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Volume 6, Number 2 (June 2011) , 85-88

Original Article

Evidence for an in vitro Anticoagulant Activity of Red


Onion (Allium cepa L.)
Taj Eldin IM1*, Majed M. Abdalmutalab2 Hajir M. Izzalddeen3,

Madina A. Abdalkareem3, Marwa A. Abdalraheem3 and Marwa B. Alhassan3


Abstract

Background: Haemostasis is the process that retains the blood within the vascular system
during periods of injury, localizes the reactions involved to the site of injury, repairs and re-
establishes blood flow through the injured vessel. Onion (Allium cepa) is a largely universal
staple herb popular throughout history as both food and medicine and it has been consumed for
prevention of cardiovascular disorders.

Objectives: To study the possible anticoagulant effects of red onion in vitro, by using blood
samples of normal individuals.

Methods: In vitro anticoagulant effects of an aqueous extract (5%) of red onion in different
volumes (25, 50 and 75 L) were examined on the blood samples of normal individuals by
measuring prothrombin time (PT).

Results: The aqueous extract of red onion was found to inhibit coagulation process in vitro and
significantly prolonged prothrombin time in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion: This study showed that red onion aqueous extract in different concentrations
inhibits clot formation and increases prothrombin time. Red onion can be used as a
supplementary anticoagulant agent to improve and/or prevent cardiovascular diseases.

Key words: Haemostasis, prothrombin time, staple herb.

Haemostasis is the process that retains the blood within the vascular system during periods of
injury. The coagulation mechanism may be thought of as a complex series of cascading
reactions involving development of enzymes from their precursor (zymogens, procoagulants
proenzymes). Most of the substances necessary for coagulation are present in an inert form and
must be converted to an activated state. As one enzyme is formed it then becomes available to
convert the next zymogen to its activated enzyme (serine protease). This process continues until
a fibrin meshwork clot has formed. In addition to the zymogens, protein cofactors and
membrane phospholipids surfaces, calcium ions play an active role in the final development of
the fibrin clot1.

Most adult cardiovascular disorders involving hypertension, cerebral hemorrhage, coronary


thrombosis, arteriosclerosis and congestive heart failure are caused by problems in the blood
circulatory system as blood clotting disorders which constitute a serious medical problem. A
number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and indomethacin
have been used as antithrombotic agents. These drugs in vitroand in vivo cause inhibition of
platelet aggregation and thromboxane formation2-5.

The prothrombin time test (also known as the pro test or PT test) is a useful screening procedure
for the extrinsic coagulation mechanism including the common pathway. It detects deficiencies
in factor II, V, VII, and X. The prothrombin time test is frequently used to follow oral
anticoagulant therapy that inhibit factors II, VII, IX and X.

Thromboplastin activates the extrinsic coagulation system in plasma in the presence of calcium
ions. The subsequent clotting time is dependent on the concentration of factors II, V, VII and
X. Thus prolongation indicates a deficiency in one or more of these factors6,7.

The normal prothrombin time is 11-15 seconds. Each prothrombin time within this range
indicates that the person has normal amounts of clotting factors VII and X while prolongation
in prothrombin time is considered abnormal8.

Onion, garlic, clove, fenugreek, mugwort, sage and marine algae as food materials have been
reported to have anticoagulative activity9-11. In recent years, extensive research has been
focused on the beneficial and medicinal properties of the genus Allium. Allium species,
especially onion and garlic contain biologically active substances affecting blood clotting.
Onions contain a number of sulphur and sulfides compounds similar to those found in garlic
which may lower blood lipids, glucose and blood pressure. The anticlotting effect of onions
closely correlates with their content of organosulfur compounds12-14. The purpose of this study
is to investigate the in vitro anticoagulant activity of red onion (Allium cepa) in blood samples
of normal individuals.

Materials and Methods

Preparation of Allium cepa extract

Fresh and recently cropped red onions (Allium cepa) were purchased from the local vegetable
market in Wad Madani city, Central Sudan. Fifty grams of the bulb were cut into small slices
and dried at room temperature. After complete drying the slices were grinded into a fine
powder. Five grams of the dried powder were weighed using sensitive balance and then
suspended in 100 ml of distilled water in a conical flask with continues shaking for three hours.
The supernatant of Allium cepa extract was filtrated using sucking pump. The final clear
solution of Allium cepa aqueous extract was used for in vitro testing of anticoagulant activity
in blood samples of normal individuals using the principles of prothrombin time test.

Study population
Blood samples obtained from thirty normal individual volunteers attended to the Islamic
Medical Association Laboratory in Wad Madani, Central Sudan, of both sexes (females
(53.3%) and males (46.7%)), were used to assess the anticoagulant effects of Allium cepa.
Participants were 15-30 years old. They had been chosen for this study according to the
following criteria: having normal prothrombin time, not suffering from any cardiovascular
diseases (hypertension, congestive heart failure, coagulation disorders such as, Hemophilia A
or B) or diabetes, not recently using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, not obese or
smokers and free from dyslipidemic disorders.

Collection of blood samples

The blood samples were obtained from normal individuals by using sterile syringes, withdrawn
from vein of right arm of each individual and placed separately in containers containing
trisodium citrate to prevent the clotting process. Centrifugation was carried out to separate the
blood cells from plasma in order to obtain pure platelet plasma (ppp) for prothrombin time test.
The obtained plasma sample of each individual were poured separately in plane containers
using automatic pipette and stored at room temperature15,16.

In vitro anticoagulant test of Allium cepa extract

For determination of the prothrombin time, the plasma sample of each individual was divided
into four groups each of 50 L. Group 1 (n=30) was tested first to determine the normal
prothrombin time (positive control group) using the stable, liquid, combined
calcium/thromboplastin rabbit brain (DiaMed LTD, UK) as a gold standard. Three volumes
of Allium cepa extract (25, 50 and 75 L) were added separately to the plasma samples in a
water bath with gentle shaking. Then thromboplastin reagent (100 L) was added separately to
the mixture of each plasma sample using pipetador volume adjustment. Stop watch was
thereafter used for measuring the time of the clot formation. This time is called the prothrombin
time17,18. Thromboplastin reagent was added to the plasma in order to counteract the sodium
citrate and allow clotting to proceed.

Ethical approval

The ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Ethical Committee/ University of
Gezira/ Gezira State, Ministry of Health, Wad Medani-Sudan. Consent forms were signed by
participants, being interested in joining the study completely voluntary.

Statistical Methods

All the data were expressed as means standard error of means (SEM) and analyzed by
analysis of variance (ANOVA). Comparisons with the control group were made using One-
way ANOVA. Differences were considered significant if P < 0.05.
Results and Discussion

Red onion (Allium cepa) is a vegetable plant that has been postulated to have similar activities
as garlic (Allium sativum) however; it has not been extensively assessed scientifically in terms
of its biological activities. Only a few publications have been reported on the biological
activities of Allium cepa as compared to garlic.

In this study the effects of the aqueous extract of Allium cepa (5%) as an anticoagulant agent
had been investigated, using the principles of prothrombin time test in thirty normal individuals.
The prothrombin time for all of them was found to be normal (130.16 seconds). When aqueous
extract of Allium cepa was added in different volumes (25, 50 and 75 L) to plasma samples
of normal individuals, it significantly (P = 0.001) showed prolongation in the prothrombin time
(Figure 1) from 130.16 to 14.80.23, 17.10.33 and 19.50.36 seconds respectively.

Figure 1: The effect of different volumes (25, 50 and 75 L) of aqueous extract of Allium
cepa (5%) on prothrombin time values of plasma samples of normal individuals.

It was noticed that there were proportional correlations between the concentration of Allium
cepa aqueous extract needed to inhibit clot formation and prolong of prothrombin time. That
is, an increasing concentration of red onion extract strongly inhibited the coagulation process
and increased the prothrombin time. These findings clearly showed that, aqueous extract
of Allium cepa may have anticoagulant properties through prevention of coagulation process
and clot formation.

It was reported that members of Allium family, especially garlic and onion, have been used as
traditional medicines to treat a variety of diseases, including common cold, arthritis, headache,
diabetes, and heart diseases. These beneficial properties have been attributed to their
phytoconstituents which have hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effects as well as their
ability to inhibit platelet aggregation and thromboxane formation19-21. Jia-Huey, et
al22. mentioned that the consumption of raw Welsh onion juice, but not boiled juice, has blood
lowering and antithrombotic effects in rats22. The present study demonstrated that the use of
aqueous extract of Allium cepa especially red onion can affect in vitro platelet functions and
this may be due to inhibition of platelet adhesion, aggregation or thromboxane release.
Although the mechanism of onion-induced anticoagulative activity is not clearly understood,
onion is a promising anticoagulant agent. It is therefore important to investigate the
physiological role of its potential effects on blood coagulation.

Acknowledgement

Authors are very great full to Professor Elhadi M. Ahmed (The Dean, Faculty of Pharmacy,
University of Gezira) for his unlimited support and for revising the manuscript.

References

1. Sirridge M.S. and Shannon R. Hematology Principles and Procedures, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lea &
Febiger1993; 5: 202-278.

2. Sliver M. J., Koch J. J., Ingeman C. M. et al. Arachidonic acid causes death in rabbits. Science 1974; 183: 1085-
1087.

3. Cerskus A. L., Ali M., Zamecnik J. et al. Effects of indomethacin and sulphapyrazone on in vivo formation of
TXB2 and PGD2, during arachidonate infusion in rabbits. Thrombosis Research 1978; 12:549-553.

4. Ali M. and McDonald J. W. D. Reversible and irreversible inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase and serotonin
release by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Thrombosis Research 1978; 13: 1057-1065.

5. Bordia A., Verma S.K. and Vyas A. K. Effects of essential oil of onion and garlic on experimental
atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis 1977; 26: 379-381.

6. Quick, A.J. Coagulation. Hemorrhagic Diseases and Thrombosis. Philadelphia, Lea and Febiger 1966. 53:460.

7. Quick, A.J. (1970). Bleeding problems in clinical medicine. Hemorrhagic Diseases and Thrombosis.
Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co.35:225.

8. Renu Saxena, Meganathan Kannan and Ved PChoudhry. Laboratory Studies in Coagulation Disorders. Indian
Journal of Pediatrics. 2007;74 (7): 649-655.

9. Nation S., Yamaguchi N. and Yokko Y. Antioxidative activities of vegetables of the Allium species (studies on
natural antioxidants, part II). Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi 1981; 28: 230-291.

10. Morimitsu, Y.; Morioka, Y. and Kawakishi, S. Inhibitors of platelet aggregation generated from mixture of
Allium species and/or S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 1992; 40:
368-375.
11. McLellan D. S. and Jurd K. M. Anticoagulants from marine algae. Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis 1992;
3: 69-77.

12. Reddy B. S., Rao C. V., Rivenson A. et al. Chemoprevention of colon carcinogenesis by organosulfur
compounds. Cancer Research 1993; 53: 3493-3498.

13. Goldman I. L., Kopelberg, M., Debaene J. E. et al. Antiplatelet activity in onion (Allium cepa) is sulfur
dependent. Thrombosis and. Haemostasis 1996; 76: 450-452.

14. Imad M. Taj Eldin, Elhadi, M. Ahmed and Abd Elwahab H. M. Hypoglycemic Activity and Regeneration of
Pancreatic Beta-cells Produced by Allium cepa in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats. Omdurman Journal of
Pharmaceutical 2009; 1(5): 5628.

15. Biggs R., McFarlane R (1962). Human Blood Coagulation and their disorders. Blackwell Scientific
Publications, Oxford. 13:430-436.

16. Hull R., Hirsh H., Jay R. Different intensities of oral anticoagulant therapy in the treatment of proximal-

vein thrombosis. New England Journal of Medicine 1982; 307:1676-81.

17. BuLoeliger E.A. , Van den Besselaar A.M.H., Lewis, S.M. Reliability and clinical impact of the prothrombin
times in oral anticoagulant control. Schattauter Veriag GmbH. Archives of Internal Medicine 1985; 53: 148-154

18. Colman R.W., Hirsh J., Marder V.J et al. Haemostasis and Thrombosis. Basic Principles and Clinical Practice.
J.B. Lippincott company 1994; 18:759-762

19. Fenwich G. R. and Hanley A. B. (). The genus Allium. Part I. Critical Reviews in Food Science and
Nutrition1985; 22: 199-271.

20. Srivastava K. Onion exerts antiaggregatory effects by altering arachidonic acid metabolism in platelets
Prostaglandins, leukotrienes and medicine 1986; 24: 43-50.

21. Imad M. Taj Eldin, Elhadi M. Ahmed, Abd Elwahab H. M. (2011). Clinical Hypoglycemic and
Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Allium cepa in Normal Human Volunteers. (Accepted for publication in Albuhuth
Scientific Journal, The National Centre for Research, Khartoum).

22. Jia-Huey Chen, Hsiun-ing Chen, Shun-Jen Tsai et al. (2000). Chronic Consumption of Raw but not Boiled
Welsh Onion Juice Inhibits Rat Platelet Function. The American Society for Nutritional Sciences. Journal of
Nutrition, 1(30): 34-37.

1. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Gezira, Sudan

2. Islamic Medical Association laboratory, Wad Medani, Sudan

3. Pharmacy graduates (2010). Batch 28, Faculty of Pharmacy University of Gezira


* Corresponding author. omdataj64@gmail.com
Copyright Sudan JMS.
All Rights Reserved

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ONION AND ITS EFFECTS


Food
andrea franco
04/12/2013

Description

GENERAL FEATURES:
Components:
0.015% essential oil containing sulfide compounds: when the bulb is
bruised by allinase are degraded in flavonoid disulfides;
minerals (potassium, sodium, zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin C).
fruffosan (10-40%), pectin, inulin
glycolic acid
polyphenols (tannins, pyrocatechol} trace-caffeic acid and chlorogenic

Onion (Allium cepa L.) is botanically included in the Liliaceae and species are
found across a wide range of latitudes and altitudes in Europe, Asia, N.
America and Africa. World onion production has increased by at least 25%
over the past 10 years with current production being around 44 million
tonnes making it the second most important horticultural crop after
tomatoes. Because of their storage characteristics and durability for
shipping, onions have always been traded more widely than most
vegetables. Onions are versatile and are often used as an ingredient in many
dishes and are accepted by almost all traditions and cultures. Onion
consumption is increasing significantly, particularly in the USA and this is
partly because of heavy promotion that links flavour and health. Onions are
rich in two chemical groups that have perceived benefits to human health.
These are the flavonoids and the alk(en)yl cysteine sulphoxides (ACSOs).
Two flavonoid subgroups are found in onion, the anthocyanins, which impart
a red/purple colour to some varieties and flavanols such as quercetin and its
derivatives responsible for the yellow and brown skins of many other
varieties. The ACSOs are the flavour precursors, which, when cleaved by the
enzyme alliinase, generate the characteristic odour and taste of onion. The
downstream products are a complex mixture of compounds which include
thiosulphinates, thiosulphonates, mono-, di- and tri-sulphides. Compounds
from onion have been reported to have a range of health benefits which
include anticarcinogenic properties, antiplatelet activity, antithrombotic
activity, antiasthmatic and antibiotic effects. Here we review the agronomy
of the onion crop, the biochemistry of the health compounds and report on
recent clinical data obtained using extracts from this species. Where
appropriate we have compared the data with that obtained from garlic
(Allium sativum L.) for which more information is widely available.

TEARS:

Onions are rich in vitamins and minerals. The characteristic smell of the cut
bulbs is due to the abundance of sulfoxides, primarily the trans-tiopropanal-
S-oxide. Slice the onions makes my eyes water because of precursors
present in the cytoplasm , alkyl or alkenyl cysteine sulfoxide ( ACSO ) , after
cutting are combined with allinase , an enzyme that is released from the
vacuole , and the combination of these elements produces acids solfenici ,
pyruvate and ammonia. The acid sulfenico , if attacked by a second enzyme
called Factor Lacrimathory Shyntase produces syn- propanethial S oxide , a
molecule voltatile and water soluble , which is precisely the tear factor
because , when it comes into contact with the aqueous humor on the bulb
ocular , is transformed into sulfuric acid (image)
The contact with the sulfuric acid causes an immediate defense reaction by
the eye, consisting in the production of tears , but the increased amount of
secreted aqueous eye that does not transform a greater amount of
propylene oxide in sulfuric acid , in a chain reaction.

It is just to reduce the amount of factor released tear that one of the
solutions adopted to cut onions without tears is to do it under running water:
the compound is very water-soluble so if it decreases the volatility.
The alliin lyase (or alliinase) is an enzyme belonging to the class of lyases
present in plants of the genus Allium, such as garlic and onion. The alliin
lyase is responsible for the catalysis of chemical reactions involved in the
production of volatile compounds that give these foods the characteristic
aromas, smells and tear properties. In particular, it catalyzes the following
reaction:

an S-alkyl-L-cysteine S-oxide an alkyl sulfonate + 2-aminoacrilato

The alliin lyase is part of the defensive system that these plants adopt to
counter the herbivores. Normally, the alliin lyase is contained within the cells
of the plant, particularly around the tissue forming the cribro-vascular
bundles, but as a result of an injury caused by an animal that wants to eat
it, this enzyme is released by producing irritating compounds. It all
translates into a deterrent for animals. The same reaction occurs after
cutting or pestamento onion and garlic for culinary purposes.
In garlic, a alliin lyase converts alliin to allicin. In onions, the enzyme acts on
solfenici groups (-S-OH) of biomolecules by producing the compound CH3-
CH2-CH = S +-O-.

Diuretic:

The diuretic action is due, in part, to the presence of potassium salts,


substances cinarinosimilar and glycolic acid.
The diuretic action of glycolic acid is manifested not only in the elimination of
water, but also in the elimination of chlorides and urea, an action that takes
place after a certain latency (48-72 hours after dosing), and this because the
action is kind of hepatorenal.
The activity in the liver would be demonstrated by the reduction of elevated
blood parameters, such as the rate uremic, the values of prothrombin,
serum cholesterol, and a fall in the ratio free cholesterol / esterified
cholesterol, demonstrating an exaltation of esterification processes.
The increased bile secretion is attributable to the presence of caffeic acid
and chlorogenic acid, substances cinarinosimili also equipped with a
remarkable diuretic activity.
The diuretic action is essentially due to flavonoids and potassium salts. The
presence of glycolic acid is responsible for the action hepatorenal attributed
to the plant due to which there has been an improvement in the liver and
kidney function that is reflected in particular on urogrenesi, diuresis and the
power of concentration of the kidney. It would thus favored the elimination
of chloride, urea, and generally of catabolites. To this is added the action of
flavonoids which in addition to anti-inflammatory action that are to play at
the level of the pelvis and the bladder are hepatoprotectors, antispasmodic,
antibacterial, and diuretic.
Antiplatelet:

Onion has been shown to favorably modify the lipoprotein profile. However,
research on its underlying mechanism is lacking. The present study
investigated the interaction of dietary onion powder with the protein
expression of key receptors and enzymes involved in cholesterol
metabolism. Thirty-six male hamsters were randomly divided into three
groups and fed a high-cholesterol control diet or the two experimental diets
supplemented with 1% onion powder (OP-1) or 5% onion powder (OP-5), for
a period of 8 weeks. It was found that onion dose-dependently decreased
plasma total cholesterol (TC) level. The change in plasma lipoprotein profile
was accompanied by a greater excretion of both fecal neutral and acidic
sterols. Western blot analysis revealed that onion up-regulated sterol
regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2), liver X receptor alpha
(LXR) and cholesterol-7-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) with no effect on 3-
hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and LDL receptor (LDL-R).
It was concluded that the hypocholesterolemic activity of onion powder was
mediated by enhancement of fecal sterol excretion and up-regulation
of LXR and CYP7A1.

antitrombotic

In vitro effects of an oily extract of onion were examined on the metabolism


of arachidonic acid (AA) in human platelets. Onion was found to reduce the
formation of thromboxane and lipoxygenase products from exogenous
arachidonic acid in platelets; it did not inhibit the incorporation of AA into
platelet phospholipids. While not affecting the platelet phospholipase activity
it did reduce the formation of thromboxane B2 and lipoxygenase products in
platelets that were prelabelled with arachidonic acid and then activated
by A23187.This suggests that onion inhibits the formation of AA metabolites
by exerting its effect at steps later than the liberation of AA. With
concentrations of onion extract producing abolition of AA-induced
aggregation, only partial inhibition of aggregation was observed with ADP-
and epinephrine-induced aggregation. Onion did not inhibit A23187 induced
aggregation. The results suggest that inhibition of platelet aggregation by
onion is mediated largely by its effect on platelet thromboxane production.

Similarly to garlic, onion has anti-platelet activity and fibrinolytic activity due
to sulfur compounds .
Of the latter , most of which are inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and
lipoxygenase .
The onion contain a substance called rutin, able to prevent the formation of
blood clots , those lumps , or emboli , which can cause heart attacks and
strokes and that depend on a malfunction of the cardiovascular system .
Well, the U.S. scholars at Harvard Medical School in Boston , found that rutin
is able to block an enzyme called PDI ( protein disulfide isomerase ),
involved in the formation of blood clots own . Robert Flaumenhaft ,
coordinator of the study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation ,
explains the importance of the discovery : " Rutin has been shown to be the
most powerfully anti- thrombotic compound we have ever tested in this
model. The clots are formed both in the arteries than in veins. Blood clots in
the arteries are rich in platelets, while those in the veins are rich in fibrin.
This finding suggests that a single agent is able to treat and prevent both
types of lumps " . Furthermore , the onion , as well as other foods that
contain rutin , are not drugs , have no side effects and are excellent to be
enjoyed , even if the next step of the researchers , will be to produce a
molecule of rutin in synthesis by test on humans instead of other anti clot :
"It ' a safe and inexpensive , can reduce recurrent clots that could help save
thousands of lives."

Returning to the discussion of aspirin , this is a good anticoagulant also


because it inhibits the production of thromboxane , a compound that
promotes the aggregation of platelets . The thromboxane may be hindered
in the same way from substances that occur naturally in garlic , or the
ajoene and adenosine , the latter also widespread in the onions. The onions
also avoid the accumulation of lipids in the blood , another aspect that can
produce thickening and promote clotting.

The onion contains a compound called rutin, a glycoside flavonoico that acts
as an anticoagulant both in the veins and in the arteries. Rutin , also known
as quercetin 3 rutinoside or vitamin P does not intervene directly on the
blood clot but on a class of enzymes called disulfide isomerase that are
rapidly released from the cells when the blood clots within the vessels . In
this way it effectively inhibits the accumulation of both platelet both the
production of fibrin. Rutin is not found only in apples but also in oranges ,
grapefruits , lemons in in buckwheat , tea , red wine , in peppermint and
cipolle.Analogamente Garlic has anti-platelet aggregation and fibrinolytic
activity due the sulfur compounds .
Of the latter , most of which are inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and
lipoxygenase .
A positive feature of the onion that is consumed in salads (which is
impossible for garlic ) inhibits the growth of bacteria responsible for tooth
decay
The onion ( but also the apples and tea, both black and green) also contain a
substance called rutin, able to prevent the formation of blood clots , those
lumps , or emboli , which can cause heart attacks and strokes and that
depend on a malfunction of the cardiovascular system . Well,
the U.S. scholars at Harvard Medical School in Boston , found that rutin is
able to block an enzyme called PDI ( protein disulfide isomerase ), involved
in the formation of blood clots own . Robert Flaumenhaft , coordinator of the
study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation , explains the
importance of the discovery : " Rutin has been shown to be the most
powerfully anti- thrombotic compound we have ever tested in this model.
The clots are formed both in the arteries than in veins. Blood clots in the
arteries are rich in platelets, while those in the veins are rich in fibrin. This
finding suggests that a single agent is able to treat and prevent both types
of lumps " . Furthermore , the onion , as well as other foods that contain
rutin , are not drugs , have no side effects and are excellent to be enjoyed ,
even if the next step of the researchers , will be to produce a molecule of
rutin in synthesis by test on humans instead of other anti clot : "It ' a safe
and inexpensive , can reduce recurrent clots that could help save thousands
of lives."

Returning to the discussion of aspirin , this is a good anticoagulant also


because it inhibits the production of thromboxane , a compound that
promotes the aggregation of platelets . The thromboxane may be hindered
in the same way from substances that occur naturally in garlic , or the
ajoene and adenosine , the latter also widespread in the onions. The onions
also avoid the accumulation of lipids in the blood , another aspect that can
produce thickening and promote clotting.

References

We use this article: Onions--a global benefit to health.

and also: Hypocholesterolemic activity of onion is mediated by enhancing excretion of fecal


sterols in hamsters

in addiction: Onion exerts antiaggregatory effects by altering arachidonic acid metabolism in


platelets

furthermore: La cipolla salva la vita

Andrea Franco/Guido Caviglia


Odontoiatria e Protesi Dentaria

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