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Answers
1A ! 1D
Chapter 1 Exercise 1B
10
1 a x + 2 = 6, 4 b 3x = 10,
Exercise 1A 3
16 20
1 a 3 b9 c 1 d 8 c 3x + 6 = 22, d 3x 5 = 15,
3 3
5 7 19 x+5
e5 f2 g h e 6(x + 3) = 56, f = 23, 87
3 2 3 4
7 20 10 14 2 A = $8, B = $24, C = $16 3 14 and 28
i j k l
3 3 3 5 4 8 kg 5 1.3775 m2 6 49, 50, 51
b 7 17, 19, 21, 23 8 4200 L 9 21
2 a a+b ba b c d ab
a 10 3 km 11 9 and 12 dozen
bc 12 7.5 km/h 13 3.6 km 14 30, 6
e
a
3 Exercise 1C
3 a y=5 b t=5 c y= d x=2
2
11 8 1 a x = 1, y = 1 b x = 5, y = 21
e t= f y= g y = 136 h t = 1 c x = 1, y = 5 d x = 5, y = 19
2 3
9 8 2
i x = 12 j y= k x= 7 l y=2 e x = 4, y = 13 f x= ,y=
5 5 5
4 2 a x = 8, y = 2 b x = 1, y = 4
4 a b 5 c 2
3 1
6 c x = 7, y =
5 a 1 b 18 c d 23 2
5 3 a x = 2, y = 1 b x = 2.5, y = 1
e0 f 10 g 12 h 8 c m = 2, n = 3 d x = 2, y = 1
14 12 7 e s = 2, t = 5 f x = 10, y = 13
i j k
5 5 2 4 7
g x= ,y= h p = 1, q = 1
b e d c b 3 2
6 a b c b d
a c a c a 5
i x = 1, y =
ab b d bd c 2
e f a+b g h
b+a a c a 4 a No solutions b Infinitely many solutions
7 a 18 b 78.2 c 16.75 d 28 c One solution d One solution
3
e 34 f Exercise 1D
26
2 2
a + b + 2ab a + b 1 25, 113 2 22.5, 13.5
8 x= =
ac + bc c 3 a $70 b $12 c $3
ab
9 x= 4 a $168 b $45 c $15
a b c

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
764 Answers

c F I
1E 1 review

5 17 and 28 6 44 and 12 4 aV= b a= c P=


7 5 pizzas, 25 hamburgers p m rt
8 Started with 60 and 50; finished with 30 each wH S P R(V 2)
d r= e t= f r=
7 C Pr V
9 134 adults, 16 children 10
10 5 a T = 48 b b = 8 c h = 3.82 d b = 10
11 26 12 420 adults, 540 children 6 a (4a + 3w) m b (h + 2b) m
13 $17 000 14 120 shirts, 300 ties c 3wh m2 d (4ah + 8ab + 6wb) m2
15 360 Outbacks, 300 Bush Walkers
7 a i T = 2(p + q) + 4h ii 88 + 112
16 2800 in Mydney, 3200 in Selbourne
A
17 20 kg at $10, 40 kg at $11 and 40 kg at $12 b p= q
h
Exercise 1E 2 60
8 a D= b b=2 c n= d r = 4.8
Answers

3 29
1 a x<1 b x > 13 c x3 d x 12 !
1 2D
e x 6 f x > 3 g x < 2 h x 8 9 a D = bc(1 k2 ) b k = 1
3 !2 bc
i x 2 6
2 a x<2 c k= =
2 a x<2 3 3
2 1 0 1 2 A + c2
b x < 1 10 a P = 4b b A = 2bc c2 c b=
2c
b x < 1
a2 a ay
2 1 0 1 2 11 a b= b x=
c x < 1 2 b
#
c x < 1 $
" x2 %
2 1 0 1 2 c r = 3q p2 x2 d v = u2 1 2
y
dd x x 33
Chapter 1 review
2 1 0 1 2 3 4
ee x x<< 44 Technology-free questions
3 2
1 a1 b c d 27
2 3
2 1 0 1 2 3 4 44 1
f
f x x>>11 e 12 f g h 31
13 8
cd b d
2 1 0 1 2 3 4
2 a t =ab b c +c
a a
1 1 cb a 2b 1 cd
gg x <x3<2 3 2 d e f
c1 ca ad
2 1 0 1 2 3 4 2 22 7
3 a x< b x 148 12 c x < d x
dh x x 33 3 29 17
4 x = 2(z + 3t), 10
2 1 0 1 2 3 4 d e2 1
5 a d = e2 + 2 f b f = c f =
2 2
ii x >x 16> 16
6 400 cm3
975
0 1 2 3 7 a 196 b
2
1 A T P
3 a x> b x<2 c x > 5 8 a r= b w=
2 s Pr
20 n p ac b2
4 3x < 20, x < , 6 pages 5 87 c r= d r=
3 v2 b
9 a s = 75 b t = 8

Exercise 1F 10 5 2 cm
1 a 18 b 9 c 3 d 18 11 12 m and 17 m
e 3 f 81 g 5 h 20 12 m = 2 and n = 15
2 a S =a+b+c b P = xy c C = 5p 13 Mr Apollo earns $100 000, Mr Adonis earns
d T = d p + cq e T = 60a + b $107 200 and Ms Aphrodite earns $96 000
3 a 15 b 31.4 c 1000 d 12 28 9 11 33
14 a a = ,b= b a= ,b=
e 314 f 720 11 11 5 5
15 5 hours travelling on highways

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 765

Answers
Multiple-choice questions 2 Any line parallel 3 y
1 D 2 D 3 C 4 A 5 C 6 C to the one shown
7 B 8 B 9 A 10 B 11 E 12 B y= x1
y (1, 6)
Extended-response questions
10 x
1 aC= b F = 86 c x = 40 0
9
160 x
d x = 62.5 e x = f k=5 0 1
13 1
2uv v 1 5
2 a r= b m=

2A 2C
u+v u 4 a b c 2 d 8 e 0 f 1
4 2
3 a T = 6w + 6 g7 h 11 i 13 j 11 k 111 l 61
25
b i T = 8w ii = , w = 12 12 2
6 5 a 2 b
L 6x 5
c i y= ii y = 22
8 5
d x = 10, y = 5 6 a 54 b
6
4 a Distance Tom travelled = ut km 7 a 45 b 45 c 26.57 d 135
Distance Julie travelled = vt km
d 8 a 45 b 26.57 c 161.57 d 49.4
b i t= h e 161.57 f 135

u+v
ud 9 a1 b 1 c 3 d 3
ii Distance from A = km
u+v
c t = 1.25 h, distance from A = 37.5 km Exercise 2C
2uv
5 a Average speed = 1 a m = 3, c = 6 b m = 6, c = 7
u+v c m = 3, c = 6 d m = 1, c = 4
uT vT + uT
b i ii 2 a y = 3x + 5 b y = 4x + 6 c y = 3x 4
v v
3 3 2ab 40 3 a m = 3, c = 6 b m = 2, c = 4
6 a + c i c= ii 1 1 5
a b a+b 3 c m = , c = 2 d m= ,c=
x y 80(x + y) 2 3 3
7 a , b 3 5
8 10 10x + 8y 4 a m = 2, c = 9 b m= ,c=
4 2
320 310 1 5
c x= ,y= c m = , c = 2 d m = , c = 2
9 9 3 2
8 The three lines intersect at the point (4, 3) 5 a y = 3x 11 b y = 2x + 9
1 11 7
6 a y= x+ b y= x+4
3 3 5
Chapter 2 c y = 2x + 4 d y=
11
x
61
3 3
Exercise 2A 7 a2 b y = 2x + 6
&1 1' 8 a y = 2x + 4 b y = 2x + 8
1 a (5, 8) b 2, 2 c (1.6, 0.7)
d (0.7, 0.85) 9 a y = 2x + 6 b y = 2x + 4
c y = 5x + 15
2 MAB (3, 3), MBC (8, 3 12 ), MAC (6, 1 12 )
2
3 Coordinates of C are (6, 8.8) 10 a y= x+4 b y = 2x 6
3
4 a (4, 4) b (2, 0.2) c (2, 5) d (4, 3) 3x
$1 + a 4 + b% c y = x + 4 d y= +3
5 , , a = 9, b = 6 2
2 2 2 2 2
11 a y= x+4 b y= x
6 a5 2 7.07 b 17 4.12 3 3 3
c 34 5.83 d 13 1 1 1
c y = x + 12 d y= x+2
7 97 + 85 + 104 29.27 2 2
8 PM = 145 12.04 9 DN e y = x + 3.5 f y = 0.5x + 0.25
2
12 a y = 4x + 4 b y = x c y = x 2
Exercise 2B 3
1 1
1 a4 b 2 c d 4 e 1 f 1 d y = x 1 e y = 3 12 f x = 2
4 2
13 Yes 14 Only c
5 5 4
g h 2 i j k 0 15 a x=4 b y = 11 c x = 11 d y = 1
4 4 3

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
766 Answers
2D

Exercise 2D c y d y

1 a (0, 4), (4, 0) b (0, 4), (4, 0) 1 1


c (0, 6), (6, 0) d (0, 8), (8, 0) x
1 0 x
Answers

2 a y b y 2
0 1
2

x x
0 6 0 8 6 a y b y
4 2
1

y y 1 x
c d 0 x
0 1
6 10 1

c y d y
x
8 0 x
4 0 1
e y f y x
x 1 0
1 0
1
x x
0 15 0 15

5
4 15
2
7
7 a y b y

3 a y b y 3 3

2 x 1
3 0 0
x
x x 1 1
0 1 2 0
3

1 c y d y

c y
1
4 8 x
x 0 2 1
x 0 3
0 2
2
4
e y f y
4 a y b y

5 3 2 4
x x 6
0 0 3 x x
0 0

10 9
g y h y
c y d y
x
6 0 3
10 10

x x 8
x
2 0 0 5 4 0

8 a y b y

y y (0, 3)
5 a b
y=3
2 (-2, 0)
2 x x
0 0
x x = -2
x 0 2
2 0

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 767

12

Answers
c d y
y 7 a x = 4a b m= c i a=6 ii a = 6
a
x=5 c 1
8 a x= b c=9 c c2 d y= x+c
(5, 0) 2 2
x x e i c = 12 ii c = 4 iii c = 8
0 0
y = -2
12 3 3
(0, -2) 9 a b c i b = 3 ii b =
b b 2
b 4b
9 a 45 b 135 c 45 d 135 d y= x
3 3
e 63.43 (to 2 d.p.) f 116.57 (to 2 d.p.)

2E 2H
10 a 71.57 b 135 c 45 d 161.57 Exercise 2G
4 14
11 a = 4, b = , d = 1, e = 1 w = 20n + 350 for n N {0}
3 3
2 a d1 = 50t b d2 = 80 40t
Exercise 2E c Gradient = 50 Gradient = 40
1 d1 d2
1 a y = 2x 10 b y= x
2 200 (4,200) 80
1 150 60
c y = 2x + 6 d y= x4
2 100 40
2 14 3 50 50
e y= x f y= x8 0 t 0 t
3 3 2 0 2 4 0 2
1 2
g y= x h y = 3x 14 3 a V = 5t b V = 10 + 5t
3 3
2 Parallel lines: a, b, c; non-parallel lines: d 4 a v = 500 2.5t
b Domain 0 t 200; Range 0 v 500
3 a y=4 b x=2 c y=4 d x=3
c
4 y = 2x + 2 v
5 Midpoint of AB is (1, 6); y = 2x + 8 500
3 5
6 mBC = , mAB =
5 3
3 5
mBC mAB = = 1 0 200 t
5 3
ABC is a right-angled triangle 5 C = 1.5n + 2.6
7 mAB = 2, mBC = 12 6 a C = 0.24x + 85 b $145
8 mRS = 12 , mS T = 2 RS S T 7 d = 200 5t
mUT = 12 , mS T = 2 UT S T 8 a
w (g)
(Also need to show S R = UT .)
51
RS T U is a rectangle
16 80
9 = ,m=
3 3 50
1 11 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x (cm)
10 a y = x + b B(1, 5) c C(2, 7)
2 2 b w = 0.2x + 50 c x = 12.5 cm
9 a C = 0.06n 1 b $59
Exercise 2F
10 a C = 5n + 175 b Yes c $175
1 m=5
2 c=5 Exercise 2H
1 1 1 Both lines have gradient 1, but their y-axis
3 a y= x+3 b m=
m 7 13
4 m=2 intercepts are 6 and
2
3 9 2 (t, 6 t) where t is a real number
5 a x= b m= c m3
m 5 9
x 3 a m=4 b m!4 c m=
d y= 3 5
m 4 k = 2, m = 5
c 5 k = 24, m = 0
6 a x = b c = 4 c c 2
2
6 m = 3
1
d y= x+c 7 a m = 5 b m = 3
2

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
768 Answers
2 review

8 a b t=5 Chapter 2 review


C
A Technology-free questions
B 1 a Midpoint = (3, 2); Length = 4
30 $ 1 9%
20 b Midpoint = , ; Length = 74
2 2
$ 5%
0 t c Midpoint = 5, ; Length = 5
Answers

2
25 9 10
9 b = 0.28 and a = 0.3, m/s 2 a b c Undefined
7 4 11
10 a b 2 p.m. b b
d d 1 e f
dB a a
3 a y = 4x b y = 4x + 5
dA c y = 4x + 2 d y = 4x 5
15
20
4 a a = 2 b
5 3
0 t 5 4y + 3x = 7
11 a C1 = 210 + 1.6x, C2 = 330 6 3y + 2x = 5
b 7 a y = 11 b y = 6x 10 c 3y + 2x = 3
C
8 3y x = 3 3 2
300
9 y+x=1
75
1 20
200 10 y = x +
0 20 40 60 80 x 3 3
1
c Fixed-charge method is cheaper for x > 75 11 a = 1, b = , d = 5, e = 3
2
12 a
d 12 a y
500
B y = 2x - 8
x
A 0 (4, 0)
C
0 5 10 15 20 25 t (hours) (0, -8)
b C wins the race
d C leaves 5 hours after B, and overtakes B b y

13 12 hours after B had started, then over- (0, 6)


3x + y = 6
takes A 20 hours after A had started. C wins x
with a total time of 22 12 hours (12 12 hours 0 (2, 0)

for journey + 10 hours handicap), with A


and B deadheating for second place, each
with a total time of 25 hours. c y

13 Both craft will pass over the point (5 13 , 4) 3x + y + 6 = 0


(-2, 0)
14 a CT = 2.8x, C B = 54 + x x
0
b $C c More than 30 (0, -6)
54
d y

y - 2x - 8 = 0 (0, 8)

0 30 x (-4, 0)
x
0
1
15 a dA = t b d (km)
3
3 57 e y
d M = 57 t
10 (0, 6)
y = -6x + 6
(1, 0) x
0 90 t (min) 0
c 10:30 a.m. d Anne 30 km, Maureen 27 km

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 769

Answers
f y 5 a y = x + 14 23 b 20 13 km south
3
(-5, 0)
6 a s = 100 7x
x 5
0 (0, -2) b c %
2x + 5y + 10 = 0 s (%) 7
100

13 a y = 9 y

0 100
14.3 x (%)
7
x

2 review
0
(0, -9) d 14 27 %
y = -9 e Probably not a realistic model when s = 0
f 0 x 14 27
b x=8 y
7 a AB, y = x + 2; CD, y = 2x 6
b Intersection is at (8, 10), on the near bank
x=8
128
(8, 0)
x 8 a
0 19
199 128
b y= x+
190 19
c i y = 3x ii y = 3x 20
c No, since gradient of AB is 1.053,
y 19
whereas the gradient of VC is 1.047
y = -3x y = 3x 41
9 a No b1 km to the east of H
(-1, 3) (1, 3) 71
x
0 10 a y = x 38 b B(56, 18)
c y = 2x + 166 d (78, 10)
11 a y = 3x + 2 b (0, 2)
14 a d = 60t b m = 60
c y = 3x 8 d (2, 2)
15 S = 800 + 500n e Area = 10 square units
2
16 a y = 2x + 2 b i ii 2 < a < 0 f Area = 40 square units
$ 1 % a
1 12 a C = 40x + 30 000 b $45 c 5000
c , +3 d R = 80x
a1 a1
e
Multiple-choice questions $000
1 D 2 E 3 A 4 E 5 C 6 D 300 R = 80x
7 B 8 E 9 C 10 E 11 C 200
Extended-response questions 100 C = 40x + 30000

1 a C = 110 + 190n b 12 days 0 1000 2000 3000 x


c Fewer than 5 days f 751 g P = 40x 30 000
2 a Cost of the plug 13 a Cost with method 1 is $226.75; cost with
b Cost per metre of cable c 1.8 d 11 19 m method 2 is $227; so method 1 is cheaper
3 a The maximum profit (when x = 0) b 0 1000 2000 3000
b 43 seats Method 1 100 181.25 262.50 343.75
c The profit reduces by $24 for each empty seat Method 2 110 185 260 335
4 a i C = 0.091n c Cost the same for approx. 1600 units
ii C = 1.65 + 0.058n
iii C = 6.13 + 0.0356n 110
b cost ($) 100
C ($)
15 (300, 16.81) 300 343.75
10 (200, 13.25) 200 335
5 (50, 4.55) 100
0 100 200 300 n (kWh) 0 1000 2000 3000 units
i For 30 kWh, C = 2.73 1600
ii For 90 kWh, C = 6.87 d C1 = 0.08125x + 100, C2 = 0.075x + 110,
iii For 300 kWh, C = 16.81 x = 1600
c 389.61 kWh

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
770 Answers
3A 3D

14 a (17, 12) b 3y = 2x + 2 c (x 1)(x + 1)(y 1)(y + 1)


2 2 d (a + b)(x + y) e (a2 + 1)(a 3)
15 a PD: y = x + 120; DC: y = x + 136;
3 5 f (2a 5)(b 6) g (2x + 5)(x 1)
5 2 h (x + 2)(x 2)(x + 2)
CB: y = x + 600; AB: y = x + 20;
2 5 i (x a)(x + a)(x b)
3 5 a (x 6)(x + 6) b (x 9)(x + 9)
AP: y = x + 120
5 c (x a)(x + a) d (2x 9)(2x + 9)
b At B and C, since product of gradients is 1 e (3x 4)(3x + 4) f (5x y)(5x + y)
2 5 g 3(x 4)(x + 4) h 2(x 7)(x + 7)
Answers

E.g. mDC = , mCB = , mDC mCB = 1


5 2 i 3a(x 3) j (a 7)(a + 7)
3)(x
k ( 2a 5)( 2a+ 5)
Chapter 3 l (x 2 3)(x + 2 3)
6 a (x 6)(x + 2) b (7 + x)(3 x)
Exercise 3A c 3(x 1)(x + 3) d 5(2x + 1)
e 24x f 5(x + 7)(x + 1)
1 a 2x 8 b 2x + 8 c 6x 12
7 a (x 9)(x + 2) b (y 16)(y 3)
d 12 + 6x e x2 x f 2x2 10x
c (a 2)(a 12) d (a + 9)2
2 a 6x + 1 b 3x 6 c x + 1 d 5x 3 e (x 8)(x + 3) f (x 12)(x + 10)
3 a 14x 32 b 2x2 11x 8 a (3x 1)(x 2) b (2x + 1)(3x + 2)
c 32 16x d 6x 11 c (5x + 3)(x + 4) d (2x + 1)(x + 4)
4 a 2x2 11x b 3x2 15x e (3x 2)(2x 5) f (3x + 1)(2x 3)
c 20x 6x2 d 6x 9x2 + 6x3 g (3x 2)(4x 3) h (x 2)(5x + 6)
e 2x2 x f 6x 6 i x(5x 6)(x 2)
2
5 a 6x 2x 28 b x2 22x + 120 9 a 3(y 6)(y + 2) b 2(x 7)(x 2)
c 36x2 4 d 2
8x 22x + 15 c 4(x 3)(x 6) d 3(x + 2)(x + 3)
2
e x ( 3 + 2)x + 2 3 e a(x + 3)(x + 4) f 3x(4 x)2
f 2x2 + 5x 5 g3x2 + 7x 14 10 a x(x + 2) b (2x 3)(x + 2)
h 5x2 + (10 2 3)x
6 2 c 2(2x + 5)(x + 2)
i 5x2 (3 5 + 32 10)x + 96 2
6 a 6x3 5x2 14x + 12 b x3 1 Exercise 3C
c 24 20x 8x2 + 6x3 d 3x2 + 4x + 3
2 1 a 2 or 3 b 0 or 2
c 4 or 3 d 4 or 3
e 10x + 5x 2 5
7 a x2 8x + 16 b 4x2 12x + 9 e 3 or 4 f 0 or 1 g or 6 h 4 or 4
2
1
c 36 24x + 4x2 d x2 x + 2 a 0.65, 4.65 b 0.58, 2.58 c 2.58, 0.58
4 3 a 9, 8 b 4, 2 c 11, 3 d 4, 16
e x2 2 5x + 5 f x2 4 3x + 12
e 2, 7 f 3, 8
8 a x2 9 b 4x2 16 c 81x2 121
3 1 3 2 3 3
d 4x2 9 e 4x2 25 f x2 5 4 a , 1 b , c , d ,2
2 2 2 3 2 2
g 4x2 27 h 3x2 7
5 3 1 3 3 2
9 a x2 + y2 z2 2xy b 4a2 4ab + b2 c2 e ,3 f ,3 g , h ,
6 2 2 5 4 3
c 9w2 + 8uz 16z2 u2 1
d 4a2 5b2 + 4ac + c2 i j 5, 1 k 0, 3 l 5, 3
2
10 a i x2 + 2x + 1 ii (x + 1)2 1
m ,2
b i (x 1)2 + 2(x 1) + 1 ii x2 5
5 3 6 4 or 9 7 2, 2 38
Exercise 3B 8 13 9 50 10 6 cm, 2 cm
1 a 2(x + 2) b 4(a 2) c 3(2 x) 11 5 12 $90, $60 13 42
d 2(x 5) e 6(3x + 2) f 8(3 2x)
Exercise 3D
2 a 2x(2x y) b 8x(a + 4y) c 6b(a 2)
1 a i (0, 4) y
d 2xy(3 + 7x) e x(x + 2) f 5x(x 3)
g 4x(x + 4) h 7x(1 + 7x) i x(2 x) ii x = 0
3 a 6x2 y2 (x + 2) b xy(7x 6y) iii (2, 0), (2, 0)
c 2xy2 (4x + 3) x
2 0 2
4 a (x2 + 1)(x + 5) b (x + 3)(y + 2)
(0, 4)

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 771

Answers
b i (0, 2) y d i (4, 0) y
ii x = 0 ii x = 4
iii None iii (4, 0) x
0 4

(0, 2) 8
x
0

c i (0, 3) y 3 a i (2, 1) y
ii x =0 ii x = 2
(0, 3)
iii ( 3, 0), ( 3, 0) iii None (0, 5)

3D
3 3
x
0
(2, 1)
x
0
d i (0, 5) y
b i (2, 1) y
ii x =!0 (0, 5)
$ 5 % ii x = 2
iii ,0 , 25 2
5
iii (1, 0), (3, 0)
2 3
$! 5 % 0
x
1 3
,0 x
2 0
(2, 1)
e i (0, 4) y
c i (1, 2) y
ii x = 0 (0, 4)
ii x = 1
iii (2, 0), (2, 0)
iii None
-2 2
x 3
0
(1, 2)
x
0
f i (0, 9) y
ii x =0 d i (1, 1) y
- 3 3
iii ( 3, 0), ( 3, 0) 0
x ii x = 1
iii (2, 0), (0, 0)
2 0
x
(0, -9)
(1, 1)
2 a i (2, 0) y y
e i (3, 1)
ii x = 2
ii x = 3
iii (2, 0) (3, 1)
4 iii (2, 0), (4, 0)
x
0 2 4
x 8
0 2

b i (3, 0) y
f i (2, 4) y
ii x = 3 ii x = 2
iii (3, 0) iii (4, 0), (0, 0)
9

x
x 4 0
3 0
(2, 4)
c i (1, 0) y
g i (2, 18) y
ii x = 1
iii (1, 0)
0
x ii x = 2
1 iii (5, 0), (1, 0) 1
x
1 0
5
10

(2, 18)

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
772 Answers
3E

h i (4, 3) y 4 a y = (x 1)2 + 2 b y = (x + 2)2 3


ii x = 4 (4, 3) t. pt (1, 2) t. pt (2, 3)
iii (3, 0), (5, 0) y y
Answers

x
0 3 5
1
3 x
0
i i (5, 2) y (1, 2)
x
ii x = 5 x 0 (2, 3)
iii None (5, 2) 0 $
3 %2 5 y
c y= x
2 4
29 $3 5%
2
t. pt ,
2 4 1
x
j i (2, 12) y 0
ii x = 2 3
, 45
2
iii (0, 0), (4, 0)
x $
4 0 1 %2 11
5 a y=2 x y
(2, 12) 2 2
$ 1 11 %
t. pt , x
2 2 0
k i (2, 8) y
ii x = 2 -5
iii (2 2, 0), 2 2 (2, 8) 2 + 2 ( 12 , -11
2)
(2 + 2, 0) x
0 b y = 4(x + 1)2 + 4 c y = 3(x 1)2 7
8 t. pt (1, 4) t. pt (1, 7)
y y
l i (1, 3) y
ii x = 1 8 x
0
iii (2, 0), (4, 0) -4
(-1, 4)
-2 x (1, -7)
4 x 0
0
$
1 %2 9
(0, - 8) 6 a y = (x 4)2 4 b y= x
3 (1, -3)
2 4
t. pt (4, 4) $1 9%
y t. pt ,
Exercise 3E 2 4
y
1 a x2 2x + 1 b x2 + 4x + 4
c x2 6x + 9 d x2 6x + 9 12
2
e x + 4x + 4 f x2 10x + 25 x
2 1 9 0
g x x+ h x2 3x + x
4 4 (4, 4) 0
2 a (x 2)2 b (x 6)2 c (x 2)2 2 1,
49
$ 1 %2 2
d 2(x 2)2 e 2(x 3)2 f x
2 c y = 2(x + 1)2 4 d y = (x 2)2 + 5
$ 3 %2 $ 5 %2 t. pt (1, 4) t. pt (2, 5)
g x h x+
2 2 y y

3 a 1 2 b 2 6 c 3 7
(2, 5)
5 17 2 2 1
d e f ,2
2 2 3
0 1
1 1 k2 x x
g 1 1 k h 2 0
k
(1, 4)
3k 9k2 4
i
2

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 773

Answers
e y = 2(x + 3)2 + 6 f y = 3(x 1)2 + 9 e f (x) f f (x)
t. pt (3, 6) t. pt (1, 9)
y y 1 , 61
2 4
x 6
21 0 1
(3, 6)
1
1 x
0
x 12 4
, 1 18 3 1 0 2
(1, 9)
12 x g f (x) h f (x)
0
2 21 , 1

3F 3G
4
x
Exercise 3F 3 2 0
x
3 0 8
1 a7 b 7 c1 6 24
2 a 2 b 8 c4 2 1 , 30 41
2
3 a y b y
Exercise 3G
1 a 2, 4 b y
x
6 3 0 x
x -2 0 4
1 0
1 (3, 9)

c y d y -8
c 2 x 4 d x < 2 or x > 4
25
2 a x 2 or x 3 b 4 < x < 3
x 1
x 2 0 2 c 4 x d x < 2 or x > 6
5 0 5 2
4 3 7
e 2<x<3 f x
2 2
e y f y 7 5
g <x<2 h 2 x
2 2
5 7
23 i x < 5 or x > j 2 x
2 2
x
2 1 0 x 2 7 5 11
0 1 2 k x < or x > l x or x
5 2 2 2
43 , 1 18 (1, 2) 2 2
3 a x < 5 or x > 5 b y
y y 3 3
g h
6 6
43 , 1 18 c y < 4 or y > 4 d x
5 5
1 1 5 5
x 1
e y or y f y < or y >
2 1 0 4 4 6 6
x 4 a x 2 or x 4 b 3 < x < 8
23 0
3
c 2 x 6 d x > 3 or x <
2
4 a y b y 3 2
e <x< f 3 x 2
2 3
2 3 1 3
4 g x > or x < h x
x 3 4 2 5
5 0 2 i 4 x 5
0 x ' '
10 1 4 1& 1&
j 5 41 p 5 + 41
23 , 12 41 2 21 , 2 41 2 2
k y < 1 or y > 3 l x 2 or x 1
c y d y
3 29 3 + 29
5 a x or x
2 2
x 3 5 17 5 + 17
3 0 1
b <x<
0 2 2
x
3 3 1 3 17 3 + 17
(1, 4) (2, 1)
c x
4 4

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
774 Answers

3H 3I

3 41 3 + 41 d y
d <x<
2 2
7 41 7 + 41 0
x
e <x<
4 4 1 5 1 + 5
4 6 4+ 6 4
f x or x
2 2 (1, 5)
6 The square of any number is greater than or
equal to zero. e y f y
Answers

7 The negative of the square of any number is x


2
less than or equal to zero. 0 , 2 1
1
3 3
1 1 1
8 x2 + 2x + 7 = (x + 1)2 + 6. For all x, we have 4
x
(x + 1)2 0 and so (x + 1)2 + 6 6 0
2
9 x2 2x 7 = (x + 1)2 6. For all x, we ( 5 , 9 )
8 16
have (x + 1)2 0 and so (x + 1)2 6 6
g y h y
( 52 , 49
4)
Exercise 3H

1 a 40 i ii
210
b 28 i ii
27
c 172i ii
243 2 ( 38 , 23
16)
-1 6 x x
d 96 i ii
46 0 0

e 189i ii
3 21

3 5 1+ 5 i y
2 a 1+ 5 b c d 1+2 2
2 2
7 61 1 4
3 a 3 13 b c ,2 -1 3
2 2 x
0
3 3 30
d 1 2 e 2 2 f 1 -4 ( 1 , - 49 )
2 2 5
6 12
2 3 3 6
g 1 h 1, i
2 2 5 Exercise 3I

13 145 2 4 2k2
j k 1 a 20 b 12 c 25 d 41 e 41
12
2k
2 a Crosses the x-axis b Does not cross
2k 6k2 2k
l c Just touches the x-axis
2(1 k) d Crosses the x-axis e Does not cross
4 a y f Does not cross
3 a Two real roots b No real roots
0
x c Two real roots d Two real roots
1 (5 29 ) 1 1
2 (5 + 29 ) e Two real roots f No real roots
2
4 a = 0, one rational root
(2 1 , 7 1 ) b = 1, two rational roots
2 4
c = 17, two irrational roots
b y d = 0, one rational root
e = 57, two irrational roots
x f = 1, two rational roots
0
1 (3 17) 1 1 (3 + 17) 5 a i 5 < m < 5 ii m = 5
4 4 iii m > 5 or m < 5
( 3 , 2 1 )
4 4
4 8 b i 0<m< ii m =
3 3
4
c y iii m > or m < 0
3
(1 1 , 3 1 ) 4 4
2 4 c i <m<0 ii m = 0 or m =
5 5
1 (3 13) 1 (3 + 13) 4
2 1 2 iii m < or m >0
5
x
0 d i 2 < m < 1 ii m = 2 or m = 1
iii m > 1 or m < 2

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Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 775

Answers
6 = (2m n)2 , a perfect square 7 p> Exercise 3K
3
1 1 a = 4, c = 6
8 p=
2 b2 1
2 2 a = b2 16a b a= c a= ,b=2
9 a p = 3 b p > 1 c p> d p>1 16 4
3 3 a y = 2(x + 2)(x 6) b y = 2(x + 2)2 + 4
10 2 < p < 8 c y = x2 + 2x 3
11 = 4q2 < 0 for all values of q 4 24
4 2 5 a= ,b=
12 a = 16m2 96m + 176 = 16(m 3)2 + 32 7 7
b 32; therefore two solutions 6 a = 2, b = 1, c = 6
5

3J 3L
13 a = 16 7 a y = x2 + 5 b y = x2
16
b > 0; therefore two solutions 1 2 7
14 = (m + 4)2 , a perfect square; therefore c y= x + x d y = x2 4x + 3
11 11
rational solutions 5 5 15
e y = x2 x + f y = x2 4x + 6
15 = (m 2n)2 , a perfect square; therefore 4 2 4
rational solutions 5 1
8 y= (x + 1)2 + 3 9 y = (x2 3x 18)
16 The graph will cross the x-axis twice 16 2
1 2
17 The graph will cross the x-axis twice 10 y = (x + 1)2 + 3 11 y = x x + 75
180
2 2
12 y = 2x 4x 13 y = x 2x 1
Exercise 3J
14 a C b B cD d A
1 a (1 5, 1 5), (1 + 5, 1 + 5) $ 1 %2 1 $ 1 1%
$ 7 49 % 15 a y=a x+ +a b ,a
b (3, 9), (2, 4) c (3, 9), , a a a a
4 16 c a = 1 d 1 < a < 1
d (1, 3), (2, 5)
16 y = 2x2 + 8x 6
2 a (2, 0), (5, 7) b (1, 3), (4, 9)
17 a y = ax(x 10), a > 0
c (1, 3), (3, 1) d (1,1), (3, 3)
$ 1 + 33 % $ 1 33 % b y = a(x + 4)(x 10), a < 0
e , 3 33 , , 3 + 33 1
2 2 c y= (x 6)2 + 6 d y = a(x 8)2 , a < 0
$ 5 + 33 % $ 5 33 % 18
f , 23 + 3 33 , , 23 3 33 1
2 2 18 a y = x2 + x + 2 b y = x2 + x 5
3 a Touch at (2, 0) b Touch at (3, 9) 4
1
c Touch at (2, 4) d Touch at (4, 8) 19 r = t2 + 2 12 t 6 38 20 a B b D
8
4 a x = 8, y = 16 and x = 1, y = 7 21 a y = 2x2 x + 5 b y = 2x2 x 5
16 5 11
b x = , y = 37 13 and x = 2, y = 30 c y = 2x2 + x
3 2 2
4
c x = , y = 10 25 and x = 3, y = 18
5 Exercise 3L
d x = 10 32 , y = 0 and x = 1, y = 29
e x = 0, y = 12 and x = 32 , y = 7 12 1 a A = 60x 2x2 b A
f x = 1.14, y = 14.19 and x = 1.68, y = 31.09 450
5 a 13
b i y 0 15 30 x
c Maximum area = 450 m2
2 A = x(10 x); Maximum area = 25 m2
1 (3 + 13)
2 2 3 a E b 0 and 1 c 0.5
x 100
1 (3 13) 0
2

ii m = 6 32 = 6 4 2 0 0.5 1x
1 1 d 0.23 and 0.77
6 a c= b c>
4 4 4 a A = 34x x2 b A
7 a = 3 or a = 1 289
8 b=1

9 y = (2 + 23)x 4 23 and 0 17 34 x
y = (2 2 3)x 4 + 2 3 c 289 cm2

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Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
776 Answers
3 review

5 a 4x + 10y = 80 g a3 b3 h 6x2 + 8xy + 2y2


b i A = 1.64x2 25.6x + 256 i3a2 5a 2 j 4xy
ii 31.22 and 48.78 k 2u + 2v uv l 3x2 + 15x 12
6 a C($) 3 a 4(x 2) b x(3x + 8)
3000 c 3x(8a 1) d (2 x)(2 + x)
2000 e a(u + 2v + 3w)
1000
f a2 (2b 3a)(2b + 3a)
Answers

0 1 2 3 4 h
g (1 6ax)(1 + 6ax) h (x + 4)(x 3)
The domain depends on the height of i(x + 2)(x 1) j (2x 1)(x + 2)
the alpine area. In Victoria, the highest k (3x + 2)(2x + 1) l (3x + 1)(x 3)
mountain is approx. 2 km high and the m (3x 2)(x + 1) n (3a 2)(2a + 1)
minimum alpine height would be approx. o (3x 2)(2x 1)
1 km. Thus, for Victoria, domain = [1, 2].
4 a x = 5 or x = 3 b x = 9 or x = 0
b Theoretically, no. But of course there is a
c x = 2 or x = 3 d x = 1 or x = 25
practical maximum.
e x = 3 or x = 2 f x=6
c $1225 1 5 3
7 a T b 8874 units g x = or x = 3 h x = or x =
(000) 2 6 2
t (0.18, 15.82) 12
0.18 15.82 i x= or x = 1
5
5 a y b y
0 8 16 t
(0, 3)
8 a x 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 3 3
,0 , 0
2 2
d 1 3.5 5 5.5 5 3.5 1 (0, 3)
x
0
x
d 0
5 c y d y
4
3 11 11
2
(2, 3) (2, 3)
1 x x
0 0
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 x e y f y
b i 5.5 m
ii 15 5 7 m or 15 + 5 7 m from the bat 3 (0, 9)
4 , 0
2
iii 1 m above the ground 29 4+
3
2
, 0
x
16 8 0 3
x 23
9 a= ,b= ,c=0 0 2
15 5 (4, 3)
7 41 53
10 a a = ,b= ,c= y y
21600 400 12 g h
b S
hundreds of (0, 11)
(0, 12)
thousands
dollars 53 x (2, 3)
12 0 (2, 0) x
0

6 a y b y
354.71 t (days)
c i S = $1 236 666 ii S = $59 259
1 0 x x
Chapter 3 review 5 5 0 6
(2, 9) (3, 9)
Technology-free questions
$ 9 %2 $ 2 %2 c y d y
1 a x+ b (x + 9)2 c x
2 5 2 + 6
d (x + b)2 e (3x 1)2 f (5x + 2)2 4 23 (0, 4) x
2 6 0
2 a 3x + 6 b ax2 + a2 x (0, 4)
0 4 + 23
2 2
c 49a b d x2 x 12 (4, 12) (2, 12)
2
e 2x 5x 12 f x 2 y2

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 777

Answers
e y f y 14 225 15 y = 5(x 1)2 + 5
(2, 21) (2, 9) 16 a (3, 9),(1, 1)
$ 4 38 % $ 4 + 38 %
2 7
(0, 9) 2 + 7
5 b , 27 4 38 , 27 + 4 38
x x 2 2
0 1 0 5 $ 7 73 % $ 7 + 73 %
c ,2 ,2
6 6
7 1 1 1
d ( 2 , 2 ), (2, 8)
7 a x= b x=
2 2 17 a y = 2(x + 4)(x 1) b y = 2(x + 1)2 + 3
y y
c y = 2x2 2x 3
49
21 ,

3 review
4 18 2.16 m
(0, 6) (0, 12)
19 a m = 8 = 2 2 b m 5 or m 5
x $ b b2 %
0 1 6 x
7
, 25 4 0 3 20 a x = 0 and x = b b ,
2 4 2 4
c i (0, 0), (1 b, 1 b) ii b = 1 iii b ! 1
5
c x= d x=5 Multiple-choice questions
2 y
y 1 A 2 C 3 C 4 E 5 B
5
,
81 6 C 7 E 8 E 9 D 10 A
2 4 (0, 16) 11 B 12 E 13 D
14 x
0 2 8 Extended-response questions
x (5, 9)
2 0 7 1 a y = 0.0072x(x 50)
b y
1 13
e x= f x= 5
4 12
y y 4

1 3
3
x x 2
0 5 0 5
3 5 2
2 1
(0, 15)
41 , 15 18 13
, 12
1
0 x
12 24
0 10 20 30 40 50
g x=0 h x=0 $
y y
25 3 %
c 10.57 m and 39.43 m 25 m
3
d 3.2832 m e 3.736 m (correct to 3 d.p.)
x x
12 4x
5 0 5 0 2 a Width of rectangle = m
2
5
2 2
5
2
6
12 4x
(0, 25) (0, 25) Length of rectangle = m
3
3 17 2 16
8 p = 1 or p = b A= x x+8
10 9 3
9 a x < 0or x > 1 96
c Length for square = m and length for
b 2 34 x 2 + 34 17
108
1 3 rectangle = m ( 5.65 m 6.35 m)
c 2 x d x5 17
3 2 3 a V = 0.72x2 1.2x b 22 hours
10 a 3 + 6, 3 6
4 a V = 10 800x + 120x2
9 + 33 9 33
b , b V = 46.6x2 + 5000x c = 55.18 m
2 2 5x 5
c 2 2, 2+ 2 5 a = 50 b A = 50x x2
2 2
7 33 7 + 33 c
d , A
4 4 (10, 250)
250
7 17 7 + 17
e ,
4 4
9 93 9 + 93
f ,
6 6 0 10 20 x
5 2
11 y = x(x 5) 12 y = 3(x 5)2 + 2 d Maximum
area = 250 m when x = 10 m
3 1 + 5
13 m < 21 4 29 or m > 21 + 4 29 6 x=
2

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Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
778 Answers


Chapter 4
4A

7 a 25 + x2
b i 16 x ii x2 32x + 265
c 7.5 d 10.840 e 12.615 Exercise 4A
"
8 a i y = 64t2 + 100(r 0.5)2
Answers

1 a y b y

= 164t2 100t + 25
ii y (1, 2)
(km) (1, 1)
x x
0 0

c y d y

0 t (h)
1 9 1, 1
iii t = , 1:30 p.m.; t = , 1:07 p.m. 2
2 82 x x
0
iv 0.305; 1:18 p.m.; distance
3.123 km 0
(1, 3)
25 25 2 269
b i 0, ii
41 82
9 b 2x + 2y = b e y f y
c 8x2 4bx +b2 16a2 = 0
e i x = 6 14, y = 6 14
x
ii x = y = 2a 0
2
(5 7)a (5 7)a 3
f x= ,y= x
4 4 0
10 a b = 2, c = 4, h = 1
b i (x, 6 + 4x x2 ) ii (x, x 1)
iii (0, 1), (1, 0), (2, 1), (3, 2), (4, 3) g y h y

iv y = x 1
c i d = 2x2 6x + 10 x
ii d 0
5
4
x
0
(0, 10)
i y j y
(1.5, 5.5)
0 x
iii Min value of d = 5.5 when x = 1.5 0 0
x
2
x
11 a 45 5 1 1
1 12
b i y= (7x2 190x + 20 400)
600
$ 190 5351 %
ii , k y l y
14 168
c d 0 3
x
A B 3 13
(40, 40) 4
(20, 45)
3 4
D x
0
(60, 30) 1
1
y= x
2
O x 2 a y = 0, x = 0 b y = 0, x = 0
c y = 0, x = 0 d y = 0, x = 0
C (30, 15) e y = 2, x = 0 f y = 3, x = 0
d i The distance (measured parallel to the g y = 4, x = 0 h y = 5, x = 0
y-axis) between path and pond i y = 0, x = 1 j y = 0, x = 2
473 k y = 3, x = 1 l y = 4, x = 3
ii Minimum value = when x = 35
24

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 779

Answers
3 a y b y 7 x-axis intercept 32
y-axis intercept 32
x = -2 (0, 1)
6 x = -2 (0, 3) y
x 4
0 x
0 x=2

x
0
y = -2
c y d y

x = -2
x = -1

4B
2 (0, 1)
0 x
0
x Exercise 4B
(0, - 1 )
4 1 a y b y

0 x
4 a y b y 1
9
x = -1 3 0
x
4
x = -1 3
3 (0, 1)
(0, 0)
x x
0 0
y = -1
c y d y

c y d y
0 2 4
x = -1 x
3 x = -1 3
-2 3 41 x
3 x 0 x 0 1
0
y = -1 (0, -2)
(0, -2)
e y f y

e x-axis intercept 12 f x-axis intercept 19 0


x
y-axis intercept 6 y-axis intercept 1 3 1
y y 4 1
2 x
x = -1 0
3 2
0 x y=3
x = -1 (0, 1) g y h y
y = 4 3
x
0 3
(0, -6) x
0
5 23
2
g y h x-axis intercept 13 6 15
1 16
y-axis intercept 14 x
0 4
x=- 2 y
3
0 x 2 a y = 0, x = 3 b y = 4, x = 0
y = -1 c y = 0, x = 2 d y = 3, x = 1
x = -4
3 0 e y = 4, x = 3 f y = 1, x = 2
x
g y = 6, x = 3 h y = 2, x = 4
y = -1
3 a y b y

5 x-axis intercept 3 6 x-axis intercept 32


y-axis intercept 3 y-axis intercept 3 (0, 1 ) (0, 3 )
36 16
y y x x
0 0
x = -2 x = -2
y=1 y=2

x 0 x
0 x=1 x = -1

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
780 Answers
4C 4D

c y 3 a x 0 and y 0 b x 1 and y 0
y y
0 x
x = -2 (0, 1 )
16

x x
0 0 1

Exercise 4C c x 0 and y 0 d x 3 and y 0


Answers

1 a x 0 and y 3 b x 2 and y 3 y y
y y
6
3 x
(2, 3) 0
x 3
x x
0 0 0

c x 2 and y 3 d x 2 and y 1 e x 2 and y 0 f x 3 and y 4


y y y
y
2
x
0
1 + 2
11 (2, 1) 4 6-4
x x
0 0 ( 5 , 0)
-4 2 2
(2, 3) x
0
(3, -4)
e x 2 and y 3 f x 2 and y 3
y y Exercise 4D
(2, 3) 1 a x 2 + y2 = 9 b x2 + y2 = 16
3 2
1
4 c (x 1)2 + (y 3)2 = 25
x x
0 7 0 d (x 2)2 + (y + 4)2 = 9
22 3
25
(2, 3) e (x + 3)2 + (y 4)2 =
4
2 a x 2 and y 3 b x 4 and y 2 f (x + 5)2 + (y + 6)2 = (4.6)2
y

y 2 a C(1, 3), r = 2 b C(2, 4), r = 5
c C(3, 2), r = 3 d C(5, 4), r = 8
(2, 3)
3 a y b y
x x
0 11 0
8 7
(4, 2)

x 4
c x 4 and y 1 d x 3 and y 0 8 0 8
y y
8 1
x
0

x
2 3 c y d y
0
( 4, 1)

x
0 3 4
x
7 2 0 3
e x 3 and y 0 f x 3 and y 4 x
y y 1 0
3 x
0
4 3-4 e f y
y
2
-2 3 x
0 5
2 (-5,5)
x
(3, -4) 0

x
0 3
2

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 781

Answers
4 a C(0, 3), r = 5 b C(4, 6), r = 42 c y d y
c C(3, 2), r = 2 d C(2, 3), r = 5
5 3
e C(4, 2), r = 19 f C( 12 , 2), r = 32
5 a y b y x x
5 0 5 3 0 3

5 3
3 3
x
0
0
x e y f y
2

4E 4 review
6 2 2
c y
x x
6 0 6 2 2 0 2 2
4
x
0
6 2 2
11

Exercise 4E
6 a y b y 1 a = 5 2 a = 6, h = 3, k = 4
3 1 15
3 a= ,k= 4 a = 16, h = 2, k = 4
2 2
3
2 3
x 0
x 5 a=4 2 6 a= , h = 2
3 0 3 3
2 2
7 (x 2) + (y 1) = 20
-3 8 (x + 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 1
9 (x + 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 16
c y y
d y 10 (x 2)2 + (y + 3)2 = 9
11 (x 4)2 + (y 4)2 = 20
12 (x 4)2 + (y 5)2 = 25 and
-4 4 x
x 5 5 (x + 4)2 + (y 5)2 = 25
0 x
0 13 (x + 1)2 + (y + 1)2 = 10
14 a (x 2)2 + (y + 2)2 = 49
-4 1
b y=3 x12 c y= +2
x2
e y f y
2
d y= 2 e y= 2x+1
7 5 x1
2 1
5 f y= 3
-7
2 x (x 2)2
x 0
0
Chapter 4 review
-5
-7 2
Technology-free questions
7 a y b y 1 a y b y

(1, 3) (1, 2)
x x x
4 0 2 8 (2, 2) 0 0

x
0
c y d y
8 a y b y
2 (2, 1) (0, 3)
0 y=1
1 x
x
(0, 1) (3, 0) 0
x x
0 1 0 1 x=1 x = 1
2 2
1
2

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
782 Answers
4 review

e y f y c (x 4)2 + (y 4)2 = 4 y
x=1
(4, 4)
(0, 1)
x x
0 0

x
0
Answers

g y h y $ 1 %2 $ 1 % 2
1
x=2 d x + y+ =
2 3 36 y
(0, 5)
y=3 y=1
x x
10
x (3, 0) (3, 0) 0 1
0
3

i y j y 1
1
, 13
2

6 C(2, 3), r = 6
2 (3, 2)
x x 7 y-axis: 4 6; x-axis: 2 21
0 0
8 a y b y

k y
5 1 3
x
(2, 2) 0
x
0 3 0 3
x
1 y
22 + 2 c y d

2 a (x 3)2 + (y + 2)2 = 25 (0, 2) x


$ 3 %2 $ 5 %2 50 0
b x + y+ = 1 1
2 2 4 x (2, 3)
$ 0
1 %2 $ 1 %2 17
c x + y+ =
4 4 8 Multiple-choice questions
d (x + 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 13
1 E 2 B 3E 4 A 5 A
e (x 3)2 + (y 3)2 = 18
6D 7 D 8 C 9 E 10 B
f (x 2)2 + (y + 3)2 = 13
3 2y + 3x = 0 Extended-response questions

5 3
4 2x + 2y = 1 or y = x 2
1 a (x 10) + y = 25 c m = 2
2 3
5 a (x 3)2 + (y 4)2 = 25 $ 15 53 %
y
d P , e5 3
2 2
2 a x2 + y2 = 16
(3, 4) 3 3 8 3
b ii m = ; y = x
3 3 3
x
0 3 8 3
y= x+
3 3
b (x + 1)2 + y2 = 1 y 4 3 125
3 a b c 4y + 3x = 25 d
3 4 12
y1 x1
4 a i ii
(1, 0)
x x1 y1
0 c 2x + 2y = 8 or 2x + 2y = 8

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 783

3 2 3 3 2 3

Answers
5 a y= x+ a, y = x a cc
3 3 3 3
b x2 + y2 = 4a2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
6 b ii y
dd
y = x 1
4
2 1 0 1 2 3
8 a (, 2) (2, ) b (, 3) (3, )
0 x c (, 4) (4, )
1 9 a
4

5A 5B
1 1 -6 -5-4 -3-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
c i <k<0 ii k = 0 or k <
4 4 b
iii k > 0 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 1
7 a 0<k< b k= or k 0
4 4 c
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Chapter 5 d
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Exercise 5A e
1 a {7, 11} b {7, 11} -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
c {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 25, 30}
d {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 15, 25, 30, 32} f
e {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 15, 25, 30, 32} -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
f {1, 7, 11, 25, 30} 10 a (6, 3) b c [6, 0]
2 a {1, 2, 3, 5, 15} b {25, 30, 32} d [1, 2] e {1} f (10, 1]
c {2, 3, 5, 15} d {25, 30}
3 aa Exercise 5B
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 1 a Domain = {3, 1, 6, 1};
Range = {4, 1, 7, 5}
bb
y
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
7
cc 5
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
0 x
dd -6 -3 -1-1 1
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 -4
ee b Domain = {4, 6}; Range = {1, 1, 7, 8}
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 y
8
ff 7
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
4 a (2, 1] b [3, 3] c [3, 2) d (1, 2) 1 0
-1
x
5 a [1, 2] b (4, 2] c (0, 2) -6 -4

$ 3 1 (
d , e (1, ) f (, 2] c Domain = [2, 2] d Domain = [0, )
2 2 Range = [2, 2] Range = (, 6]
g (, ) h [0, ) i (, 0]
y y
6 a {7} b B, i.e. {7, 11, 25, 30, 32}
c (2, ) d {30, 32} 2 6

7 aa
-2 2 x
0
2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
4
x
bb 2 0

2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
784 Answers
5B

e Domain = [1, 2] f Domain = [4, 1] g Range = [2, 14] h Range = (11, 19)
Range = [5, 2] Range = [5, 5] y y
(5, 14) (4, 19)
y y
Answers

(1, 2)
(1, 5)
x x
x 0 1
0 x 1 0 5
0
(2, -2) (2, 11)
(-1, -5)
(-4, -5)
5 a Range = [3, 4]
2 a Domain = [2, 2]; Range = [1, 2]
y
b Domain = [2, 2]; Range = [2, 2]
c Domain = R; Range = [1, )
(1, 4)
d Domain = R; Range = (, 4] (-1, 4)
3
3 a y = (x + 3)2 + 1 b y = (x + 2)2 2
Range = [1, ) Range = (, 2] x
0
y y
b Range = [4, 8]
x
10 (-2, -2) 0
y

(-2, 8)
(-3, 1) -6
x 4 (1, 5)
0
x
c y = 2(x 1)2 + 4 y 0
Range = [4, )
c Range = [4, 0]
y
6

(1, 4)
(2, 0)
x x
0 0

4 a Range = [3, ) b Range = [, 1] (-1, -3)


-4
y y

d Range = [1, 19]


y
(2, 3) (3, 19)
x x
0 0
(2, 1) (-2, 9)

1
c Range = [7, ) d Range = (, 11) x
0
y y 6 a Range = [1, ) b Range = [0, )
(3, 11)
y y
1
23 2
x x
0 0 (0, 1)
(4, 7) (0, 1)
x x
0 (1, 0) 0
e Range = (, 4] f Range = [19, 5] c Range = [0, 4] d Range = [2, )
y y y y

(3, 4) (2, 5) 4
3
1
x x (1, 2)
1 0 0 x x
31 1 0
2 0 2
(6, 19)

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 785
)5 % $ 5(

Answers
e Range = (, 4] f Range = [2, 2] b Domain = , c Domain = ,
2 2
y y
Range = R+ {0} Range = R+ {0}
(1, 4) (2, 2) y y
3 x
0
x (1, 1) 5
1 0 3 (0, 2)
) 39 % ) 15 % 5 5
g Range = , h Range = , 2 x
2 x
8 4 0 0

5C
y y
d Domain = [3, 7]; Range = [0, 2]
y
6 6
3 39 3 15
,
4 8
,
2 4
x x
0 0 x
0 3 5 7
7 a Domain 3 x 3 b Domain 2 x 6 *5+
Range 3 y 3 Range 1 y 7 e Domain = R \ f Domain = (, 2]
y y 2
Range = (0, ) Range = R+ {0}
3 y y
(2, 3)
x x
3 0 3
0
3 2
2
c Domain 0 x 1 d Domain 5 x 5 25
x x
Range 1 12 y 2 12 Range 0 y 5 0 x= 5 0 2
2
y y
9 a Domain = [0, ) b Domain = [1, )
5 Range = R Range = R
y y
1 x
2
,2
5 0 5
x
0
e Domain 5 x 5 f Domain 3 x 7 x x
0 0 1
Range 5 y 0 Range 5 y 0
y y

5 5 3 7
c Domain = [1, ) d Domain = [1, )
x x
0 0 Range = R Range = R
5 y y
*5+
8 a Domain = R \ ; Range = R \ {3}
2
y x (1, 3)
-1 0
x
0 10

y =3
Exercise 5C
13 5
x=
5 2 1 a Not a function; Domain = {0, 1, 2, 3};
0 x
13 Range = {1, 2, 3, 4}
6 b A function; Domain = {2, 1, 0, 1, 2};
Range = {5, 2, 1, 2, 4}
c Not a function; Domain = {1, 0, 3, 5};
Range = {1, 2, 4, 6}
d A function; Domain = {1, 2, 4, 5, 6};
Range = {3}

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
786 Answers

5 1
5D

2 a A function b Not a function 6 a 5, 2t + 1 b x= c x=


Domain = [0, 4] Domain = [0, 2] 2 2
Range = [0, 16] Range = [2, 2] d t = 1 e x 1
f x1
y y 1
7 a 1 b c 3 d 1, 4 e 1, 3 f 2, 3
Answers

6
2 8 a g(1) = 1, g(2) = 8, g(2) = 0
16 b h(1) = 3, h(2) = 18, h(2) = 14
0 2
x c i g(3x) = 9x2 6x
x
ii g(x 5) = x2 8x + 15
0 4 2 iii h(2x) = 16x3 4x2 + 6
iv g(x + 2) = x2 + 6x + 8
c Aafunction
function d Anot a function
function v h(x2 ) = 2x6 x4 + 6
Domain = [0, 4] Domain = [0, 2]
Domain = [0, ) Domain = [0,
Range = [2, 2] )
Range = [0, 16] 9 a f (2) = 5, f (4) = 29 b Range = [3, )
Range = (, 2] Range = [0, )
y 10 a f (2) = 7 b x=2 c x = 1
y
11 a2 b 1 c x= 3
6
2 3 12 a x = 1 b x > 1 c x=
2 7
x 1
0 8
x 13 a Range = [0, 4] b Range = [1, 8]
0 1 4 9
y y
e A function a function
f A function (2, 4) (2, 8)
a function Domain = {x : x+ 0}
Domain= [0,
Domain =R )\ {0} Domain =R
Range = {y : y 0}
Range
Range = R+ 2]
=(, Range = R+ (1, 1) 2
y x x
y 0 0
(1, 1)
)1 %
x x c Range = , d Range = [2, )
0 0 3
y
y
g A function h Not a function
Domain = [1, 4] Domain
a function
= [0, ) 3, 1
a function (1, 2)
Range = [0, 16]
Domain = R\{0}
Range ==R+R
Domain
3
x
Range = R + x 0
Range = R+
y y 0
(4, 16)
e Range = [2, 18) f Range = [0, 25]
(1, 1) y y
x x (6, 25)
(6, 18)
0 0
(-3, 16)

not a function
3 a f : aRfunction
R, f (x)= 3x + Domain
2 = [0, ) (1, 3)
Domain = [1, 4]
b f Range
:R = 32 x + 6Range = R
R, f (x)
= [0, 16] x 1 x
0 0 1
c f : [0, ) R, f (x) = 2x + 3
d f : [1, 2] R, f (x) = 5x + 6
e f : [5, 5] R, f (x) = x2 + 25 Exercise 5D
f f : [0, 1] R, f (x) = 5x 7 1 One-to-one functions: b, d, e, g
4 a A function; Domain = R; Range = {2} 2 i Functions: a, c, d, f, g
b Not a function; Domain = {3}; Range = Z ii One-to-one functions: c, g
c Function; Domain = R; Range = R
3 a Domain = R; Range = R
d A function; Domain = R; Range = [5, )
b Domain = R+ {0}; Range = R+ {0}
e Not a function; Domain = [3, 3];
c Domain = R; Range = [1, )
Range = [3, 3]
d Domain = [3, 3]; Range = [3, 0]
5 a i 3 ii 5 iii 5 iv 9 e Domain = R+ ; Range = R+
2
v 2x 5 vi 3 f Domain = R; Range = (, 3]
a g Domain = [2, ); Range = R+ {0}
4
b i4 ii 4 iii iv 2 h Domain = [ 12 , ); Range = [0, )
3
c i 4 ii 36 iii 36 iv (a 2)2 i Domain = (, 32 ]; Range = [0, )
a a j Domain = R \ { 12 }; Range = R \ {0}
d i 0 ii iii iv 1 a
1+a 1a

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 787

Answers
k Domain = R \ { 12 }; Range = (3, ) c Range = (, 0] d Range = [1, )
l Domain = R \ { 12 }; Range = R \ {2} y y

4 a Domain = [4, ); Range = [0, )


b Domain = (, 4]; Range = [0, )
c Domain = [2, ); Range = [3, ) x
x
0 0
d Domain = R \ {4}; Range = R \ {0}
e Domain = R \ {4}; Range = R \ {3}
f Domain = R \ {2}; Range = R \ {3}
e Range = [1, )
5 a Domain = R; Range = R

5E
y
b Domain = R; Range = [2, )
c Domain = [4, 4]; Range = [4, 0]
d Domain = R \ {2}; Range = R \ {0} 2
(1, 1)
6 y= 2 x, Domain (, 2], Range [0, ) x
0
y = 2 x, Domain (, 2], Range (, 0]
7 a y

2 Range = (, 4] 3 y

y 2
x
1
2 2 4 3 2 1
x
2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5
1
2 2
b f1 :[0, ) R, f1 (x) = x2 2 1 3
f2 :(, 0] R, f2 (x) = x2 2 0 1 2 3
x
4

8 a f1 :[1, ) R, f1 (x) = x2 2x + 4 5

f2 :(, 1] R, f2 (x) = x2 2x + 4 4 Range [1, ) 5 Range = R


1 y y
9 a f1 : (2, ) R, f1 (x) =
(x 2)2
1
f2 : (, 2) R, f2 (x) = 3 3
(x 2)2 x
10 a Domain = [2, 2] (0, 1) 0
x
y 0
9

2 6 a Range = (, 0) (2, )
y
-2 2 x
0 (2, 2)
(-3, 0)
-2 x
0


b f1 : [0, 2] R, f1 (x) = 4 x2
b Range = R \ {0}
f2 : [0, 2] R, f2 (x) = 4 x2
y
c f1 : [2, 0] R, f1 (x) = 4 x2
f2 : [2, 0] R, f2 (x) = 4 x2
x = -3
x
Exercise 5E 0

1 a Range = [0, ) b Range = [0, )


y y
c Range = (, 5]
y
(1, 5)
1 (3, 3)
x x
0 0 1 (1, 1) x
0

(4, -4)

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
788 Answers
5F 5H

d Range = R\{0, 1} d f 1 (x) = x 4


y Domain = (, 8]; Range = (, 4]
x
x = -3 (0, 4) e f 1 (x) = 8
2
(-1, 1) Domain = [2, 18]; Range = [1, 7]
x
0
3 a f 1 (x) = x
Domain = R+ {0}; Range = R+ {0}

b f 1 (x) = 2 + x 3
7 Range = (, 1] Domain = [3, ); Range = [2, )
Answers

y
c f 1 (x) = 4 x 6
Domain = [6, ); Range = (, 4]
(1, 1)
d f 1 (x) = 1 x2
x
Domain = [0, 1]; Range = [0, 1]

0 e f 1 (x) = 16 x2
Domain = [0, 4]; Range = [0, 4]



x + 3, 3 x 1 f f 1 (x) = 4 + x 6


8 f (x) =
x + 1, 1 < x 2 Domain = [22, ); Range = [0, )



1 x, 2 x4 4 a y
2
y = f (x)
Exercise 5F y = f 1(x)
1 b i 25.06 ii 25.032 iii 25.2 iv 26 3 (6, 6)
1
2 a a = 3, b = b 6 x
2 6 0 3
3 f (x) = 7 5x
9 6
4 a i f (0) = ii f (1) = 3 b 3
2 b (6, 6)
5 f (x) = 7(x 2)(x 4)
5 a y
6 f (x) = (x 3)2 + 7, Range = [7, )
1 9 y = f(x)
7 a= ,b= ,c=2
10 10
8 f (x) = 2(x 1)(x + 5) (1, 1)
$ 1%
g(x) = 50(x 1) x + x
5 (0, 0)
37 25 b (0, 0), (1, 1)
9 a k< b k=
12 12
1 5
6 a= ,b=
Exercise 5G 2 2
7 a f 1 (x) = a x2 b a = 1 or a = 2
1 a {(3, 1), (6, 2), (5, 4), (1, 7)}
Domain = {3, 6, 5, 1}; Range = {1, 2, 4, 7}
Exercise 5H
b {(3, 2), (6, 1), (5, 4), (7, 1), (4, 6)}
Domain = {3, 6, 5, 7, 4} 1 C = 0.15n
+ 45 where n is the number of calls
Range = {1, 1, 2, 4, 6}

1.20 for 0 < m 20



c {(3, 3), (4, 2), (1, 1), (1, 8)} 2 a C(m) = 2.00 for 20 < m 50



Domain = {3, 1, 1, 4}
3.00 for 50 < m 150
Range = {3, 2, 1, 8}
d {(3, 1), (7, 10), (6, 7), (8, 2), (4, 11)} b C ($)
Domain = {3, 7, 6, 8, 4} 3
Range = {1, 10, 7, 2, 11} 2
6x
2 a f 1 (x) = ; Domain = R; Range = R 1
2 150
b f 1 (x) = 3 x
Domain = [2, 2]; Range = [1, 5] 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 M (g)
c f 1 (x) = x 4 Domain = (0, 150]
Domain = (4, ); Range = R+ Range = {1.20, 2.00, 3.00}

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 789

Answers
3 a i C1 = 64 + 0.25x ii C2 = 89 8 a = 12 , b = 2, c = 0
b 9 a R \ {2} b [2, ) c [5, 5] d R \ { 12 }
C ($)
C2 e [10, 10] f (, 4]
100
80 10 One-to-one functions: b, c, d, e, f, g, j
60 C1
11 a y b y
40
20 (3, 9) (3, 9)

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 x (km)


c x > 100 km (0, 1)
x x

5 review
0 (0, 1) 0
4 a Length = (50 x) cm
b A(x) = x(50 x) c 0 x 50
d Maximum area = 625 cm2 when x = 25
5 a i A = (8 + x)y x2 12 a Range = [0, 4] y
ii P = 2x + 2y + 16 (3, 4)
b i A = 192 + 16x 2x2 ii 0 < x < 12
iii A 1
(cm2) (4, 224) x
0 1
200
(0, 192)
b Range = [1, 10] y
(1, 10)
100
(12, 96)
(-4, 5)
5
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 x (cm) (-2, 1)
iv 224 cm2 0
x

c Range = [ 811 , 1] y
Chapter 5 review
(1, 1)
Technology-free questions
1 a [2, 4) b [2, 4] c [1, 8) d (1, 6] (5, 1 )
81
e (4, 2] (1, 5] f (4, 2] (2, ) 0
x
g (, 3] (1, )
2 d Range = [6, 3] y
2 a 16 b 26 c
3
3
3 a y b Range = [0, 7] x
0
(-2, -1)
(1, 7)
(0, 6) (3, -6)

13 a Domain = [1, ); Range = [0, )


x b Domain = (, 1]; Range = [0, )
0 (6, 0)
c Domain = [0, ); Range = (, 1]
4 a Range = R b Range = [5, 4]
14 a Domain = R \ {1}; Range = R \ {0}
c Range = [0, 4] d Range = (, 9]
b Domain = R \ {1}; Range = R \ {0}
e Range = (2, ) f Range = {6, 2, 4}
c Domain = R \ {1}; Range = R \ {3}
g Range = [0, ) h Range = R \ {2}
iRange = [5, 1] j Range = [1, 3] 15 a Domain = [1, 1]; Range = [0, 1]
b Domain = [3, 3]; Range = [0, 3]
33
5 a a = 15, b = b Domain = R \ {0} c Domain = [1, 1]; Range = [3, 4]
2
x+2
6 a y b Range = [0, 1] 16 a f 1 (x) = ; Domain = [5, 13]
3
1 2
b f (x) = (x ! 2) 2; Domain = [2, )
(1, 1)
x
c f 1 (x) = 1; Domain = [0, )
1
3
d f (x) = x + 1; Domain = (0, )
x 17 a 2p + 5 b 2(p + h) + 5 c 2h d 2
0 (2, 0)
7 a = 3, b = 5 18 2

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
790 Answers
$ 15 ( 0 ' 1
5 review

19 a , b 3 78 , 2 a P= n
8 2
c (, 20] d (, 3] b Domain = {n : n Z, 0 n 200}
P
20 a y (hours) n
Range = : n Z, 0 n 200
2
4
(1, 8) 3
5
2
Answers

x
0 1

0 2 4 6 8 n
(6, 13) 3 a i C(n) = 1000 + 5n, n > 0
b Range = [13, 8] ii C (n)
21 a y
(1000, 6000)
(8, 36)

1000
(1, 9)
0 n
x b i P(n) = 15n (1000 + 5n)
0 (2, 0)
= 10n 1000
b Range = [0, 36] ii P(n)
22 a Domain 3 x 3; Range 3 y 3 (1000, 9000)
b Domain 1 x 3; Range 1 y 1
0 100 n
c Domain 0 x 1; Range 0 y 1 1000
d Domain 1 x 9; Range 5 y 5
e Domain 4 x 4; Range 2 y 6 4 V = 8000(1 0.05n) = 8000 400n
23 a {2, 4, 6, 8} b {4, 3, 5 a R = (50000 2500x)(15 + x)
2,1}
c {3, 0, 5, 12} d {1, 2, 3, 2} = 2500(x + 15)(20 x)
Multiple-choice questions b R
(2.5, 765 625)
1B 2 E 3 D 4 D 5 E 6 C 750 000
7E 8 B 9 D 10 C 11 D
Extended-response questions
0 20 x
1 a d (km)
c Price for max revenue = $17.50
Z x& ' a
500
6 a A(x) = 2a (6 3)x b 0 < x <
400 Y 4 " 3
300 7 a i d(x) = x2 + 25 + (16 x)2 + 9
200
ii 0 x 16
100
X
b i y
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 t (hour)
Coach 5 + 265
starting from X:


80t for 0 t 4 (16, 3 + 281)



d= 320 for 4 < t 4 34 x



80t 60 for 4 3 < t 7 1 0
4 4
Range = [0, 520]
ii 1.54
Coach starting from Z:
iii 3.40 or 15.04
1040t
d = 520 for 0 t 5 12 c i Minimum is8 5, occurs
when x = 10
11 ii Range = [8 5, 5 + 265]
Range = [0, 520]
b The coaches pass 238 13 km from X

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 791

$ 3 + 33
% $ 3 33 % 181

Answers
8 a A , 3 33 , B , 3 33 b 2x2 8x + 49
2 2 x+4
b i d(x) = x2 + 3x + 6 11 8
c x2 + x 3 + d x2 x + 4 +
ii y x+3 x2
3 a x2 2x + 5 b 2x2 2x 6
y = (x + 1)(6 x) c 2
x 2x 6 d 3x2 x 6
2
4 a Quotient x 3; Remainder 7
y = x2 + 3x + 6 b Quotient x2 + 2x + 15; Remainder 71
x c Quotient 2x2 3x; Remainder 7
3 33 0 3 + 33 d Quotient 5x2 + 20x + 77; Remainder 315

6A 6C
2 2 1 2 7 3 103
y = 2x 5 a x + x +
2 4 8 8(2x + 5)
c i Maximum value of d(x) is 8.25 2
ii Range = [0, 8.25] b x2 + 2x 3 c x2 + 2x 15
2x + 1
d A(2.45, 12.25), B(2.45, 12.25) 1 2 8 8 19
d(x) = x2 + 6 d x x +
3 9 27 27(3x 1)
Maximum value of d(x) is 6; Range = [0, 6]
9
6 a x2 + 3x + 8 +
x1
Chapter 6 b
x 9
x2 + +
2 4 4(2x 1)
21

7 a Quotient 2x 6; Remainder 0
Exercise 6A
b Quotient x 6; Remainder 2
1 a 3 b 1 c 7 d 15 c Quotient 2x 6; Remainder 42
2 a0 b 0 d Quotient x2 4x; Remainder 3x + 5
3 a6 b 9 c 26 d 11 e Quotient x2 3x + 7; Remainder 10x + 9
3 15
e a3 + 4a2 2a + 6 f 8a3 + 16a2 4a + 6 f Quotient x2 + x ; Remainder x + 16
2 2
4 a a=4 b a=4 c c=6
d a = 33, b = 15 e a = 9, b = 23 Exercise 6C
5 a x3 2x2 2x + 2 b x3 x2 + 2x 1 a 2 b 29 c 15 d 4 e7
c x3 2x2 + 4x 2 d 3x3 6x2 + 3x f 12 g 0 h 5 i 8
4 3 2
e 3x + 8x 7x + 2x
2 a a = 3 b a = 2 c a=4 d a = 10
f 3x3 x2 + 2x g x3 x2 x + 2
h x5 x4 x3 + x2 3 a P(1) = 0 b P(1) = 0
c P(2) = 0 d P( 32 ) = 0
6 a x3 4x2 + 7x 6 b x3 6x2 + 11x 12
c 2x3 5x2 x + 4 1
4 a 6 b 28 c
d x3 + (b 2)x2 + (c 2b)x 2c 3
e 2x3 7x2 10x 3 5 a (x 1)(x + 1)(2x + 1) b (x + 1)3
2
c (x 1)(6x 7x + 6)
7 a x3 + (b + 1)x2 + (c + b)x + c
d (x 1)(x + 5)(x 4)
b b = 8, c = 12 c (x + 1)(x 6)(x 2)
e (x + 1)2 (2x 1) f (x + 1)(x 1)2
8 b = 3, c = 11 g (x 2)(4x2 + 8x + 19)
9 a a5 + 5a4 b + 10a3 b2 + 10a2 b3 + 5ab4 + b5 h (x + 2)(2x + 1)(2x 3)
b a6 + 6a5 b + 15a4 b2 + 20a3 b3 + 15a2 b4 + 6 1
6ab5 + b6
7 a (2x 3)(x2 2x + 5)
10 a (x y)4 = x4 4x3 y + 6x2 y2 4xy3 + y4 b (2x + 1)(x2 2x
+ 5)
b (2x + y)4 = 16x4 + 32x3 y + 24x2 y2 + 8xy3 + y4
c (2x + 1)(x 1 6)(x 1 + 6)
d (2x + 3)(x 1 2)(x 1 + 2)
Exercise 6B
8 a (x 1)(x2 + x + 1)
3 6
1 a x2 + 2x + b 2x2 x 3 + b (x + 4)(x2 4x + 16)
x1 x+1
43 c (3x 1)(9x2 + 3x + 1)
c 3x2 10x + 22 d (4x 5)(16x2 + 20x + 25)
x+2
28 e (1 5x)(1 + 5x + 25x2 )
d 2x2 + 3x + 10 + f (3x + 2)(9x2 6x + 4)
x3
8 g (4m 3n)(16m2 + 12mn + 9n2 )
2 a x2 x + 4 h (3b + 2a)(9b2 6ab + 4a2 )
x+1

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
792 Answers
6D 6E

9 a (x + 2)(x2 x + 1) 2 a y b y
b (3x + 2)(x 1)(x 2)
c (x 3)(x + 1)(x 2)
d (3x + 1)(x + 3)(2x 1) 3
(0, 3)
3
2 2
10 a = 3, b = 3, P(x) = (x 1)(x + 3)(x + 1) 1 1 (3, 2)
11 b i n odd ii n even x x
2 1 0 0 1 2 3
12 a a = 1, b = 1
b i P(x) = x3 2x2 + 3 c y d y
Answers

Exercise 6D
x
1 2 5 0 1 2 3
3
1 a 1, 2, 4 b 4, 6 c, 3, d 0, 3, 2
2 3 2 1
1
2 a 2, 0, 4 b 0, 1 2 3 c 5, 0, 8 x
0 1 2
d 0, 1 17

3 a 1 b 1 c 5, 10 d 4, a e y f y
2
4 a 2, 3, 5 b 1, , 3 c 1, 2, 2 27
3
2 1 1 3 1
d , 4, 2 e , , 1 f 2, , 5 (1, 1)
5 2 3 2 x
1 0 1
2 1 x 1
5 a 6, 2, 3 b 2, , c 3 0 1 2 3 4
3 2
d 1 e 1, 3 f 3, 2 3
3 g y
6 a 0, 2 2 b 1+2 2 c 2
1
d 5 e
10 2
(3, 2)
7 a 2(x 9)(x 13)(x + 11)
b (x + 11)(x + 3)(2x 1) 2 0 2 5
x

c (x + 11)(2x 9)(x 11)


d (2x 1)(x + 11)(x + 15)
11.5
Exercise 6E 3 a b
y y
1 a y b y
1
x 2
7
-5 -10 5 x
x 0
0 1 -2 (1, -2) -5 5
-2
1 -3
(1, 1) -4
x
2 1 0 2
1
c d
y y
(2, 1)

c y d y
2
2
(3, 1) x
x -5 0 5
29
5 -5 0 5 (-2, -2)
-2 -4
4 (2, 5)
3 -4 -6
(3, 2) 2 2
1 1
x e f
x y y
0 1 2
3 2 1 0
3 4
4 2
2 (3, 2) x
e y
-5 -2
0
5
x (-3, -2)
-5 0 5 10 -4
3 -2 -6
x
2 1 0
1
2
3
4
5
(2, 5)

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 793

$ x + 3 % 13

Answers
x3 c y d y
4 a f 1 (x) = b f 1 (x) =
2 27 0
$ x 1 % 13 x
-1 3
c f 1 (x) = 1 -8 x
2 1 0 1
(x + 2)3
d f 1 (x) = 3
8
3 e y f y
(x 4)
e f 1 (x) = +1
8
3 x
(x + 1) 0

6F 6H
f f 1 (x) = 2 1 3
8 x
0
-1 1 1 -3
2
Exercise 6F
4 a y b y
1 a b
+ x + x
0 1 2 3 2 1 0 1 x
0 x 0 4
y y -1 1
-8

x
0 1 2 3
x
2 1 1 5 a y b y
2

c 1
d
2 (1.02, 6.01) (1.26, 0.94)
+ + 5 1.5 2.5 1.5
x x x x
3 2 1 0 1 2 0 1 2 3 0 0.5 0 1

y (3.02, 126.01) (1.26, 30.94)


y

6 c y d y
1
2
x
x 0 1 2 3
3 2 1 0 1 2
(1.35, 0.35) (2.76, 0.34)
2.5 1.2 1.5
x
2 a y b y 0 0
x
(0, 18)
(1.22, 33.70) (0.91, 6.05)

x
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 2 1 0 1 2 3
x e y f y

(2, 8) (2, 14)


c y d y
1
x 6
3 3 0 1 2 3 x x
3 0 3.28 0
x 2
3
2 1 0
3 1 2 6

e y f y 6 f (x) = (x + 1)2 (x 3), so graph just touches


the x-axis at x = 1 and cuts it at x = 3
6
1
x
Exercise 6G
1 1 0 1 1 0
x
2 3 -1 2 3 1 a (, 2] [1, 3] b [2, 1] [4, )
2
c (, 1) d (2, 0) (3, )
e (, 1] f [1, )
3 a y b y
g (4, ) h (, 3]
x 2 a (2, 0) (2, ) b (, 0) (0, 5)
0 0
1 2 x c (, 0] {2} d (3,
0) (3, )
4
-4 e [6, ) f (, 2) ( 2, 3)

Exercise 6H
4 44
1 a a = 11 b a=2 c a= ,b=
3 3

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
794 Answers

1 1
6I

2 a y = (x + 2)3 b y 2 = (x 3)3 3 a x = 0 or x = 3
8 4 b x = 2 or x = 1 or x = 5 or x = 3
3 y = 2x(x 2)2 4 y = 2x(x + 4)2
c x = 0 or x = 2 d x = 0 or x = 6
5 y = 2(x 1)(x 3)(x + 1) 6 a = 36
Answers

e x = 0 or x = 3 or x = 3
3 23 3 67 2
7 a y = (x 3) + 2 b y= x + x f x = 3 or x = 3
18 18
c y = 5x 3 g x = 0 or x = 4 or x = 4
1 4 1 h x = 0 or x = 4 or x = 3
8 a y = x3 + x b y = x(x2 + 2) i x = 0 or x = 4 or x = 5
3 3 4
9 a y = 4x3 50x2 + 96x + 270 j x = 2 or x = 2 or x = 3 or x = 3
b y = 4x3 60x2 + 80x + 26 k x=4 l x = 4 or x = 2
c y = x3 2x2 + 6x 4 4 a y b y
(0.72, 503.46)
d y = 2x3 3x 480
e y = 2x3 3x2 2x + 1
f y = x3 3x2 2x + 1 0 5
x x
4 0 5 6
g y = x3 3x2 2x + 1 (3.15, 295.24)

Exercise 6I
c y d y
1 a y b y

x 4
x
15 3 0 0
x 2
3 1 0 0
x
(1.89, 38.27)
(2, 1) (3, 27)
(1, 1)
e y f y
c y d y
16

83 21 2
(2, 5) x x
0 5 0 2
(3, 2) x
x 0
0 (3.54, 156.25) (3.54, 156.25)

e y g y h y

1 11 1
2 5 4 2 + 5 4 (1.68, 8.64)
9 9 4
x x x
0 0 0 3
(3.57, 3.12)
(2, 5) (6.36, 1640.25) (6.36, 1640.25)

2 a y b y i y j y

(2.20, 24.39)
3 164
x (3, 2) x 5 x
0 0 x 5 4 0 4 5
0 4
(4.53, 20.25) (4.53, 20.25)
(4.55, 5.12)
c y d y

16 k y l y

x x
2 0 2 2 0 2
(5.61, 23.74)
x 7 4 x
(0, 16) 0 2 0 5
20
e y f y
(1.61, 163.71)

81 (1, 1) 5 a Even b Odd c Even d Odd


x x
0 3 0
(0, 1)

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 795

Answers
6 a y 4 a h = 60 2x b V = 600x2 (3 x)
y = 2x2 10 c0 d x = 1 or x = 1 + 3
h
5 5 a x = 64 h2 b V= (64 h2 )
3
x c V
-2 -1 0 1 2 (m3)
-5
200
y = x3
-10 150
b x = 0, x = 2 c { x: x 2 } 100

6J 6 review
7 a y
50
100
(-3, 81) 80 (3, 81) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 h (m)
60 4.62
40 d Domain = { h : 0 < h < 8 } e 64
20 f (x) = x4 f h = 2.48 or h = 6.47
x g Vmax 206.37 m3 when h = 4.62
-4 -2 0 2 4
-20 6 a h = 160 2x b V = x2 (160 2x)
c Domain = (0, 80)
b x = 0, x = 3, x = 3
d V
c { x : 3 x 3 } (cm3)
8 a y
150 000
15
100 000
10
5 (2, 8)
50000
x
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 0 20 40 60 80 x (cm)
(-2, -8) -5 53
-10 e x = 20.498 or x = 75.63
f Vmax 151 703.7 cm3 when x 53
b x = 0, x = 2, x = 2
c { x : x 2 } { x : 0 x 2 } Exercise 6K
Exercise 6J 1 a 1.32 b 1.164 c 1.124 or 1.451
d 2.151 e 1.75
1 a Length of each edge = 20 2x
b V(x) = 4x(10 x)2
c V(5) = 500; Volume of box = 500 cm3 Chapter 6 review
5
d x = 5 or x = (3 5) Technology-free questions
2 y
2 a = 12 2x, w = 10 2x 1 a b y
3
2 + 1
b V = 4x(6 x)(5 x)
c V 0
x
(cm3) (0, 3) (1, 2) 1
2
, 1
x
100 0
c y d y
3 1
3 +1

x
0 (1, 1) x
0 1 2 3 4 5 x (cm) (0, 4) 0 (1, 3)
d V = 80 e x = 3.56 or x = 0.51
f Vmax = 96.8 cm3 when x = 1.81 e y f y
3 a Surface area = x2 + 4xh (1, 4)
75 x2 1
b h= c V = (75x x3 ) (0, 1)
4x 4 x (2, 1)
71 125 0
d i ii iii 22
2 2

31
3 0 1
x
3 + 2
3
e x = 2 + 3 7

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
796 Answers
6 review

g y h y 7 a
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
(0, 29) 3 y
3 2 (2, 1) 0
4 x (0, 24)
x
(2, 3) 0 1
(0, 23) 3 2
3
x
(4, 0) (2, 0) 0 (3, 0)
Answers

2 a y b y b
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2
1
y
x 2
, 1
0 1 x (0, 24)
0
x
(3, 0) 0 (2, 0) (4, 0)

c y d y c
3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
y
2 x x
0 0
x
(1, 1) (2, 0) 23 , 0 0 12 , 0
(0, 4)
e y f y
d
1 1 1 (2, 1) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
3 4 34 1 3
x x y
0 0
15 36
x
(6, 0) 0 (2, 0) (3, 0)
g y
43
8 a 41 b 12 c
1 1
9
3 4
1
3 4
1 2
2 0 2
x 9 y = (x + 2)(x 1)(x 5)
1 5
(1, 3) 2
10 y = x(x + 4)2
81
h y 11 a a = 3, b = 8 b (x + 3)(2x 1)(x 1)
12 a (, 4] {3} b (, 4] [3, 2]
(2, 1) 1
1 4 c (, 1) (2, 3)
2 + 2
1 0
x 13 a Dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis, then
2
1 4 3 1 translation of 1 unit in the positive direction
2
of the x-axis and 3 units in the positive
direction of the y-axis
1
3 a x = 2, x = , x = 3 b Reflection in the x-axis, then translation of
2 1 unit in the negative direction of the x-axis
17 + 1 1 17 and 2 units in the positive direction of the
b x = 2, x = ,x=
4 4 y-axis
c x = 1, x = 2, x = 6 c Dilation of factor 12 from the y-axis,
$3%
4 a P = 0 and P(2) = 0; (3x + 1) then translation of 12 unit in the negative
2 direction of the x-axis and 2 units in the
1
b x = 2, , 3 negative direction of the y-axis
2
c x = 1, 11, + 11 Multiple-choice questions
$1%
d i P = 0 ii (3x 1)(x + 3)(x 2) 1B 2 D 3 A 4 D 5 A
3 6 C 7 B 8B 9 D 10 B
5 a f (1) = 0 b (x 1)(x2 + (1 k)x + k + 1)
6 a = 3, b = 24

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Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 797

Chapter 7

Answers
Extended-response questions
1 a V = r2 (6 r) b 0 r 6
3 Exercise 7A
c V(3) = 27 d r = 3 or r =
(1 + 5)
2
e Maximum 100.53 (correct to 2 d.p.) 1 a (1, 1) b (5, 8) c (6, 2) d (7, 9)
1 e (5, 3)
2 a v= (t 900)2 1 1
32 400 2 a g(x) = 1 b g(x) = +3
t x2 (x 4)2
b s= (t 900)2 c g(x) = (x 2 2
32 400 + 2) 3 d g(x) = (x 4) 2
c s Domain = {t : 0 < t < 900} e g(x) = x 2 1

7A
(cm) (300, 3333.3)
3000
3 a y b y

2000 y=1
x x
0 1 0
1000 1
x=1
0 200 400 600 800 t (s)
105 560 c y d y
d No, it is not feasible as the maximum range
of the taxi is less than 3.5 km ( 3.33 km) 1
3
1
2000 x 3
x
e Maximum speed = 19 m/s 0 0
105
y = 3
2000
Minimum speed = 3.6 m/s x = 3
560
2
3 a R = a(x 5)3 + 10 b a = e y f y
25
12
c R= (x 7)3 + 12
343
1
4 a 4730 cm2 0
x
0
x
b V = 2 ( 2365 ) y = 1
c V
(cm3)
x = 1
20 000
15 000 4 a y b y

10 000
5000 1 1
x x
0 1 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 l (cm)
d i = 23.69 or = 39.79
ii = 18.1 or = 43.3
e Vmax 17 039 cm3 when 32.42 cm c y d y

43 119
5 a a= , b = 0.095, c = , d = 15.8 9
15 000 150
b i (5.59, 13.83) ii (0, 15.8) 3 0
x
0
x
3 3
6 a V = (96 4x)(48 2x)x = 8x(24 x)2
b 3
V
e y f y

0 24 x
1
x x
i 0 < x < 24 1 0 1 0 1
ii Vmax = 16 384 cm3 when x = 8.00 1
c 15 680 cm3 d 14 440 cm3 e 9720 cm3

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
798 Answers
7B 7D

5 a y b y e y f y

3 10 3
1,
(1, 3) 2
(1, 2) (3, 1)
x x x x
0 0 0 0

c y d y
Exercise 7C
Answers


4 1 a y=3 x2 b y = !x + 3
3 5 3 + 5 1 3 1 + 3
x x x
0 0 c y = 3 x d y=
! 2
(3, 5)
(1, 3) x+2
e y=2 x23 f y= 3
2
e y f y
3 1
2 a y= b y=
24 x2 x+3
1 2 1 + 2 4 6 3 2
x x c y= d y=
0 0 x x
1
2 2
(1, 2) (5, 1) e y= 3 f y= 3
x2 x+2
1 1
3 a y = 3(x 2) 3 b y = (x + 3) 3
Exercise 7B $ x % 13
1
1 a (2, 3) b (2, 3) c (2, 12) d (8, 3) c y = 3x 3 d y=
2
x2 2x2 $ x + 2 % 13
2 a i y = 4x2 ii y = iii y = 1
25 3 e y = 2(x 2) 3 3 f y= 3
2
iv y = 4x2 v y = x2 vi y = x2

b i y= 2
1 25
ii y = 2 iii y = 2
2 Exercise 7D
4x x 3x
1 a i A dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis,
4 1 1 then a translation of 1 unit in the positive
iv y = 2 v y= 2 vi y = 2
x x x direction of the x-axis and 3 units in the
1 5 2 positive direction of the y-axis
c i y= ii y = iii y =
2x x 3x ii A reflection in the x-axis, then a
4 1 1 translation of 1 unit in the negative
iv y= v y= vi y = direction of the x-axis and 2 units in the
x x x
! positive direction of the y-axis
x
d i y = 2x ii y = iii A dilation of factor 12 from the y-axis,
5
then a translation of 12 unit in the
2 x
iii y= iv y = 4 x negative direction of the x-axis and
3 2 units in the negative direction of the

v y= x vi y = x, x 0 y-axis
3 a y b y b i A dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis,
then a translation of 3 units in the
(1, 3) negative direction of the x-axis
x x ii A translation of 3 units in the negative
0 0
direction of the x-axis and 2 units in the
positive direction of the y-axis
iii A translation of 3 units in the positive
c y d y direction of the x-axis and 2 units in the
1
negative direction of the y-axis
1,
(1, 3) 2 c i A translation of 3 units in the negative
x x direction of the x-axis and 2 units in the
0 0
positive direction of the y-axis
ii A dilation of factor 13 from the y-axis,
then a dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis

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Answers 799

Answers
iii A reflection in the x-axis, then a Exercise 7F
" # " #
translation of 2 units in the positive 2 1 1 2 2
direction of the y-axis 1a 1 b c 2 d
3 2 2 3 2
y + 7 2 3
2 a (x, y) ! x 3, 666 2 1 77 2 3
5 "
1 1
# 6666 7 14 77777 6661
6
0 777
7
b (x, y) ! (3x + 2, y 5) 2 a b 6666 777 c 66666 1 77777
y 7 4 3 666 1 3 7777 40 5
c (x, y) ! 3x + 1,
4 5 k
3 7 14
21 3
y 666 2 17
27
777
"
1 0
#
d (x, y) ! (x 4), 3 a A = 6664
1
75 B 1
=
2

7E ! 7G
0 1 3 1
15 y 2 1 3
" # 17
e (x, y) ! (x 4), 5 1 666 2 27 777
2 b AB = (AB) = 64 1 6
6 7
3 1 3 55
2 3 2 2
Exercise 7E 666 1 17
" # " # " # 27
777
4 2 13 c A B 1 1
= 6664 75 B 1 A 1 = (AB) 1
1 X+Y= 2X = 4Y + X = 3 1
2 4 2 2 3
" # " # 2 3 666 5 7 777
2 3 3 666 1 3 777 " # 666 7
X Y= 3A = 6 77 0 7 62 2 77777
2 6 9 4 a 66666 2 2 7777 b c 6666 7
" # 4 5 1 8 666 11 21 7777
1 3 1 2 4 5
3A + B = 2 2
7 7 2 3 2 3
" # " # 666 3 11 777 666 11 17 777
2 2 3 3 666 7 666 7
2 2A = 3A = 6 8 8 77777 6 16 16 77777
0 4 0 6 5 a 6666 7 b 6666 7
" # 666 1 7 7777 666 1 3 7777
6 6 4 5 4 5
6A = 16 16 4 4
0 12
" # " #
6 4 0 9 Exercise 7G
3 a b " # " #
4 4 12 3 8 3a b
" # " # 1 a b
6 5 6 13 3 a + 3b
c d
8 1 16 7 2 (1, 0) ! (2, 4), (0, 1) ! ( 1, 3),
" # " # " #
0 1 2 3 3 3 (3, 2) ! (4, 6)
4 a b c
2 3 6 3 1 7 3 a (2, 1), ( 4, 1) b ( 2, 0), (2, 2)
2 3
666 9 23 777 c (2, 3), (4, 5)
" # 666 7
2 4 666 2 2 77777 4 a (6, 21) b (12, 7) c (6, 7)
5 X= Y = 66 777
0 3 666 1 7 d ( 6, 7) e (7, 6)
4 11 75 " # " #
2 2 3 1 2
" # " # " # 5 a c
4 6 2 3 1 1 2
6 AX = BX = IX = " #
5 1 1 1 0
" # " # 6
1 2 3 0 0 2
AI = IB = " # " # " #
1 3 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1
" # " # 7 a b c
3 2 3 6 0 1 1 0 1 0
AB = BA = 2 3
3 3 1 3 " # 6661 0777 " #
" # " # 1 0 6 7 3 0
2
A =
3 8
B =2 9 0 d e 66666 1 77777 f
4 11 0 1 0 2 40 5 0 1
2
" # " # " # " #
4 3 5 0 2
7 AX = BX = CX = 8 a b ( 4, 3) c a = 2, b = 3
9 4 4 1 0
" # " # " # " #
4 5 3 6 2 0 3
AC = CB = 9 X+ = X0
9 1 6 2 0 1 4
" # " #
6 2 6 3 " # " #!
AB = BA = 1 1 0 3
3 8 2 8 ) X= X 0
" # " # 2 0 2 4
5 6 9 0
A2 = B2 = ) x = 12 (x0 3), y = y0 4
6 17 0 4
" #
1 1 1
10
2 21 5

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
800 Answers
7H 8 revision

Exercise 7H 3 a Range = (1, ) b Range = (0, )


2x2 2x x3 y y
1 y= 4 2 y= x
9 3 32
3x + 18 x x y=1
3 y= 4 y= 4 5 y= +3 x x
4 4 4 0 0
x + 21 3x3 9x2
6 y= 7 y= + 14
4 4 2 c Range = (0, ) d Range = (4, )
y y
Chapter 7 review
Technology-free questions 1 1 1
1 2 1 2
2 2
1 0 3 0 0
x
0
x
1 a , (1, 12) b , (3, 3)
Answers

0 4 0 1 y = 4
1 2 1 2
1 0 1 0
c , (1, 3) d , (1, 3) 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
0 1 0 1 1 0 x 2 x y 3
1 2 4 + = , x = x 2, y =
0 1 0 2 y 3 y 2
e , (3, 1)
1 0 5 a i (x, y) (x 1, 3y + 2)
2 a y b y ii (x, y) (x 2, 2y + 3)
$x1 %
iii (x, y) ,y 1
y=3 3 3
3
x
0
x 0 b i (x, y) (x 2, 4y)
3 y = 3 ii (x, y) (x 6, y 12)
iii (x, y) (x + 3, 4y 5)
c y d y c i (x, y) (x + 4, y + 2)
$x %
1 ii (x, y) , 2y
4 2
x x
0 0 2 iii (x, y) (x, 2y + 3)
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
x = 2 3 0 x 2 x x + 2
6 + = ,x= , y = y 3
0 1 y 3 y 3
e y f y
Multiple-choice questions
1
4
1 C 2 D 3 A 4 B
x x
0 0 5 E 6 D 7 B 8 C
1 y = 4
Extended-response questions
x=1
1 a k = 14 b h = 14
g y h y
2 a h = 1 2 2 b a = 2 2
1
c a = 8, b = 16
2
x x 3 a k = 10
0 0 b i h > 2 + 10 iih < 2 10
1
3
iii 2 10 < h < 2 + 10
x=3
x = 2 4 a x = 5 or x = 2 or x = 7
i y j y b x = 1 or x = 6 or x = 3
c k = 60,
1
1 x = 0 or x = 2 + 21 or x = 2 21
16
9
x x
d h = 3 or h = 5 or h = 4
0 0 e 5 < h < 3

x=3 x = 4

k y l y Chapter 8
y=2
Technology-free questions
y=1 3 $1 3% $3 % 11
x 2
x 1 a M , , N , 4 b mBC = m MN =
0 0 2 2 2 2
2 a 6 b 69 c 15
x=1 x=2 3 a 12a2 4 b 3a2 6a 1 c 12a

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 801

Answers
4 a No b x = 37 c x 37 d k = 16 3
Extended-response questions
5 x = 2 and y = 3, or x = 3 and y = 2 1 a 4b 5c d = 41, 2b 7c d = 53,

6 AB = BC = CD = DA = 5 2, 4b + 3c d = 25
mBC = mAD = 1 and mAB = mCD = 7 b x2 + y2 2x 4y 29 = 0
$ 3 %2 53 2 a c = b 8 b x = 0 or x = b
7 a y = (x + 2)2 13 b y= x
2 4 c y = 0 or y = b + 8 d b = 8
$ 3 % 2
79 $ 4a + 1 1 4a + 1 1 %
c y=2 x + 3 a xa b ,
4 8 2 2

$ 1 41
% $ 41 + 1 % c a=2 d a=6 e a = c2 + c
8 a , 3 2 41 , , 2 41 + 3

8 revision
2 2 4 a C = 3500 + 10.5x b I = 11.5x
b (2, 6) c (4, 14) c I and d 3500
I = 11.5x
3 29 3 + 29 C
9 a x< or x >
3
3 3500 C = 3500 + 10.5x
5 65 5 + 65
b x or x c x 4
4 4
1 0 3500 x
d x 3 or x 4 e x4
2 e Profit f 5500
5 P
10 a R \ { 2 } b (, 5] cR P = x 3500
d R \ {2} eR f R \ { 23 }
11 p = 38, (x 3)(x + 4)(3x 2)
3500 x
12 a = 5, R = 35
3500
13 a f 1 : [1, 4] R, f 1 (x) = x
1 1
b f : [0, 3] R, f (x) = 2 x 5 a V = 45 000 + 40m b 4 hours 10 minutes
c f 1 : (4, ) R, f 1 (x) = x + 4 c V
d f 1 : [3, ) R, f 1 (x) = 2 (x 3)2 (litres)
1
e f 1 : R R, f 1 (x) = (x 8) 3 + 2 55000

14 a 3b + 2 f = 18.20 b $2.80 45000


15 a k = 1 b k = 16
2
16 a b 2y + 5x 17 = 0 250 m (minutes)
5
$ 1 a2 1 %
3 1 42 a2 1 20t

0 t 10
17 a a x + + b , 6 a 200 L b V=
190
a a a a
15t + 50 10 < t
c a = 1 d a (1, 1) 3
y
c V
18 a (litres) (63.3, 1000)

x = -2 (0, 3) y = 1
2
x 200
(-3, 0) 0

10 t (minutes)
$ 3% 1 3 7 a AR = 6x2
b A 0, , B(3, 0) c y= x+ b AS = (10.5 2.5x)2
2 2 2
$ 3 3% 9 c 0 x 4.2
d , e y = 2x d AT = 12.25x2 52.5x + 110.25
2 4 4
e AT
Multiple-choice questions
1 B 2 D 3C 4 A 5 D
(4.2, 105.84)
6D 7 C 8 C 9 C 10 A 110.25
11 E 12 B 13 A 14 E 15 B
15
16 D 17 D 18 E 19 B 20 D , 54
7
21 E 22 D 23 B 24 D 25 D x
26 A 27 B 28 D 29 D 30 B f 110.25 cm2 (when area of rectangle = 0)
31 C 32 A 33 C 34 A 35 B g Rectangle 9 6 and square 3 3,
36 C 37 D 38 E 39 E 40 C 27 18 51 51
or rectangle and square
41 C 42 C 43 A 7 7 7 7

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
802 Answers
9A

8 a 20 m b 20 m c 22.5 m g i S = 600x 14x2


2
9 a A = 10x + 28x + 16 45000 150
ii S max = cm2 when x =
b i 54 cm2 ii 112 cm2 7 7
c 3 cm d A h x = 3.068 or x = 32.599
Answers

17 a y = (7.6 105 )x3 0.0276x2 + 2.33x


b y = (7.6 105 )x3 0.0276x2 + 2.33x + 5
c 57.31 m
16 3 4 38
18 a y = x 4 b y= x+
0 x 4 3 3
e V = 2x3 + 8x2 + 8x f x = 3 g x = 6.66 c D(8, 2) d 5 units e 50 units2
2
10 a i A = (10 + x)y x ii P = 2(y + x + 10) 19 a i y = 250 5x
b i A = 400 + 30x 2x2 ii V = x2 (250 5x) = 5x2 (50 x)
ii 512 12 m2 iii 0 x 20 b V
iv A 1 1 (cm3)
7 , 512 2 2
(cm2)
(0, 400)
0 50 x (cm)
(20, 200)
c (0, 50)
0 x (m) d x = 11.378 or x = 47.813
11 a A = 6x2 + 7xy + 2y2 e Vmax = 92 592.59 cm3 when x = 33.33 and
c i x = 0.5 m ii y = 0.25 m y = 83.33
12 a 50.9 m b t = 6.12 seconds
c (3.06, 50.92) d 6.285 seconds
h(t)
Chapter 9
Exercise 9A
5
1 {H, T }
0 6.285 t 2 {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
13 a x + 5 b V = 35x + 7x2 3 a 52 b 4
c S = x2 + 33x + 70 c clubs , hearts ", spades , diamonds #
d V = 35x + 7x2 d clubs and spades are black;
V
and S S = x2 + 33x + 70 diamonds and hearts are red e 13
f ace, king, queen, jack g 4 h 16
70 4 a {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5} b {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
c {0, 1, 2, 3}
0 t
5 a {0, 1, 2, 3, . . . } b {0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , 41}
e 3.25 m f 10 cm c {1, 2, 3, . . . }
14 a 2y + 3x = 22 6 a {2, 4, 6} b {FFF} c
b i B(0, 11) ii D(8, 1) 1 3 3
c 52 units2 7 a b c
2 10 20
d 6.45 units
4 2 4
15 a 25 km/h b Tap A 60 min; Tap B 75 min 8 a b c
15 3 15
c 4 cm
1 1 4 2
16 a h = 100 3x b V = 2x2 (100 3x) 9 a b c d
4 2 13 13
100
c 0<x< d V 9 10 5 1
3 10 a b c d
(cm3) 13 13 13 13
1 30 30 90
11 a b c d
365 365 365 365
0 100 x (cm) 1 1 5 4
3 12 a b c d
e i x = 18.142 or x = 25.852 9 3 9 9
ii x = 12.715 or x = 29.504 1
13
f Vmax = 32 921.811 cm3 when x = 22.222 3
14 0.4

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Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 803

1 1 1

Answers
15 a b c 8 a 1
3 8 4 2
3
1 5 4
16 a b H 5
7 7 6
3 1 9 22 1
17 a b c d 2
4 2 13 26 H 3
T 4
1 1 1 2
18 , , , 5
5 5 5 5 6
1
1 2 2 2 2 4 9 2
19 a , , , , , b

9B ! 9D
13 13 13 13 13 13 13 H 3
T 4
5
Exercise 9B 6
1
17 1 4 1 T 2
1 a b c d 3
50 10 15 200 4
2 a No b Answers will vary 5
6
c Answers will vary d Yes
e As the number of trials approaches infinity, 1 1 1 1
b i ii iii iv
the relative frequency approaches the value 24 4 8 2
of the probability 9 a ic
lt
78 ce
3 Pr(a 6 from first die) = 0.156 fi ic
500 lt
cn
102 so ce
Pr(a 6 from second die) 0.146 st ic
700 lt
Choose first die, as higher probability of a 6 ce
ic
17 4 9 lt
4 a b c d 51 fi ce
20 5 10 sa
ic
cn
5 0.445 lt
ce
st
ic
6 a b 0.7855 lt
4 4 ce
3 1 1 1 2
7 b i ii iii iv
4 18 3 6 3
1 1 5
8 a b c 1 1 1 1
3 6 6 c i ii iii iv
36 4 2 4
4 4
9 a b1 0.4973 10 a
25 25 2nd ball
1 1 2 1 2 3 4 5
10 a i x2 ii x2 iii x
4 16 1st 1 (1, 1) (1, 2) (1, 3) (1, 4) (1, 5)
3 ball 2 (2, 1) (2, 2) (2, 3) (2, 4) (2, 5)
b i ii iii 1
16 16 4 3 (3, 1) (3, 2) (3, 3) (3, 4) (3, 5)
4 (4, 1) (4, 2) (4, 3) (4, 4) (4, 5)
Exercise 9C 5 (5, 1) (5, 2) (5, 3) (5, 4) (5, 5)
1 1
1 a b 4 4 3
4 4 b i ii iii
1 1 1 25 5 25
2 a b c
2 2 4 Exercise 9D
1 1 5
3 a b c 1 a {1, 2, 3, 4, 6} b {2, 4}
2 18 18
c {5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} d {1, 3}
1 1 7
4 a b c e {1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} f {5, 7, 8, 9, 10}
12 2 12
2 a {1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11}
3 3 1 1
5 a b c d b {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11} c {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12}
8 8 8 8
d {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11} e {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11}
1 1 3
6 a b c 3 a {E, H, M, S} b {C, H, I, M}
2 4 4
c {A, C, E, I, S, T} d {H, M}
1
7 e {C, E, H, I, M, S} f {H, M}
4

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Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
804 Answers

375 3 225 9
9E ! 9G

4 a 20 b 45 8 a = b =
2 1 5 500 4 500 20
5 a b0 c d 65 137 21 61
3 2 6 9 a b c d
1 1 1 2 284 568 65 246
6 a b c , 10 a 0.06 b 0.2
2 3 6 3
4 15
7 4 2 2 1 1 11 a b 0.3 c
7 a b = c = d 7 22
18 18 9 18 9 2 12 a 0.2 b 0.5 c 0.4
1 3 1 3 10 1
8 a b c d 13 a 0.2 b c
Answers

5 20 20 10 27 3
9 Pr(A [ B) = 0.7 14 a 0.3 b 0.75
10 Pr(A [ B) = 0.47 15 16%
11 a Pr(A \ B) = 0.28 b Pr(A [ B) = 0.45 1
16
12 a Pr(A \ B) = 0.45 b Pr(A [ B) = 0.58 5
1 1 1 16
13 a Pr(A \ B) = 0 b Pr(A [ B) = 0.7 17 a b c d
16 169 4 169
14 a Pr(A \ B) = 0 b Pr(A [ B) = 0.23 1 1 13 20
18 a b c d
15 Pr(A \ B) = 0.2 17 221 51 221
16 Pr(A \ B) = 0.05 19 0.230 808 0.231
17 Pr(A [ B0 ) = 0.7 15 1 1 2
20 a b c d
18 0.32 28 2 2 5
3 8 5 3
19 a 0.43 b 0.29 e f g h
7 13 28 14
Exercise 9E 21 a 0.85 b 0.6 c 0.51 d 0.51
22 0.4, 68%
1 a 0.2 b 0.5 c 0.3 d 0.7
23 a i 0.444 ii 0.4 iii 0.35 iv 0.178 v 0.194
2 a 0.75 b 0.4 c 0.87 d 0.48
b 0.372
3 a 0.63 b 0.23 c 0.22 d 0.77 c i 0.478 ii 0.425
4 a 0.45 b 0.40 c 0.25 d 0.70 24 a i 0.564 ii 0.05 iii 0.12 iv 0.0282 v 0.052
5 a 0.9 b 0.6 c 0.1 d 0.9 b 0.081
6 a 95% b 5% c 0.35
7 a A = {Jr, Qr, Kr, Ar, J, Q, K, A, 1 53 15
25 a b c
6 90 53
Jq, Qq, Kq, Aq, J|, Q|, K|, A|} 26 a BA b A\B=? c A B
C = {2r, 3r, 4r, 5r, 6r, 7r, 8r,
9r, 10r, Jr, Qr, Kr, Ar} Exercise 9G
4
b i Pr(a picture card) = 13 1 Pr(male and support guns) = 0.35;
ii Pr(a heart) = 41 60 65
Pr(male) Pr(support guns) = =
1
iii Pr(a heart picture card) = 13 100 100
0.39 , 0.35;
iv Pr(a picture card or a heart) = 25
52
therefore not independent
v Pr(a picture card or a club, diamond or
spade) = 43 2 Pr(male and prefer sport) = 0.45;
52
8 7 2 1 Pr(male) Pr(prefer sport) = 0.45;
8 a b c d therefore independent
15 10 15 3
9 a 0.8 b 0.57 c 0.28 d 0.08 42
3 Pr(speeding and serious) = 0.112;
376
10 a 0.81 b 0.69 c 0.74 d 0.86 130 103
1 1 Pr(speeding) Pr(serious) = =
11 a 0 b1 c d 376 376
5 3 0.095 , 0.074;
12 a 0.88 b 0.58 c 0.30 d 0.12 therefore not independent
4 a Yes b Yes c No
Exercise 9F
5 Pr(A) Pr(B) = 36 26 = 16 = Pr(A \ B)
1 1 1 7 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 No
4 3 13 19 6
4 4 7 a 0.6 b 0.42 c 0.88
6 a b
17 7 8 0.6
7
7 9 a 0.35 b 0.035 c 0.1225 d 0.025
12

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Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 805

4 1 133 6 4

Answers
10 a b c d e 4 a 1.6 b 2.9
15 15 165 11 15 3 1
No, as Pr(L | F) , Pr(L) 5 A and B: ; C and D:
8 8
11 Pr(A) Pr(B) = 2036
9
36 5
= 36 = Pr(A \ B)
12 a 0.35
18
b 0.875
12 23 21 4
Chapter 10
13 a b c d e
65 65 65 65 65
Exercise 10A
8 2 8
f g h ; No 1 a 11 b 12 c 37 d 29
65 15 21
14 a i 0.75 ii 0.32 iii 0.59 b No c No 2 a 60 b 500 c 350 d 512

9H ! 10D
3 a 128 b 160
Exercise 9H
4 20 5 63 6 26 7 240 8 260 000
1 Approx. 0.125 2 Approx. 0.172 9 17 576 000 10 30
3 Approx. 0.0009 4 Approx. 29.29
5 a Approx. 1.75 b Approx. 2.19 Exercise 10B
1 a 6 b 120 c 5040 d2 e 1 f 1
Chapter 9 review 2 a 20 b 72 c 6 d 56 e 120 f 720
Technology-free questions 3 120 4 5040 5 24
1 5 6 720 7 720 8 336
1 a b 9 a 5040 b 210
6 6
2 0.007 10 a 120 b 120
1 1 1
3 a b c 11 a 840 b 2401
3 4 2
87 12 a 480 b 1512
4 a 0.36 b 13 a 60 b 24 c 252
245
4 14 a 150 b 360 c 1560
5
15 15 a 720 b 48
2 1
6 a {156, 165, 516, 561, 615, 651} b c
3 3 Exercise 10C
5 1
7 a b 1 a 3 b 3 c 6 d 4
12 4
8 a 0.036 b 0.027 c 0.189 d 0.729 2 a 10 b 10 c 35 d 35
1 4 4 20 3 a 190 b 100 c 4950 d 31 125
9 a b c d
27 27 9 27 4 a 20 b 7 c 28 d 1225
10 No 5 1716 6 2300
11 a 0.5 b 0.3 c 0.8 7 133 784 560 8 8 145 060 9 18
7 1
12 a b 10 a 5 852 925 b 1 744 200
18 2
2 32 9 11 100 386
13 a b c 12 a 792 b 336
7 63 16
14 a 0.2 b 0.4 13 a 150 b 75 c 6 d 462 e 81
1 2 14 a 8 436 285 b 3003 c 66 d 2 378 376
15 a 0.7 b 0.3 c d
3 3 15 186 16 32 17 256 18 31 19 57
16 a B A b A \ B = ?
20 a 20 b 21
c A and B are independent
Multiple-choice questions Exercise 10D
1 B 2 C 3 A 4C 5D 6A 1 a 0.5 b 0.5
7 D 8 E 9 A 10 B 11 B 12 B 2 0.375
13 A 14 E 15 C 16 A 17 B 18 D
3 a 0.2 b 0.6 c 0.3
Extended-response questions 329
4 0.2 5
1 a 0.15 b 0.148 858
3 3 9 49 27 56 73
2 a A: ; B: b A: ; B: 6 a 0.502 b c
28 4 64 64 28 1 255 85
1 9 5 35
c d 7 a b
8 58 204 136
4 1 5 17 34
3 a b 0.79 c 0.31 8 a b c d
5 6 6 21 35
Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
806 Answers

25 24 3 1 3
10E ! 11C

9 a b c d 0.2 5 a b
49 49 7 15 5
10 a 0.659 b 0.341 c 0.096 d 0.282 6 a 0.09 b 0.69
5 20 15 7 a 0.49 b 0.51 c 0.74
11 a b c 2
42 21 37 8 a 0.6 b 0.47 c
3
Exercise 10E 3
9 a {HHH, HT H, HHT , HT T , b
1 a x4 + 8x3 + 24x2 + 32x + 16 8
T HH, T T H, T HT , T T T }
b 16x4 + 32x3 + 24x2 + 8x + 1 7 4
c 16x4 96x3 + 216x2 216x + 81 c x 0 1 2 3 d e
8 7
Answers

d 27x3 27x2 + 9x 1 1 3 3 1
e 16x4 32x3 + 24x2 8x + 1 p(x)
8 8 8 8
f 32x5 + 80x4 80x3 + 40x2 10x + 1
1
g 243x5 + 405x4 270x3 + 90x2 15x + 1 10 a {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12} b
6
h 16x4 96x3 + 216x2 216x + 81 c y 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Chapter 10 review p(y)
1 2 3 4 5 6 5 4 3 2 1
36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36
Technology-free questions
7
1 a 499 500 b 1 000 000 c 1 000 000 11 a {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} b
36
2 648 3 120 4 8n c x 1 2 3 4 5 6
5 5416 6 36 750 7 50 400
8 a 10 b 32 1 3 5 7 9 11
p(x)
36 36 36 36 36 36
9 1200
1 3 3 7
10 a b c 12 a y 3 2 1 3 b
8 8 28 8
Multiple-choice questions 1 3 3 1
p(y)
1 E 2 D 3 A 4D 5 C 8 8 8 8
6 B 7 C 8 A 9 E 10 E
Exercise 11B
Extended-response questions
28 12
1 a 2880 b 80 640 1 0.378 2 0.491 3 0.923
57 13
2 a 720 b 48 c 336 60
4 0.237 5 0.930 6 0.109
3 a 60 b 36 253
4 a 210 b 100 c 80 Exercise 11C
5 a 1365 b 210 c 1155
1 a 0.185 b 0.060
6 a 3060 b 330 c 1155
2 a 0.194 b 0.930
7 Div. 1: 1.228 10 7 Div. 2: 1.473 10 6
3 a 0.137 b 0.446 c 0.554
Div. 3: 2.726 10 5 Div. 4: 1.365 10 3

Div. 5: 3.362 10 3 4 a 0.008 b 0.268 c 0.468


8 a 1.290 10 4 b 6.449 10 4 5 a 0.056 b 0.391
6 0.018 !
5
Chapter 11 7 a Pr(X = x) =
x
(0.1) x (0.9)5 x

for x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Exercise 11A x 0 1 2 3 4 5
p(x) 0.591 0.328 0.073 0.008 0.000 0.000
1 a No b No c Yes d No e No
2 a Pr(X = 2) b Pr(X > 2) c Pr(X 2) b Most probable number is 0
d Pr(X < 2) e Pr(X 2) f Pr(X 2) 175
8 0.749 9 0.021 10 0.5398 11
g Pr(X 2) h Pr(X 2) i Pr(X 2) 256
j Pr(X 2) k Pr(2 < X < 5) 12 a 0.988 b 0.9999 c 8.1 10 11
3 a {2} b {3, 4, 5} c {2, 3, 4, 5} 13 a 0.151 b 0.302
d {0, 1} e {0, 1, 2} f {2, 3, 4, 5} 14 5.8%
g {3, 4, 5} h {2, 3, 4} i {3, 4} 15 a i 0.474 ii 0.224 iii 0.078
4 a 0.2 b 0.5 c 0.3 d 0.35 e 0.9 b Answers will vary about 5 or more

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Answers 807

117

Answers
16 0.014 10 a b m=5
125
17 18
Multiple-choice questions
1 B 2A 3 C 4 A 5 E
19 a 5 8 b 6 C 7 A 8D 9 B 10 E
20 a 13 22 b Extended-response questions
21 a 16 29 b 1 a x 1 2 3 4 b 0.46
22 a 45 59 b p(x) 0.54 0.16 0.06 0.24
0.3087

11 review 12 revision
23 a 0.3087 b 0.3095 2
1 (0.3)5 2 a i 0.1 ii 0.6 iii b i 0.0012 ii 0.2508
3
24 a 0.3020 b 0.6242 c 0.3225 3 7 3 11 3
3 a b i ii c i ii
5 40 10 20 8
Chapter 11 review 4 a 0.003 b 5.320 106
Technology-free questions 5 0.8
1 a 0.92 b 0.63 c 0.8 6 a 0.401 b n 45
1
2 x 1 2 3 4 7 a 1q 2
b 1 4q3 + 3q4 c < q < 1
3
p(x) 0.25 0.28 0.30 0.17 8 a 0.734 (exact answer)
3 b About 7 (by simulation)
x 2 3 4
2 8 1
p(x)
5 15 15 Chapter 12
4 a 2nd choice
Technology-free questions
1 2 3 6 7 9
1 8
1st 1 2 3 4 7 8 10 1 a b
choice 2 3 4 5 8 9 11 9 9
3 4 5 6 9 10 12 2 a {348, 384, 438, 483, 834, 843}, n() = 6
6 7 8 9 12 13 15 2 2
b c
7 8 9 10 13 14 16 3 3
9 10 11 12 15 16 18 1 12
3 a b
b {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 2 13
13, 14, 15, 16, 18} 1 3
4 a b
c x 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4 8
2
1 2 3 2 1 2 4 4 5 a Pr(1) = Pr(2) = Pr(3) = Pr(5) = ,
p(x) 17
36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 8 1
Pr(4) = , Pr(6) =
x 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 17 17
9
4 2 3 2 1 2 2 1 b
p(x) 17
36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 1
6
243 4
5 a 0.051 b 0.996 c 0.949 1
256 7 a 0.6 b
9 37 3
6 a b 1 3 1 1
64 64 8 a b c d
16 32 11 2 4 2 4
7 a b c
81 81 27 9 a 0.48 b 0.56
5 6$ %3 $ %4
7 1 3 10 a Pr(A B) = 0.05 b Pr(A | B) = 0.25
8 a
3 4 4 11 a 0.4 b 0.2 c 0.7
$ 3 %7 $ 1 %$ 3 %6 $ 1 % 2 $ 3 %5
b +7 + 21 12 720
4 4 4 4 4
$ p %15 $ p %14 $ 13 133 784 560
p % 7 21
9 a b 15 1 14 a b
$100p %15 $ 100
p %14 $
100%
p
22 44
c + 15 1 15 a 0.7 b 0.7 c 0.7
100 100 100
$ p %13 $ 16 a Pr(X = 4) = 0.0016 b Pr(X 3) = 0.0272
p %2
+ 105 1
100 100

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808 Answers

Chapter 13
13A 13C

17 a Pr(X = 3) = 7 C3 0.23 0.84


b Pr(X < 3) = 7 C0 0.20 0.87 + 7 C1 0.21 .86 +
7
C2 0.22 0.85 Exercise 13A
c Pr(X 4) = 7 C4 0.24 0.83 + 7 C5 0.25 .82 +
7
C6 0.26 0.81 + 7 C7 0.27 0.80 1 a x5 b 8x7 c x2 d 2x3 e a6
$ x %10 $ x %9 $ x3 x6
x % f 2 6
g xy 2 2
h xy4 6
i 3 j 4
18 a b 10 1 y y
100 100 100
$ x %10 $ x %9 $ 2 a 317 b x7 y5 c 34x+3 d 30a5 b6
x %
c + 10 1 3 a x2 y b b4x+1 c 4a5 b
100 100 100
$ x %8 $ 1 8
x %2 4 a b 64 c
Answers

+ 45 1 49 125
100 100
5 a b7 b 729 c b4
Multiple-choice questions 27a8 b 125b6
1 E 2 C 3E 4 B 5 E 6 a b
16 c9
6E 7 C 8 C 9 B 10 D 7 a 64 b 27a3
c 96a3
11 D 12 D 13 E 14 A 15 E 52n
16 E 17 B 18 C 19 C 20 A 8 a 22n b 24 c 2n
2
21 E 22 E 23 C 24 D 25 D 9 a x9 b 216 c 317 d q8 p9 e a11 b3
Extended-response questions f 28 x18 g m11 n12 p2 h 2a5 b2
15 37 43 9
1 a i ii iii 10 a x2 y3 b 8a8 b3 c x5 y2 d x2 y3
28 56 49 2
9 135 1 2x8 z b5 a3 b
b i ii 11 a b 4 c 5 d
14 392 n4 p5 y a c
1 13 e an+2 bn+1 cn1
2 a b 34n11
2 36 12 a 317n b 23n c
3 1 3 6 22
3 a b c d d 2n+1 33n1 e 53n2 f 23x3 34
8 56 28 7
4 a 0.0027 b 0.12 c 0.17 d 0.72 g 36n 25n h 33 = 27 i6
59 45 13 a 212 = 4096 b 55 = 3125 c 33 = 27
5 a b
120 59
167 Exercise 13B
6 a 1
360 1 a 25 b 27 c d 16
108 45 9
b i ii 1 1 1
193 193 e f g h 16
1 5 2 4 25
7 a i ii 1 3
9 18 i j 1000 k 27 l
1 13 10 000 5
b i ii 1
81 324 m 2 n o 16 p 343
625
8 a i m = 30, q = 35, s = 25 1 7 9 7 7
ii m + q = 65 2 a a 6 b 6 b a6 b 2 c 3 3 5 6
3 1 14
b d e x6 y8 f a 15
10 4
3 5 3
7 3 a (2x 1) 2 b (x 1) 2 c (x2 + 1) 2
c
12 7 1 4

9 a 0.084 b 0.52 c 0.68 d (x 1) 2 e x(x 1) 2 f (5x2 + 1) 3


10 a 60 b 8 c 0.1 Exercise 13C
1 1 3 6
11 a b c d 1 y
60 5 5 13
y = 0.5 x y = 2.4x
12 a i 10 000 cm2 ii 400 cm2 iii 6400 cm2
b i 0.04 ii 0.12 iii 0.64 y = 1.8x
y = 0.9x 1
c i 0.0016 ii 0.000 64 x
7 13 23 0
13 a b c
18 36 108 " All pass through (0, 1)
14 a i 0.328 ii 0.205 iii 0.672 " Horizontal asymptote y = 0
b i 11 ii 18 " Increasing for base > 1
15 a i 0.121 ii 0.851 iii 0.383 " Decreasing for base < 1
b i9 ii 14

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Answers 809

Answers
2 y Exercise 13D
y = 5 3x 1 3 1
y = 2 3x
1 a3 b 3 c d e
2 4 3
5 f 4 g2 h 3 i3
3 4
2 2 a 1 b 2 c d e 1
0 2 3
f8 g 3 h 4 i8 j4
k 3 12 l6 m 7 12
x
y = 2 3 4 3
y = 5 3
x 3 a b c 5 12

13D 13F
5 2
" y = a b x has y-axis intercept at (0, a) 4 a0 b 0, 2 c 1, 2 d 0, 1
" Horizontal asymptote y = 0
5 a 2.32 b 1.29 c 1.26 d 1.75
" Graphs c and d are reflections in the x-axis 1 1
of graphs a and b 6 a x>2 b x> c x d x<3
3 2
3 x = 3.807 4 x = 0.778 3
e x< f x>1 g x3
y y 4
y = 2x y = 10x
14 6 Exercise 13E
(3.807, 14) (0.778, 6)
1 a7 b 4 c3 d 1
x x $9%
0 0
2 a log2 (10a) b 1 c log2 d1
4
5 a y b y
e 3 log2 a f 9 g log5 6 h 2
3 a 3 b 4 c 7 d 3
5 y=2
e 4 f 3 g4 h 6
x x
0 0 i 9 j 1 k 4 l 2
y = 3
4 a 2 b 7 c9 d 1
5
e f log x (a5 ) g 3 h 1
c y d y 2
1
y=2 5 a2 b 27 c d 8
125
2
x x e 30 f g 8 h 64
0 0 3
y = 2
(0, 3) i4 j 10
6 a5 b 32.5 c 22 d 20
3 + 17
e f 3 or 0
2
e y f y
5c
7 2 + 3a 9 10
(0, 3) 2
6
x x 10 a 4 b c 3 d 10
0 0 5
e9 f 2
(0, 4) y = 2

Exercise 13F
1 a 2.81 b 1.32 c 2.40 d 0.79
6 a y b y e 2.58 f 0.58
2 a 1.90 b 3.10 c 0.68
2 1 3 a x>3 b x < 1.46 c x < 1.15
x x
0 0 d x 2.77 e x 1.31
4 a y b y

c y d y
2 x
x
y=2 0 0 1
3 4
1 1
x x y = 4 y = 6
0 0

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810 Answers
13G 13H

c y
5
d y c Domain = (0, ) d Domain = (2, )
log10 0.2218 y y
3 y=4
2
x x
0 0
2 1
x x
0 1 x = 2 1 0
y = 5 log102 0.3010 2

e y f y
6
y=6 log2
5
0.2603 e Domain = (0, ) f Domain = (, 0)
3 y y
1 x x
Answers

0 0
1
y = 6
x x
0 3 1 0
2

Exercise 13G
1 a y b y 5 a 0.64 b 0.40
Domain = R+ Domain = R+
Range = R Range = R
6 y y
y = log10 (x 2) y = 2log10 x
0.301 0.602

x x
x x 1 0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 2
2

c y d y
Domain = R+ Domain = R+ 7 y
Range = R Range = R
y = log10 x = 12 log10 x for x (0, 10]
0.301 0.954

x x x
0 1 2 3 4 0 1 1 0
3

e y f y
Domain = R+ Domain = R 8 y y
Range = R Range = R
y = log10 (2x) + log10 (3x) y = log10 (6x2)

x x
0 1 1 0 1
x x 6
0 1 1 0 6 6

1
2 a y = 2 log10 x b y = 10 3 x
1 1 1 Exercise 13H
c y = log10 x d y = 10 2 x t
3 3 1 a N = 1000 2 15 b 50 minutes
3 a f 1 (x) = log3 (x 2) 2 79 726 years
b f 1 (x) = 2 x +$3 3 7575 years
x 2%
c f 1 (x) = log3 4 a 535 millibars b 7331 metres
4
d f 1 (x) = log5 (x + 2) 5 22 hours
e f 1 (x) = 13 2 x f f 1 (x) = 3 2 x 6 6.4 C
g f 1 (x) = 2 x 3 7 t > 18.668 . . .
$ x + 2%
h f 1 (x) = log3 8 a p, q
5 (millions)
4 a Domain = (4, ) b Domain = (3, ) y = p(t)
y y y = q(t)
1.7
1.2
log2 3
x x 0 t
0 5 2 0
x = 3 b i t = 12.56 . . . (mid 1962)
ii t = 37.56 . . . (mid 1987)
x=4 9 a y = 3 5 x b y = 4 ( 12 ) x c y = 5 ( 32 ) x

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Answers 811
$5%

Answers
10 a k = log10 b 7.212 hours Chapter 13 review
4
t Technology-free questions
11 a N = 1000 10 5 b 210 minutes 1 1 1
c 15 hours d 251 189 bacteria 1 a a4 b 2 c 2 2 d
b mn ab6
$ 10 % 23 1 $ 10 %
12 a = 6 and k = log10 3a6 5 n8
3 3 3 e f g a3 h 4
2 3a 2 m
13 y = 1.5 0.575 x 14 p = 2.5 1.35t 1 8
15 a Cuts, n Sheets Thickness, T (mm) i 2 4 j k 2a l a2 + a6
pq 5a11
0 1 0.2 1

13I 13 review
1 2 0.4 2 a log2 7 b log2 7 c log10 2
$ 18 % 2
2 4 0.8
3 8 1.6 d log10 e 1 + log10 11 f 1 + log10 101
5
4 16 3.2 1
5 32 6.4 g log2 100 h log2 10
5
6 64 12.8
3 a6 b 7 c2 d 0
7 128 25.6
8 256 51.2
e3 f 2 g 3 h 4
$ a2 %
9 512 102.4
4 a log10 6 b log10 6 c log10
10 1024 204.8
$ a2 % b $
a2 b3 %
b T = 0.2 2n d log10 e log10 y f log10
c T 25000 c
200
5 a x=3 b x = 3 or x = 0
c x=1 d x = 2 or x = 3
150
6 a y b y
y = 2.2x
100
0.2 (1, 4)
50
(0, 2)
x x
0 2 4 6 8 10 n 0 0
(0, 3)
d 214 748.4 m
16 d0 = 41.92, m = 0.094 y = 3.2x

Exercise 13I c y d y

1 a m = 2 and c = log4 3 y = 2x + 1
b log4(y) c y
(0, 5) y = 5.2x
(0, 2)
y=1
x x
0 0

16 16 e y f y
log4(3)
3 y = 2x 1
x x
1 2 4 1 2 4
2 a m = 3 and c = log5 2 (0, 3) y = 2
0
b log5(y) c y x x
0
y = 1

5
4
3125 7 x=1 9 3
625
3 125 1 3
2
log52 25 10 a k = b q=
x 2
x
7 2
0 1 2 3 4 0 2 3 4 5 1
11 a a = b y = 4 or y = 20
3 Street 109 watt/cm2 ; Quiet car 1011 watt/cm2 2
4 a Increases by 10 log10 2 3 dB Multiple-choice questions
b Increases by 10 log10 10 = 10 dB 1 C 2 A 3 C 4 C 5A
c Pnew = (Pold )3 1032 6 B 7 A 8 A 9 A 10 A
d P = 1016 e P = 106
Extended-response questions
5 P1 = 10 10 P2 6 5 + log10 5
1 a n 1 2 3 4
7 7.3 log10 4 8 [104 , 102 ]
M 1 3 7 15

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812 Answers
14A 14E

b M = 2n 1 n 5 6 7 7 a y

M 31 63 127 =
3

4 =
c M 4

30
0 x
20

10 5 7
= =
4 4

0 1 2 3 4 5 n b
Answers

y
d Three discs 1 2 3 2
=
Times moved 4 2 1 3 =
3

Four discs 1 2 3 4
x
Times moved 8 4 2 1 0

2 n=2

3 a ( 12 )3n b ( 12 )5n2 c n = 3 =
4 =
3
3
4 a 729( 4 ) b 128( 12 )n c 4 times
1 n

5 a Batch 1: 15(0.95)n ; Batch 2: 20(0.94)n c y


27
7 =
b 32 years = 6

6 =
6 a X $1.82 Y $1.51 Z $2.62 6
b X $4.37 Y $4.27 Z $3.47 =
13
6
c Intersect at t = 21.784 . . . and t = 2.090 . . . ; 0 x
therefore Feb 2014 until Sept 2015
d Feb 2015 until Sept 2015; approx. 8 months
7 a 13.81 years b 7.38 years
8 a Temperature = 87.065 0.94t
b i 87.1 C ii 18.56 C Exercise 14B
c Temperature = 85.724 0.94t
d i 85.72 C ii 40.82 C 1 a 0, 1 b 1, 0 c 1, 0 d 1, 0
e 28.19 minutes e 0, 1 f 1, 0 g 1, 0 h 0, 1
9 a a = 0.2 and b = 5 2 a 0.95 b 0.75 c 0.82 d 0.96
b i z = x log10 b ii a = 0.2 and k = log10 5 e 0.5 f 0.03 g 0.86 h 0.61
10 a y = 2 1.585 x
b y = 2 100.2x 3 a 0, 1 b 1, 0 c 1, 0 d 1, 0
$y% e 1, 0 f 0, 1 g 0, 1 h 0, 1
c x = 5 log10
2
Exercise 14C

Chapter 14 1 a
e
0 b 0
Undefined
c Undefined d 0
f Undefined
2 a 34.23 b 2.57 c 0.97 d 1.38
Exercise 14A
e 0.95 f 0.75 g 1.66
4 4 11 7 8
1 a b c d e f 3 a 0 b0 c0 d 0 e0 f 0
3 5 3 6 3 3
2 a 120 b 150 c 210 d 162 Exercise 14D
e 100 f 324 g 220 h 324
3 a 34.38 b 108.29 c 166.16 d 246.94 1 a 67 59 b 4.5315 c 2.5357
e 213.14 f 296.79 g 271.01 h 343.78 d 6.4279 e 50 12 f 3.4202
g 2.3315 h 6.5778 i 6.5270
4 a 0.66 b 1.27 c 1.87 d 2.81
e 1.47 f 3.98 g 2.38 h 5.74 Exercise 14E
5 a 60 b 720 c 540 d 180
e 300 f 330 g 690 h 690 1 a 0.42 b 0.7 c 0.42 d 0.38
e 0.42 f 0.38 g 0.7 h 0.7
4
6 a 2 b 3 c d 4 5 7 11
3 2 a b c
11 7 6 6 6
e f
6 6

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Answers 813

1 3 1 3

Answers
1
3 a b c d b Dilation of factor from the y-axis; 5
2
2
2 2 2
Amplitude = 1; Period
e 3 f 3 5
c Dilation of factor 3 from the y-axis;
3 1 3 1
4 a b c 3 d e Amplitude = 1; Period = 6
2 2 2 2
5 a a = 0.7660, b = 0.6428 d Dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis and
b c = 0.7660, d = 0.6428 dilation of factor 15 from the y-axis;
c i cos 140 = 0.7660, sin 140 = 0.6428 2
Amplitude = 2; Period =
ii cos 140 = cos 40 5
3 a y

14F 14G
6 a 0.7 b 0.6 c 0.4 d 0.6
e 0.7 f 0.7 g 0.4 h 0.6
3
7 a 120 b 240 c 60 d 120
e 240 f 300
0 x
2
Exercise 14F

3 1 3
1 a sin = , cos = , tan = 3 Amplitude = 3, Period =
2 2
1 1 b y
b sin = , cos = , tan = 1
2 2 2

1 3 1
c sin = , cos = , tan =
2 2 3 0 x
2 4 2
3 1 3 3
d sin = , cos = , tan = 3 2 2
2 2 Amplitude = 2, Period =
3
1 1
e sin = , cos = , tan = 1 c y
2 2

1 3 1 4
f sin = , cos = , tan =
2 2 3

3 1 0
g sin = , cos = , tan = 3 2 3 4
2 2
1 1 4
h sin = , cos = , tan = 1 Amplitude = 4, Period = 4
2 2
d y
3 1
i sin = , cos = , tan = 3 1
2 2 2

3 1
j sin = , cos = , tan = 3 0 x
2 2 2 4
2
3 1 1 1 1 1 3 3
2 a b c d e
2 1 2
2 2 3 2 2 Amplitude = 2 , Period = 3

3 1 1 e y
f 3 g h i
2 2 3

3 1 1 4
3 a b c d Undefined
2 2 3
2
1 1 0
2 4
x
e 0 f g h 1
2 2 3 3

4 2
Amplitude = 4, Period =
Exercise 14G 3
2 1 f y
1 a i 2 ii 2 b i ii 3 c i ii
3 2
5
2 1 3
d i 4 ii 3 ei ii 4 fi ii
3 2 2 0
2 2 2
x
g i 4 ii 2 h i 2 ii 2 i i 4 ii 3 3 5 7
4 4 4 4
2 a Dilation of factor 3 from the x-axis; 5
Amplitude = 5, Period =
Amplitude = 3; Period = 2

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814 Answers
14H

g y d y

2
3

3
0 x
Answers

0 x 2 4 2
2 3 4 3 3
2
3
Amplitude = 3, Period = 4
6 y
h y
5
2
2
3
4 2 4 0 x
0 x 3 3
3 5 7 2 5
8 8 8 8 2,
5 4
2
2
Amplitude = 2, Period =
2
7 a Dilation of factor 15 from the y-axis and
i y
reflection in the x-axis;
2
2 Amplitude = 1; Period =
5
b Reflection in the y-axis;
0
3 3 9 6
x Amplitude = 1; Period = 2
2 2 c Dilation of factor 3 from the y-axis and
2 dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis;
Amplitude = 2, Period = 6
Amplitude = 2; Period = 6
4 a y
d Dilation of factor 2 from the y-axis, dilation
2 of factor 4 from the x-axis and reflection in
the x-axis; Amplitude = 4; Period = 4
x
0 1 1 3 2 e Dilation of factor 3 from the y-axis, dilation
2 4
2 of factor 2 from the x-axis and reflection in
the y-axis; Amplitude = 2; Period = 6
b y 5
8 a y b ,
3 4 4
y = sin x y = cos x
x
0 1 1 3 2
2 4
3
0 x
2
5 a y

1
3 3
2 2 2 2
2 0 2
x
Exercise 14H
5 7 11 3 9 11
1 1 a , , , b , , ,
3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4
b y 2 7 8
c , , ,
2 3 3 3 3
2 a 0.93, 2.21 b 4.30, 1.98 c 3.50, 5.93
d 0.41, 2.73 e 2.35, 3.94 f 1.77, 4.51
x
6 3 0 3 6 3 a 150, 210 b 30, 150 c 120, 240
d 120, 240 e 60, 120 f 45, 135
2
11 5 7 7
c y 4 a , b , c ,
6 6 4 4 4 4
2
2 4 5 3 3 2 2 2
5 a , b , c ,
3 3 3 3 2
x
4 4 3 3 3 3
0
5 7 3 11
6 2 6 6 2 6
2

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Answers 815

Answers
6 y d Period = , Amplitude = 3, y = 3
1 y
5 1 1 1 5 1
, , , ,
3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3
x
0 3
4 1 4 1 2
, ,
3 2
1 3 2 0

2 1 2 1
, , 2
3 2 3 2
3
7 11 19 23
7 a , , ,

14I
12 12 12 12 e Period = , Amplitude = 3, y = 3
11 13 23 y
b , , ,
12 12 12 12
5 13 17 3
c , , ,
12 12 12 12
5 7 13 15 21 23
d , , , , , 0

x
12 12 12 12 12 12
2
5 7 17 19
e , , , 3
12 12 12 12
5 7 13 15 2
f , , , f Period = , Amplitude = 2, y = 2
8 8 8 8 3
8 a 2.034, 2.678, 5.176, 5.820 y
b 1.892, 2.820, 5.034, 5.961 2
c 0.580, 2.562, 3.721, 5.704
d 0.309, 1.785, 2.403, 3.880, 4.498, 5.974

0 5
Exercise 14I
4 12 12
1 a Period = 2, Amplitude = 3, y = 3 2

y

g Period = , Amplitude = 2, y = 2
3 y

2
0
3 2 5
2 2 2
0
3 5 4
3 6 3
b Period = , Amplitude = 1, y = 1 2
y
h Period = , Amplitude = 3, y = 3
1 y

3
0
2
0 x

1 2
3
2
c Period = , Amplitude = 2, y = 2
3 i Period = , Amplitude = 3, y = 3
y
y

2 3
13
12
0
5
0
12
2 2
2
3

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816 Answers

1 1
14J

2 a f (0) = , f (2) = d y
2 2 5
b y
4 4
,1 x
3 0
1 1
2, 2
Answers

1 2
0,
2 4
0 x
5 11
6 6 e y
1
4
, 1 1 + 2
3

3 3 0 (2, 0)
3 a f (0) = , f (2) = 1 2 3
x
2 2
2
b y
2 a y
1
-p -p p p 5p 3p 2p
2 6 6 2 6 2
0 x x
0
3 5 4 11 (-p, -2) (2p, -2)
3 6 3 6 -2
2
1 2, 3 -4
2
1 1 b y
4 a f () = , f () =
2 2 -11p -7p -p p 5p 9p 13p 17p 21p
b y 12 12 4
2 12 12 12 12 12 12
1 (-p, 2) 0 x
0, 1 -p p 2p
2 x -2
0 (2p, - 2)
1 1
, 1 , c y
2 2
x -p p 2p
5 a y = 3 sin b y = 3 sin(2x) 0 x
2 $ -1
x % (2p, -3)
c y = 2 sin d y = sin 2 x (-p, -3) -3
3 3
1$ % -5
e y = sin x +
2 3 d y

Exercise 14J 3
(2p, 3)
(-p, 3)
1 a y 1
0 x
3 -p -2p -p -1 p 2p p 4p 5p 2p
3 3 3 3 3 3
1
0 x e y
1 7 11
-5p -p p p 7p 3p
6 6
6 2 6 2 6 2
x
b y -p 0 p 2p
7 4 -2
(-p, -2) -3 (2p, -2)
2 3 6 3 6 3
x
0
3 f y
-7p -p 5p 3p 17p 7p
2 3 12 4 12 4 12 4 (2p, 1 + 3)
3
c y
(-p, 1 + 3)
1 +3
(0, 1 + 2) x
-p 0 p 2p
-1
0
x
1 2 3 5 2 3 a y
4 4 3 5 7
4 12 34 12 (, 1 + 3)
(, 1 + 3)
1 + 3
x
0 1

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Answers 817

17 11 5 7 13

Answers
b y b , , , , ,
3 11
18 18 18 18 18 18
4 12 4 12 5 2
3 c , , ,
6 3 6 3
13 7 5 11 17
( , 3 + 1) 3 + 1 0
x d , , , , ,
1 (, 3 + 1) 18 18 18 18 18 18
4 a y
c y

2 + 3
( , 3) (, 3)
1 + 3 ( , 3) (, 3)

14K 14N
x 3
x
3 2 0 0 5
5 2 6 6
6 3 6 3


Exercise 14K x=
2
x=
2
1 a 0.6 b 0.6 c 0.7 d 0.3 b y
10
e 0.3 f (1.49) g 0.3
7
h 0.6 i 0.6 j 0.3 (, 2)
( , 2) 2
5 x
2 a b c d 0 3
3 3 12 14 4 4
4 4
3 sin x = , tan x =
5 3
12 5
4 cos x = , tan x = x=
2
x=
2
13 12
2 6 c y
5 sin x = , tan x = 2 6
5
3
Exercise 14L
4 4
x
3 0
1 a b c (, 3) (, 3)
4 2 2 (0, 3) 2

2 a y


x
Exercise 14M
0
2 2 1 a 0.74 b 0.51 c 0.82, 0.82 d 0, 0.88
2 y = a sin(b + c) + d
3 3 a a = 1.993, b = 2.998, c = 0.003, d = 0.993
x= x= x= x=
4 4 4 4
b a = 3.136, b = 3.051, c = 0.044, d = 0.140
b y
c a = 4.971, b = 3.010, c = 3.136, d = 4.971

Exercise 14N
2 0 2
x
(12n + 1) (12n + 5)
3 3 3 3 1 a x= or x = ,nZ
6 6
(12n 1)

b x= ,nZ
x=
5
6
x=

2
x=

6
x=
6
x=
2
x=
5
6
18
(3n + 2)
c y c x= ,nZ
3
5 11 2 5
2 a , b , c ,
6 6 18 18 3 3
x (4n 1)
0 3 x = n or x = , n Z;
2 2 4
5 3 7
x = , , , 0, , or
4 4 4 4
7 3 5 n 2
3 a , , , 4 x= , n Z; x = , , or 0
8 8 8 8 3 3 3

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Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
818 Answers

6n 1 3n + 2
14O 14 review

5 x= or x = , n Z; Chapter 14 review
12 6
2 7 1 1 1 5 5 11 Technology-free questions
x= , , , , , , or 11 9 23 3
3 12 6 12 3 12 6 12 1 a b c 6 d e
6 2 4 4
Exercise 14O 9 13 7 4
f g h i
1 a y
b t = 3 and t = 15 4 6 3 9
5
4
2 a 150 b 315 c 495 d 45
3
2 e 1350 f 135 g 45
h 495
1
0
1 3 6 9 121518 2124
x i 1035
2
3 1 1 1 3
4
5 3 a b c d
2 2
c 5m above mean sea level 2 2
5 3 3 1 1 1
d m above mean sea level e f g h
2 2 2 2
Answers

2

5 3 1 2
e m above mean sea level 4 a 2, 4 b 3, c , d 3,
2 2 2 3
2
f t [1, 5] [13, 17] e 4, 6 f , 3
3
2 a 5 metres b 1 metres
5 a y b y
c t = 0.524, 2.618 or 4.712 seconds x
y = 3 cos
d t = 0, 1.047 or 2.094 seconds 2 y = 2 sin 2x 3 3
e Particle oscillates between x = 1 and x = 5 x x
0 0 3 6
3 a 7m b 3m
1 5 9 13 17 2 3 point (6 , 3)
c t= , , , or is the f inal point
4 4 4 4 4
1 5 13 17 25 29 c y d y
d t= , , , , or
12 12 12 12 12 12 2
2
e Particle oscillates between x = 3 and x = 7

4 a i 10 ii10 + 5 3 iii10 + 5 3 0
x
0
x
2 3 6
iv 10 5 3 v 10 5 3 3 3 2
2
b 6 seconds c 20 metres
1 5 13 17 7 11 19 23
d , , , s e , , , s ey f y
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 y = sin x 1 2
5 a 9 C b Maximum = 25 C; Minimum = 9 C 4 y = sin x +
3
c Between 7:28 and 16:32 0 x x
5 9 2 0 4
d T
25 1 4 4 4 3 1 3 3
24 passes through 5
22
20 4
18
16
14
12 g y h y
10
9
8 2
6 3
4
2
t x
0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 0 5 4 11 14 17
6 3 6 6 6 x
6 a 2 0 5 4 11
D 5
y = 2 cos x 6 3 6 3 6
13 6
10 3
7
2 2 5
6 a , b , , ,
3 3 3 6 3 6
0 3 6 12 18 24 t 3 7 7
b { t : D(t) 8.5 } = [0, 7] [11, 19] [23, 24] c , d e ,
6 2 6 2 6
c 12.9 m
Multiple-choice questions
7 a p = 5, q = 2 bD
1 C 2 D 3 E 4 C 5 E
7 6 D 7 E 8 E 9 C 10 B
5
3

0 6 12 t
c A ship can enter 2 hours after low tide

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Answers 819

Answers
Extended-response questions 7 f 1 (x) = log3 (x 2) y
1 a i 1.83 103 hours ii 11.79 hours
b 26 April (t = 3.86), 14 August (t = 7.48)
$ t %
2 a 19.5 C b D = 1 + 2 cos x=2
12 (0, 3) y=2
c D d { t : 4 < t < 20 } x
0 (3, 0)
1
0 6 12 18 24 t 3 7
1 8 a b c
3 2 9

15 revision
2
3 9 a 1 b 0 c0 d Undefined

10 a 21.80 b 3.06 c 9.97
3 a d 4
(m) 11 a 0.3 b 0.5 c 1.6 d 0.6 e 0.1 f
5
4.8
3 3 3 1 1
12 a b c 1 d e f 3
1.2 2 2 2 2
13 a Period = 4; Amplitude = 2
0 6 12 18 24 t (hours)
b y
b 3 a.m., 3 p.m., 3 a.m.
2
c 9 a.m., 9 p.m. d 10:03 a.m.
e i 6:12 p.m. ii 5 trips 1

4 b D 0
x
2 3 4
(m)
1
6
4 2
2 c Dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis and
0 8 16 t (hours)
dilation of factor 2 from the y-axis
c t = 16 (8 p.m.) 14 y
d t = 4 and t = 12 (8 a.m. and 4 p.m.) 3
e i 1.5 m ii 2.086 m 2
f 9 hours 17 minutes 1
x
0 1 1 3 2
1
2 2
2
Chapter 15 3

Technology-free questions 7 5 5 7
15 a , , ,
a3 3 6 6 6 6
1 a 24a10 b c d 8 7 5 3
2b2 4x5 b , , ,
2 4 4 4 4
y3 1 17 13 5 7 11 19 23
e 1 f 1 c , , , , , , ,
x6 (2x 1) 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12
4 2 5
25 1 d , , ,
2 a b 16 c 81 d 3 3 3 3
9 3
16 y
3 a 26n 33n b 12 c log10 36 d 3 3
4 a Range (3, ) b Range (, 1) 2
y y 1

y=1 x
0
5 7 3 11 2
x 1 6 2 6 6 2 6
0
2 17 y
0 x
2 y = 3

5 a x = 3 b x = 0, 2 c x > 4 d x = 7 e x = 1
x
1
0
6 a x = log2 5 b x = (log5 (10) 1) 2 2
3
log10 0.2
c x>
log10 0.6

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820 Answers

5
15 revision

18 a x = + 2n or x = + 2n, n Z c h 2
6 6 (metres) h(t) = 2 + 3sin (t 1.7420)
15
5
b x = + 2n, n Z
6
n
c x= + ,nZ 2
8 2
Multiple-choice questions 1 0 15 30 t (min)
1 B 2 B 3 B 4 E 5 D 6A 6 a i 30 ii 49.5 iii 81.675
7 D 8 C 9 B 10 A 11 A 12 D
Answers

b k = 1.65
13 A 14 D 15 D 16 D 17 A 18 E c 6.792 hours
19 D 20 D 21 E 22 A 23 E 24 B d h
25 D 26 B (hectares) h (t) = 30(1.65)t

Extended-response questions (1, 49.5)


1 a h (m) (0, 30)
14 0 t (hours)
h = 10
10
7 a t 0 1 2 3 4 5
6
100 60 40 30 25 22.5
b
0 12 24 t (hours)
(C)
b t = 3.2393 and t = 8.7606 100
c t [0.9652, 11.0348]
2 a 40 bacteria
b i 320 ii 2560 iii 10 485 760
c 0 t (min)
N
(4, 2560) c 1 minute d 27.071
(2, 320) 8 a PA = 70 000 000 + 3 000 000t
(0, 40) PB = 70 000 000 + 5 000 000t
t
0 t (hours) PC = 70 000 000 1.3 10
2
d 40 minutes (= 3
hours) b P PC
3 a 60 seconds PB
ii
PA
b h
(m)
20 70000000 i
y = 11 t
11
c i 35 years ii 67 years
2 9 a i 4 billion ii 5.944 billion iii 7.25 billion
0 10 40 60 t (s) b 2032
c [2, 20]
10 a V1 (0) = V2 (0) = 1000
d First at height 2 metres after 40 seconds;
b V c 64.15 litres
then every 60 seconds after this first time (litres)
e At t = 0, t = 20 and t = 60, for t [0, 60] 1000

1 (25, 64.15)
4 a V b t= s
120 180 0 25 t
d t = 0 and t = 23.00
1 1 t (s) 11 a h
(6, 44)
60 30 (m) y = h (t)
1
120
28
k (6, 18)
c t= s, for k = 0, 1, 2, . . . 18
30 8
5 a i Period = 15 seconds
2 0 6 t (hours)
ii Amplitude = 3 iii c =
15 b 3:19 a.m. to nearest minute (t = 3.31)
b h = 1.74202 c i 9 a.m. ii 8 + 6t metres

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Answers 821

Chapter 16

Answers
10 C
11 a (4, 0) b [7, 4) (0, 3]
Exercise 16A 12 a (3, 0) b [5, 3) (0, 2]
1 a h b h
Exercise 16B
4
1 d (km) km/min = 80 km/h
3
v 200
o o v
c h d h

16A 16B
0 150 m t (min)

v v
2 distance (km)
o o
5
2 For the first 2 minutes, the particle travels a Car Y
4
distance of 4 m with its speed increasing. For
the next 4 minutes, it travels 4 m at constant 3
speed. Then it turns back and returns to its 2
starting point O, travelling at a constant speed Car X
1
and taking 8 minutes to reach O.
time (h)
Note: For questions 36, there may be more than 0 1 1
one correct answer. 16 8
3 C is the most likely 3
US $ 600
4 height 500
(cm)
400
300
200
100

Age (years) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
A$
5 speed 4 a 60 km/h b 3 m/s
(km/h)
c 400 m/min = 24 km/h = 6 23 m/s
d 35.29 km/h (correct to 2 d.p.)
e 20.44 m/s (correct to 2 d.p.)
0 1 1.25 distance from A (km)
5 a 8 litres/min b 50 litres/min
6 C and B are the most likely 200 135
7 a distance c litres/min d litres/min
17 13
(metres)
100 6 a t 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 3 4 5
A 0 7.5 15 22.5 30 45 60 75
b A
(L)
0
75
10 time (seconds)
b speed (1, 15)
(m/s)
0 1 5 t (min)
10
$200
7 per hour = $15.38 per hour
13
8 208 13 m/s
0
10 time (seconds)
9 V
(cm3)
8 h

(2, 16)
0 V

9 D t (s)

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822 Answers
16C 16 review

10 distance c V
(km) (km/h)
1 30

Car 1 Car 2 0
2 5 8 t (h)

0 40
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 time (s)
3 a V
Exercise 16C 4
3
1 3.2 m/s

1 1 5 t
2 a2 b 7 c d 0 2 5 7
2 4
25 18 4b 3
Answers

3 a b c4 d
7 7 3a
b s
4 a 4 m/s b 32 m/s
5 a $2450.09 b $150.03 per year 11 (7, 11)
6 3.125 cm/min
7 C 3 (5, 3)

Exercise 16D 0
2 5 7 t
1 7.19
1 6 (2, 6)
2 a 0.015 b 0.0167
60 4 a t = 2.5 b 0 t < 2.5 c 6m
3 a i 9 ii 4.3246 iii 2.5893 d 5s e 3 m/s
b 2.30
5 a t=6 b 15 m/s c 17.5 m/s
4 a 25 C at 16:00 b 3 C/h c 2.5 C/h d 20 m/s e 10 m/s f 20 m/s
5 0.5952 6 a 11 m/s b 15 m c 1 s d 2.8 s e 15 m/s
6 y 7 a t = 2, t = 3 and t = 8
b 0 < t < 2.5 and t > 6
c t = 2.5 and t = 6

Chapter 16 review
4 0 4 x Technology-free questions
a 0 b 0.6 c 1.1
1 a depth b depth
7 4
8 a 16 m3 /min b 10 m3 /min
9 a 18 million/min b 8.3 million/min
0 time 0 time
10 a 620 m3 /min flowing out
b 4440 m3 /min flowing out c depth d depth
c 284 000 m3 /min flowing out
11 a 7 b 9 c2 d 35
12 a 28 b 12 0 time 0 time
13 a 10 b 4 e f
depth depth
2 2 2
14 a i 0.637 ii 0.9003

iii 0.959 iv 0.998
b1 0 time 0 time
200
Exercise 16E 2 a d Speed = km/h
(km) 3
1 a 4 m/s b 1.12 m/s 200 10
20 = km/min
2 a i 30 km/h ii km/h iii 40 km/h 9
3
0 180 t (min)

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Answers 823

Chapter 17

Answers
b distance
(m)
30
Exercise 17A
1 a 2 h b 2
5 10 15 20 time (s)
2 a 5+h b 5
3 2x 2 4 32 5 2000 m/s
c distance
(6.5, 500) 6 7 per day
500
480
440 7 a1 b 3x2 + 1 c 20
400
d 30x2 + 1 e5 f 30x3 + 4

17A 17B
360
320 (4.5, 320)
280
240
200
8 a 2x + 2 b 13 c 3x2 + 4x
160
120
80
9 a 5 + 3h b 5.3 c 5
40 (1, 40) 1 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 time 10 a b 0.48 c
2+h 2
2
3 36 cm /cm 11 a 6+h b 6.1 c6
4 a1 b 13 12 a 6x b 4 c0 d 6x + 4
5 a 2 m/s b 12.26 m/s c 14 m/s e 6x2 f 8x 5 g 2 + 2x
3
Multiple-choice questions 13 4x
1 C 2B 3 D 4E Exercise 17B
5D 6 B 7 C 8 E
1 a 2x + 4 b 2 c 3x2 1 d x 3
Extended-response questions e 15x2 + 6x f 3x2 + 4x
1 a Yes, the relation is linear 2 a 12x11 b 21x6 c5 d 5
b 0.05 ohm/ C e 0 f 10x 3 g 50x4 + 12x3
2 a i 9.8 m/s ii 29.4 m/s h 8x3 + x2 12 x
b i 4.9(8h h2 ) 3 a 6 b 20 c5 d 10 e 0
ii 4.9(8 h) f 7 g 31 h 7 i 34
iii 38.22 m/s, 38.71 m/s, 38.995 m/s,
4 a 60 b 16 c 57 d 168
39.151 m/s, 39.1951 m/s
5 a 7 b 2 c 16 d 11
3
Full 6 a 1 b 0 c 12x2 3
Half d x2 1 e 2x + 3 f 18x2 8
full g 15x2 + 3x
Quarter
full 7 a 2(x + 4) b 48t2 + 16t 7 c 2x
8 a i 3 ii 3a2 b 3x2
6 8 10 1214 16 18 20 22 24 time (h) dy
9 a = 3(x 1)2 0 for all x;
4 a b + a (a ! b) b 3 c 4.01 dx
5 a 2 23 , 1 35 ; Gradient = 1 151 therefore gradient of graph 0 for all x
b 2.1053, 1.9048; Gradient = 1.003 dy
b = 1 for x ! 0
c 1.000025 d 1.0000003 dx
c 18x + 6
6 a 3 13 kg/year b 4.4 kg/year
c (0, 5) (10, 12) d (5, 7) (11, 17 12 ) 10 a 1, Gradient = 2 b 1, Gradient = 1
c 3, Gradient = 4 d 5, Gradient = 4
7 a i 2.5 108 ii 5 108
e 28, Gradient = 36 f 9, Gradient = 24
b 0.007 billion/year
c i 0.004 billion/year ii 0.015 billion/year 11 a i 4x 1, 3, ( 12 , 0)
d 25 years after 2020 1 2 7 $ 3 25 %
ii + x, , ,
8 a i 1049.1 ii 1164.3 iii 1297.7 iv 1372.4 2 3 6 4 16
b At 2.8 the gradient is 1452.8 iii 3x2 + 1, 4, (0, 0)
iv 4x3 31, 27, (2, 46)
9 a a2 + ab + b2 b 7 c 12.06
b Coordinates of the point where gradient is 1
d 3b2
12 a 6t 4 b 2x + 3x2 c 4z 4z3
10 a B b A c 25 m d 45 s
d 6y 3y2 e 6x2 8x f 19.6t 2
e 0.98 m/s, 1.724 m/s, 1.136 m/s
13 a (4, 16) b (2, 8), (2, 8) c (0, 0)
11 a m b cm c m $3 5% $ 1 4%
d , e (2, 12) f , , (1, 0)
2 4 3 27

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Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
824 Answers
17C 17F

Exercise 17C 10 a f1(x) = sin(x) b


1 1
1 a b
(x 3)2 (x + 2)2
d d
2 4 f1(x) = dx (f1(x)) f1(x) = cos(x) f2(x) = dx (f1(x))

2 a 3 b 5
x x c
f1(x) = 2x
3 a 6x3 5x2 b 6x3 + 10x
4 3 20 5 d
c 15x 8x d 6x x f2(x) = dx (f1(x))

3
e 12x3 + 3 f 3 2x2 11 a i 66.80 ii 42.51
4 a 2z 8z , z ! 0 b 9z4 2z3 , z ! 0
2 3
b (0.5352, 0.2420)
Answers

1 c No
c , z!0 d 18z + 4 18z4 , z ! 0
2 12 a (0.6)t2 b 0.6 m/s, 5.4 m/s, 15 m/s
3 $ 5 25 %
e 2z3 , z ! 0 f , z ! 0
5 13 a a = 2, b = 5 b ,
5 a f (x) = 12x3 + 18x4 x2 4 8
b f (x) = 20x3 8x3 x2 14 a Height = 450 000 m; Speed = 6000 m/s
b t = 25 s
6 y

Exercise 17E
x4 5x4
1 a +c b x3 2x + c c x2 + c
8 4
x
0 x4 2x3 x3
2 h d +c e x2 + x + c
a Gradient of PQ = b 2 5 3 3
(1 + h)2 x3 z4 2z3
3 1 f +x+c g +c
7 a 11 b c 1 d 5 3 2 3
4 8 4t3 t4 3t2
1 1 h 6t2 + 9t + c i t3 + t+c
8 a b 3 4 2
2 2 2 f (x) = x4 + 2x3 + 2x
1
9 f (x) = 2 < 0 for all x ! 0 3 y = 2x3 + 12
x
x2
4 a y = x2 x b y = 3x +1
Exercise 17D 2
1 Graphs b and d x3 x3
c y= + x2 + 2 d y = 3x +2
2 Graphs a, b and e 3 3
1 2x5 x2
3 a x=1 b x=1 c x>1 d x<1 e x= 2 e y= +
5 2
4 a (, 3) ( 12 , 4) b (3, 12 ) (4, )
1
c {3, 2 , 4} t3 t2 9 1727
5 a V= + b 287.83
3 2 2 6
5 aB b C c D d A eF f E
6 f (x) = x3 x + 2
6 a y b y
7 aB b w = 2000t 10t2 + 100 000
x2
8 f (x) = 5x +4
y = f (x) 2
x x 4
0 3 0 x
1 9 f (x) = x3 2
4
y = f (x)
10 a k=8 b (0, 7)
c y d y 11 8 23
y = f (x) 12 a k = 4 b y = x2 4x + 9
1 3 y = f (x) 13 a k = 32 b f (7) = 201
x x
0 0 14 y = 13 (x3 5)

Exercise 17F
7 a (1, 1.5) b (, 1) (1.5, ) c {1, 1.5}
8 a (3, 0) b (4, 2) 1 a 15 b 1 c 3 12 d 2 12

e0 f 4 g 2 h 2 3
9 a ( 12 , 6 14 ) b (0, 6)
11 1
i 2 j 12 k l
9 4

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 825

Answers
2 a 3, 4 b 7 2x 3
if x 1
4 f (x) =

3 a Discontinuity at 0, as f (0) = 0, 2 if x < 1
y
lim+ f (x) = 0 but lim f (x) = 2
x0 x0
b Discontinuity at 1, as f (1) = 3,
lim+ f (x) = 3 but lim f (x) = 1
x1 x1
c Discontinuity at 0, as f (0) = 1,
x
lim+ f (x) = 1 but lim f (x) = 0 (1, 1)
x0 x0
4 x=1

17G 17 review
(1, 2)
3
Exercise 17G
1 a y b y
Chapter 17 review
y = f (x)
Technology-free questions
0
x 1 a3 b 2x c 2x + 5
1 1 0
x d 3x2 + 1 e 2x + 2 f 6x 1
3 2 4
2 a 6x 2 b0 c 4 4x
d 4(20x 1) e 6x + 1 f 6x 1
c y d y
4x + 7 4x 1
3 a 1 b 0 c d e x
4 3
y = f (x) y = f (x)
4 a 1; 2 b 3; 4 c 5; 4 d 28; 36
$3 5% $ 1 4%
x x 5 a , b (2, 12) c , , (1, 0)
0 0 2 4 3 27 $ 3 11 %
d (1, 8), (1, 6) e (0, 1), ,
2 16
e y f y
f (3, 0), (1, 4)
1 1 1 1
6 a x= b x= c x> d x<
2 2 2 2
*1+ 5
e xR\ f x=
x x
2 8
1 0 1 1 0 1 5 4 2 4
7 a 4x b 6x c d 5
3x3 x
15 2 1 2+x
e 6 f 3 2 = 3
x x x x
2x + 3 if x 0

2 f (x) =
2 2
3 if x < 0 y g 2 h 10x + 2
x x
$1 1%
8 a a = 2, b = 1 b ,
4 8
3 3 3
x x x 3x2
3 9 a +c b +c c + +c
2 x 2 6 3 2
0 3 2
4x at t4
y = f'(x) d + 6x2 + 9x + c e +c f +c
3 2 12
3 2 3 2
t t t t

g 2t + c h + + 2t + c
2x + 2
if x 1 3 2 3 2
3 f (x) =
10 f (x) = x2 + 5x 25
2 if x < 1 y
11 a f (x) = x3 4x2 + 3x b 0, 1, 3
12 y
(1, 4)
y = f (x)

x
0 1
(1, 2)
x
1 0 2

13 a (1, 4) b (, 1) (4, ) c {1, 4}

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
826 Answers
18A 18D

Multiple-choice questions 5 a i 0 mL ii 833 13 mL


1 D 2 B 3E 4 B 5 C 5
b V (t) = (20t t2 )
6C 7 A 8 E 9 A 10 D 8
c V (t)
Extended-response questions mL/s
(10, 62.5)
1 y

0 20 t (s)

6 a 0.6 km2 b 0.7 km2 /h


1
Exercise 18C
Answers

x
1 0 2 3 5 1 a (3, 6) b (3, 2) c (2, 2) d (4, 48)
1
e (0, 0), (2, 8) f (0, 10), (2, 6)
7 3 1 2 20 2 a = 2, b = 8, c = 1
2 y= x + x x
36 36 9 3 a = 12 , b = 1, c = 1 12

3 a i 71.57 ii 89.58 b 2 km $ 5 25 %
4 a 0.12, 0.15 4 a a = 2, b = 5 b ,
4 8
b x = 2, y = 2.16; Height 2.16 km
3 5 a = 8
5 a t = 250, 11.9 cm/s b 3.97 cm/s
6 a=6
6 a At x = 0, gradient is 2; at x = 2, gradient $7 625 %
is 2. Angles of inclination to the positive 7 a (2.5, 12.25) b ,
48 96
direction of the x-axis are supplementary. c (0, 27), (3, 0) d (2, 48), (4, 60)
e (3, 4), (1, 0) f (1.5, 0.5)
8 a = 1, b = 2
Chapter 18 2 3
9 a = , b = , c = 3, d = 7 12
9 2
Exercise 18A
Exercise 18D
1 a y = 4x 4, 4y + x = 18
b y = 12x 15, 12y + x = 110 1 a min (0, 0) b min (3, 27)
c y = x + 4, y = x max (6, 108) max (1, 5)
d y = 6x + 2, 6y + x = 49 y y

2 y = 2x 10
8 (6, 108) (1, 5)
3 y = 2x 1, y = 2x ; x
3 5 0
Both have gradient 2; Distance apart = (1.9, 0) (4.8, 0)
3 x
4 y = 3x + 2, y = 3x + 6 0 9 (3, 27)

5 a Tangents both have gradient 2 b (0, 3)


c inflection (0, 0) y
6 (3, 12), (1, 4) min (3, 27)
7 a y = 10x 16 b (4, 56)
8 a y = 5x 1 b (2, 4), (4, 8) 0
x

(4, 0)
Exercise 18B (3, 27)
36
1 a 36; = 36 b 48 12h c 48 $8
1 256 %
2 a 1200t 200t2 b $1800 per month 2 a (0, 0) max; min ,
3 27
c At t = 0 and t = 6 b (0, 0) min; (2, 4) max c (0, 0) min
$ 10 200 000 %
3 a 30 4P
d , min; (0, 0) inflection
b 10, 10 3 729
$ 1 67 %
c For P < 7.5 revenue increases as
e (3, 7) min; , max
P increases 3 27
$ 4 400 %
4 a 50 people per year b 0 people per year
f (6, 36) min; , max
c Decreasing by 50 people per year 3 27

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 827

Answers
3 a max at (1, 4) y 11 a i (0, 2) ii (, 0) (2, ) iii {0, 2}
min at (1, 0) (1, 4) b y

intercepts (2, 0), (1, 0)


(0, 2)

x
(1, 0) 0 (2, 0) 0
x
3
(2, 4)
b min at (2, 8) y
12 Stationary point of inflection at (3, 8)
max at (0, 0) y

18E
intercepts (3, 0), (0, 0) (3, 8)
(0, 0) (3, 0)
x
0
x
0 1
(2, 8)
-19
c min at (3, 16) y
max at (1, 16) 13 min at (2, 9)
and (2, 9); max at (0, 7)
intercepts
(0, 11), (1, 16) (0, 11) intercepts ( 7, 0), (1, 0), (0, 7)
(1 2 3, 0), (1, 0) (1, 0) y
x
0
(1 + 23, 0) (0, 7)
(1 23, 0) (3, 16)
(7, 0) 0 (7, 0)
x
4 a Local maximum (1, 0) (1, 0)
b Stationary point of inflection
(2, 9) (2, 9)
5 a (, 1) (3, )
b (1, 14) max; (3, 10) min
c y
Exercise 18E
(1, 14) (4, 14)
1 2500 cm2
2 25
(0, 10)
(3, 10) 3 2
x
4 a V(x) = (6 2x)2 x
0 b Vmax = 16 m3 when x = 1
6 { x : 2 < x < 2 } 5 a i 0.9375 m ii 2.5 m iii 2.8125 m
7 a x (1, 1) b x (, 1) (1, ) 40 80
b x= ,y=
5 3 27
8 a x= , x=3 c i x = 11.937, x = 1.396 ii x = 14.484
3$
5 400 % 75x x3
b max at , , min at (3, 36) 6 bV= c 125 cm3 d 118 cm3
3 27 2
intercepts (5, 0), (0, 0), (3, 0) 7 256
y 5& '
8 x = 9 21
(6, 54) 3
35 , 400
27 9 Absolute max = 2; Absolute min = 30
x 10 Absolute max = 6; Absolute min = 9
3 0 5
(5, 100) 11 Absolute max = 32; Absolute min = 8
(3, 36) 12 Absolute max = 1050; Absolute min = 8
9 10 dV 125 432
13 b = 30x 36x2 c d
y y dx 36 125
(3, 83) 125 5
e when x =
(1, 0)
(0, 2)
36 6
x
0 (4, 0) x 14 a 15 y 18 b Max 75, min 36
125 000 125 000
(0, 4)
(3, 4)
15 a b 3000 c
(5, 173) 27 27
dA 1 25 2
16 b = (2x 10) c x = 5 d m
dx 8 8

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
828 Answers
18F ! 18 review

Exercise 18F Exercise 18H


1 a x = 11 b x = 16 1 a (x 2)(3x 2(b + 1))
2(b + 1) 4(b 2)3
2 a 12 cm/s b t = 6, x = 25 b (2, 0), , d b=5
c 9 m/s d 9 m/s 3 27
p 2 a (0, 0) and (9, 2187)
3 a 3 cm/s b 2 3 s
b (a, b) and (9 + a, 2187 + b)
4 a x = 5 cm, v = 0 cm/s, a = 12 cm/s2 1 1
b t = 0, x = 5, a = 12; t = 1, x = 3, a = 12 3 a i 1, ii ,1
2a 2a
5 a 2 m/s2 b 50 m/s2 1 1 1
b y= x+ c y=x d 1,
6 a (15 9.8t) m/s b 9.8 m/s2 a a 4a
2
a + 2 4(a 1)3
7 a 3.5 s b 2 m/s c 14.5 m 4 a (a, 0) and ,
d When t = 2.5 s; the particle is 1.25 m to the 3 27
left of O b Local minimum at (a, 0)
Answers

a + 2 4(a 1)3
8 a 0 s, 1 s, 2 s Local maximum at ,
3 27
b 2 m/s, 1 m/s, 2 m/s; 6 m/s2 , 0 m/s2 , 6 m/s2 c i y = (a 1)2 (x 1) ii y = 0
c 0 m/s (a 1)2
9 a 12 cm to the right of O iii y = (x a)
4
b 2 cm to the right of O 5 a i 2(a 2) ii m = 2(a 2)
c Moving to the left at 7 cm/s b (a, (a 2)2 )
d t = 3.5 s; particle is 0.25 cm to the left of O a+2
c y = 2(a 2)x a2 + 4 d
e 2 cm/s f 2.9 cm/s 2
10 a 18 m/s2 , 54 m/s2 , 114 m/s2 , b 58 m/s2 6 a h=2 b a=3 c a = 16, b = 24
11 a 3 cm to the left of O, moving to the right at 7 a (0, 0) b (a, b)
24 cm/s 8 a 2(x 1)(x b)(2x b 1)
b + 1 (b 1)4
b v = 3t2 22t + 24 b (1, 0), (b, 0), , c b=3
c After 34 s and 6 s 2 16
d 11 22
27
cm to the right of O and 39 cm to the
left of O Exercise 18I
e 4 23 s 1 a 1.32 b 1.164 c 1.124 or 1.451
f a = 6t 22 d 2.151 e 1.75
g When t = 113 s and the particle is 13 16
27
cm 2 1.44225 3 1.618
left of O moving to the left at 16 13 cm/s
12 a When t = 23 s and a = 2 cm/s2 , and when Chapter 18 review
t = 1 and a = 2 cm/s2
b When t = 56 and the particle is moving Technology-free questions
to the left at 16 cm/s dy
1 a = 4 2x b 2 c y = 2x + 1
13 When t = 2 s, v = 6 cm/s, a = 14 cm/s2 dx
When t = 3 s, v = 5 cm/s, a = 8 cm/s2 2 a 3x2 8x b 4 c y = 4x d (0, 0)
When t = 8 s, v = 30 cm/s, a = 22 cm/s2 3 a 3x2 12; x = 2
14 a t = 4 s and t = 1 s b t = 32 s b Local minimum when x = 2
Local maximum when x = 2
Exercise 18G c x = 2, y = 14; x = 2, y = 18
4 a Stationary point of inflection at x = 0
1 a x = 2t2 6t b At the origin O
b Maximum at x = 0
c 9 cm d 0 cm/s e 3 cm/s
c Min at x = 3, max at x = 2
2 a x = t3 4t2 + 5t + 4, a = 6t 8 d Min at x = 2, max at x = 2
b When t = 1, x = 6; when t = 53 , x = 5 23
27 e Max at x = 2, min at x = 2
c When t = 1, a = 2 cm/s2 ; f Max at x = 3, min at x = 1
when t = 53 , a = 2 cm/s2 g Max at x = 4, min at x = 3
3 x = 215 13 , v = 73 h Max at x = 3, min at x = 5
2 16 2 16
4 a v = 10t + 25 b x = 5t2 + 25t 5 a , minimum, , minimum
c 2.5 s d 31 14 m e 5 s 3 9 3 9
5 The 29th floor b ( 1, 0) maximum, (2, 27) minimum
2 100
c , maximum, (3, 9) minimum
3 27

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Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 829

Answers
6 a y b y 4 a 15 C
45 15
(2, 4) b 0 C/min, C/min, C/min,
(6, 0) 16 4
x 45
x
0 C/min, 0 C/min
0 3 16
(4, 32) c y
(C)
c y d y
(20, 65)
(1, 4) 65
12 , 1 3
, 0
2 2
0

18 review
x x
1 0 2 23 , 0 15
1
, 1
2
0 20 t (min)
e y 5 a 768 units/day b 432, 192, 48, 0
c t = 16 d sweetness
0 (12, 0) (units)
x

4000 (16, 4000)


(8, 256)

7 aC b A cB 0 1 16 time (days)
8 a 20 m b 6s c 40 m/s 6 a y
9 72 y = s(t)
15 128 64
10 a m/s b m c 0m d m/s
2 3 9
Multiple-choice questions 0
ds t (minutes)
y=
1 D 2 E 3 E 4 A 5 C 6 D dt
7 D 8 A 9 A 10 C 11 A 12 A b 11:59 a.m., 12:03 p.m.
5
Extended-response questions c km, 1 km
27
1 a 14 m/s b 8 m/s2
8
2 a V d km/min = 17 79 km/h
27000000
27
(litres)
1
e km/min = 20 km/h
3
7 a 0 t 12
0 30 t (minutes)
b i 27 L/h ii 192 L/h
b i 17.4 minutes ii 2.9 minutes
8 a 28.8 m
dV
c = 3000(30 t)2 b 374.4
dt
c y (7, 493.6)
d 30 minutes (m)
e 28.36 minutes
f y
27000000 (0, 28.8)
y = V(t) x (km)
d Path gets too steep after 7 km
0 30
e i 0.0384 ii 0.0504 iii 0.1336
y = V (t) t
2 700 000
9 a y
y = x3
3 a W (20, 80) (40, 80)
(tonnes)
(30, 78.75) x
0
y = 2 + x x2
0 60 x (days) b For x 0, the minimum vertical distance
b From 5.71 days until 54.29 days occurs when x = 1; Min distance = 1 unit
dW
c When x = 20 and when x = 40, = 0; 10 8 mm for maximum and 43 mm for minimum
dx
dW 11 a y = 5 x b P = x(5 x)
When x = 60, = 12 tonnes per day
dx c Max value is 6.25 when x = 2.5 and y = 2.5
d When x = 30, W = 78.75

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
830 Answers

500
19 revision

12 a y = 10 2x b A = x2 (10 2x) 31 a h = x b V = 500x x3


1000 10 10 x !
c A= ,x= ,y= dV 5
27 3 3 c = 500 3x2 d x = 10 7.28
dx 3
13 20 10
e V f 2427.89 cm3
14 a y = 8 x b s = x2 + (8 x)2 c 32 (cm3)
4 8
15 ,
3 3
0 500 x (cm)
16 Maximum area is 625 m2 for 25 m 25 m 500
Answers

3
17 x = 12 18 32
g x = 2.05, h = 75.41 or x = 11.46, h = 2.42
19 Maximum value of P is 2500
32 a r = 4.3 cm, h = 8.6 cm
20 Maximum area is 2 km2 for 2 km 1 km b r = 4.3 cm, h = 8.6 cm
3 8
21 p = , q =
2 3
22 a y = 60 x b S = 5x2 (60 x)
c 0 < x < 60 d S Chapter 19
(40,160000)
Technology-free questions
1 h

0 60 x (cm)
e x = 40, y = 20 f 74 005
23 12 C
24 b 0 < x < 30 c V 0 v
(cm3) (20, 24000)
2 a 1 m/s b 41 m/s
3 a i 4 ii 3 b 2 h c 2
4 x1
0 30 x (cm)
5 a 6x2 1b 2x + 1 c 1
d 20 cm, 40 cm, 30 cm
e x = 14.82 or x = 24.4 6 a 13 b 10
1 1 1
25 b Maximum when x = 3 and y = 18 7 a x = 0 or x = b x= c x<
2 4 4
26 a Use 44 cm for circle and 56 cm for square 1 11
d x> e x=
b Use all the wire for the circle 4 4
27 Length 7.2 metres, width 4.5 metres 4 2 2z 9
$ 8 a 6x + x b
x% z4
28 a A = xy b A= 8 x 1 13
2 9 Tangent y = 3x 1; Normal y = x
c 0 < x < 16 d A 3 3
(m2) (8, 32) 10 a t = 0 and t = 2
b t = 0, a = 1 cm/s2 ; t = 2, a = 1 cm/s2
c 12 cm/s
$ 2 32 %
11 Local minimum ,
3 3 3
0 8 16 x (m) $ 2 32 %
e 32 m2 Local maximum ,
3 3 3
29 h = 1188, a = 937
10 Multiple-choice questions
30 a y = 10 x b 0x 1 B 2 A 3 B 4A 5 B 6 A

x 7 D 8 B 9 C 10 A 11 C 12 B
c A = (20 x) d
2 A 10 100
, 13 A 14 C 15 C 16 A 17 D 18 E
(m2) 2
19 C 20 B 21 E 22 D 23 A 24 A
25 C 26 D 27 B 28 B 29 B 30 C
31 D 32 E 33 A 34 A 35 C 36 C
0 10 x (m) 37 D 38 D 39 D

10
e Maximum at x = f A semicircle

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 831

Answers
Extended-response questions b 1366 insects
dy c i t = 40 ii t = 51.70
1 a 100 b = 1 0.02x d 63.64
dx 33 h 4
c x = 50, y = 25 d y 1000 2 4 2 20 1
e i
(50, 25) h
ii Consider h decreasing and approaching
zero; instantaneous rate of change
x
= 58.286 insects/day
0 100 150 2x2 2
8 a h= b V = (150x 2x3 )

19 revision
e i (25, 18.75) ii (75, 18.75) 3x 3
$ 2 22 % dV
2 a 66 , 14 c = 2(50 2x2 ) d 0 < x < 5 3
3 27 dx
b i 0.28 ii 0.32 iii 1 1000 3
e m when x = 5
c A gradual rise to the turning point and a 3
descent which becomes increasingly steep f
V
1000
(in fact, alarmingly steep) (m3) 5,
3
d Smooth out the end of the trip
5
3 a h = 5 4x c 0<x<
4 0 (5 3, 0) x (m)
dV
d = 30x 36x2
dx 9 a 10
* 5+ 17 c i h = 2.5x
e 0, ; Maximum volume = 3 cm3
6 36 d V = 40(420x 135x2 )
f V 14 140
5 125
, e i x= ,y= ii 13 066 23 m3
(cm3) 6 36 9 9
10 a a = 200, k = 0.000 01
400 320 8379 357
b i ii c i ii
0 5 3 27 800 4000
, 0 x cm
4 357 441 441
d i y= x+ ii
dh 4000 400 400
4 a = 30 10t b 45 m e 0.09975
dt
c h (3, 45)
f y
357 x 441
(m) y= +
4000 400
400 , 320
3 27

441 y = 0.00001x2(200 x)
0,
0 3 6 t (s) 400
x
0
5 a A = 4x 6x2 b V = x2 2x3
c V 1
,
1 11 a 10 000 people/km2
(cm3) 3 27

2+ 6
b 0r
2
1 0
c P
0 , x cm (1, 30)
2 (100)
1 1 1 1
d cm cm cm; Volume = cm3
3 3 3 27 10
6 a i r = 1 x2 ii h = 1 + x
c 0<x<1 0 2 + 6 r (km)
dV 32 3 2
,0
d i = (1 2x 3x2 ) ii { 13 } iii m
dx 3 81 dP
d i = 40 40r ii 20, 0, 40
e V 1 32 dr
,
(m3) 3 81 iii dP
dr

0, 2 + 6
3 40
2
0 1 x (m) 0 1 r

7 a 1000 insects e At r = 1

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
832 Answers

a2 a
20A 20C

12 a y = ax x2 b 0 < x < a , c 2 a 24x2 (2x3 + 1)3 b 648


4 2 1 3
2
d Negative coecient of x for quadratic 3 a b
16 256
function $ 81 ( 2 $ 1% $ 1%
e i y ii 0, 4 a b 3, , 0,
4 9 3 3
1 1
4.5, 81 5 a b c y = x + 2 d y = x 2
4 4 4
e At P, y = x + 2; at Q, y = x 2; (2, 0)
f y
x
0 4.5 9
Answers

13 a i 0 ii 1600 1
y= x 2 y= 1
x
dV
b = 0.6(40t 2t2 ) 2
x
dt 2 0
c V d dV
2
(20, 1600) dt
(10, 120)

Exercise 20B
0 20 t 1 2 3 1
0 t 1 a x 3 b x2 , x > 0
3 2
14 a 1 = a + b b 0 = 3a + 2b, a = 2, b = 3 5 3 3 1 1 2
c x x , x > 0 d x 2 5x 3 , x > 0
2 2
c y 2 2
5 11 1 3
e x 6 , x > 0 f x 2 , x > 0
6 2
1 1 2
(0, 0) 2 a x(1 + x2 ) 2 b (1 + 2x)(x + x2 ) 3
x 3
3 1 2
(1, 1) c x(1 + x )2 2
d (1 + x) 3
3
3 4 4 1 1
15 a i 80 2x ii h = x 3 a i ii iii iv
2 3 3 3 3
3 80 7 & 2 '6 8
c A= x(160 3x) d x = 4 a {x : 0 < x < 1} b x:x> 3
4 3 1 1

1400 2x2 8x 5 a 5x 2 (2 5 x) b 3x 2 (3 x + 2)
16 a y =
4x 3 5 3 1 3
x3 c 4x3 x 2 d x 2 x 2
b V = 2x2 + 350x 2 2
2 15 3 1
e x 2 + 3x 2
dV 3 2
c = x2 4x + 350
dx 2
d x = 14 Exercise 20C
e (14, 3136) 3 2
V 1 a +c b 3x2 3 + c
(cm3) x 3x
4 3 2 5 9 4 20 9
c x2 + x2 + c d x3 x4 + c
0 14 24.53 x (cm)
3 5 4 9
f Maximum volume is 3136 cm3 3 2 12 7 14 3
e z2 + c f x4 x2 + c
g x = 22.83 and y = 1.92, or 2 z 7 3
x = 2.94 and y = 115.45 2 3 1 22
2 a y = x 2 + x2
3 2 3
3 1 3 1 9
b y= 2 c y = x2 +
Chapter 20 2 2x 2 x 2
3 1 17
3 f (x) = x +
Exercise 20A x 2
3t2 8
1 a 30(x 1)29 b 100(x4 2x9 )(x5 x10 )19 4 s= + 8 5 y=5
c 4(1 3x2 5x4 )(x x3 x5 )3 2 t
d 8(x + 1)7 e 4(x + 1)(x2 + 2x)3 6 a 2 b y = x2 + 1
3
f 6(x + x )(x2 2x1 )4
2 x 7
7 y= +
3 3

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 833

Answers
Exercise 20D e f y
2
1 a 6x b 0 c 108(3x + 1)
y=x2
1 3 2
d x 2 + 18x
4
x
e 306x16 + 396x10 + 90x4 2 0 2
9 1 2
f 10 + 12x3 + x 2
4
2 a 18x b 0 c 12 d 432(6x + 1)2
e 300(5x + 2)2 f 6x + 4 + 6x3
Chapter 20 review

20D 20 review
3 9.8 m/s2
7 Technology-free questions
4 a i 16 ii 4 m/s iii m/s iv 32 m/s
4 1 1 2 4 1
b t=0 1 a b c d x3
1 2 4 3
c 8 m/s 2x 2 3x 3 3x 3
1 1 6
e 4 f 4 + 2
Exercise 20E
3x 3 3x 3 5x 5
15 2 a 8x + 12 b 24(3x + 4)3
1 a ( 12 , 4), ( 12 , 4) b y= x+1
4 1 2
2 12 c d
3 (3 + 2x)2
3 12 (3 2x) 2
4 3x
4 a (4, 0), (1, 0) b y = x 5, x = 0 e 5
f 3
c (2, 1) min y 3(2x 1) 3 (2 + x2 ) 2
2
(2, 9) max 1$ 6 %$ 3 % 3
y=x5 g 4x + 3 2x2 2
3 x x
x 5 3
0 1 2x 2 4x 2
(2, 1) 3 a 2 +c b +c
(2, 9) x 5 3
3x2 6x 1
c + 2x + c d +c
x=0 2 2x2
3 7 4
5 3 5x2 4x 2 20x 4 3x 3
e +c f +c
6 4 y 2 3 7 2
3
y=x 2x 2 (3x + 1)
g 2x +c h +c
3 x2
1 1 3
(2, 4)
4 s = t2 + 3t + +
0
x
2 t 2
1 1 1
5 a b 2 c d 2 e f 0
6 16 6
$1 % $ 1 %
7 a y b y 6 , 2 and , 2
2 2
$ 1 1%
x=0 7 ,
y=x y = x 16 4
(1, 2) (1.26, 1.89) (1, 0) Multiple-choice questions
x x
(1, 2) 0 0 1 B 2 D 3 A 4 A 5A
x=0 6E 7 A 8 B 9 A 10 D
y = x Extended-response questions
400
c y d y 1 a h= 2
y = x3 r
x = 3 x=0 dA 800
4
3
c = 4r 2
dr r
x (3, 108)
$ 200 % 13
1 0
0
x d r= 3.99
y=x+1 (2, 0)
(3, 108) 2
e A = 301 cm
(4, 4)

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
834 Answers
21A 21 review

f A
800
Exercise 21B
600 A = 2r2 + r 7 1 15
1 a b 20 c d 9 e
A = 2r2 3 4 4
297
f = 49.5 g 15 13 h 30
(4, 300) 6
4
2 4 3 9 4 5 4
3
5 10 r
16 Exercise 21C
2 a y= c x = 4, P = 16 32
x 1 y
d P 3
50 3
2
1
32 x
P = 2x + x -1 1 2 3 4
Answers

-2
-3
(4, 16)
10
2 36 y
0 10 50 x
1 x
120 120 -3 -2 -1-1 1 2 3
3 a OA = b OX = +7 -3
x x
600
c OZ = x + 5 d y = 7x + + 155 -9
x
10 42 3 36
e x= 9.26 cm 37
7 4
1 12
4 a A(2, 0), B(0, 2) b 5 a8 b 16 c 4
2 x + 2
1 3 5 6 a 12 b 36 c 20
c i ii 2y x = 3 iii 7 a 24, 21, 45 b 4, 1, 3
2 2
7 8 4.5 square units 9 166 23 square units
d x>
4 37
18 10 square units
5 a h= 2 c x = 3, h = 2 12
x 11 a 1 b 1 c 14 d 31 e 2 14 f 0
d A 4 1 1
100 12 a b c 121 12 d
108 3 6 6
A = 2x2 + x
e 4 3 6.93 f 108
(3, 54)

20 Chapter 21 review
0 2 10 x Technology-free questions
250 dS 3000 196
6 a y= c = 24x 2 1 a3 b 6 c 114 d e5
x2 dx x 3
d S min = 900 cm2 14 1 15 16
2 a b 48 34 c d e
3 2 16 15
15
3 square units y
Chapter 21 4

Exercise 21A
1 62 square units 2 80 square units
3 60.90623 square units 4 68 square units x
0 1 2
5 a 13.2 b 10.2 c 11.7
4 4 12 square units 5 1
21 12 square units
6 a 4.375 b 4.536 4
7 a 36.8 b 36.75 6 a B(1, 3), C(3, 3) b6 c
3
8 3.13 Multiple-choice questions
9 a 4.371 b 1.128 1 C 2 D 3 A 4 D 5 B
10 109.5 m2 6 B 7 D 8 B 9 C 10 A

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 835
$ 1 1% 2

Answers
Extended-response questions 7 a 6 m2 b i y= x ii x2 m
2 4
9 $ x3 %
1 2 16 2
1 a y= 2x2 + 3 c i y = x , P(2, 2), S (2, 2) ii m
32 3 )4 8( 2 3
7 3 2
b y c Yes, for x , 8 a y = 7 10 x 0.00116x + 0.405x + 60
3 3
b 100 m
(0, 3)
c i y ii (0, 60)

(4, 0)
x
0

22 revision
x
3 0
2 a 27 square units b y= (x 4)2
25 d 51 307 m2
189 486
c square units d square units 9 a y b x = 2.988
25 25
3 a i 120 L ii R x
y =0 f (t)dt
(L/s)
2
x
0

0 60 t (s)
b i 900 L ii
(L/s)
R
R=
t
2
Chapter 22
(60, 30)
Technology-free questions
11 13 35
1 a b c
0 60 t (s) 6 12 24
iii 900a2 L 9 1 1 4 10 8 2
c i 7200 square units 2 a x2 b x 5 c x 3 d 10x 3
2 5 3
ii Volume of water which has flowed in 1 6 2 5 1
iii 66.94 s e x 5 f x 3 3x 2
5 3
4 a s 3 a 6(3x + 5) b 8(2x + 7)3
(km/h) 2 4 12
60 c (5 2x) 3 d
3 (5 + 3x)2
2 5 3
e (x 1) 3 f 9x(2 + 3x2 ) 2
0 2 t (h) 3
2
b i s ii 3.75 km 1 $ 3 5 % 3 $ 2 5 %
g 2x 6x + 2
(km/min) 3 x x
(5, 1.5)
1.5 t2 3 3
4 x = + 4t +
2 t 2
1 3
0 5 t (min) 5 a b 3 c
2 27 8
c i 20 6t m/s $ $ 1 % 13 1 %
ii iii 144 metres 6 ,43
V 2
$$ 1 % 2 $ 1 % 12 %
3 $ $1%3 $1%1 %
2 2
7 , and ,
6 6 6 6
1
0 6 20 t 8 a x3 + x + c b t3 t2 + 2t + c
3 2
5 a i 4m ii 16 m 2 3 4 5 3 4
c x2 + c d x2 + x3 + c
b i 0.7 ii 0.8 3 5 4
100 500 2 5
c i ii 9 a b
3 27 3 6
3125 2 1 1
d m 10 a square units b square units
6 6 2
e i (15 + 5 33, 12) Multiple-choice questions
ii R = 60 33 60, q = 20, p = 15 + 5 33
1 E 2C 3 E 4 D 5 A
6 a i 9 ii y = 9x 3 iii y = 3x2 + 3x
6 A 7 E 8 C 9E 10 C
b i 12 + k ii k = 7 iii y = 3x2 7x + 12
11 B 12 C 13 C

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
836 Answers

Chapter 23 1 1 1
23 revision

23 a b c
4 3 4
Technology-free questions 24 a (0, 1) b y

1 x=4
2d b 2 + 3
2 t=
a 2c (1, 2) (1, 2)
3
3 x 2 3 x
2 (1, 0) 0
4 a 12 b 3 c 100
Answers

5 15
37 5
6 x 25 a x = 3 b x=or x = 1
5 2
7 a = 7.9 2
$ a + 8 b + 14 % 26 k = 4 and y = 2x + 4x + 3
8 a , b a = 2, b = 6 1 2x2 1
2 2 27 a= 28 y = 29 b =
25 3 9 3
9 a 4y 3x = 30 b 30 Intersect at (3, 27); both curves have
2
gradient 27 at this point
10 a (2, 12 ) b 445 c 11x + 18y = 31
31 a (5, 260) and (5, 240)
d 22y 36x + 61 = 0
y
11 y

(2, 6)
(5, 240) y = x3 75x 10

2 0
x x
2 6 0 2 + 6
10

9 (5, 260)
12 y = (x 2)2 6
8 b 260 p 240
13 a = 2
32 a R \ {3} b R \ {2} c (, 2]
14 a w = 1500 9x b V = 20x2 (1500 9x) d [4, ) e (, 5)
500
c 0x d 120 000 000 cm3
3 Multiple-choice questions
16 28 1 B 2 A 3 D 4 D 5 D 6 C
15 a b
81 153 7 C 8 A 9 B 10 A 11 B 12 A
1 13 A 14 E 15 B 16 C 17 B 18 A
16
3 19 C 20 A 21 B 22 B 23 C 24 D
1 1 25 C 26 C 27 B 28 A 29 E 30 C
17 a b
2 3
18 0.42 Extended-response questions
b
19 , 1 a i b ii x =
9 9 2
b
20 a c=6 b 0 = 8a 2b + 6, 0 = 3a + b b i S (b) = (32 b2 ) ii b = 2
c a = 3, b = 9 2
$1 % 34
21 a = 48 2 a a=4 b ,4 c
4 15
22 a Amplitude = 4; Period = 3 a 2t2 6t b O c 0 cm/s d 9 cm e 3 cm/s
b y $ 2a % $ 2a %
4 a i (, 0) , ii 0,
(, 4) 4 (, 4)
3 3
2 x 1 a4
b y = a (x a) c y = 2 d
y = 4 cos(2x)
a a 12
x
5 a y = 13 9x b A = 156x 60x2
3 0 3 13 13
4 2 4 4 2 4 c x= and y =
10 10
6 b 2 080 000 m2 when x = 800 and y = 1200
4
( 2 , 4( ( 2 , 4(

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.
Answers 837

Answers
c A m2 ii y

27040000
9
(1040, 2163 200)
y = x2 + 4x 2
(2600 , 169000000 )
3 81
(800, 2080 000) 0
x m x
2 6 2 + 6

7
7 a (0, 1), (0, 3), (0, 5), (0, 7), (0, 9), (0, 11), 2

(2, 1), (2, 3), (2, 5), (2, 7), (2, 9), (2, 11),

A1 A3
(4, 1), (4, 3), (4, 5), (4, 7), (4, 9), (4, 11), $ 2 p2 5p %
(6, 1), (6, 3), (6, 5), (6, 7), (6, 9), (6, 11),
b , c p = 0 or p = 5
1 p p1
(8, 1), (8, 3), (8, 5), (8, 7), (8, 9), (8, 11), d 0 < p < 5 and p ! 1
8 e y = 2x2 4x 1
(10, 1), (10, 3), (10, 5), (10, 7), (10, 9), (10, 11)
y
1 5 5 2
b i ii iii c y = 2x2 + 4x 1
36 36 36 13
y = 2x2 4x 1
2 5 5

8 a AB = 0 6 2 d x = 1, y = 2, z = 3

0 0 4 x
2 6 2 6 2 + 6 2 + 6
9 a x 2a 2 2
1
2 2

1 + 1 8a 1 1 8a
b x= or x = (1, 2) (1, 2)
2 2
1
c a= d y
8 14 a b 115 2 cm c 115 3 cm
y=x 6

x 14
y=

( 12 , 12 ( Appendix A
x
0
Exercise A1
1 a Quotient 3x2 + 6x + 16; Remainder 26
10 a 0.343 b 0.399
b Quotient 3x2 5x + 9; Remainder 3
11 a 0.4219 b 0.2156 c 0.6125 c Quotient x2 2x 6; Remainder 54
12 a [mb + 3, ma + 3] d Quotient 4x2 2x + 6; Remainder 69
1 3 e Quotient 2x2 x + 3; Remainder 69
b f 1 (x) = x +
m m
$ a + b m(a + b) + 6 % Exercise A2
c ,
2 2 3 1 21 1 1 5
d 2ym 2x = m2 (a + b) + 6m (a + b) 1 a , b ,
2 2 3 2
e y = mx 3m + 8 1 1 41 1 1 13
A (a 3, ma + 8), B (b 3, mb + 8) c , d ,
3 4 2 2
f y = mx + 3
1 1 2 1 1 2
A (a, ma + 3), B (b, mb + 3) e , , f , ,
7 2 3 5 2 3 3
g b = 12, m =
6 Exercise A3
13 a i y
1 a x = 2, y = 3, z = 1 b x = 3, y = 5, z = 2
c x = 5, y = 0, z = 7
2 x = 6, y = 5, z = 1 3 a = 1, b = 2, c = 3
4 b = 1, c = 2, d = 5 5 x = 5, y = 2, z = 1
0 2 6 b = 2, c = 0, d = 3
x
7 a y + 5z = 15 and y + 5z = 15
b The solution is a straight line
y = (x 2)2
c y = 5 15 d x = 43 13
8 a y = 2 + 4z
b x = 8 5, y = 2 + 4, z = , for R

Cambridge Senior Maths AC/VCE ISBN 978-1-107-52013-4 Evans et al. 2016 Cambridge University Press
Mathematical Methods 1&2 Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.

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