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“recruitment & selection”

Submitted to




SUBMITTED TO Guide By Submitted By:
Dept. of VIMR Mr. K.P. Tripathi Anushruti Shukla
HR Manager MBA (IV Sem)




After the required number and kind of human recourse are
determined, the next step in the procurement function is to locate the source
the required human recourse can be available and to attract them to towards
the organization . this is known as recruitment.


According to Flippo “recruitment is the process of searching for
prospective and encouraging then to apply for job in an organization.”

In words of Joder “ recruitment is a process to discover the source of
manpower to meet the requirement of the staffing schedule and to employee
effective measure for attaching that manpower in adequate”


The objective of recruitment is :-

1. To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experience that suit
the present and future an orgnization stragies.
2. To induct outsider with a new perspective to lead the company.
3. To infuse fresh blood at all levels of orgnization .
4. To dewlap an organizational culture that attract comptent people to the


Employment rate 4. Socio economic factor 2. Career planning and growth 5. A recruitment organization 3 . quality of work life 3.Cost of recruitment 11. information sys.FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT INTERNAL FACTORS :- 1. graphical spread of company operation 8. Company pay package 2. A recruitment policy 2.company’s name and fame EXTERNAL FACTORS:- 1. company’s products and service 7. Political legal and govt. Role of trade union 10. organizational culture 4. STEPS ON RECRUITMENT PROCESS :- PERSONAL recruitment process involve five element viz:- 1. company’s growth rate 9. Labor market condition 5. factors like reservation for sc/st 6. company’s size 6. Like employment exchange and internet. Supply and demand 3.

3. a well considered and preplanned recruitment policy based on corporate goal . criteria of selection and preferred 5. To provide programe and facilities for personal growth on the job 4 . The of recruitment and financial implementation of the same A “Recruitment policy” in the it's broadcast sense involves commitment by the employer to such general principle are: to find and employ the best qualified person for each job 1. Method or techniques of recruitment 1. Therefore . organization objective 2. study of environment and corporate needs may avoid hasty or ill considered decisions and may go a long way to man the organization . To retain the best and most promising of those hired 2. To offer promising opportunities for life time working career 3. RECRUITMENT POLICY: Such a policy asserts the objective of the recruitment and provide a framework of implementation of the recruitment program in the form of produce . A Good recruitment policy must contain these element: 1. the development of sources of recruitment 5. preferred sources of recruitment 4. A forecast of manpower 4. organization of recruitment needs 3.

2. It should be flexible enough to meet the changing needs of the organization 3. are to be implemented consistently and efficiently The advantage of centralization of recruitment and selection are : 1. All employment activity should be centralized if the policies of the top mgt. It should match the qualities of employee with the requirement of the work for which they are employed. A well considers and preplanned recruitment policy based on the goal need and environment of the organization will help to perform the duty in the organization with the right kind of personal . It should high light the necessity of establishment job analysis. Each enterprises has its “tailor-made” procedure which brings it’s the desired quantity and quality of manpower at the minimum possible cost. It reduce the administrative cost associate with selection by consolidating all activities in a single office 5 . The most commonly adopted practice is to centralized the recruitment and selection function in a single office. RECRUITMENT ORGNIZATION : There is no general procedure for hiring new personal which is applicable to all business enterprise. 4. According to Yoder “ the recruitment policy is concerned with quantity and qualification of manpower” A good recruitment policy of orgnization must satisfy following condition: 1. It should be in confinty with its general personal policies 2.

Such indent usually specify 1. It make possible the development of a centralized manpower pool in company 5. It relieves line officer of the details involve in hiring workers . It tends to make the selection of workers scientific 4. The indent are then checked against the post allotted to dept. Conducting physical examination 6. 2. FORCAST OF MANPOWER RECRUITMENT : It is only here that a “ requiting” or an indent for recruitment has to be submitted by the line official . following up the employee. Making initial contact with prospective employee 3. It tends to reduce favoritism as basis for selection. Testing 5. 6 . Establishment employment standers 2. 3. 3. The job or operation or position for which the person should be available. and also against authorization for expansion . concerned. 2. Salary to be offered an any other condition and terms of employment. Duration of employment 3. Financial implementation of the proposed appointment and additional expenditure are worked out of course these would be with in the budgetary section of dept. Which the indenting officer feels necessary. if already granted . conducting final interview 4. with following function:- 1. This office is concerned dept.

3. it needs . ie its present working force. or those on production lay off. while most only Try to take the existing sources they have. It promotes loyalty among the employees . The employer is in a better position to evaluate those employed than outside condition . these include personal already on the pay roll of an organization . some company tries to develop new sources . Whenever any vacancy occur somebody from within the organization is upgraded. external. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT : Before an organization activity began recruitment application . transferred. This is two type internal . for it gives them a sense of job security and opportunities for advertisement 7 . Finally. for any they are assured of the fact that they would be preferred over outside when vacancies 2. or sometimes detonated . in consultation with the line managers. promoted . it should be consider the most likely sources of the type of employee . INTERNAL SOURCES: Internal sources are the most obvious sources . 4. this sources also include personal who were once on the pay roll of the company but who plan to return whom the company would like to retire such as those on leave of absences . job specification and man specification are determined. those who quit voluntarily. Improve the morale of employee . MERITS: - 1.

5. 4. may also play an imp. DEMRITS: - However . there possibilities that internal source may dry up and it may difficult to find the requisite personal from within an organization 3. Role in the selection of personal . no innovation worth the name can be made. 2. 8 . EXTERNAL SOURCES : - These sources lie outside the organization they usually include: 1. this sys. Retired experienced person such as mechanism machinists welder accounts. its policies and known its operating procedure they required training.therefore be relied upon 6. It often leads to inbreeding and discourage new blood from entering an organization 2. the danger is that really capable hand may not to be chosen . New entrants to the labor force ie young mostly inexperienced potential employee the collage student. As the persons in the employment of the company are fully aware of and well acquainted with . Suffers from certain defect as well : 1. They are tried people and can . the like an dislike of the mgt. The unemployed with a wide range or skills and abilities. It is less costely than going outside the recruit. As promotion is based on seniority . Since the lamer does not known more than lecture. 3.

The DCM . Since persons are recruit from a large market the best selection can without any distinction of cost 3. 2. In the long run. METHOD OR TECHNIQUE OF RECRUITMENT : - There are these method of recruitment :  Direct method  Indirect method  Third method DIRECT METHOD : - These include sending traveling recruitment to educational and professional institute employees contact with public and mannered exhibits. Other not in the labor force . MERITS: - 1. 9 . one of the widely used direct method is that of sending of recruiter college and technical school . 4. External sources provide the requisite type of personal for an organization having skills training and education up to the required standard.TATAS and other enlighten firms maintain continuing contact with institution placement official with a view to recruiting staff regularly for different responsible position. this sources proves economical because potential employee do not need extra training for their jobs. such as married woman and from minority groups.

employee at right time. Many companies have found employee contact with the public a very effective method SELECTION MEANING AND DEFINETION : After identifying the sources of human resources for prospective. Sometimes. The objective of selection decision is to choose the individual Who can most successfully prefer the job from the poll of qualified Candidates The traditional process in include: a) Preliminary screening interview b) Completion of application form c) Employment test d) Comprehensive interview e) Bick ground investigation physical examination and final Employment to hire 10 . employees and simulating them to apply for the job in an organization. firms directly solicit information from concerned professor about student with an outstanding record. The management has to perform the function of selecting the right. The obvious guiding policy in selection is the intentions choose the best qualified and suitable job candidate for each unfilled job.

11 . discharge and transferred.A good and effective selection of employees : a) Raises output b) Improves product quality c) Reduces totel product cost. The application selected For the post should : a) To hire right type of employee for specific company openings b) To maintain adequate supply of right kind of employee c) To develop job specification d) To produce information about current wage rates e) TO follow up the new recruits for initial adjustment f) To look after employee counseling and operating the seniority system g) To keep records of employees . b) From outside the company  Friends and relative of present employees duly recommended by them  Through press and other advertisement . hired resigned . SOURCES OF NEW EMPLOYEES: - a) From within the company  By promotion  By transfer  Former employees who had good service record when they left.

and universities. ESSENTIAL OF SELECTION PROCEDURE:- The selection procedure adopted by organization is mostly tailor made to meet its particular needs the thoroughness of the procedure. THIRD:- 12 .  Through labour union  From waiting list  Foreign sources  From application received . employment exchange  From labour contractors  Through personal consultants. FIRST:- The nature of selection whether faulty or safe because a faulty selection effects not only the training period that may needed but also result in heavy expenditure on the new employer and the loss that may be incurred by the orgnization in case the job occupant fails on his job. both at the gate and through the mail  Through trade association  From govt.  Through school collages . needed with a view to removing the unfits persons from the job.  Through employment agencies. SECOND: - The policy of the company and the attitude of management as a practice some companies usually hired more them the actual no.

the uncertainty in the mind of the selected candidate about his future. 13 . the greater . the longer the period . The length of probationary or trail period .

Job title 14 . job description .STEP IN SCIENTIFIC SELECTION PROCESS: A) job analysis B) Recruitment C) Application form D) Written examination E) Preminalary interview F) Business games G) Test H) Final interview I) Medical examination J) Reference check K) Line manager decision L) Employment JOB ANALYSIS : Job analysis is the basis for the selecting the right candidate . steps of any selection process is to develop job description for the position to be Advertised and filled  A job description is a combination of short statement that describe both the work to be performed  The job description include : i. every organization should finalize the job analysis .  The first imp. job specification and employee specification before proceeding to the next selection .

vi. Dept. ability to read job instruction and blue print. Relation with other job x. Dexterity and accuracy viii. Work to be performed by the new employee iv. ii.  Industrial relation  Personal administration  Manpower planning  Selection  Training and development  Labour laws  Welfare service  Labour dispute  Grievance handling 15 .tools and process to be handled ix. Job responsibly . Job knowledge ie. care and maintenance of the machine tools. in which the job exists iii. eg . Qualification and experienced required xi. Physical activities  The job description of personal officer may look like  Responsible for all personal mgt. Machines . Amount of supervision xii. function involving. Mental concentration vii. v.

should grated having post. 1. personal details It is used for collecting information from candidate generally a application from contains the following in formation : 16 . of industrial relation in the age group of 30. it is the basis for the remaining techniques of the selection and latter varies depending upon the former. Information is generally required on following items in the application forms.graduate qualification in personal mgt. It can also be used as a device to screen the candidate at the preliminary level. APPLICATION FORM: Application form also known as application blank . the technique of the application blank is traditional and widely accepted for securing information from the prospective candidate. salary 5. RECRUITMENT : Recruitment refers to the process of selecting for prospective employee and simulating them to apply for job in an orgnization . work experience 4.40 with a minimum of 5/8 years experience.  Disciplinary action  negotiation on day to day basis and also coordination with govt. education attainment 3. dept. personal background information 2.

physical characteristic family background 4. under the clinic method application from will be analyzed in details . miscellaneous. drawing all possible in fervencies . 17 . projecting the application personality and forecasting future job success. experience – job held employer salary etc. THIRD: One may be able to use the data in the application to predict. A) clinical method B) weighted method CLINICAL METHOD: The clinical method takes the help of psychology . professional etc. FIRST : One can make judgment on substantive matters SECOND: One can draw attentive conclusion concerning the application stability. identifying information 2. reference 7. 5. personal information 3.extra curricular activities. educating – academic . EVALUTION OF APPLICATION FORMS: There are two method of evaluation an application from viz. 6. 1.

trainees. 4) GROUP DISCUSSION: 18 . middle and top mgt . the information dies provided by the candidates may be related to the job or personal specification regarding education . salary expected aptitudes towards the job . 1) WRITTEN EXAMINATION : The organization have to conduct written examination for the qualified candidate after they are screened on the basis or the application blank so as to measure the candidates ability in arithmetical calculation .WEIGHTED METHOD : Under the second method certain point of weighted are assigned to answer given by the applicant in the application form . age and other physical requirement. experience . 3) BUSINESS GAMES: Business games are widely used as a selection technique for selecting mgt. personal at junior. reasoning knowledge in various this discipline. . in developing a weighted application from it is necessary to identify those items of the personal employees. Thus preliminary interview in useful as a process of eliminating the undesirable and unsuitable candidates. to know the candidates attitude towards the job to measure the candidates aptitudes . executive trainees and mgt. position. This may be conducted by an assistant in the personal dept. 2) PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW : The preliminary interview is to solicit necessary information from the prospective applicant suitability to the job.

Group decision is a method where groups of the success full applicants are brought around a conference table and are asked to discuss either a case study or a subject matter . placement . 5) TESTS: The next stage in the selection process is conducting deferent tests objective of tests is to solicit further information to asses the employee suitability to the job. The technique of group discussion is used in order to secure further information regarding the stability of the stability of the candidates for the job.performance . Tests are use full in the selection . and potential appraisal. promotion . 6) INTEREST TEST : These are mean to identify a person are intrest and to assign that kind of work that will satisfy him. 19 . The selection panels basing on its observation judge the candidates skilled and ability and ranks them according to their merits.

Med. manager Med. EXTENT OF USEFULLNESS OF VARIOUS TESTS AS PREDICTIVE OF JOB PROFIENCY : Job level Intellect Spatial Perceptual Moter Personal abilty machanical capacity ability traits 1. supervisor Med. Low 4. Med. Low/med. Med. 3. low Med. first line high Med. Med. staff 2. Med. Med. operator low low low high Low 20 . Med.

candidates are required to give the name of reference in their application form . Group discussion is a useful means of judging the leadership ability and social traits of candidates. a problem is given to small group consisting of 8-10 candidates. REFERENCE CHECK: After the completion the final interview and medical examination the personal dept. Member of the group discuss the problem and interact with one another. The leadership qualities behavior and judgment of every member can be judge on the basis of observation. those reference may be from the individual who are familiar with the candidates academic achievement or from the applicant previous employer . will engaged in checking reference. they are:  Job title  Job description  Period employment 21 . the candidates gets no opportunity participate and show his leadership ability therefore the interview cannot judge the leadership and social l make up of the candidates. In a group discussion.INTERVIEW: An interview in an attempt to secure maximum of information from the candidates Concerning his suitability for the job consideration GROUP DISCUSSION: In interview . in case of reference check is the following areas may be obtained . The observer guides the discussion.

 Pay and allowance  Gross emoluments  Benefits provide Willingness of the previous employer to employee the candidates again. the final stage in procurement function in the concluded . Candidates the organization sends the appointment order to the successful candidates either immediately or sometimes depending upon its time schedule. 22 . After selection. PLACEMENT: Once an after of employment has been extended and accepted . provided that during this period . namely that of placement of the individual on the new job and orienting him to orgnization . EMPLOYEMENT : Thus after taking the final decision the organization has to intimate the decision to the successful as well as unsuccessful. the employee is generally put on probation period. Reference check are taken as a matter of routine and treated casually or omitted entirely in many organization .but a good reference check used sincerely will fetch useful and reliable information to the organization . FINAL DECISION BY THE LINE MANAGER CONCERNED : The line manager concerned has to make the final decision whether to select or reject a candidate after soliciting the required information through different technique discussed earlier. after his employment may be regularized. ranging from one to two years. only in very rare case in the employee .

policies and purpose of the orgnization. In other words. 23 . it is a welcoming process the idea is to welcomes new comer. however small is meaningful and has significance as a part of the total organization .once placed asked to quit and even then it is only when there is something very serious against him. INDUCTION : Induction is a technique by which a candidate is rehabitated into the change surrounding and introduced t practice. make him feel at home and generate in him a feeling that his own job.

on job planning personal personal Developing Search for Evaluating source of potential recruiting potential employees effectiveness employees Personal Upgrading in research same position Internal sources Job positioning Transferring to new job External sources Employee referrals Promoting to higher responsibilities advertising Evaluating for selection scouting 24 .PLACE OF RECRUITMENT IN SELECTION SYSTEM Human Recruitment Selection Placing new resourse needed qualified emps.


26 .

" 27 . Birla Chairman Century Textiles & Ind. Century textiles and industry limited B.K.. Ltd Chairman's Message "I believe that the Fortunes of Century Textiles & Industries Limited rest solely on its continuing ability to evolve and successfully implement new techniques and systems to anticipate future trends and zero in on to them. a company that is plugged into tomorrow. to be in short. Prop.

rayon. The Co. chemical. Maihar Cement is situated at Sarlanagar (Maihar) Dist. is well diversified having interest in cement. Maihar is well known for Sharda Devi 28 . Maihar is 45 Kms South . pulp and paper.K. textiles.East of Satna on Howrah . Birla Group."Complete Customer Satisfaction and fulfilling the expectations of society is the key to success of any business enterprise in Global Economy” Introduction MaiharCement is a division of Century Textiles and Industries Ltd. Satna in the State of Madhya Pradesh with an installed capacity of 3.Mumbai Central Railway Main Line.80 Million TPA. a flagship company of B.

ShardaDeviTemple A decent view of greenery just opposite of Temple Apart from this.Templeand MaiharGharana Music whose proponent was renowned Musician Padma Vibhushan Baba Alla-u-din Khan. The combined Capacity of all cement plants taken altogether is 7. company has two more Cement plants namely Century Cement at Baikunth.10 Million TPA and Manikgarh Cement at Gadchandur. Raipur in the State of Chhattisgarh with an installed capacity of 2. Chandrapur.90 Million TPA. 29 . Dist. Maharashtra with an installed capacity of 1. Dist.80 Million TPA. More emphasis is given for production of blended cement which constitutes about 95% of the total cement produced by the company.

:Satna (MP) 2. West Bengal All Cement plants are equipped with captive power plants. Dist. Sarlanagar. Sarlanagar. Maharashtra 5. which is not only ensure an uninterrupted power supply. 30 .2.Accordingly.:Satna (MP) 3. Portland Pozzolana Cement. 1. Baikunth. MaiharCement.e. Century Cement. but also help company substantially on power cost. Sonar Bangla Cement. the Cement Division of Century Textiles and Industries Limited have five Cement Plants i. Dist. Maihar Cement Unit No. Maihar Cement is pioneer in producing Blended Cement i. Raipur (CG) 4.e. Manikgarh Cement. The motivation for the production of Blended cement has been primarily with the aim of preserving limestone reserves and environment. Chandrapur. as the own generated power is quite economical as compared to grid power The company sells its cement under its premium brand name - BIRLA GOLD.

Locational View in Indian Map Maihar Cement Century Cement Manikgarh Cement 31 .

It is a pleasure to mention that Birla group is number one in India for producing cement. 32 . Tyres. contributed remarkebly in industrial progress in a least time. Padma Vibhushan Late Mr. chemicals. sponge iron. the capacity of which is 1 MTPA was established in 1980. Its increasing demands inspired to establish one more unit. has exactly done the same. the Birla has made it’s own identity in India and abroad. It has brought its production at a special stand all over India for the sake of its customer satisfaction. With the extreme hard labour. Pulp and paper. Ghanshyam Dasji Birla. the lateral meaning of which is rare. Century Textile is the world famous not only in cloth production but it has its hold in other fields too like – Cement. yarn etc. This new unit is based on the fully modern technology and computerized system in which more attention is paid on each and every point of quality. Birla. Sarlanagar came into existence in 6 th June 1980. The Maihar Cement group is the unit of world famous Birla family. the founder of the Birla group. Shipping.Since then this unit has been finding new dimensions. The group has established around 300 companies in different industrial parts of the country in a short period of 68 years. The first unit of Maihar Cement. HISTORY Maihar Cement Works. socialism and education. He worked well in the fields of religion. patriotism and socialism.

M. PANDEY SR. VICE PRESEDENT (PRODUCTION)  J. VICE PRESEDENT (PERSONNEL)  GOVIND MAHAJAN SR. the only product it is producing is PortlandPozzolana Cement (it is a fly ash based blended cement) BrandBirla Gold . And from 1st June 2004. TEAM EXCUITIVE NAME DESIGNATION  MR. VICE PRESEDENT (ELECT AND INSTT)  P. P. K.E.)  R. K. JAYANT DUA (SENIOR PRESIDENT & C.O. SINGH SR. K. PortlandPozzolana Cement But during last few years emphasis of Maihar Cement. EXCUTIVE PRESEDENT (COMML)  ARVIND KUMAR JAIN EXCUTIVE PRESEDENT (MECHANICAL)  MANOJ GUPTA EXCUTIVE PRESEDENT (FINANCE)  P. Ordinary Portland Cement 2. in production has been steadily shifted from Ordinary Portland Cement to Portland Pozzolana Cement in the year 2003-2004 it produced 90% PPC and 10% OPC. K. INTODIA SR. which are: 1. AGRAWAL SR. VICE PRESEDENT (MECH)  S. AGRAWAL EXCUTIVE PRESEDENT (PURCHASE)  AJAI KUMAR JAIN SR. PRODUCTS Basically Maihar Cement was established to two products. VISHNAVI PRESIDENT (WORKS)  P. VICE PRESEDENT 33 .

(MARKETING) KEY ACTIVITIES OF PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT OFMAIHAR CEMENT WORKS 1 Recruitmentand selection 2 Induction 3 Training and Development 4 Performance appraisal 5 Promotion 6 Administration of contract labour 7 Industrial relations 8 Event management 9 Trade Union liasioning 10 Canteen Administration 11 Plant / colony upkeep 12 Grievance handling 13 Transportation Management 14 Estate Management 15 Hospital administration 16 School/College management 17 Thrift / Co-operative society management 18 Yoga & Naturopathy centre administration 19 Guest house/ recreation centre management 20 Handling legal cases 21 Safety & security 22 Management of vocational training centre 23 Employees provident fund management 24 Insurance & income tax management of employee 34 .

Sending feedback of absent trainees to concerned Head of the Departments. (vi) Training feedback: Taking training feedback from individual trainee. Receiving of filled assessment forms at the end of January next year. 35 . Sending assessment of individual trainees to respective trainer and concerned Head of the Department.TRAINING PROCESS OF MAIHAR CEMENT WORKS (i) Training needs assessment: Training needs assessment forms are sent to concerned departments in December end for both staff and workers. (ii) Training identification and approval by management. (iii) Preparation of training calendar. Compilation of data as per training needs assessment received. (iv) Identification of trainer (it can be external or internal both) (v) Organizing training program as per training calendar.

PROCESS AT MAIHAR CEMENT WORKS Training Need Assessment & Previous Training Effectiveness (Jan. 1st week) Compilation of data as per Training needs Assessment Training Identification and Approval by Management Preparation of Training Calendar Identification & Preparation of Trainer’s list Conduct of Training Programme as per Calendar Receiving Training Feedback 36 .

information.  To assist employees to function more effectively in their present positions by exposing them to the latest concepts.  To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare them to occupy more responsible positions. techniques and developing the skills they will need in their particular fields. 37 .  To broaden the mind of senior officials by providing them with opportunities for an interchange of experiences within and outside with a view to correcting the narrowness of the outlook that may arise from over specialization. The basic objectives of training in Maihar Cement factory are –  To impart to new entrants the basic knowledge and skill they need for an intelligent performance of definite tasks. Objectives of Training in Maihar Cement Works In Maihar Cement Training is a continuous process.

This training is arranged for newly recruited employees to get them familiarized with the organizational structure.  Developmental Training – Developmental programme for Supervisors and Managers are being arranged to provide adequate input of latest knowledge and skill in management and decision making besides developing competency to shoulder higher assignments. procedures.  On the Job Training . rules and regulations governing.This is in-house training arranged for fresh candidates joining the organization. The Course duration is one year. 38 . The learning process takes place while doing the job.  Multi Trade Training – Multi Trade Training is provided to employees to develop their potentials and to create a pool of workforce to understand tasks other than their own during emergencies. who have no experience. culture. We invite experts from outside to help us to conduct this programme. work. systems. Types of Training in Maihar Cement  Orientation & Induction Training .

Jamul. We have also build up a supporting library. overhead projector.We have developed a Non- Conventional Development Programme for staff and workers where the thrust of training is not on task but on management concern for workers.Maihar Cement observes a system of conducting of Exit Interview in respect of all out going staff. The classroom can accommodate 50 trainees at a time. This has helped the Management tremendously in Human Resources Planning.Our employees are also being sent for technical as well as managerial training to RTC. colour TV and VCR. We have a panel of trainers who are deputed time to time to impart training at RTC Jamul and also sending employees abroad for training. 39 . we have set up and HRD Centre with modern equipments like slide projector.  Worker Development Programme .  Exit Interview . NCBM. For providing these training and developmental inputs. Ballabhgarh. Training at Regional Training Centre . Public address and tape recording system. The aim is to avail an opportunity to share his perception about various policies and practices of the Management which directly or indirectly concern the workers.

an independent section under “Employee Welfare & Employer Employee Relations” has been devoted to the subject separately. 40 . educational. The effective implementation of above programme has helped us considerably in the realization of improved working efficiency and skill for our employees so much so that we have been able to reduce our working strength without any adverse effect on production – rather production efficiently/productivity has only ascended during the last 5 years. culture and recreational facilities etc with a view to generate a sense of belonging in one and all. health and medical benefits. provision of basic amenities. The measures being extensive. Plethora of welfare measures have been since instituted to include healthy habitat. Employee’s Welfare HRD Department focuses on employee welfare and quality of work life by continually examining employee needs and meeting them to the extent possible.

Training Programs held at Maihar Cement Works i) Internal Training Programmes  Technical Training  Commercial Training  Executive Development Programme  Supervisory Development Programme  Workers Development Programme  Conventional Training  Fire Fighting Training  First Aid Training  ISO/EMS awareness Training Programme  In house Technical Training/Workshops by external Trainers ii) External Training Programmes  Technical Seminars at RTC (Regional Training Centre Jamul)  Technical Training Organised by various Co’s Trainings Cell  Commercial Training organized by respective Govt. Dep’t. 41 .

Certain additives such as Laterite. In the Raw Mills. Bauxite. The Limestone are as obtained from the Mines is fed to the Raw Mills after first crushing it to acceptable size. Limestone excavated from Mines is transported through Dumpers and fed to crushers wherein it is reduced from above 850 mm to 80 mm size. MAJOR OPERATIONS Process The basic raw material in the production of cement is Limestone. The output of the Raw Mills. The fuel used for burning of limestone is powdered coal produced from the coal Mill. are also introduced along with Limestone into the Raw Mills as applicable. Environmental friendly Conveyor belts transport the limestone from the Crusher to the Plant Site over a distance of 7 kms. the above inputs are reduced to a particular fineness. The Clinker is thereupon fed into Cement Mill & pulverized along with Gypsum to yield the basic cement. Process in Nutshell Scenic View of Our Uniqueness 1. called 'Raw Meal' is then burnt in the Kiln and then cooled to produce Clinker. 42 . A certain proportion of Clinker in the production of cement is replaced by Fly-ash to produce PPC. High Grade Limestone (Sweetener) etc. 2.

5. 43 . Use of Reclaimers ensures consistency in quality. Rotary Kiln provides for Clinkerisation where in Raw Meal fed from VRM is first burnt to melting (1400 C) & then cooled to 100 . . State of the Art Vertical Roller Mill grinds Limestone feed to powdered form called raw mill. 4. 6. Scientifically designed Stackers provide for stacking of the lime-stones received from the mines in circular / longitudinal stock piles.3. Most advanced Coal Mill pulverizes the coal to be injected into Kiln for burning of Raw Mill.120 C by means of coolers immediately outside the Kiln to produce Clinker.

Consistency and accuracy in the packing of bags by electronic packing machines. 8. which ensure that cement bags are packed and sealed to 50 kg of cement each 44 .7. gypsum and Pozzolana to yield best possible uniformity of the cement particles. Centralized Control Room monitoring the manufacturing process through computers. Close Circuit Cement Mill ensures high quality grinding of clinker. Packing Plant is equipped with computer controlled electronic packers.

Manual check is also carried out at random to monitor computer accuracy and introduce correction as applicable. Packing & Dispatch Loading of bags in the wagon/trucks is carried out automatically by means of wagon / truck loading machines.accurately. 45 . equipped with Electronic Loading Counters which accurately keep count of the Number of bags being loaded.

Efficient logistic & transportation network ensures prompt delivery of
materials to the customers.





(Figures in Mn. Tones)


an International Certification for "Quality Management System". which has been at the vanguard in generating wealth for the Nation.Our Group's Core Value of Quality has built for us an invincible reputation and for this.RATIONALE BEHIND THE EXISTANCE (IN INDIAN MARKET) Tradition .. a leading Business House with its presence in Core Industries like Textiles. An extensive distribution network and a retail chain of thousands of outlets stretching across the length and breadth of regions. Technology . Chemicals. belonging to the BK Birla Group of Companies. Paper & Pulp and Cement. play a vital role in taking our 49 . the finest technology was sourced from world renowned manufacturers and state-of-the art equipment installed for energy efficient and pollution free large scale cement production. All our Products meet the most stringent and exacting standards of our growing list of loyal customers who are engaged in building Modern India. The presence of superior technology is also evinced in our various quality initiatives which have fetched for us the coveted ISO- 9001. Our heritage of being a part of this group carries with it a commitment to quality. We have also got the ISO-140001 Certification for "Environmental Management System" which amply reflects our commitment to the environment Trust . Rayon’s.Maihar Cement is a division of Century Textiles & Industries Ltd. whether that be in the aspect of reliability of supply or in the aspect of quality assurance.Our Customer is the focal point for all our endeavors and what we value most is their trust in us.

cement units closer to the customer's doorsteps.e. Maihar Cement is pioneer in producing Blended Cement i. our efficient and responsive technical staff excels in providing quick and expert care so as to enable thousands of users to keep smiling and ever wanting our products. Portland Pozzolana Cement The motivation for the production of blended cement has been primarily with the aim of preserving limestone reserves and environment. Further. 50 .

51 .

Advertise to position. The body of written works of a language. 6. Asses the need for & establish the purpose of the position. 2. 3. 6. 3. The body of written work produced by scholars or researchers in a given field: medical literature. 5. knowledge & talent in the pursuit of student affairs purpose. Winston & Creamer . or culture. Perform a position analysis. 52 .123 higher education is a human resource intensive enterprise . 1. Imaginative or creative writing. Recruitment & selection have 12 steps that every effective search process should include. All the compositions of a certain kind or for a specific instrument or ensemble: the symphonic literature. Music. 4. review of literature Literature 1. Printed material: collected all the available literature on the subject. period. Prepare the position announcement. 5. Appoint & empower the search committee. p. 4.1997 . Prepare the position description. 2. especially of recognized artistic value: "Literature must be an analysis of experience and a synthesis of the findings into a unity" (Rebecca West). An excellent student affair staffing programmes beings with hiring the right people and placing them in positions with responsibilities that allow them to maximize their skill. The art or occupation of a literary writer. Recruitment & selection ultimately to select & hire the person that best fits the position.

Cost of wrong hires will be measured while refining the act of recruitment says S. RSPs must provide services appropriate to the need of the organization . 12. Cost saving is only an initial excitement. 7. Arrange the candidate interview. Understanding requirements is the first most important step towards effective recruitment.  India is a growing market. 8. Screen the applicants. 11. learn to say no when they cannot. 53 . Chandra Sekhar who works with Cap Gemini Consulting India at Mumbai in his article published in HRD newsletter. improve their match making abilities and not merely push CVs. Conduct the search. Make the offer. RSPs those who provide guaranteed service levels will be more effective and would be sort after as partners for companies finding right-fit will be the key focus. 10. Organizations must “recruit” recruiters carefully. India. Conduct reference checks. china and other emerging countries will continue to experience boom time for almost the next 20-30 years. define and communicate requirements. Despite knowing it well both organizations and Recruitment Service Providers (RSPs) do not spend time either in defining requirements or in understanding them. insist on good measures of value – add. Interview the finalists. 9. build and enlist high performing RSPs to work for them as brand promoters. Similarly. outsourcing recruitment to external RSPs should not be purely on cost considerations. These possess a unique challenge for the corporates who are interested in quality recruitment. While the advanced world is seeing decline in growth.

b) Corporate should not hire anyone who has spent less than one year in his current organization.In one of the studies conducted by the HR consulting firm HEWITT it was found that 45% of 129 companies surveyed did not see cost saving as their main consideration. More importantly if somebody is hired who has worked less than a year with the current organization. So the companies must not go for RSPs simply to reduce the cost of recruitment but they should focus more on improved structure. 54 . that individual will ditch in even shorter period. There must be some guidelines and ethics for recruitment so that there can be fair recruitment policies. They are been told that “relieving letter” is not required and some even offer incentives for early joining. technology. Behind every Attrition there is recruitment! Whenever an employee leaves an organization without informing and without giving notice or leaves the organization in the middle of the project it should be known that he or she is joining some other organization. Many times the employees of the recruitment consultants are hired by their own clients and are asked to join at a very short notice period. Employees six months to begin their contribution and at least one year is required to recover recruitment process. compliance and other value adds. The logic is obvious. There must be some ethical guidelines such as a) Notice period must be served and nobody must be hired without relieving letter or providing proof of serving the notice period. standardization. Top three reasons for recruitment outsourcing in corporate are reported to be: Gaining outside expertise Improving service quality Focusing on core business. efficiency.

In another study on recruitment and selection in Dw Practice Llc which is a HR consultancy. It has also been found that the company opted for external sources such as advertisement agencies to fill vacancies. It was found that the company has done it by considering it as the most cost effective way of filling the vacancies. It was found that company has used internal search for recruiting the employees into more higher or the positions in different departments who can fit into the job. T. In one of the study conducted on recruitment and selection process at Biological-E Ltd conducted by Manik Rao in the year 2005. c) Corporates should not head hunting from competition. d) Corporate should not bail out the prospective employee commitments such as employment bond etc. Muralidharan who is the chairman of Tmi Network one of the India’s leading recruitment consultancies. it was found that most of the employees felt that the telephonic interview is not effective and instead direct interviews are more feasible. the corporate should realize that employee signed the bond and if he wants to break it. These are some of the studies conducted earlier on the recruitment and selections. Employee referrals were also one of the internal sources of recruitment. They should advertise and encourage employees seeking change to voluntarily respond to this advertisement. he should do at his own cost and the corporate should not reimburse or compensate him for violating the employment contracts says Mr. 55 .

online recruiting) which makes the search and overview of literature opaque.Recruiting research as the most studied field within e HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management) calls for synthesizing the major achievements. Third. internet recruiting.jfwolfswinkel@gmail.art e-Recruiting research. Fourth. Wolfswinkel. methods used gaps and future research directions. We provide an overview of state-of the. There are several reasons which call for the need of a systematic literature review. e-Recruiting. This research is of 56 . management and human resources indicating an interdisciplinary nature. a vast number of publications have already been produced.  Reflecting on e-Recruiting Research: A Systematic Literature Review J. and discuss directions to advance e-Recruiting research and practice. various synonyms are used in e-Recruiting research (e- Recruiting. no single academic literature review on e-Recruiting research has appeared to date. marketing. The increasing number of recent publications and attention paid to e.F. Keywords Literature Review. Although e-Recruiting is a relatively young research field [1]. the subject has been studied across many disciplines such as information systems.com ABSTRACT This paper presents a systematic review of e-Recruiting literature by using the grounded theory approach. the already mentioned large amounts of publications call for such a synthesis. Second. First. particularly in the last decade. Future Research Directions. web based recruiting. psychology. cyber recruiting.

In fact. discussions and gaps in e-Recruiting research and practice. The use of grounded theory in analyzing the literature sheds light on how the research stream has developed over time. the application of this method allowed revealing interconnections between the various streams of e-Recruiting research and enabled us to identify the involved stakeholders. the method and the data analyses are depicted. our research is of practical relevance to managers and human resource professionals. Then. First. Next. Several journal papers presenting various steps for systematically carrying out a literature review were carefully investigated. partly related to the youth of the field [2]. Further. very few literature reviews are published in the information systems field. Also. gaps) and what are the future research directions for advancing e-Recruiting research? The paper is organized as follows. the search strategy for inclusion of papers in this literature review is described. 4. grounded theory [3. an MIS Quarterly publication on how to do a literature review in the field of information 57 . future research directions are drawn. 5]. which is explained further in section four. to get a detailed overview of major achievements. a definition of e-Recruiting that emerged through comparison and reflection of literature will be given. This paper’s research question reflects on e-Recruiting research as follows: What are the major themes in e-Recruiting research (methods used. different strategies for conducting a literature review have been compared and evaluated.theoretical significance because it thoroughly integrates accumulated knowledge on the subject and discusses future research directions. First. Further. and finally. perspectives. In specific. in particular recruiters. achievements. the major findings are presented and discussed. This provided depth insights on different options to perform a literature review and motivated the chosen research method.

“online recruiting”. a systematic search for e-Recruiting literature in the top 25 IS journals were conducted [7]. e-recruitment. “web recruiting”. 58 . Web of Science and AIS Electronic Library were investigated. “web-based recruiting”. the selected sample was cut down to 45 highly relevant articles. The selection criteria for inclusion at this stage were two-fold. and ultimately reading the full texts. comparing impact factors of the publications. The specific search terms used were e- recruiting. “recruiting on the internet”. controlling for number of citations of the individual papers. The research databases Scopus. For a graphical representation of this procedure see figure 1. There were some article overlaps between Scopus and Web of Science.systems [2] and Leahmann’s and Fernandez’s [6] review on how to apply the grounded theory method to information systems research guided this research. “recruiting online”. doing forward and backward citations. “online recruitment”. “web-based recruitment”. In order to find relevant articles for inclusion in the review. “web recruitment”. An article had to be published in a peer-reviewed international journal and e-Recruiting needed to be the major focus of research. The examination of e-Recruiting Literature in these three databases resulted in 230 articles. “electronic resume” and e-recruiting. Two reviewers hand- picked the final selection of articles. By removing doubles and comparing the titles and abstracts of all these search results.

No. Theoretical coding  International Journal of Innovation. Management and Technology.Figure 1: Selection procedure articles Between the two coders. October 2010 ISSN: 2010-0248 59 . 1. 4. Vol.

A soft drink is a beverage that does not contain alcohol. sweet tea. The study indicates that although the company follows a well defined recruitment policy. The word drink. sparkling water. The adjective soft specifies a lack of alcohol by way of contrast on the term “hard drink”. Index Terms—recruitment. or spirits. sometimes carries connotations of alcoholic content. In most of the cases the company does compensate the employees for the expenses incurred by them. computerization INTRODUCTION The term soft drink was originated to distinguish non-alcoholic beverages from hard liquor. edible acids. and ginger ale and root beer. Beverages like colas. Recruitment and Selection Process: Geeta Kumari. while nominally neutral. the company is doing well since establishment. iced water. milk. IACSIT ABSTRACT In this research paper. M. lemonade. Soft drinks are non-alcoholic carbonated or non- carbonated beverages. Coffee. All employees said that the company hires consultancy firms or recruitment agency for hiring candidates. squash and 60 . usually containing a sweetening agent. generally it is also implied that the drink does not contain milk or other dairy products and that it is consumed while cold. fruit- flavored drinks. Member. Jyoti Bhat and K. tea. Soft drinks include cola beverages. Pandey. cocoa and undiluted fruit and vegetable juices are not considered as soft drinks. study has been made about recruitment and selection process of BEOLin India. selection. It can be said that in spite of some odd factors. It is also observed that the company has got all the databases fully computerized. flavored water. and natural or artificial flavors.

fizzy drinks. tap water. Fizzy drinks or soft drinks in Canada.fruit punch areamong the most common types of soft drinks. In other words. Winning Culture Winning Culture defines the attitudes and behaviors that will be required of us to make our 2020 Vision a reality. soda. juices and milk shakes do not fall into this classification. coffee. Regional names for soft drinks: The terms used for soft drinks vary widely both by country and regionally within some countries. Australia or South Africa. Planet: Be a responsible citizen that makes a difference by helping build and support sustainable communities. tonic. however. While hot chocolate. Productivity: Be a highly effective. coke. cola or tonic in various parts of Unites States. together we create mutual. circus water and cold drinks. Common terms include pop. milk. lemonade. Carbonated soft drinks are commonly known as soda. Leadership: The courage to shape a better future Collaboration: Leverage collective genius Integrity: Be real Accountability: If it is to be. enduring value. Our vision serves as the framework for our Roadmap and guides every aspect of our business by describing what we need to accomplish in order to continue achieving sustainable. hot tea. in this piece 'soft drink' refers to carbonated. coke. Many carbonated soft drinks are optionally available in versions sweetened with sugar or with non-caloric sweeteners. Profit: Maximize long-term return to shareowners while being mindful of our overall responsibilities. Motivations and slogans of Coca-Cola People: Be a great place to work where people are inspired to be Partners: Nurture a winning network of customers and suppliers. it's up to me Passion: Committed in heart and mind Diversity: As inclusive as our brands 61 . lean and fast-moving organization. pop. Live values serve as a compass for our actions and describe how we behave in the world. sweetened beverages also known as soda or soda pop”. bubbly water. quality growth. “Any drink that is not hard liquor can be referred to as a 'soft drink'.

which all employees have. Usually small businesses for-profit or nonprofit have to carry out these activities themselves because they can't yet afford part or full-time help. they should always ensure that employees have and are aware of personnel policies which conform to current regulations. employee records and personnel policies. Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation.Quality: What we do. 62 .  According to Carter McNamara. dealing with performance issues. we do well focus on the Market: Focus on needs of our consumers. Bratton and Gold (2007). Mullins (2010) As Mullins (2010. These policies are often in the form of employee manuals. and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs. and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. ensuring they are high performers. recruiting and training the best employees. customers and franchise partners Get out into the market and listen. p 485) notes: ‘If the HRM function is to remain effective. there must be consistently good levels of teamwork. Human Resources Management (HRM) function includes a variety of activities. for example on the important legal dimensions of this area. However. plus ongoing co-operation and consultation between line managers and the HR manager.’ This is most definitely the case in recruitment and selection as specialist HR managers (or even external consultants) can be an important repository of up- to-date knowledge and skills. observe and learn Possess a world view Focus on execution in the marketplace every day be insatiably curious.

and may in practice be fulfilled by different staff members. as defined here. Selection is the process by which managers and others use specific instruments to choose from a pool of applicants a person or persons more likely to succeed in the job(s). 2005. Foot and Hook (2005. comprising certain sequentially-linked phases within a process of employee resourcing. It makes sense. p 239) differentiate the two terms while establishing a clear link between them in the following way: ‘Recruitment is the process of generating a pool of capable people to apply for employment to an organisation. Recruitment and selection. Bratton and Gold (2007. In setting out a similar distinction in which recruitment activities provide a pool of people eligible for selection. If we accept this premise (which will be questioned to some extent in this chapter). if work organisations are able to acquire workers who already possess relevant knowledge. may be outsourced to an agency. Recruitment and selection is often presented as a planned rational activity. Arnold et al. given management goals and legal requirements. The recruitment activity. poor performance and dissatisfied 63 . skills and aptitudes and are also able to make an accurate prediction regarding their future abilities. p 63) suggest that: ‘although the two functions are closely connected. each requires a separate range of skills and expertise. to treat each activity separately. but not normally the selection decision. can play a pivotally important role in shaping an organisation’s effectiveness and performance.’ Foot and Hook (2005). recruiting and selecting staff in an effective manner can both avoid undesirable costs – for example those associated with high staff turnover. therefore. which itself may be located within a wider HR management strategy.

CCH: Australia. This paper offers 20 questions to ask and answer in dealing with age discrimination in your workplace. Surviving the Age of Discrimination Duff. 59 No.05.customers – and engender a mutually beneficial employment relationship characterised. 54. Virgin Blue Airlines Pty Ltd A case brought by eight women against Virgin Airlines alleging age discrimination in recruitment found to be substantiated by Queensland Anti- Discrimination Tribunal. wherever possible. K. A new survey by Talent2 an Australian recruitment company shows 83 per cent of Australians believe that older workers are being discriminated against in the workforce. Ageism the New Sexism Source: The Adelaide Advertiser. by high commitment on both sides. Director. 64 . P. This book classifies age discrimination in the Australian workplace and outlines the current legislation. Chapter 4 recommends best HR policies and the means of coordinating practice with policy and managing non-compliant conduct. A. Its significant benefit is the practitioners guide offered in Chapter Four pages 111-136. (2005). A survey of more than 1200 people indicated that respondents believe employees over the age of 40 are in the employment “no go zone”. Hopper & Others v. A good question and answer section on page 127 may highlight a difficult issue(s) currently being faced. & Bourke J. complaint procedure and remedies.2005. Vol. Age Discrimination: Mitigating Risk in the Work Place Threw. (2006). p. 13. 6. Eastman.

These specific findings epitomise the very close link 65 . (2004) How to increase diversity through your recruitment practices.Increasing Diversity through Recruitment Practices Tipper J. Vol 36 No. (2006). Overcoming Race Discrimination in Recruitment This site offers information on best practice for recruitment of indigenous staff. Recruitment of People with a Disability Prost. influencing line managers and other stakeholders. The most revealing finding illustrates the need for a new employment strategy for people with disabilities+ to overcome the disconnect between employers. using a variety of communication channels to reach the target candidates. The booklet is intended to assist agencies by covering the legal framework that applies specifically to the recruitment and development of Indigenous Australians. This article highlights a practical guide identifying how organisations can increase their diversity through recruitment practices including: research into potential recruitment pool. 11-12. 1. Vol. pp.4. 158-161. and rewarding increased diversity through recruitment. A. but it provides a wealth of ideas regarding strategies that might be adopted and developed with regard to recruiting and employing Indigenous Australians. From this site you can down load a booklet “Recruitment of Indigenous Australians in the Australian Public Service”. 72 per cent of respondents thought that employers would ‘use the downturn’ as an opportunity to get rid of poor performers and bring about culture change. Industrial and Commercial Training. people with disabilities and the service providers who help these individuals enter the workforce. This article looks at some innovative solutions in addressing the employment gap for people with a disability. 19 No. Interestingly. 2008) Canadian HR Reporter. French et al. pp.

Thus it is critically important to obtain a realistic evaluation of the process from all concerned. Many organisations seek to employ people who will ‘fit in’ with their organisation’s culture. by potential difficulties. Inappropriate selection decisions reduce organisational effectiveness. whether an employing organisation should be involved in shaping an individual’s identity. French et al. it carries important ethical overtones – for example. and Rollinson. are frequently unfair on the 66 . This aspect of employee resourcing is characterised. p 142) provide a useful overview of potential positive and negative aspects noting that: ‘The recruitment and selection of employees is fundamental to the functioning of an organisation. and by implication rejecting ‘inappropriate’. 2007. candidates for employment. We put forward the view in this chapter that. invalidate reward and development strategies. (2008) We have already referred to the potential importance of recruitment and selection as an activity. Pilbeam and Corbridge (2006) Buchanan and Huczynski. Pilbeam and Corbridge (2006. and there are compelling reasons for getting it right. Many widely-used selection methods – for example. interviewing – are generally perceived to be unreliable as a predictor of jobholders’ performance in reality. recruitment and selection is one area where it is possible to distinguish policies and practices associated with critical success factors and performance differentiators which.between recruitment and selection and the wider social and economic context. This may be perfectly understandable. including both successful and unsuccessful candidates. However. however. in turn. impact on organisational effectiveness in significant ways. There are ethical issues around selecting ‘appropriate’. notwithstanding the moral issues and practical difficulties outlined here.

Selective perception. There is much data suggesting that when we perceive other people – particularly in an artificial and time-constrained situation like a job interview – we can make key mistakes.individual recruit and can be distressing for managers who have to deal with unsuitable employees. We often hear apocrypBirls Gold Cement Maihar stories of interview panels making very early decisions on candidates’ 67 . organise and make sense of the information they receive from the outside world. recognizing the power of perception Perception is defined as the process by which humans receive. lies in an appreciation of some core principles of interpersonal perception and. Thompson and McHugh (2009). therefore. Torrington et al (2008) Early information bias. Self-centred bias. but is otherwise well-presented. in particular. Our brains cannot rocess all of the information which our senses pick up so we instead select particular objects – or aspects of people – for attention. One key to enhancing effectiveness in recruitment and selection. A recruiter should avoid evaluating a candidate by reference to himself or herself because this may be irrelevant to the post in question and run the risks of a ‘clone effect’ in a changing business environment. an interviewee who has a large coffee stain on their clothing. of some common potential mistakes in this regard. sometimes at a subliminal level. may have difficulty creating a positive overall impression despite the fact that it might be that their desire for the new job that resulted in nervousness and clumsiness. The quality or accuracy of our perceptions will have a major impact on our response to a situation. The sentence ‘I was like you 15 years ago’ may be damaging in a number of respects and should not be the basis for employment in most situations. For example. We furthermore attribute positive or negative characteristics to the stimuli: known as the ‘Birls Gold Cement Maiharo’ and ‘horns’ effect respectively.

therefore. Systematic models of recruitment and selection based on a resourcing cycle should not necessarily imply that this process is underpinned by scientific reasoning and method. and other. This is a common short cut to understanding an individual’s attributes. Many HR professionals study subjects like organisational behaviour as part of their career qualifications in which they are made aware of the dangers of inaccurate perception. In commenting on the use of personality tests in selection. It should be stressed that these. Nonetheless. The logic of stereotyping attributes individuals’ characteristics to those of a group they belong to – for example. Everyone is different from everyone else. these authors state that in utilising such tests employers are essentially ‘clutching at straws’ and on this basis will probably use anything that will help them make some kind 68 . which is a difficult and time-consuming process. taking a critical view on the general use and. Stereotyping. As we have seen. perceptual errors are not inevitable and can be overcome. on the other hand they may be entirely false since we are all unique. because we are all unique and complex beings. also discriminatory. and if acted on. there is a danger of over- prioritising early events – a candidate who trips over when entering an interview room may thus genuinely be putting themselves at a disadvantage. Stereotypes might contain elements of truth. it remains the case that an understanding of this subject area is an important building block to effective recruitment and selection. Stereotyping may well be irrelevant. Thompson and McHugh go further. Mythical though some of these tales may be. Pilbeam and Corbridge note that even the most valid methods fall some way short of complete predictive validity.suitability and spending the remaining time confirming that decision. in particular. the view that because Italians are considered to be emotional. the validity of employee selection methods. an individual Italian citizen will be too.

We begin with apparent costs. It is indeed important to keep in mind that today’s received wisdom in the area of recruitment and selection. The final stage of the resourcing cycle involves evaluation of the process and reflection on lessons learned from the process and their implications for the future. This apparently logical ordering of the activities is largely viewed as essential to achieve minimum thresholds of effectiveness. A concern with effectiveness in recruitment and selection becomes all the more important when one considers the costs of getting things wrong. which are deemed more appropriate in some cultures than in others. This accounts for many organisations’ imposing a probationary period in which employees’ performance and future potential can be assessed in the work setting. The process of recruitment and selection continues nonetheless to be viewed as best carried out via sequential but linked stages of first gathering a pool of applicants. just as in the management canon more generally. such as the use of polygraphs to detect lying and other methods such as astrology. a screening-out process. These authors identify now discredited selection methods. followed by the positive step of actual selection. Many organisations when selecting are making a longer-term prediction of a new employee’s capability. may be criticised and even widely rejected in the future. which centre on the direct costs of recruitment 69 . induction and transition : It is not always the case that selected employees are immediately capable of performing to the maximum level on their allotted job(s): important stages in the resourcing cycle occur post-selection. The resourcing cycle extends into this post-selection phase and the induction period and early phases of employment constitute a critically important part of both successful integration into the workplace culture and development as a fully functioning worker.of systematic decision.

but one might also consider the so-called opportunity costs of engaging in repeated recruitment and selection when workers leave an organisation. Retention and Turnover (2009d) estimates the average direct cost of recruitment per individual in the when organisations are also calculating the associated labour turnover costs. In high-performing organisations ‘average’ or ‘adequate’ performance may also be insufficient and recruitment and selection may be deemed to have failed unless workers have become ‘thinking performers’. Typically. BEOL survey report Recruitment. lost to the employer when a worker leaves prematurely. In recent years this concept has been extended to search for workers who are ‘flexible’ and able to contribute to additional and/or changing job roles. This approach contrasts with a more traditional model which involves first compiling a wide-ranging job description for the post in 70 . The implicit costs mentioned here are. more commonly. including training resources. Implicit costs are less quantifiable and include the following categories:  Poor performance  Reduced productivity  Low-quality products or services  Dissatisfied customers or other stakeholders  Low employee morale. An excessive preoccupation with recruitment and selection will divert a manager from other activites he or she could usefully be engaged in. It is also useful to consider the ‘investment’.procedures. in themselves. For workers in the managerial and professional category. decisions on selecting a potential worker are made primarily with a view to taking on the most appropriate person to do a particular job in terms of their current or. clearly undesirable outcomes in all organisations. potential competencies.

(2008) Competency-based models are becoming increasingly popular in graduate recruitment where organisations are making decisions on future potential. Torrington et al (2008. and in 71 . The competencies model in contrast. which in effect forms a checklist along which candidates can be evaluated on criteria such as knowledge. skills and personal qualities. seeks to identify abilities needed to perform a job well rather than focusing on personal characteristics such as politeness or assertiveness. and also that from them behavioural indicators can be derived against which assessment can take place. Farnham and Stevens (2000) found that managers in the public sector increasingly viewed traditional job descriptions and person specifications as archaic.question. This traditional approach. appraisal and reward activities. followed by the use of a person specification. furthermore. p 170) identify some potentially important advantages of referring to competencies in this area noting that: ‘they can be used in an integrated way for selection. development. However. There is a seductive logic in this apparently rational approach. There is increasing evidence that this popularity is more widespread. William. involves matching characteristics of an ‘ideal’ person to fill a defined job. there are in-built problems in its application if judgments of an individual’s personality are inherently subjective and open to error and. in essence. A Cable industries report (2007c) found that 86 per cent of organisations surveyed were now using competency-based interviews in some way. rigid and rarely an accurate reflection of the requirements of the job. if these personal characteristics are suited to present rather than changing circumstances. Farnham and Stevens (2000).

p 276) notes that: ‘Increasingly employees are working in self-organised teams in which it is difficult to determine the boundaries between different jobholders’ responsibilities. but . It can plausibly be posited that we now inhabit a world of work in which unforeseen problems are thrown up routinely and on an ongoing basis and where there is seldom time to respond to them in a measured fashion. there is therefore an implication that organisations aiming for high performance may need to 72 . Linstead et al. isolating a job’s roles and responsibilities may be difficult to do in fast-changing and team-based situations. Searle (2003). Searle (2003. .another survey. over Birls Gold Cement Maiharf of employers polled had started using them in the past year. (2009) Many commentators refer to significant changes in the world of work and the implications these have for the recruitment and selection of a workforce. In this type of business environment. It is suggested that the competency-based model may be a more meaningful way of underpinning recruitment and selection in the current fast-moving world of work and can accordingly contribute more effectively to securing high performance. . If we accept this analysis of work in the 21st century. There is here an implication both that teamworking skills could usefully be made part of employee selection and also that an individual’s job specification should increasingly be designed and interpreted flexibly. The team undertakes the task and members co-operate and work together to achieve it. decisions made can be ‘rational’ in terms of past practice and events but may in fact be revealed to be flawed or even obsolete when they are made in the new context. Recruitment and selection practices focus on identifying a suitable person for the job.

recruitment and selection practices should themselves be kept under constant review if we accept the reality of a business world characterised by discontinuous. Interestingly.use selection methods which assess qualities of flexibility and creative thinking (irrespective of whether they are using a traditional or competency recruitment and selection model). rather than incremental. 73 . change. many jobs may still require task-holders to work in a predictable and standardised way. however. Of course. so one should exercise caution when examining this rhetoric.

74 .

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objective of the study as follows:-  To Study about the recruitment & selection policy at Birls Gold Cement Maihar. group tests. intelligence tests. psychological tests.  To evaluate the various recruitment and selection techniques that BEOL.  To know about the basic sources of information regarding recruitment & selection at Birls Gold Cement Maihar. technical tests and others.  To know about the techniques adopted at Birls Gold Cement Maihar. These include interviews. 75 .  To know about the effectiveness of recruitment & selection Policy at Birls Gold Cement Maihar.  To know about the methods adopted by Birls Gold Cement Maihar.

76 .

the research is design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted. In fact. RESEARCH DESIGN A research is the arrangement of the conditions for the collections and analysis of the data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the problem. It is a careful inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Research is an art of scientific investigation. In it we study the various steps that all generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them. it constitutes the blue print of the collection. As search the design includes an outline of what the researcher will do from writing the hypothesis and its operational implication to the final analysis of data. Meaning of Research Research is defined as “a scientific & systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic”. The search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is a research. Research is a systemized effort to gain new knowledge. The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research method. measurement and analysis of the data. The design is such studies must be rigid and not flexible and most focus attention on the following Research Design can be categorized as: 77 . It may be understood has a science of studying how research is done scientifically.

78 .2. Without data there is no means of study. It helps in bringing into focus some inherent weakness in enterprise regarding which in depth study can be conducted by management. Secondary Data  Published Sources such as Journals. Research design is flexible enough to provide opportunity for considering different aspects of problem under study. It can be collected from various sources. Government Reports. I have collected the data from two sources which are given below: 1. as it seeks to discover ideas and insight to brig out new relationship. TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH DESIGN DESCRIPTIVE & DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH DESIGN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN DATA COLLECTION For any study there must be data for analysis purpose. The present study is exploratory in nature. Primary Data The primary data are those which are collective a fresh & for first time & this happen to be organizational in character. Data collection plays an important role in any study. Newspapers and Magazines etc.

Scope for the sales department The sales department can have fairly good idea about their employees. Scope for personnel department Some customers have the complaints or facing problems regarding the job. So the personnel department can use the information to make efforts to avoid such complaints. Scope of The Study The scope of the study is very vital. 79 . some other sites are also searched to find data.  After completion of survey the data was analyses and conclusion was drawn.  Data collection was also done with the help of personal observation. The questionnaire was filled in the office and vital information was collected which was then subjects to:-  A pilot survey was conducted before finalizing the questionnaire. Not only the Human Resource department can use the facts and figures of the study but also the marketing and sales department can take benefits from the findings of the study. Scope for the marketing department The marketing department can use the figures indicating that they are putting their efforts to plan their marketing strategies to achieve their targets or not. Unpublished Sources such as Company Internal reports prepare by them given to their analyst & trainees for investigation.  Websites like JRP official site. tat they are satisfied or not.  At the end all information was compiled to complete the project report. Sample Size :- Questionnaire is filled by 100 employees of Birls Gold Cement Maihar.

80 .

external & internal? a) yes b) no c) sometimes d) can’t say S No. 81 . for his job only 15% workers are purely opposite to it . Option Percentage of executive 1. Data Analysis & Interpretation Q. No 15% 3. Yes 45% 2. Can’t say 5% Total 100% Can’t say 5% Yes 45% Sometimes 35% No 15% Interpretation : 45% workers support the idea that this induction programme provides maximum advantage to the newcomer employee.e. 355 employees say that sometimes it is beneficial and remaining 5% workers has given no answer. Sometimes 35% 4. 1 Your organization take advantage of both sources of recruitment i.

17% workers are not agree for finding of right kind of employee 5% employees say that sometimes they are fitting to the job and 6% workers are unable to say in this report. Can’t say 6% Total 100% Can’t say Sometimes 6% 5% No 17% Yes 72% Interpretation : 72%workers answered that the recruitment systems of the organization is well in accordance of their needs and they find right persons for the right job.Q. No 17% 3. Option Percentage of executive 1. 2 Your organization select candidates from educational institutions? S No. 82 . Yes 72% 2. Sometimes 5% 4.

20% workers not give preference of sexuality. 3 Your organization conduct tests for selecting candidates? S No. Option Percentage of executive 1. 83 . Sometimes 20% 4. they accosted female workers that they are to mild to work there. Yes 60% 2. No 20% 3. Q. Can’t say 0% Total 100% Can’t say 0% Sometimes 20% Yes No 60% 20% Interpretation : For the preference of the sexually 60% of the workers admitted that the preference is to be they supported their idea by saying that the work is full of continuous toil and tiresome. 20% workers believe that preference of sexuality should be sometimes only for the special kind of work.

Yes 30% 2. 84 . Option Percentage of executive 1. 4 Your organization conduct physical examination too? S No. Can’t say 10% Total 100% Can’t say 10% Yes Sometimes 30% 20% No 40% Interpretation: 30% employee are satisfied with transfer and promotion system on other hand 40% employee are opposite to these system and policies . No 40% 3. Sometimes 20% 4. 20% workers say that sometimes these promotion and transfer policies are very good and they are done accordingly the remaining 10% employee is not at the stand to say anything's.Q.

Q. 40% of them answered it yearly and 55% said that this selection and recruitment of the employees is conducted as and when needed by organization none referred quarterly. As & when needed 55% Total 100% Quarterly Half yearly 0% 5% Yearly 40% As & when needed 55% Interpretation : 5% employees answer that it is conducted half yearly. Quarterly 0% 2. 85 .5 How often do you conduct recruitment and selection in your organization ? S No. Half yearly 5% 3. Option Percentage of executive 1. Yearly 40% 4.

20% employees are dissatisfied . Can’t say 5% Total 100% Can’t say Sometimes 5% 15% No 20% Yes 60% Interpretation : Dealing with the question of fair treatment 60% workers are contented. Sometimes 15% 4. 6 Is the organization doing timeliness recruitment and selection process? S No. 5% workers can not range any things and are unable to say any thing.Q. 15% employee found mixed treatment fair as well as maltreatment . No 20% 3. 86 . Yes 60% 2. Option Percentage of executive 1.

Sometimes 10% 4.Q.7 Does the organization clearly define the position objectives. Option Percentage of executive 1. Yes 65% 2. requirements and candidate specifications in the recruitment process and only 15% are not. 87 . requirements and candidate specifications in the recruitment process? S No. No 15% 3. Can’t say 10% Total 100% Sometimes 10% Can’t say 10% No 15% Yes 65% Interpretation : Above the data shows that the 65% employee said that the organization clearly define the position objectives.

Option Percentage of executive 1.8 Does HR provides an adequate pool of equality applicant ? S No. Sometimes 10% 4. No 15% 3. Yes 70% 2. Can’t say 5% Total 100% Sometimes Can’t say 10% 5% No 15% Yes 70% Interpretation : Above the data shows that the 70% employee says that HR provides an adequate pool of equality applicant 15% are says not HR provides an adequate pool of equality applicant. 88 .Q.

5% workers can not range any things and are unable to say anything.9 Are applicants treated fairly and with same courtesy as customers? S No. 15% employee found mixed treatment fair as well as maltreatment . 89 .Q. Sometimes 15% 4. Can’t say 5% Total 100% Can’t say Sometimes 5% 15% No 20% Yes 60% Interpretation : Dealing with the question of fair treatment 60% workers are contented . Yes 60% 2. 20% employees are dissatisfied . Option Percentage of executive 1. No 20% 3.

S No. Sometimes 5% 4. 90 . Yes 80% 2. Option Percentage of executive 1. No 10% 3.10 Recruitment of academic staff has been satisfactorily done in Birls Gold Cement Maihar. Can’t say 5% Total 100% Sometimes Can’t say No 5% 5% 10% Yes 80% Interpretation : Above the data shows that the 70% employee says that Recruitment of academic staff has been satisfactorily done in Birls Gold Cement Maihar and only 10% are says not Recruitment of academic staff has been satisfactorily done in Birls Gold Cement Maihar.Q.

Can’t say 5% Total 100% Sometimes Can’t say 10% 5% No 10% Yes 75% Interpretation : Above the data shows that the 75% employee says that Selection procedure is done objectively by matching job description and person specification and only 10% are says not Selection procedure is done objectively by matching job description and person specification. Sometimes 10% 4. 91 . No 10% 3.11 Selection procedure is done objectively by matching job description and person specification against what is offered? S No.Q. Option Percentage of executive 1. Yes 75% 2.

Can’t say 5% Total 100% Can’t say Sometimes 5% 15% No 20% Yes 60% Interpretation : Above the data shows that the 60% employee says that Recruitment system in Birls Gold Cement Maihar greatly impacts on the academic staff performance and only 20% are says not Recruitment system in Birls Gold Cement Maihar greatly impacts on the academic staff performance. Yes 60% 2.Q.12 Recruitment system in Birls Gold Cement Maihar greatly impacts on the academic staff performance? S No. 92 . No 20% 3. Option Percentage of executive 1. Sometimes 15% 4.

Can’t say 5% Total 100% Sometimes Can’t say 10% 5% No 15% Yes 70% Interpretation : Above the data shows that the 70% employee says that HR train hiring employees to make the best hiring decisions and only 15% are says not HR train hiring employees to make the best hiring decisions. Q. Sometimes 10% 4. No 15% 3. Option Percentage of executive 1.13 Does HR train hiring employees to make the best hiring decisions? S No. 93 . Yes 70% 2.

Q.14 Rate how well HR find good candidates from non-traditional source when necessary. Sometimes 10% 4. Yes 65% 2. Can’t say 5% Total 100% Sometimes Can’t say 10% 5% No 20% Yes 65% Interpretation : Above the data shows that the 65% employee says that HR find good candidates from non-traditional source when necessary and only 20% are says not HR find good candidates from non-traditional source when necessary. S No. Option Percentage of executive 1. No 20% 3. 94 .

Q. Yes 75% 2. Option Percentage of executive 1. Can’t say 5% Total 100% Sometimes Can’t say 10% 5% No 10% Yes 75% Interpretation : Above the data shows that the75% employee says that HR team act as a consultant to enhance the quality of the applicant pre-screening process and only 10% are says not HR team act as a consultant to enhance the quality of the applicant pre-screening process.15 Does the HR team act as a consultant to enhance the quality of the applicant pre-screening process? S No. 95 . Sometimes 10% 4. No 10% 3.

96 .

they have always overworked. When they get experience then they get promotion. and these 3. 97 . 6. 7. There all policy is easy to understand. Policy are attract apply to more person in this origination. There is seniority biased promotion. There is fallow the government norm n policy to recruitment selection and the criteria of selection is very tuff to reach. The employee is satisfied with the recruitment policy. So that is help to selection of best candidates in the origination. The selection of the best employee is based on the talent and eligibility of the candidates. The all staff is too busy they have lots of work. 2. The recruitment policy of the Birls Gold Cement Maihar is good. 4.FINDING 1. 5.

98 .

4. Lack of resources: Lack of time and other resources as it was not possible to conduct survey at large level. 2. Small area for research: The area for study was Birls Gold Cement Maihar which is quite a small area to judge job satisfaction level. yet there are always some problems faced by the researcher. of respondents: Only whole of the population. LIMITATIONS OF STUDY However I shall try my best in collecting the relevant information for my research report. The prime difficulties which I face in collection of information are discussed below:- 1. 5. to represent 3. 99 . Small no. Short time period: The time period for carrying out the research was short as a result of which many facts have been left unexplored. 100 employees have been chosen which is a small number. Respondents were having a feeling of wastage of time for them. Unwillingness of respondents: While collection of the data many consumers were unwilling to fill the questionnaire.

100 .

This is a government sector there is so much job security so that why there is attract to more person to apply in this origination. but all these thing are not effect to the applicants because there is so much job security. I am happy as i performed my duty to best of my potential. 101 . Each and every employee in this origination has satisfied to their superiors. Some time with out interviews they recruit biased recruiting. They conduct the interview for the top level but they not conduct interview for the dawn level. power. works under tension and pressure. I found that the recruitment and selection system of Birls Gold Cement Maihar is very polite and soft. Due to job security there all staff is more satisfied with the job. The recruitment and selection policy are followed by government's there are no enough flexibility in the recruitment policy. CONCLUSION To conclude the whole project has been in enriching experience and thought of my talent.

the setting is required both of physical & mental nature . we should have to decide according to the job and exiting employee condition. 9. 10. the mental setting means both the interviewer and the interviewee must be mentally prepared for the interview. 2. So recruit the more staff to fill the vacant seats. this give an impression to the candidate that interviewer is quite serious about him and he will do his best. 11. Prmotion should be given not only seniority biased that should be talent and work biased. They should improve there working condition. which date will be given to all application etc. 5. Process of selection should be totally planned . for the good work from the all staff. The best talented candidates should be select for the desired post. the physical setting for the interview should be comfortable and free from any physical disturbance . Recruitment for any job should be more attractive and have brief information about the job and organization .By the help of these things we can make this process easy and systematic for organization as well as for the candidates. 6.Interview should listen to carefully when the candidate is furnishing the information . They have always under staff. There should be proper setting for conducting interview . like who will take interview . which test will be taken . Give update information should be given to the candidates regarding recruitment. 7.SUGGESTION 1. 8. 4. 3. 102 . Recruitment sources.


Name : ………………. Desg. ……………………..

Address:…………………………………. Mob. …………………..

Q. 1 Your organization take advantage of both sources of recruitment i.e.
external & internal?
a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes d) Can’t say
Q. 2 Your organization select candidates from educational institutions?
a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes d) Can’t say
Q. 3 Your organization conduct tests for selecting candidates?
a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes d) Can’t say
Q. 4 Your organization conduct physical examination too?
a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes d) Can’t say
Q.5 How often do you conduct recruitment and selection in your
a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes d) Can’t say
Q. 6 Is the organization doing timeliness recruitment and selection process?
a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes d) Can’t say
Q.7 Does the organization clearly define the position objectives, requirements
and candidate specifications in the recruitment process?
a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes d) Can’t say
Q.8 Does HR provides an adequate pool of equality applicant ?
a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes d) Can’t say
Q.9 Are applicants treated fairly and with same courtesy as customers?
a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes d) Can’t say
Q.10 Recruitment of academic staff has been satisfactorily done in Birls Gold
Cement Maihar.
a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes d) Can’t say

Q.11 Selection procedure is done objectively by matching job description
and person specification against what is offered?
a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes d) Can’t say
Q.12 Recruitment system in Birls Gold Cement Maihar greatly impacts on
the academic staff performance?
a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes d) Can’t say
Q.13 Does HR train hiring employees to make the best hiring decisions?
a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes d) Can’t say
Q.14 Rate how well HR find good candidates from non-traditional source
when necessary.
a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes d) Can’t say
Q.15 Does the HR team act as a consultant to enhance the quality of the
applicant pre-screening process?
a) Yes b) No c) Sometimes d) Can’t say


106 .

(2006). A. Aswathapa K. Cully et al. IRS. 2005. www. (1993). Vol. Virgin Blue Airlines Pty Ltd  Increasing Diversity through Recruitment Practices management’ Tata Mcgrew hill. (1999)  Crail. (2003) LIC.com (search for various related matters) 2. google.  Gilliland. (2008)  Duff. wikipedia. . Website: 1. Mullins (2010)  Cassell et al (2002). 59 No.  Farnham and Stevens (2000). 54. Anderson et al (2001)  Hopper & Others v. Whitford. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. p. Director. (2007). (1997) ‘ Human resourse and personal  Age Discrimination: Mitigating Risk in the Work Place  Ageism the New Sexism  Bratton and Gold (2007).org (for recruitment and selection matters) 107 . 2007c. Arnold et al. (2008)  Foot and Hook (2005). www. 6. William.

Guide By Mr.P. K. CERTIFICATE FROM PROJECT GUIDE & HOD This is to certify that Anushruti Shukla has completed her project report title "Recruitmnet & Selection At Maihar Cement" Under my supervision. Anant Jyoti (Project Guide) (Director HR) 108 . Tripathi Mr. To the best of my knowledge and belief this is his original work and this. has not been submitted for any degree of this or any other university. wholly.

DECLARATION This project report on "Recruitmnet & Selection At Maihar Cement" Works is submitted by me for the partial fulfillment of the course of M.A.M. IV Sem V.M.R.I.I.B.P. This is an original work done by me except the guidance received which has been properly acknoledge in the report.A.B. Anushtruti Shukla M. IV Sem at V. Satna (M.R. (Satna) 109 . This is not the copy of any other repost or any part of it hasn't been submitted for the award of any degree or diploma.).

PREFACE Theoretical knowledge is of use. This has been the thinking of Vindhya institute of management & Research (Satna). Thus to apply all the theoretical knowledge gainde so far on practical lines. until and unless it is applied into some practical aspect. I conducted my research project in Maihar Cement (M. It lays the stree on the proper implementation of the theoretical knowledge in to the real life practical aspects.) and learnce how to counter the real practical problems that comes during day to day job. I take this opportunity to present my Project Report and hope that it would be of some use to all its readers. Now.P. 110 .

CONTENTS CHAPTER TOPICS COVERERD PAGE NO. Chapter : 1 Introduction About Topic 01-25 Chapter -2 COMPANY PROFILE 26-50 Chapter -3 Review of Literature 51-73 Chapter -4 OBJECTIVES 74-75 Chapter -5 Research Methodologies 76-79 Chapter -6 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRATATION 80-95 Chapter -7 FINDINDS 96-97 Chapter -8 LIMITATION OF PROJECT 98-99 Chapter -9 CONCLUSION 100-102 Chapter -10 QUESTIONNAIRE 103-105 Chapter -11 BIBLIOGRAPHY 10-107 111 .