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New Complete Complementary Codes and Their

Analysis
Xing Yang , Yong Mo , Daoben Li , Mingzhe Bian
School
of Information Engineering
Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China
Email: sheepstar monkey@yahoo.com.cn
Department of Electronic Information Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China

Abstract A new complete complementary code set, where have developed this theory and made N equal to any positive
each code consists of arbitrary even number sequences with even number. In a similar way, a new quasi-perfect complete
arbitrary length, is constructed. When the condition of auto- complementary code set of arbitrary N order (N 2)
correlation function is imperfect, a quasi-perfect complete com-
plementary code set, where each code consists of arbitrary N with only perfect cross-correlations is proposed. Moreover,
sequences with arbitrary length, is presented. Subsequently, a each sequence length for both complete complementary code
natural extension of the quasi-perfect complete complementary set and quasi-perfect one can be arbitrary positive integer
code set is given. In addition, a general way to construct l > 1. Based on the construction method of the quasi-
complete complementary code set based on solving equations is perfect complete complementary code set, a new quasi-perfect
also demonstrated in this paper. Simulation results validate the
correctness of all the construction methods above. A comparison complete complementary code set which can be divided into
between these new construction methods and Schweitzers one is N groups (N is also the order) with L codes in each group is
made, it shows that the order of complete complementary code constructed. In addition, a general way to construct complete
set is not restricted to 2m and each sequence length can also be complementary code set of arbitrary order and sequence length
arbitrary. is demonstrated.
This paper is organized as follows: Section II outlines
I. I NTRODUCTION
the definition of complete complementary code set and gives
It is well known that the capacity of a CDMA system one example. In section III, we will demonstrate how these
is tightly related to its access code design. Li has proven new code sets are constructed, while simulation results are
that: in a synchronous CDMA system, the aperiodic auto- presented in section IV. Finally, section V concludes the paper.
correlation function (ACF) and the cross-correlation function
II. D EFINITIONS AND E XAMPLES
(CCF) among its access codes fully determine its capacity
[1][10]. If the cross-correlation of an access code set is zero for Let us consider a sequence of l complex numbers:
any relative time shift and its auto-correlation is zero for any U = (u1 , u2 , ul )
relative time shift except for the origin, such access code set is
ideal or perfect for a CDMA system, i.e., it reaches its highest The aperiodic auto-correlation function (ACF) for sequence
capacity. However, Welch [2] found that there is no such ideal U for relative time shift is defined as:
l
access code set. Subsequently Golay proposed the concept 

um um+ 0 l 1
of complementary series[3]: each Golay code consists of
m=1
two sequences, and there exist only two Golay codes with RU ( ) = 
l+ (1)

um um 1 l < 0
ideal ACF and CCF as the result of cancellation between the
m=1

two sequences. In 1971, Schweitzer presented generalized 0 | | l
complementary code sets[4]: each code in the set consists of
where um+ is the complex conjugate of um+ .
N = 2m sequences (m = 1 is just the Golay complementary
The aperiodic cross-correlation function (CCF) between
code) and there exist N = 2m such access codes with ideal
sequence U1 and U2 for relative time shift is defined as:
ACF and CCF. Then Torii et al. proposed a generalized method l
to construct modulatable periodic complementary codes[7]. 

u1,m u2,m+ 0 l 1
Recently, Marziani et al. presented a generalized algorithm to
m=1
obtain complementary sets of sequence[8]. In fact, if an access RU1 ,U2 ( ) = 
l+ (2)

u u 1l <0
code can be divided into N sequences (each sequence length is m=1 1,m 2,m

same and may not equal to N ), through the cancellation among
0 | | l
these N sequences, N access codes can be found with ideal
where
ACF and CCFthese N access codes are called complete
U1 = (u1,1 , u1,2 , u1,l )
complementary code set of order N .
Schweitzers method applied only for N = 2m [4]. We U2 = (u2,1 , u2,2 , u2,l )

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A set of N sequences U = {U1 , U2 UN } is called Using (1)(6), it is easy to check that:
an auto-complementary code of order N if the sum of N 4

aperiodic auto-correlation functions is zero for any relative 
RQ = RUij = (0, 0, 0, 16, 0, 0, 0) i = 1, 2, 3, 4
i
time shift, except for the origin: j=1


N
4

RU ( ) = RUj ( ) = 0 = 0 (3) 

RQ k ,Ql
= RUkj ,Ulj = (0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0) k, l = 1, 2, 3, 4, k = l
j=1
j=1
Two sets of N sequences U = {U1 , U2 UN } and V =
III. N EW C OMPLETE C OMPLEMENTARY C ODE S ET
{V1 , V2 VN } are called a cross-complementary code of
C ONSTRUCTION M ETHODS
order N if the sum of N aperiodic cross-correlation functions
between the corresponding sequence Uj and Vj is zero for A. Construction Method I
any relative time shift, including the origin: A complete complementary code set of any even number

N order with perfect aperiodic ACF and CCF is proposed by:

RU,V ( ) = RUj ,Vj ( ) = 0 (4) Theorem1: For any given normalized
unitary matrix
j=1 g11 g12 g1N
g21 g22 g2N
N sets of N sequences Q1 = {U11 , U12 U1N } QN = GN N =
(G GH = IN N )

{UN1 , U2 UN } are called a complete complementary
N N
gN 1 gN 2 gN N
code of order N if every set is an auto-complementary code
(C1 , S1 )
and every pair of distinct sets chosen from the N sets are a and a perfect cross-complementary code pair ,
(C2 , S2 )
cross-complementary code: (assuming that p1 = C, p2 = S , both C sequence and S

N sequence have l(l > 1) chips),

RQ ( ) = RUij ( ) = 0 = 0; i = 1N (5)
i
j=1
C S
C1 = (c1,1 , c1,1 , c1,l ) S1 = (s1,1 , s1,2 , s1,l )

N
C2 = (c2,1 , c2,2 , c2,l ) S2 = (s2,1 , s2,2 , s2,l )

RQ k ,Ql
( ) = RUkj ,Ulj ( ) = 0 ; k, l = 1 N, k = l
j=1 let
(6)
M1
Definitions (1) to (6) are all quoted from [5], and these N ..
sets of N sequences Q = {Q1 , , Qi , , QN } comprise   .
G C1 G S1
a complete complementary code set. It has also been proved M2N 2lN = =
Mi

(7)
G C2 G S2 ..
that the maximum number of perfect ACF and mutually perfect .
CCF complete complementary code is equal to N [4][6]. So
Qi Q can be written into the form below: M2N

p1 p2 pN p1 pN pN +1 p2N
Qi : ui1,0 ui1,l1 ; ui2,0 ui2,l1 ; ; uiN,0 uiN,l1 g11 C1 , g1N C1 , g11 S1 , g1N S1
g21 C1 , g2N C1 , g21 S1 , g2N S1
where pj denotes the jth sequence of Qi , 1 j N .
, , ,

From (5) and (6), one can find that the aperiodic ACF gN 1 C1 , gN N C1 , gN 1 S1 , gN N S1
and CCF must be firstly calculated separately within each =
g11 C2 ,


g1N C2 , g11 S2 , g1N S2
sequence, after that all the results need to be summed. A g21 C2 , g2N C2 , g21 S2 , g2N S2
example of complete complementary code of order 4 with
, , ,
each sequence length 4 is given below: gN 1 C2 , gN N C2 , gN 1 S2 , gN N S2
Example 2.1
then {M1 , M2 , M2N } comprise a complete complemen-
p1 p2 p3 p4
tary code set of order 2N , i.e. each element consists of even
Q1 : {U11 , U12 , U13 , U14 }
number sequences whose length is l and the aperiodic ACF
Q2 : {U21 , U22 , U23 , U24 }
and CCF of these even number codes are perfect, viz.
Q3 : {U31 , U32 , U33 , U34 }
Q4 : {U41 , U42 , U43 , U44 } 
RM ( ) = 0 = 0, i = 1, 2, 2N
i

where 
i, j = 1, 2, 2N, i = j
RM i ,Mj
( ) = 0 ,
{U11 , U12 , U13 , U14 } = {+ + ++, + +, ++, + +}
{U21 , U22 , U23 , U24 } = { + +, , + +, + + } where Mi denotes the ith row of M (1 i 2N ) , GH
{U31 , U32 , U33 , U34 } = { ++, + +, + + ++, + +} denotes transpose conjugate of G, I denotes the unit matrix
{U41 , U42 , U43 , U44 } = {+ +, + + , + +, } and denotes the Kronecker product.

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Proof : Applying (2) and (6) to any two arbitrary upper half B. Construction Method II
rows Mi , Mj of M form (7), 1 i < j N
Theorem 2: For any given normalized unitary matrix
p1 p2 pN pN +1 pN +2 p2N GN N = [g1 , , gi , , gN ] (gi denotes the i-th column
Mi : gi1 C1 gi2 C1 giN C1 gi1 S1 gi2 S1 giN S1 and G GH = IN N ) and an arbitrary vector u1L =
Mj : gj1 C1 gj2 C1 gjN C1 gj1 S1 gj2 S1 gjN S1 [u1 , u2 , uL ] ( L > 1) , if the aperiodic ACF is not taken
into consideration, let
one obtains
A1

N ..

RM {Rgiq C1 ,gjq C1 ( ) + Rgiq S1 ,gjq S1 ( )} .
i ,Mj
( ) =
q=1 AN N L = GN N u1L = Ai
(8)
..
when 0 < l 1, note that .
AN

l

Rgiq C1 ,gjq C1 ( ) = giq c1,a gjq c1,a+ = giq gjq RC1 ,C1 ( )
p1 p2 pN
a=1
= [g1 u, g2 u, gN u]

l
Rgiq S1 ,gjq S1 ( ) =
giq s1,a gjq
s1,a+ = giq gjq RS1 ,S1 ( ) where Ai denotes the i-th row of A(1 i N ),
a=1 Then {A1 , A2 , AN } comprise a quasi-perfect complete
complementary code set of order N , i.e., each element consists
because RC1 ,C1 ( ) + RS1 ,S1 ( ) = 0 (C1 , S1 ) s perfect of arbitrary N sequences ( each sequence length is L ) with
ACF, only perfect aperiodic CCF among {A1 , A2 , AN }, viz.

RM i ,Mj
( ) = 0, 0 < l 1;

RA i ,Aj
( ) = 0 , i, j = 1, 2, , N, i = j
Similarly, when 1 l < 0,
and the ACF of Ai (1 i N ) is only determined by u1L ,

RM i ,Mj
( ) = 0; viz.

RA ( ) = Ru ( ) i = 1, 2, N
And when = 0, i
Proof : Applying (2) and (6) to any two rows Ai , Aj of A

N 
N from (8), 1 i < j N

RM i ,Mj
( ) = RC1 ,C1 (0) giq gjq + RS1 ,S1 (0) giq gjq
q=1 q=1 p1 p2 pN
Ai : gi1 u gi2 u giN u

N
Aj : gj1 u gj2 u gjN u
because G GH = IN N , giq gjq = 0,
q=1
then when 0 L 1,

RM i ,Mj
(0) = 0; 
N  
N L

RAi ,Aj ( ) = Rgiq u,gjq u ( ) = giq um gjq um+
The rest of the proof for Mi &Mj , 1 i N , N + 1 q=1 q=1 m=1
j 2N (one in upper half rows, the other in lower half rows
of M) follows along the proof above and is omitted; 
N


L
=[ giq gjq ] um um+
The process to prove perfect ACF is substituting Mi for q=1 m=1
 
Mj , 1 i 2N . So one easily get RM ( ) = 0 for = 0 N


i
because G GH = IN N , giq gjq = 0,
and RMi (0) > 0. Q.E.D. q=1
The role of G in theorem 1 is maintaining orthogonality then RAi ,Aj ( ) = 0, 0 L 1;
in origin; (C1 , S1 ) and (C2 , S2 ) guarantee non-zero shift Similarly, when 1 L < 0, RAi ,Aj ( ) = 0.
orthogonality. In practice, in the uplink of a CDMA system, The ACF of Ai is
under the condition of no power control, the base station
receives a high level signal transmitted from a nearby mobile 

N


L
RA ( ) = [ giq giq ] um um+
station as an interference which could cover up the weak level i
q=1 m=1
one transmitted from another relatively far mobile station. The 
L
above phenomenon is the so-called near-far effect which is = um um+
m=1
a fundamental capacity limitation of CDMA system[9] and = Ru ( ).
caused by the imperfect CCF among access codes. If the
condition of perfect auto-correlation property is not satisfied, Q.E.D.
construction method II comes into sight. In fact, u can also be a matrix.

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C. Construction Method III Second, perfect ACF and CCF equations is illustrated:
Corollary: Assuming that the size of u is LL, do Kroneker perfect ACF:
product just as (8), hence the size of A is N L N L: x1 x2 + y1 y2 + z1 z2 = 0 auto complementary of code1
x3 x4 + y3 y4 + z3 z4 = 0 auto complementary of code2
p1 p2 pN
A x5 x6 + y5 y6 + z5 z6 = 0 auto complementary of code3
g11 u, g12 u, g1N u 1
g21 u, g22 u, A2 perfect CCF:
g2N u
AN LN L = = ,
, , ... x1 x3 + x2 x4 + y1 y3 + y2 y4 + z1 z3 + z2 z4 = 0
gN 1 u, gN 2 u, gN N u AN x1 x4 + y1 y4 + z1 z4 = 0

x2 x3 + y2 y3 + z2 z3 = 0
i.e., As row can be divided into N groups A1 , A2 , , AN ,
and for each Al (l = 1, 2 N ), there are L codes of order cross-complementary between code1 and code2,
N within it, viz.
x1 x5 + x2 x6 + y1 y5 + y2 y6 + z1 z5 + z2 z6 = 0
p1 p2 pN x2 x5 + y2 y5 + z2 z5 = 0
gl1 u(1, :), gl2 u(1, :), glN u(1, :)
x1 x6 + y1 y6 + z1 z6 = 0
gl1 u(2, :), gl2 u(2, :), glN u(2, :)
Al =

cross-complementary between code1 and code3,
, ,

gl1 u(L, :), g l2 u(L, :),
glN u(L, :) x3 x5 + x4 x6 + y3 y5 + y4 y6 + z3 z5 + z4 z6 = 0
Ql1 x3 x6 + y3 y6 + z3 z6 = 0
Ql2
x 4 x5 + y4 y5 + z4 z5 = 0
= . ,
.. cross-complementary between code2 and code3.
QlN There are 18 unknown numerical values and 12 equations,
some initial solutions need to be given. Let x1 = x2 =
where u(i, :) denotes the i-th row of u. Then only the CCF
x3 = y1 = y2 = y3 = +1, x4 = y4 = 1, the whole
between any two different groups is perfect, i.e.,
solutions of the equations above can be obtained, the complete
 complementary code of order 3 with 2 chips in each sequence
RQi ,Qj ( ) = 0 Ai , Aj (i = j), .
m n
is given below:
And the CCF and ACF within Al is only determined by matrix Example 3.1
u, i.e.,
p1 p2 p3
RQ
l ,Ql ( ) = R u(m,:),u(n,:) ( ) , l = 1, 2, , N, code1 : {+ +, + +, 2 2}
m n
code2 : {+ , + , 2 2}
m, n = 1, 2, L. code3 : {2 0, 2 0, 0 0}
Proof :This proof is similar to theorem 2. Q.E.D.
The number of quasi-perfect complete complementary code IV. SIMULATION RESULTS
provided by this corollary is L times as many as that of In this section, some examples are selected to validate
theorem 2, where L is number of rows of matrix u, i.e., the the correctness of theorem 1, theorem 2 and its corollary,
number of quasi-perfect complete complementary code can together with the solving equation method. A table is listed to
exceeds the order. But the number of complete complementary compare the properties of the new complete complementary
code is only equal to the order N . code sets which are constructed by the four methods above
with Schweitzers one. In simulation, both the ACF and CCF
D. Construction Method IV are absolute values.
If a complete complementary code set of any odd number Firstly, let us validate the correstness of theorem 1, 3 3
order is required, a general construction method based on Barker sequence and its phase rotation matrix is selected as
solving equations is proposed. To explain this method, an the unitary matrix G:
example of a complete complementary code of order 3 with
+ +
2 chips in each sequence is given below: 1
G = + ej 3 ej 3
2 2

First, all the chips in the code set is denoted by unknown 3 2 2


+ ej 3 ej 3
numerical values, i.e.,

Example 3.1 (C1 , S1 )
the perfect cross-complementary code pair is
(C2 , S2 )
p1 p2 p3
given below:
code1 : {x1 x2 , y1 y2 , z1 z2 }
code2 : {x3 x4 , y3 y4 , z3 z4 } (C1 , S1 ) = (+ + +, + )
,
code3 : {x5 x6 , y5 y6 , z5 z6 } (C2 , S2 ) = (+ + +, + ++)

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Q11 ACF of Q11
Q12 8
 
G C1 G S1 Q13 6
=

ACF value
Q1 =
G C2 G S2 Q14
4

Q15 2

Q16 0
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
time shift
p1 p2 CCF between Q11 and Q12
1
+ + +, + + +,
2 2 2 2
+ + +, ej 3 ej3 ej 3 ej ,
3
0.5

CCF value


1 + +
2
+, ej 3
2
ej 3 ej 3
2 2
ej 3 ,
0

= 3
+ + + , + + + , 0.5

+ + +
2
, ej 3
2
ej 3
2
ej 3
2
ej 3 , 1
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
2 2 2 2
, ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 ,
time shift
+ + +
p3 p4 Fig. 1. the ACF of Q11 and CCF between Q11 and Q12
+ , + ,
2 2 2 2
ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 , + , ACF of u
2 2 2 2 4
ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 , + ,

ACF value

2
+, + + +,
2 2 2 2
ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 , +
0
+ +, 2 1.5 1 0.5 0
time shift
0.5 1 1.5 2
2 2 2 2
ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 , + + +, 4
ACF of Q21

ACF value
p5 2

+ , 0
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
2 2 2 2
ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 , time shift
CCF between Q21 and Q22
2 2 2 2
ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 , 1
CCF value

+ + +, 0
2 2 2 2
ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 , 1
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
2 2 2 2
ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 ,
time shift

p6
Fig. 2. the ACF of u and Q21 respectively, and the CCF between Q21
+ + + and Q22
2 2 2 2
ej 3 ej 3 ej 3 ej 3

2
ej 3
2
ej 3
2
ej 3
2
ej 3
.
+ Thirdly, for validating corollary of theorem 2, 3 3 Barker

2
ej 3
2
ej 3 ej 3
2 2
ej 3 sequence and its phase rotation is selected as matrix u again,
2
ej 3
2
ej 3 ej 3
2 2
ej 3 i.e.,

Without loss of generality, Fig.1 shows the ACF of Q11 and + + u(1, :)
u = + ej 3 ej 3 = u(2, :) ,
2 2

CCF between Q11 and Q12 . Other codes ACF and CCF are 2 2
the same as Fig.1. From Fig.1, the ACF and CCF of Q1 are + ej 3 ej 3 u(3, :)
indeed perfect. G is also 2 2 Walsh-Hadamard matrix.
Secondly, theorem 2 needs to be validated, 2 2 Walsh-
Q31
Hadamard matrix is selected as the unitary matrix G Q32
 
1 + + Q33
G= , Q3 =
Q34 = G u
2 +
Q35
a Barker sequence of length 3 (+ + ) is selected as matrix
u: Q36

   p1 p2  p1 p2

Q21 1 + + , + + + + , + + ,
Q2 = = G u = 2 . 2
j 23 j 23 2
Q22 + + , + + ej 3 e , + e ej 3

Fig.2 illustrates the ACF of u and Q21 respectively, and the +
2
ej 3
2
ej 3 , +
2
ej 3
2
ej 3
= 12

.

CCF between Q21 and Q22 . Other codes ACF and CCF are + + , +
similar. It shows that the CCF of Q2 is indeed perfect and the +
2
ej 3
2
ej 3 , ej 3
2 2
ej 3
2 2 2 2
ACF of Q21 and Q22 is the same as that of u. + ej 3 ej 3 , ej 3 ej 3

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ACF of u(2,:) TABLE I
4

ACF value
COMPLETE COMPLEMENTARY CODE PROPERTIES COMPARISION
2
order N each sequence ACF CCF
0 length
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
time shift Schweitzers 2m 2m perfect perfect
ACF of u(3,:)
4 method
ACF value

Theorem 1 even number arbitrary perfect perfect


2
Theorem 2 arbitrary arbitrary not perfect perfect
0 Solving equation arbitrary arbitrary perfect perfect
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
time shift metnod
CCF between u(2,:) and u(3,:)
2
CCF value

0
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 corollary, together with the solving equation method in this
time shift
paper. Theorem 1 constructs a new complete complementary
code set with any even number sequences (order 2N) each
Fig. 3. the ACF of u(2, :) and u(3, :) respectively, and the CCF between of arbitrary equal length l. When the condition of ACF is
u(2, :) and u(3, :) imperfect, a quasi-perfect complete complementary code set
with arbitrary N sequences (order N ) each of arbitrary equal
ACF of Q32 length l is given by theorem 2. The corollary of theorem 2
4
ACF value

can be seen as a natural extension of theorem 2: the quasi-


2
perfect complete complementary code set can be divided into
N groups with L codes in each group. The ACF and CCF
0
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
time shift

2
CCF between Q32 and Q33 properties are similar to theorem 2. A general construction
ACF value

1
method based on solving equations is illustrated, it is an uni-
0
versal way to construct complete complementary code set with
2 1.5 1 0.5 0
time shift
0.5 1 1.5 2
arbitrary N sequences (order N ) each of arbitrary equal length
1
CCF between Q32 and Q35
l. Simulation results also validate the correctness of theorem
CCF value

0 1, theorem 2, its corollary and the solving equation method.


1
A comparison between these new construction methods and
2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
time shift Schweitzers one is made in Table I, it shows that the order of
complete complementary code set is not restricted to 2m and
Fig. 4. the ACF of Q32 , the CCF between Q32 and Q33 and the CCF
each sequence length can also be arbitrary.
between Q32 and Q35
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The research is supported by National Natural Science
Foundation of China(NSFC) under grant no. 90604035.
Fig.3 shows the ACF of u(2, :) and u(3, :) respectively, and R EFERENCES
the CCF between u(2, :) and u(3, :). Fig.4 gives the ACF of
[1] D. B. Li, The perspectives of large area synchronous CDMA technology
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Q32 and Q35 . It is also easy to check that Fig.3 and Fig.4 vol. 43, pp. 114-118, March. 2003.
validate the correctness of the corollary of theorem 2. [2] L. R. Welch, Lower bounds on the maximum cross-correlation of
signals, IEEE Trans inform. Theory, vol. 20, pp. 397-399, May. 1974.
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in this paper. From the table, it shows that the order of and correlation of complementary set of sequence. IEEE Trans. Signal.
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1930-529X/07/$25.00 2007 IEEE
This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE GLOBECOM 2007 proceedings.