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Grammar Practice

Action Verbs and Direct Objects


Key Information
An action verb names an action in one or more words.
looks reaches will remember speak suggest
A direct object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. It answers the question whom
or what after an action verb.
We should tip the waiter. [The direct object, waiter, tells us whom we should tip.]
Transitive verbs have direct objects. Intransitive verbs do not have direct objects.
Maria drives a green sports car. [transitive]
Maria drives carefully. [intransitive]

A. Identifying Action Verbs and Direct Objects


Underline the action verbs once and underline the direct objects twice. Some verbs
may not have a direct object.
1. Ginny plays piano in a band.
2. Hamsters sleep during the day.
3. My parents both work for the same company.
4. Jordan explored the reefs for coral.
5. I finished dinner before my brother.
6. Joanie found a dollar.
7. The cat caught the mouse.
8. Delores chased the train.
9. My parents wrote a note.
10. Karen put the book back.

B. Writing Sentences with Action Verbs and Direct Objects


Write four sentences about things you and your friends often do. Use an action verb
and a direct object in each sentence. Sentences will vary.
1. _________________________________________________________________________________
2. _________________________________________________________________________________
3. _________________________________________________________________________________
4. _________________________________________________________________________________
Grammar Practice

Indirect Objects
Key Information
In a sentence with an action verb, an indirect object tells us to whom or for whom an action
was done.
The children sang their parents a new song.
In this sentence, the indirect object parents tells to whom the children sang.
An indirect object appears only in sentences that contain a direct object, and the indirect
object always comes before the direct object. You can add the word to or for before the
indirect object and change its position in the sentence without changing the meaning
of the sentence.

A. Distinguishing Between Direct and Indirect Objects


Write whether the words in italics are direct objects or indirect objects.
direct object
1. I gave Maria a new pen. ____________________________________________________
indirect object
2. Did you write your cousins a letter? ___________________________________________
indirect object
3. Dave brought Henrietta some flowers. _________________________________________
direct object
4. The band wrote three new songs. _____________________________________________
indirect object
5. Give Jos my share. ________________________________________________________

B. Identifying Direct and Indirect Objects


Underline the direct object once and underline the indirect object twice in each of
these sentences.
1. Banks lend people money for buying new homes.
2. The class gave the teacher a present.
3. The company offered the workers new jobs.
4. Doctor Gonzalez handed Miguel and Dolores their newborn daughter.
5. Every year the mayor in the village grants the people one request.
6. The store offered the shoppers lower prices.
7. The contractors built my family a new kitchen.
8. Public television offers viewers many programs.
9. The librarian read the children three stories.
10. We gave our parents gifts for their anniversary.
Grammar Practice

Present, Past, and Future Tenses


Key Information
Verb tenses reveal when something happens. The present tense of a verb names an action
that happens regularly. It can also express a general truth.
I talk to her every day.
The past tense of a verb names an action that has already happened.
I talked to her yesterday.
The future tense names an action that will take place in the future. The future tense is
formed by adding the helping verb will or shall to the base form of the verb.
I shall talk to her later.
The Browns will visit Washington, D.C., in the spring.

A. Identifying Present, Past, and Future Tenses


Underline each verb, and write whether it is in the present, past, or future tense.
past
1. We watched the parade on New Years Day. _____________________________________
future
2. Tomorrow I shall finish this puzzle. ___________________________________________
present
3. Jorge fishes with his uncle. __________________________________________________
past
4. I first met Cheryl at the library. ______________________________________________
future
5. They will pass this way. ____________________________________________________
past
6. The otter washed its food carefully. ___________________________________________
present
7. Robert Cray plays guitar. ___________________________________________________
future
8. Kevin will catch the ball. ___________________________________________________

B. Using Present, Past, and Future Tenses


Write the form of the verb asked for in parentheses.
visited
1. I (past of visit) my grandparents. _____________________________________________
will act
2. Julio (future of act) in the play. ______________________________________________
live
3. Whales (present of live) in the ocean. _________________________________________
returned
4. Maria (past of return) my tapes. _____________________________________________
contains
5. The box (present of contain) three surprises.____________________________________
will bring
6. My parents (future of bring) the dessert. _______________________________________
discussed
7. Teresa and her sister (past of discuss) their choices._______________________________
jumps
8. The porpoise (present of jump) through the hoop. _______________________________
Grammar Practice

Main Verbs and Helping Verbs


Key Information
Verbs have four principal parts.
Base Form Present Participle Past Form Past Participle
talk talking talked talked
play playing played played
These principal parts are often used with a helping verb to form a verb phrase. A verb
phrase is one or more helping verbs followed by the main verb.
We have been studying for a test.
A helping verb is a verb that helps the main verb tell about an action or make a statement.
Forms of the verb be and have are the most commonly used helping verbs.
Forms of be are often used with the present participle.
I am talking.
Forms of have are often used with the past participle.
She has talked.

A. Identifying Helping Verbs and Main Verbs


Underline the verb phrase once, and underline the main verb twice.
1. I was looking in the closet. 5. Firefighters have helped people for years.
2. Maria has missed the bus. 6. I am trying my best.
3. The students were talking loudly. 7. We are relying on each other.
4. The cold weather had begun. 8. Our family was traveling during
December.

B. Identifying Past and Present Participles


Underline the verb phrase and write whether the main verb is a present participle
or a past participle.
present
1. The workers were improving the road. ________________________________________
present
2. I am working on my math.__________________________________________________
present
3. Caroline was feeding her cat. ________________________________________________
past
4. The mechanic had repaired the truck. _________________________________________
past
5. You have tried everything now. ______________________________________________
Grammar Practice

Present and Past Progressive Forms


Key Information
The present progressive form of a verb tells about an action that is continuing now.
It consists of the present participle and the helping verb am, is, or are.
The students are talking to one another.
The past progressive form of a verb names an action that continued for some time in the
past. It consists of the present participle and the helping verb was or were.
The students were talking for hours.

A. Using the Present Progressive Form


Write the present progressive form of the verb in parentheses.
is selling
1. My basketball team (sell) candy. _____________________________________________
are raising
2. We (raise) money for new uniforms. __________________________________________
is helping
3. My father (help) us by providing transportation. ________________________________
is driving
4. He (drive) us around town. _________________________________________________
are hoping
5. We (hope) to raise enough for new shoes. ______________________________________
are trying
6. Other teams (try) to help. __________________________________________________
is playing
7. The football team (play) an exhibition game. ___________________________________
are carrying
8. You (carry) a heavy load. ___________________________________________________

B. Using the Past Progressive Form


Write the past progressive form of the verb in parentheses.
was singing
1. I (sing) in the choir. _______________________________________________________
was playing
2. Jimmy (play) in my band. __________________________________________________
was calling
3. After the concert, the crowd (call) for more. ____________________________________
was looking
4. Saturday, I (look) for a new guitar. ___________________________________________
were closing
5. Because of the holiday, the stores (close) early. __________________________________
were walking
6. You (walk) with me. _______________________________________________________
were talking
7. We (talk) about our favorite songs. ___________________________________________
was thinking
8. I (think) about buying a Gibson. _____________________________________________
Grammar Practice

Perfect Tenses
Key Information
The present perfect tense of a verb tells about something that happened at an indefinite
time in the past. It also tells about an action that happened in the past and is still happening
now. This tense consists of the helping verb have or has followed by the past participle of
the main verb.
My father has driven station wagons for many years.
The past perfect tense names an action that took place before another action or event in
the past. This tense consists of the helping verb had and the past participle of the main verb.
Until he traded it in, my father had driven that station wagon for ten years.

A. Distinguishing Tenses
Underline the verb or verb phrase. Write whether it is in the present, past, present
perfect, or past perfect tense.
present
1. Eagles live in these mountains. ________________
present perfect
2. They have lived here for centuries. ________________
past perfect
3. For years I had looked for one. ________________
past
4. I never saw an eagle. ________________
past perfect
5. My parents had helped me. ________________
present perfect
6. I have watched every day for weeks. ________________

B. Using the Perfect Tenses


Underline the verbs in these sentences. Change the present tense verbs to the present
perfect tense; change the past tense verbs to the past perfect tense.
had read
1. Maria read about holiday traditions. _____________________________________
has lived
2. Yogi lives in Jellystone Park. ____________________________________________
have volunteered
3. My parents volunteer at my school. ______________________________________
had directed
4. The police officer directed traffic. _______________________________________
had ended
5. The plane flight ended early. ___________________________________________
have jumped
6. Maggie and George jump on the trampoline. ______________________________
Grammar Practice

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs


Key Information
A direct object receives the action of a verb. It answers the question whom? or what? after
an action verb.
Garrett Morgan invented the traffic signal.
An action verb may have one, more than one, or no direct object. An action verb that has
a direct object is a transitive verb. An action verb that does not have a direct object is an
intransitive verb.

A. Identifying Transitive and Intransitive Verbs


Underline each action verb in the following sentences. Indicate whether the verb
is transitive or intransitive by writing T or I in the space above the word. In those
sentences with a transitive verb, circle the direct object.
T
1. The astronauts collected rocks on the moon.
T
2. Joan Benoit won the first Olympic womens marathon.
I
3. Gracefully, the swimmer dived under the water.
T
4. The musician plucked the strings of the guitar.
I
5. Heavy rain fell in Florida.
T
6. The police officer directed traffic through the intersection.
T
7. Erin hummed the tune happily.
T
8. President Franklin Roosevelt collected stamps.

B. Changing Intransitive Verbs to Transitive Verbs


Rewrite each sentence, adding at least one direct object.
Example: Lamar wove on the antique loom. Possible answers are given.
Lamar wove cloth on the antique loom.
The school choir sang three songs.
1. The school choir sang. _____________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
After the rain, the gardener planted lettuce and radishes.
2. After the rain, the gardener planted. __________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Emily studied history in the library.
3. Emily studied in the library. _________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Grammar Practice

Verbs with Indirect Objects


Key Information
Some sentences have both a direct object and an indirect object. An indirect object tells
to whom or for whom an action is done.
The girl gave the cat a toy.
The indirect object always comes before the direct object. You can check that an indirect
object is indeed the indirect object by silently adding to or for before the indirect object
and changing its position in the sentence. The sentence should still make sense.
The girl gave a toy (to the cat).

A. Identifying Direct and Indirect Objects


Each of these sentences has a direct object. Some of them have indirect objects.
Fill in the answer columns with the direct and indirect objects you find.
Direct Object Indirect Object
1. The store manager promised me a refund. refund
__________ me
__________
2. Will you lend me your book? book
__________ me
__________
3. Ask the teacher your question. question
__________ teacher
__________
4. The bear caught a large salmon. salmon
__________ __________
5. Pick the ripe tomatoes from the garden. tomatoes
__________ __________
6. The principal awarded Rachel first prize. prize
__________ Rachel
__________
7. Lydia threw her teammate the ball. ball
__________ teammate
__________
8. Who left me this note? note
__________ me
__________

B. Working with Objects


Write whether the underlined word in each of the following sentences is a direct object
or an indirect object. Then rewrite each sentence, replacing the underlined object with
a new object.
direct object
1. Mr. Chavez drew her a map. ___________________________________________
Mr. Chavez drew her a picture.
__________________________________________________________________
indirect object
2. Paul showed Scotty his pet turtle. _______________________________________
Paul showed me his pet turtle.
__________________________________________________________________
direct object
3. The mail carrier gave my neighbor the package. ____________________________
The mail carrier gave my neighbor the letter.
__________________________________________________________________
indirect object
4. I sent my mother flowers for her birthday. ________________________________
I sent my sister flowers for her birthday.
__________________________________________________________________
Grammar Practice

Linking Verbs and Predicate Words


Key Information
A linking verb connects the subject of a sentence with a noun or an adjective in the
predicate.
Good actors become their characters.
Common linking verbs are be, become, seem, look, smell, turn, sound, grow, remain, and
feel. Some linking verbs may also be used as action verbs.
A predicate noun is a noun that follows a linking verb and tells what the subject is.
My best friend is the star of her class play.
A predicate adjective is an adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subject.
Cast members feel nervous.

A. Recognizing Sentence Patterns


Copy the verb of each sentence. Write whether it is an action verb or a linking
verb. If it is a linking verb, write whether it is followed by a predicate noun or
a predicate adjective.
linking; predicate adjective
1. After the long hike, the Scouts were hungry and tired. ____________________________
linking; predicate noun
2. George Bush was our forty-first president. _____________________________________
linking; predicate adjective
3. The pink sky at sunset looked beautiful. _______________________________________
action
4. Laura studied architecture.__________________________________________________
linking; predicate adjective
5. The fresh-baked cookies smelled delicious. _____________________________________
linking; predicate adjective
6. After the rain the river turned muddy._________________________________________
linking; predicate noun
7. The prairie wildflowers were daisies. __________________________________________
linking; predicate adjective
8. Rafael looked happy about his test score._______________________________________

B. Revising Sentences
Underline the predicate noun or predicate adjective in each sentence. Then rewrite
each sentence, replacing the predicate noun or predicate adjective with another word
that makes sense in that position. Possible replacements.
believable
1. His excuse sounded silly to me. ______________________________________________
governor
2. The candidate became our new mayor. ________________________________________
anxious
3. The large audience grew restless. _____________________________________________
pen pals
4. Carol and Diane remained friends. ___________________________________________
Grammar Practice

Present, Past, and Future Tenses


Key Information
A verb changes form to show tense and to That rooster crows more loudly.
agree with its subject. The tense of a verb
The past tense names an action that has
tells when the action takes place.
already happened. Many verbs in the past
The present tense names an action that tense end in -d or -ed.
happens regularly. It is also used to express
Matt refilled the feeder.
general truths. In the present tense the base
form of the verb is used, except when the The future tense names an action yet to
subject is a singular noun or the pronouns happen. The word will is used with the verb
he, she, or it. With those subjects, you add to express future tense.
-s or -es to the base form of the verb. Next year, Kay will raise hens.
Your roosters crow loudly.

A. Identifying the Tense of a Verb


Underline the verb in each sentence. In the space provided, write whether the tense
of the verb is present, past, or future.
future 1. As usual, Carl will guess the ending of the mystery.
_____
present
_____ 2. Karen exercises every day.
past 3. Mary Ann Mantell found one of the first dinosaur bones.
_____
present
_____ 4. I am the winner!
future 5. The concert will begin soon.
_____
past 6. Nancy Kerrigan skated at the Winter Olympics in 1992.
_____

B. Making a Present-Tense Verb Agree with Its Subject


Rewrite each sentence, changing the verb from past tense to present tense. Make sure
the verb agrees with the subject.
1. Taryn walked the dog every day.______________________________________________
Taryn walks the dog every day.
_________________________________________________________________________________
2. Both of Dans cats liked ice cream.____________________________________________
Both of Dans cats like ice cream.
_________________________________________________________________________________
3. Your clock ticked so loudly! _________________________________________________
Your clock ticks so loudly!
_________________________________________________________________________________
4. Laquetis practiced the trumpet every day after school. ____________________________
Laquetis practices the trumpet every day after school.
_______________________________________________________________________
Grammar Practice

Main Verbs and Helping Verbs


Key Information
Verbs have four principal parts: base form Forms of beam, is, and are in the present
(look), present participle (looking), past and was and were in the pastcombine
form (looked), and past participle with the present participle of the verb.
(looked).
We are walking now.
Any of the principal parts of a verb except We were jogging before.
the past form may be combined with a
Forms of havehave and has in the present
helping verb such as be, have, or do.
and had in the pastcombine with the
When one or more helping verbs are used
past participle of the verb.
with a main verb, a verb phrase is formed.
You have walked faster often.

A. Analyzing Verb Phrases


Underline each verb or verb phrase. If the verb phrase includes a participle, write the
participle on the line provided, and indicate whether it is a present or past participle.
predicted; past
1. Scientists have predicted an end to the worlds rain forests. ________________________
changing; present
2. The leaves are changing very slowly this year. ___________________________________
3. That city was the birthplace of the sundae. _____________________________________
frightened; past
4. Leslies monster costume had frightened some of the little children. _________________
5. Some time before her solo flight, Earhart had traveled across the Atlantic on another
traveled; past
record-setting journey. _____________________________________________________
bringing; present
6. Who is bringing the paper plates? ____________________________________________
danced; past
7. Camille has danced to classical, jazz, and folk music. _____________________________
using; present
8. We are using percussion instruments in our presentation. _________________________
9. Tree frogs cling to the bark of trees. ___________________________________________
walking; present
10. Are you walking home after school today?______________________________________

B. Using Helping Verbs


Underline the correct form of the helping verb in parentheses.
1. For the last four years, Jeff (has, is) played in a softball league.
2. Hundreds of bats (have, are) living in this cave.
3. Juan and Terry (had, were) helping at the shelter.
4. Before the storm, Nancy (had, was) created a sidewalk chalk painting.
5. At the moment, I (have, am) searching for my glasses.