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COHESION

Cohesion is the grammatical and lexical linking within a text or sentence that
holds a text together and gives it meaning. It is related to the broader concept of
coherence. There are two main types of cohesion: grammatical cohesion which is
based on structural content, and lexical cohesion which is based on lexical content
and background knowledge. cohesion is the use of repetition, transitional
expressions, and other devices (called cohesive cues) to guide readers and show how
the parts of a composition relate to one other.
C. COHERENCE
In Text and Context: Explorations in the Semantics and Pragmatics of Discourse,
convincingly that coherence is a semantic property of discourse formed through the
interpretation of each individual sentence relative to the interpretation of other
sentences, with "interpretation" implying interaction between the text and the
reader. One method for evaluating a text's coherence is topical structure analysis.
Coherence in linguistics is what makes a text semantically meaningful. It is
especially dealt with in text linguistics. Coherence is achieved through
syntactical features such as the use of deictic, anaphoric and cataphoric elements
or a logical tense structure, as well as presuppositions and implications connected
to general world knowledge. The purely linguistic elements that make a text
coherent are subsumed under the term cohesion.
However, those text-based features which provide cohesion in a text do not
necessarily help achieve coherence, that is, they do not always contribute to the
meaningfulness of a text, be it written or spoken. It has been stated that a text
coheres only if the world around is also coherent.
Texts can be coherent at what is called the 'local level' and the 'global level.'
Local-level coherence is that which occurs within small portions of texts, usually
within texts no longer than a paragraph. A text is said to have global coherence,
on the other hand, if the text hangs together as a whole. Coherence is
fundamentally not an objective property of the produced text. Rather, that text is
a by-product of the mental processes of discourse production and discourse
comprehension, which are the real loci of coherence."
"The Coherence Principle accounts for the fact that we do not communicate by verbal
means only. The traditional concept of coherence, which is solely based
relationships between verbal textual elements, is too narrow to account for
coherence in interaction. Ultimately, coherence in interaction is not established
in the text but created in the minds of the interlocutors in their attempt to make
sense of the different verbal, perceptual, and cognitive means at their
disposal . .."(Edda Weigand, Language as Dialogue: From Rules to Principles. John
Benjamins, 2009)
D. ANALYSIS DISCOURSE AS A SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINE
the analysis of discourse can be said as the long disciplines as well as the still
new.origin analysis of discourse can trace up to 2000 years ago in the study of
literature and speech. one of the disciplines that pada saat is a prominent
classical rhetoric, that art is a good speaking including planning, compile and
present a public speech in the political sphere as well as in law. origin analysis
of modern discourse can be traced in the 1960s that time in France published an
analysis of the structure of discourse analysis, stories, film analysis to analysis
of photo print. Although the background, objectives and methods of analysis were
still diverse, the number of keen interest in the study of linguistic field widely
that eventually forms the red thread that makes the realization of the analysis of
discourse become ore intact.