the loan documents were in his legal custody as
The petition lacks merit.
the designated Account Officer when DBS merged with
The Court concurs with the CA Decision holding
herein respondent, had personal knowledge of
_______________
that the genuineness and due execution of the loan
documents in this case were deemed admitted by
34 Id., at pp. 127-128.
petitioners under the parameters of Section 8, Rule 8 plaintiffs purposes,44 does not constitute an effective
of the Rules which provides: specific denial as contemplated by law.45Verily, a
SEC. 8. How to contest such documents.When an denial is not specific simply because it is so qualified
action or defense is founded upon a written instrument, by the defendant. Stated otherwise, a general denial
copied in or attached to the corresponding pleading as does not become specific by the use of the word
provided in the preceding Section, the genuineness and due specifically.46Neither does it become so by the simple
execution of the instrument shall be deemed admitted
expedient of coupling the same with a broad conclusion
unless the adverse party, under oath, specifically
of law that the allegations contested are self-serving
denies them, and sets forth what he claims to be the
facts; but the requirement of an oath does not apply when or are intended to suit plaintiffs purposes.
the adverse party does not appear to be a party to the In Permanent Savings and Loan Bank v.
instrument or when compliance with an order for an Velarde47(Permanent Savings & Loan Bank), citing the
inspection of the original instrument is refused. (Emphasis earlier case of Songco v. Sellner,48 the Court expounded
supplied) on how to deny the genuineness and due execution of
_______________
an actionable document, viz.:
This means that the defendant must declare under
40 Id., at p. 44. oath that he did not sign the document or that it is
41 Id., at p. 45. otherwise false or fabricated. Neither does the
42 Dated March 19, 2009; id., at pp. 180-185. statement of the answer to the effect that the instrument
43 Id., at p. 48. was
495 _______________
VOL. 760, JUNE 29, 495
2015 44 Id., at pp. 57-58.
45 The other invoked affirmative defense of petitioners that
Go Tong Electrical Supply respondent is not a real party-in-interest, aside from not being a
Co., Inc. vs. BPI Family specific denial of a factual allegation, has, on its own account, no
Savings Bank, Inc. merit, considering that petitioner had not sufficiently disproved the
merger of DBS and respondent. Thus, as the surviving corporation in
A reading of the Answer shows that petitioners the merger, respondent is DBSs successor-in-interest, which
failed to specifically deny the execution of the Credit maintains the right to enforce the loan obligation and hence, a real
Agreement, PN, and CSA under the auspices of the party-in-interest in this case. Seeparagraph 6 of the Answer; id., at p.
above quoted rule. The mere statement in paragraph 4 58. See also petition; id., at p. 28.
46 Camitan v. Court of Appeals, 540 Phil. 377, 386; 511 SCRA
of their Answer, i.e., that they specifically deny the 364, 373 (2006).
pertinent allegations of the Complaint for being self- 47 482 Phil. 193; 439 SCRA 1 (2004).
serving and pure conclusions intended to suit 48 37 Phil. 254, 256 (1917).
496 formalities required by law, such as a seal, an
496 SUPREME COURT acknowledgment, or revenue stamp, which it lacks, are
REPORTS waived by him. Also, it effectively eliminated any
ANNOTATED defense relating to the authenticity and due
Go Tong Electrical Supply execution of the document, e.g., that the document
Co., Inc. vs. BPI Family was spurious, counterfeit, or of different import on its
Savings Bank, Inc. face as the one executed by the parties; or that the
procured by fraudulent representation raise any issue as signatures appearing thereon were forgeries; or that
to its genuineness or due execution. On the contrary such a the signatures were unauthorized.50
plea is an admission both of the genuineness and due _______________
execution thereof, since it seeks to avoid the instrument
upon a ground not affecting either.49(Emphasis supplied) 49 Permanent Savings and Loan Bank v. Velarde, supra note 47
at p. 202; p. 9.
50 Id., at pp. 202-203; pp. 9-10; emphasis supplied.
To add, Section 8, Rule 8 of the Rules further 497
requires that the defendant sets forth what he VOL. 760, JUNE 29, 497
claims to be the facts, which requirement, likewise, 2015
remains absent from the Answer in this case. Go Tong Electrical Supply
Thus, with said pleading failing to comply with the Co., Inc. vs. BPI Family
specific denial under oath requirement under Section Savings Bank, Inc.
8, Rule 8 of the Rules, the proper conclusion, as Accordingly, with petitioners admission of the
arrived at by the CA, is that petitioners had impliedly genuineness and due execution of the loan documents
admitted the due execution and genuineness of the as above discussed, the competence of respondents
documents evidencing their loan obligation to witness Suio to testify in order to authenticate the
respondent. same is therefore of no moment. As the Court similarly
To this, case law enlightens that [t]he admission of pointed out in Permanent Savings & Loan Bank,
the genuineness and due execution of a document [w]hile Section [20],51 Rule 132 of the [Rules] requires
means that the party whose signature it bears admits that private documents be proved of their due
that he voluntarily signed the document or it was execution and authenticity before they can be received
signed by another for him and with his authority; that in evidence, i.e., presentation and examination of
at the time it was signed it was in words and figures witnesses to testify on this fact; in the present
exactly as set out in the pleading of the party relying case, there is no need for proof of execution and
upon it; that the document was delivered; and that any
authenticity with respect to the loan documents Co., Inc. vs. BPI Family
because of respondents implied admission Savings Bank, Inc.
thereof.52 were adequately argued or proven during the
The Court clarifies that while the [f]ailure to deny proceedings of this case.
the genuineness and due execution of an actionable Of particular note is the affirmative defense of
document does not preclude a party from arguing payment raised during the proceedings a quo. While
against it by evidence of fraud, mistake, compromise, petitioners insisted that they had paid, albeit partially,
payment, statute of limitations, estoppel and want of their loan obligation to respondent, the fact of such
consideration [nor] bar a party from raising the payment was never established by petitioners in this
defense in his answer or reply and prove at the trial case. Jurisprudence abounds that, in civil cases, one
that there is a mistake or imperfection in the writing, who pleads payment has the burden of proving it; the
or that it does not express the true agreement of the burden rests on the defendant, i.e., petitioners, to
parties, or that the agreement is invalid or that there prove payment, rather than on the plaintiff, i.e.,
is an intrinsic ambiguity in the writing,53none of these respondent, to prove nonpayment. When the creditor is
defenses in possession of the document of credit, proof of
_______________ nonpayment is not needed for it is presumed.54 Here,
51 SEC. 20. Proof of private document.Before any private respondents possession of the Credit Agreement, PN,
document offered as authentic is received in evidence, its due and CSA, especially with their genuineness and due
execution and authenticity must be proved either: execution already having been admitted, cements its
(a) By anyone who saw the document executed or written; or claim that the obligation of petitioners has not been
(b) By evidence of the genuineness of the signature or
handwriting of the maker. extinguished. Instructive too is the Courts disquisition
Any other private document need only be identified as that which in Jison v. CA55 on the evidentiary burdens attendant
it is claimed to be. in a civil proceeding, to wit:
52 Permanent Savings and Loan Bank v. Velarde, supra note 47 Simply put, he who alleges the affirmative of the issue
at p. 203; p. 10; emphasis supplied.
has the burden of proof, and upon the plaintiff in a civil
53 Republic v. Court of Appeals, 357 Phil. 174, 186; 296 SCRA
171, 182 (1998). case, the burden of proof never parts. However, in the
course of trial in a civil case, once plaintiff makes out
498 a prima facie case in his favor, the duty or the burden of
498 SUPREME COURT evidence shifts to defendant to controvert plaintiffs prima
REPORTS facie case, otherwise, a verdict must be returned in favor of
ANNOTATED plaintiff. Moreover, in civil cases, the party having the
Go Tong Electrical Supply burden of proof must produce a preponderance of evidence
thereon, with plaintiff having to rely on the strength of his
own evidence and not upon the weakness of the defendants. benefit therefrom. Let it be stressed that
The concept of preponderance of evidence refers to notwithstanding the fact that the surety contract is
evidence which is of greater weight, or secondary to the principal obligation, the surety
_______________ assumes liability as a regular party to the
undertaking,58 as Go in this case.
54 Agner v. BPI Family Savings Bank, Inc., G.R. No. 182963, However, while petitioners liability has been
June 3, 2013, 697 SCRA 89, 96-97.
55 350 Phil. 138; 286 SCRA 495 (1998).
upheld in this case, the Court finds it proper to modify
the RTCs ruling, as affirmed by the CA, with respect
499 to the following:
VOL. 760, JUNE 29, 499 First, the partial payment made by Go Tong
2015 Electrical on June 16, 2004 in the amount of
Go Tong Electrical Supply P1,877,286.08, as admitted by
Co., Inc. vs. BPI Family _______________
Savings Bank, Inc.
56 Id., at p. 173; p. 532.
more convincing, that which is offered in opposition to it; 57 Art. 2047. By guaranty a person, called the guarantor,
at bottom, it means probability of truth.56 binds himself to the creditor to fulfill the obligation of the principal
debtor in case the latter should fail to do so.
If a person binds himself solidarily with the principal debtor, the
Finally, the Court finds as untenable petitioners provisions of Section 4, Chapter 3, Title I of this Book shall be
theory on Gos supposed non-liability. As established observed. In such case the contract is called a suretyship.
58 Asset Builders Corp. v. Stronghold Insurance Company,Inc., 647
through the CSA, Go had clearly bound himself as a
Phil. 692, 703; 633 SCRA 370, 379-380 (2010).
surety to Go Tong Electricals loan obligation. Thus,
there is no question that Gos liability thereto is 500
solidary with the former. As provided in Article 500 SUPREME COURT
204757 of the Civil Code, the surety undertakes to be REPORTS
bound solidarily with the principal obligor. That ANNOTATED
undertaking makes a surety agreement an ancillary Go Tong Electrical Supply
contract as it presupposes the existence of a principal Co., Inc. vs. BPI Family
contract. Although the contract of a surety is in Savings Bank, Inc.
essence secondary only to a valid principal obligation, respondent through a Statement of
the surety becomes liable for the debt or duty of Account, formally offered as Exhibit G and duly
59

another although it possesses no direct or personal identified by Suio during trial, should be deducted
interest over the obligations nor does it receive any
from the principal amount of P40,491,051.65 due 2015
respondent. Go Tong Electrical Supply
Second, with respect to the interests and penalties: Co., Inc. vs. BPI Family
(a) petitioners should be held liable for the twenty Savings Bank, Inc.
percent (20%) per annumstipulated interest rate maturity date on February 5, 2000, which period is
reckoned 31 days from January 6, 1999, as agreed regarded as the initial period in said PN. Said interest
upon in the PN,60 until its rate should be upheld as this was stipulated by the
_______________
parties, and the rate cannot be considered
59 The Statement of Account prepared by Account Officer Suio unconscionable.61The same shall be computed based on
and noted by Market Head Ma. Cristina F. Asis disclosed the amount the entire principal amount due, i.e., P40,491,051.65,
due respondent as of June 16, 2004, as follows: since the records disclose that the admitted partial
60 Id., at p. 102. See PN dated January 6, 1999, the pertinent
portion of which provides:
payment of P1,877,286.08 was still unpaid before the
complaint was filed on October 4, 2002,62 or before the
February 5, 2000 maturity date; and
(b) the reduced interest rate of one percent (1%)
per month and penalty rate of one percent (1%) per
month are upheld,63 but should accrue from the PNs
February 5, 2000 maturity date64 until June 16, 2004,
or the date when the
_______________
a. The Borrower agrees to pay interest on the outstanding
principal amount of this Note for each 31-day period commencing on mium or penalty. The failure of the Borrower to make such
the date hereof until maturity date (each such period, an interest prepayment within the said period shall be deemed to be an
period), such interest to be payable on the last day of each such acceptance of the Borrower to the new interest rate.
interest period. The interest on the outstanding principal amount of b. Default Penalty.If the Borrower fails to make payment of any
this Note shall be computed (i) for the initial interest period; at the amount payable by it hereunder or under this Note when due
rate of 20% per annum, and (ii) for each succeeding interest period; (whether at the stated maturity, by acceleration or otherwise), the
at the rate determined by the Lender and advised to the Borrower on Borrower shall pay default interest on such past due and unpaid
the first day of each succeeding interest period. If the Borrower finds amount from the due date until paid in full at the rate equal to 1%
the interest rate unacceptable, the Borrower shall have the right to per month, in addition to the then current interest rate.
prepay the outstanding loan (not later than the second banking day xxxx
of the then current interest period) without pre- 61 Villanueva v. Court of Appeals, 671 Phil. 467; 655 SCRA 707
501 (2011), citing Bacolor v. Banco Filipino Savings and Mortgage Bank
Dagupan City Branch, 544 Phil. 18, 27; 515 SCRA 79, 87 (2007),
VOL. 760, JUNE 29, 501
and Garcia v. Court of Appeals, 249 Phil. 739, 756; 167 SCRA 815,
831 (1988).
62 See complaint dated September 2, 2002; Rollo, pp. 49-52.
63 See RTC Decision dated September 6, 2005; id., at p. 128.
64 Id., at p. 127. This is in light of the finding of the RTC that:
The Credit Agreement clearly states that the Borrower shall be
in default without need for notice, demand or presentment. The
Promissory Note likewise contains the same caveat: Presentment
for payment, demand and notice of dishonor waived. The
Comprehensive Surety Agreement likewise

502
502 SUPREME COURT
REPORTS
ANNOTATED
Go Tong Electrical Supply
Co., Inc. vs. BPI Family
Savings Bank, Inc.
partial payment of P1,877,286.08 has been made by
Go Tong Electrical, and computed based on the entire
principal amount of P40,491,051.65. Interest and
penalty, at the same reduced rate, due thereafter (i.e.,
from June 17, 2004 until full payment) shall be
computed based on the net amount of P38,613,765.57
(i.e., the amount arrived at after deducting the partial
payment of P1,877,286.08 from the principal amount
of P40,491,051.65).
WHEREFORE, the petition is DENIED. The
Decision dated February 17, 2009 and the Resolution
dated April 13, 2009 of the Court of Appeals in C.A.-
G.R. CV No. 86749 are hereby AFFIRMED with the
above stated MODIFICATIONS.
SO ORDERED.