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3.

IZOMERAZE

3.1.Epimeraze
serin
CH2-CH-COOH racemaza CH2-CH-COOH
OH NH EC 5.1.1.18.
2 OH NH
2
L-serina D-serina

3.2.Enzime care transformarea izomerilor geometrici cis-trans


COOH COOH
C-H maleat izomeraza H-C
C-H EC 5.2.1.1. C-H
COOH COOH
acid maleic acid fumaric

5.3. Oxidoreductaze intramoleculare


CH2-OPO3H2 H2O3PO-H2C O OH
O
HO
glucozo-6-P-izomeraza CH2-OH
OH
HO OH EC 5.3.1.9.
OH
OH fructozo-6-fosfat
glucozo-6-fosfat

5.4. Enzime care catalizeaz transferul intramolecular a unor grupe de atomi (mutaze)
CH2-OPO3H2 CH2-OH
O O
fosfoglucomutaza
OH OH
HO OH EC 5.4.2.2. HO OPO3H2
OH OH
glucozo-6-fosfat glucozo-1-fosfat

4. LIGAZE
6.2. Enzime care catalizeaz formarea unor legturi C-S
acil-CoA sintaza
R-COOH + CoA-SH + ATP R-CO-S-CoA + AMP + PP
EC 6.2.1.3.
6.4. Enzime care catalizeaz formarea unor legturi C-C
piruvat
CH3-C-COOH + HCO - + ATP carboxilaza
3 HOOC-CH2-C-COOH + ADP + P
EC 6.4.1.1. a
O
O
acid piruvic acid oxalacetic
CYP450
R-OH
H2O
R-H
Fe3+

Fe2+ R-H
2H+ Fe3+ R-H
FADH2 NADP+
2 O2-
e-
NADPH + H+
e- FAD

Fe2+ R-H Fe2+ R-H

O2

O2

Izoenzima Substrat Inhibitor Inductor


CYP1A2 cafeina, teofilina contraceptive orale, rifampicina, barbiturice, fum de
ciprofloxacina igaret
CYP2C8 paclitaxel quercetina rifampicina, fenobarbital
CYP2C9 tolbutamida, diclofenac, fluconazol, rifampicina, extract de suntoare,
warfarina bromelaina fenitoina, fenobarbital
CYP2C6 dextrometorfan, codeina terbinafina,
fluoxetina
CYP2E1 clorzoxazona, cancerigene disulfiram, extract de extract de suntoare, etanol, HIN
usturoi
CYP3A4 eritromicina, nifedipina, ketoconazol, carbam,azepina, fenobarbital,
simvastatin, tacrolimus, claritromicina, suc de alcool, rifampicina
warfarina, aflatoxine grapefruit

Sisteme multienzimatice
Specificitatea de reacie

Specificitatea de substrat

Specificitatea stereochimic

HEM
CH3 CH=CH2 CH3-CH-SH CH3

N N
H3C CH3 H3C CH3
N Fe2+ N N Fe2+ N
CH2 CH=CH2 CH3-CH CH2
CH2 N SH N CH2
COOH COOH

CH2 CH3 CH3 CH2


CH2 CH2
COOH COOH
hem B hem C
Participarea coenzimei Q10 la reaciile de oxido-reducere
O
NADH + H+ NAD+ OH
H3CO CH3 FMNH2 FMN
H3CO CH3
FADH2 FAD

H3CO (CH2-CH=C-CH2)10-H H3CO (CH2-CH=C-CH2)10-H


O CH3
+ OH CH3
2Fe2+ 2H 2Fe3+
coenzima Q10 oxidata citocromi coenzima Q10 redusa
(CoQ) (CoQH2)

O H OH OH
N
HN CH-CH-CH3
COOH
CH3
H2N N N
S S H
acid lipoic tetrahidrobiopterina

Hidroxilarea fenilalaninei sub aciunea fenilalanin-4-hidroxilazei

O O
H OH OH tirozina OH H OH OH
N fenilalanina N
N CH-CH-CH3 N CH-CH-CH3
CH3 CH3
H2N N fenilalanin-4- H N
N N N
H O2 hidroxilaza H O 2 H
2
tetrahidrobiopterina tetrahidrobiopterin-4a-
carbinolamina
NADP+
H2O
NADPH + H+
dihidropterin O pterin-4a-carbinolamin
reductaza OH OH
N dehidraza
N CH-CH-CH3

CH3
H2N N N
H

NH2

CH3 N N
HOOC-CH-CH2-CH2-S-CH2
N
NH2 O N

OH OH
S-adenozil metionina