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Vol. XXXV No. 7 July 2017


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MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 7


Cracking the

Rank

Advanced EXAM
Sarvesh Mehtani Physics Rotation, Magnetism, EMI, Waves and Mechanics.
Chemistry Physical Chemistry - Equilibrium, Surface
s -4'7HYDIDYOUAPPEARFOR%NGINEERING%NTRANCE Chemistry; Organic Chemistry - Aldehydes, Ketones and
Carboxylic acids, Hydrocarbons and Inorganic Chemistry -
3ARVESH-EHTANI I saw the movie 3-Idiots in class 8th
p-Block elements, Metallurgy, Qualitative analysis.
and was really inspired. I had a keen interest in Science and
Mathematics, so appearing for Engineering exams became s -4'(OWMUCHTIMEDOESONEREQUIREFORSERIOUS
quite obvious. PREPARATIONFORTHISEXAM
s -4'  7HAT EXAMS HAVE YOU APPEARED FOR AND 3ARVESH  It depends on person to person. I had a very
WHATAREYOURRANKSINTHESEEXAMS regular preparation. The total preparation for JEE Main and
JEE Advanced was a little different. I think the preparation
3ARVESHNTSE - both the stages
should be normally done till 12th standard with the 10th and
KVPY - 31st rank (Stage II)
12th syllabus and everyone should orient themselves a little
IMO - topper (International Rank I) in class 10th conducted
towards the JEE Mains because there are little
by Science Olympiad Foundation, New Delhi
extra topics. But after the JEE Mains are done,
BITS - 430/450
RD W ORK
OUSH A you can start preparation for JEE Advanced.
JEE Advanced -AIR -1st (Topper)
# ONTINU G U I D ANCE
G
JEE Main - AIR - 55th rank LLOWIN s-4'  (OW WAS THE PREPARATION FOR
ANDFO ER S *%%!DVANCEDDIFFERENTFROM*%%-AIN
s -4'(OWMANYHOURSINADAY TEACH
OFMY 3ARVESHIt was nothing different. Just that for
DIDYOUSTUDYTOPREPAREFORTHE
JEE Advanced, there is high amount of pressure as compared
EXAMINATION
to other exams.
3ARVESH  The days when I did not go to my coaching, I
did 8-10 hours of self study and with coaching 5-6 hours s -4'!NYEXTRACOACHING
of self study. 3ARVESH  I attended (National Institute), Chandigarh for
extra guidance.
s -4'/NWHICHTOPICSANDCHAPTERSYOULAIDMORE
STRESSINEACHSUBJECT s -4'  7HICH 3UBJECTS4OPICS YOU WERE STRONG
3ARVESH  Mathematics Trigonometry, Co-ordinate WEAKAT
Geometry, Integral Calculus, Vectors and Three Dimensional 3ARVESH  In Maths, I was weak in Trigonometry and
Geometry. Functions. In Physics, I had more queries in Waves.

8 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


s -4'7HICH"OOKS-AGAZINESYOUREAD I used to read Mathematics Today, Physics For You and
3ARVESHI used many subjectwise books. I did not use any Chemistry Today.
special books during the preparation. I also did the sheets s -4'7ASTHISYOURlRSTATTEMPT
given by my institute. 3ARVESHYes, it is my rst attempt.
s -4')NYOURWORDSWHATARETHECOMPONENTSOF s -4'7HATDOYOUTHINKISTHESECRETOFYOURSUCCESS
ANIDEALPREPARATIONPLAN
3ARVESH  Continuous hard work and following guidance
3ARVESH  An ideal preparation plan includes hard work,
of my teachers.
follow your teachers instructions and continuously work
towards your goal in organised manner. s -4'(OWDIDYOUDE STRESSYOURSELFDURINGTHE
PREPARATION7HATAREYOURHOBBIES(OWOFTEN
s -4'  7HAT ROLE DID THE FOLLOWING PLAY IN YOUR
COULDYOUPURSUETHEM
SUCCESS
3ARVESH  I de-stress myself by talking to my friends,
(a) Parents (b) Teachers (c) School
watching cartoons, listening to music, playing badminton
3ARVESH(a) My parents have given me constant support,
and reading novels.
they have never pressurised me and kept me stress free.
(b) My teachers taught the complete course and helped s -4'7HATDOYOUFEELISLACKINGINOUREDUCATION
me a lot. They have solved all my extra queries. EXAMINATION SYSTEM )S THE EXAMINATION SYSTEM
(c) In school, focus was on complete NCERT coverage and FAIRTOTHESTUDENT
practicals were conducted quite well. 3ARVESH  There is a lot of theoretical learning rather
s -4'9OURFAMILYBACKGROUND than practical learning which is deteriorating the overall
3ARVESH  My father works in Income Tax Department, development of the childs brain. This isnt fair to the
my mother is a government ITI and my sister is doing her students.
engineering. s -4'(ADYOUNOTBEENSELECTEDTHENWHATWOULD
s -4'  7HAT MISTAKE YOU THINK YOU SHOULDNT HAVEBEENYOURFUTUREPLAN
HAVEMADE 3ARVESH  I would have joined BITS Pilani as I have got
3ARVESH  I should have avoided silly mistakes from the (430/450).
beginning. One must focus on not doing silly mistakes along s -4'  7HAT ADVICE WOULD YOU LIKE TO GIVE OUR
with getting good marks.
READERSWHOARE*%%ASPIRANTS
s -4'  (OW HAVE -4' MAGAZINES HELPED YOU IN 3ARVESHI would advice to work hard, practice more and
YOURPREPARATION more and be focused.
3ARVESH  MTG Magazines have helped me a lot. !LLTHE"EST--

10 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 11
TRIGONOMETRY - I
Topics Covered : Measurement of Angles, Trigonometric Functions, Trigonometric Equations, Properties of Triangle

MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES Take any circle APBBc, whose centre is O, and from any
In Geometry, angles are measured in terms of a point A measure off an arc AP whose length is equal
right angle. This however, is an inconvenient unit of to the radius of the circle. Join OA and OP.
measurement on account of its size. The angle AOP is the angle which is taken as the unit
There are three systems used for the measurement of of circular measurement, i.e., it is the angle in terms
angles. of which in this system we measure all others.
1. Sexagesimal system or English system (degree) This angle is called A Radian and is often denoted by 1c.
2. Centesimal system or French system (grade) Some Important Theorems on Circular Measure
3. Circular measurement (radian) Theorem 1. Radian is a constant angle. i.e., 1c = constant
1. Sexagesimal System or Degree Measure Theorem 2. The number of radians in an angle
In the Sexagesimal system of measurement a right angle subtended by an arc of a circle at the centre is equal
is divided into 90 equal parts called Degrees. Each arc s
to . i.e., T = radians.
degree is divided into 60 equal parts called Minutes, radius r
and each minute into 60 equal parts called Seconds. Relation between Degrees and Radians
i.e., 60 Seconds (60'') make One Minute (1'), 180
60 Minutes (60') make One Degree (1) and 1 radian = ; 1 = radian
180
90 Degree (90) make One Right Angle. Relation between three systems of measurement of
2. Centesimal System or Grade Measure angle
In this system the right angle is divided into 100 equal D G 2R
= =
parts, called Grades; each grade is subdivided into 100 90 100
Minutes and each minute into 100 Seconds. Remark : Where D, G and R be number of degrees,
100 Seconds (100'') make One Minute (1') number of grades and number of radians respectively
100 Minutes (100') make One Grade (1g) in an angle T.
100 Grades (100g) make One Right Angle 1. Radian is the unit to measure angle and it does
3. Circular Measure or Radian Measure not means that Sstands for 180, S is a real number.
Circular system: In this system the unit of measurement where as Sc stands for 180.
B
is radian as defined below: P 2. The angle between two consecutive digits in a
rad

Radian: One radian, written as clock is 30 (= S/6 radians).


an
ius

1 c , is the measure of an angle


di

3. The hour hand rotates through an angle of 30 in


ra

A
subtended at the centre of a circle O one hour i.e. (1/2) in one minute.
by an arc of length equal to the 4. The minute hand rotates through an angle of 6
radius of the circle. in one minute.
Bc

12 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 13
CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS OR TRIGONOMETRIC Y Y
P P
FUNCTIONS OR TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS r
r y y
( -RATIOS) T T
Xc X Xc X
Let a revolving line starting from OX trace out an angle O x M M x O
XOP = T in any of the four quadrants. Let M be the
foot of perpendicular from P upon XcOX. Regarding Yc Yc
OM and MP as directed lengths (OP always +ve), the
ratios of OM, MP and OP with one another are called Y Y
circular functions or trigonometrical ratios (briefly
t-ratios) of the angle T. T T
Xc
M x
X Xc O x M X
Let OM = x, MP = y and OP = r(r > 0), we define the O
y y
various circular functions as follows: r r
MP y
(i) = is called sine of T, written as sin T. P Yc Yc P
OP r
OM x Relation Between the Trigonometric Functions
(ii) = is called cosine of T, written as cos T.
OP r From the definition of t-ratios, we have
MP y 1 1
(iii) = (x z 0) is called tangent of T, written cosec = and sin =
OM x sin cosec
as tan T.
1 1
OM x sec = and cos =
(iv) = ( y 0) is called cotangent of T, written cos sec
MP y
as cot T. 1 1
cot = and tan =
OP r tan cot
(v) = (x 0) is called secant of T, written as
OM x Signs of Trigonometric Ratios in Different Quadrants
sec T.
The following table describes the signs of various
OP r t-ratios in different quadrants.
(vi) = ( y 0) is called cosecant of T, written
MP y Quadrant I II III IV
as cosec T.
t-ratios All sin T tan T cos T
which are +ve cosec T cot T sec T
Trigonometric Ratios of Allied Angles
Two angles are called allied angles if either
(i) their sum is zero or
(ii) their sum or difference is a multiple of right angle.
t-ratios T 90 T 90 + T 180 T 180 + T 270 T 270 + T 360 T 360 + T
sin T sin T cos T cos T sin T sin T cos T cos T sin T sin T
cos T cos T sin T sin T cos T cos T sin T sin T cos T cos T
tan T tan T cot T cot T tan T tan T cot T cot T tan T tan T

cosec T cosec T sec T sec T cosec T cosec T sec T sec T cosec T cosec T

sec T sec T cosec T cosec T sec T sec T cosec T cosec T sec T sec T
cot T cot T tan T tan T cot T cot T tan T tan T cot T cot T

14 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


Trigonometric Ratios of Compound Angles 2 tan
An angle made up of the sum/difference of the 3. tan 2T =
1 tan2
algebraic sum/difference of two or more angles is called
a compound angle. Some of the formulae and results 4. sin 3T = 3 sin T 4 sin3 T
regarding compound angles are: 5. cos 3T = 4 cos3 T 3 cos T
1. sin (A r B) = sin A cos B r cos A sin B 3 tan tan3
2. cos (A r B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B 6. tan 3T =
1 3 tan2
tan A tan B
3. tan (A r B) = Trigonometric Ratios of Sub-Multiple Angles
1 B tan A tan B
4. sin (A + B) sin (A B) = sin2 A sin2 B
2 tan
= cos2 B cos2 A 2
1. sin = 2 sin cos =
5. cos (A + B) cos (A B) = cos2 A sin2 B 2 2
1 + tan2
= cos2 B sin2 A 2
cot A cot B B 1
6. cot (A r B) = 2. cos = cos2 sin2 = 2 cos 2 1
cot A cot B 2 2 2
Sum of Sines/Cosines in Terms of Products 2
1 tan
2
A+ B AB = 1 2 sin2 =
1. sin A + sin B = 2 sin cos 2 2
2 2 1 + tan
2
A+ B AB
sin A sin B = 2 cos 2 tan
2. sin 2
2 2 3. tan =
2
1 tan
AB A+ B 2
3. cos A + cos B = 2 cos . cos
2 2 T-Ratios of the Sum of Three or More Angles
A+ B B A 1. sin (A + B + C) = sin A cos B cos C + cos A sin B
4. cos A cos B = 2 sin . sin cos C + cos A cos B sin C sin A sin B sin C
2 2 or sin (A + B + C) = cos A cos B cos C (tan A + tan B
sin ( A B) + tan C tan A tan B tan C)
5. tan A tan B =
cos A cos B 2. cos (A + B + C) = cos A cos B cos C sin A sin B
sin ( A + B) cos C sin A cos B sin C cos A sin B sin C
6. cot A + cot B = cos (A + B + C) = cos A cos B cos C (1 tan A
sin A . sin B
tan B tan B tan C tan C tan A)
sin (B + A)
7. cot A cot B = 3. tan (A + B + C)
sin A . sin B tan A + tan B + tan C tan A tan B tan C
Conversely =
1 tan A tan B tan B tan C tan C tan A
1. 2 sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A B)
2. 2 cos A sin B = sin (A + B) sin (A B) Maximum and Minimum Values of Trigonometric
3. 2 cos A cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A B) Functions
4. 2 sin A sin B = cos (A B) cos (A + B) The maximum and minimum values of trigonometric
Trigonometric Ratios of Multiple Angles functions of the form a sin x + b cos x are a 2 + b2
2 tan 2 2
and a + b respectively.
1. sin 2T = 2 sin T cos T = 2
1 + tan Graphs and Other Useful Data of Trigonometric
2. cos 2T = cos2 T sin2 T = 1 2 sin2 T Functions
1. y = f (x) = sin x
1 tan2 Domain = R, Range = [1, 1], Period = 2S
= 2 cos2 T 1 =
1 + tan2 sin2 x, |sin x| [0, 1]

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 15


y 5. y = f (x) = sec x
Domain = R ~ (2n + 1)S/2, n I
Range = (f, 1] [1, f)
1 Period = 2S, sec2 x, |sec x| [1, f)
xc x y
S S/2 O S/2 S 3S/2 2S 5S/2
1

1
2. y = f (x) = cos x
xc x
Domain = R, Range = [1, 1], Period = 2S S O S 3S 2S 5S

cos2 x, |cos x| [0, 1] 2 2 2 2
y 1

yc
1
S 6. y = f (x) = cosec x
xc x
3S/2 S/2 O S/2 S 3S/2 2S Domain = R ~ nS, n I;
1 Range = (f, 1] [1, f)
yc Period = 2S, cosec2 x, |cosec x| [1, f)
3. y = f (x) = tan x y
Domain = R ~ (2n + 1)S/2, n I, Range = (f, f)
Period = S 1
Discontinuous at x = (2n + 1)S/2, n I
tan2 x, |tan x| [0, f)
tan x = 0 x = nS, n I xc S x
S O S S 3S 2S

y 2 2 2
1
1
yc
xc S x
3S S S O S 3S TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS
2 2
2 2 An equation involving one or more trigonometrical
1
ratios of unknown angle is called a trigonometric
yc equation.
4. y = f (x) = cot x Solution or Root of a Trigonometric Equation
Domain = R ~ nS, n I; Range = (f, f) The value of an unknown angle which satisfies the
Period = S given trigonometric equations is called a solution or
Discontinuous at x = nS, n I root of the equation.
cot 2 x, |cot x| [0, f) Principal Solution of a Trigonometric Equation
y The solution of a trigonometric equation lying in the
interval [0, 2S) is called its principal solution.
1 General Solution of a Trigonometric Equation
It is known that trigonometric ratios are periodic
xc x functions. In fact, sin x, cos x, sec x and cosec x are
S S O S S 3S 2S
periodic functions with a period 2S, and tan x and cot
2 2 2
1 x are periodic functions with a period S. Therefore,
solution of trigonometric equations can be generalized
yc with the help of period of trigonometric functions.

16 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 17
The solution consisting of all possible solutions of a The radius of the incircle of the triangle, i.e., inradius = r
trigonometric equation is called its general solution. Area of the triangle = ' = S
General solution of a trigonometric equation will A
A
involve integral n Z. Circum-
b
circle c
Incircle
General Solution of Some Equations c R b
I
Equation Solution r
B
sin T  T = nS, n Z a C B a C
Sine law
cos T  = (2n + 1) , n Z
2 In any triangle ABC, the sides are proportional to the
sines of the opposite angles, i.e.,
tan T  T = nS, n Z
a b c sin A sin B sin C
= = or = =
sin T  = (4n + 1) , n Z sin A sin B sin C a b c
2 Cosine law
b2 + c 2 a 2 a 2 + c 2 b2
sin T  = (4n 1) , n Z cos A = , cos B = ,
2 2bc 2ac
cos T  T = 2nS, n Z a 2 + b2 c 2
cos C =
2ab
cos T  T = (2n + 1)S, n Z
Projection law
sin T = sin D T = nS + ( 1)n D, n Z In any 'ABC, a = b cos C + c cos B, b = a cos C +
cos T = cos D T = 2nS D, n Z c cos A, c = a cos B + b cos A
tan T = tan D T = nS + D, where n Z Napier's analogy
sin2 T= sin2 Dor cos2 In any 'ABC,
T = nS D, n Z
T = cos2 D A B a b C
(i) tan = cot
tan2 T = tan2 D T = nS D, n Z 2 a+b 2
Solutions of Equations of Form a cosT + b sinT = c B C b c A
(ii) tan = cot
We can solve the equation of this type by putting 2 b + c 2
c C A c a B
a = r cos I and b = r sin I, provided 1 (iii) tan = cot
a 2 + b2 2 c+a 2
Trigonometric Ratios of Half Angles
PROPERTIES AND SOLUTION OF TRIANGLES
Standard symbols A (s b)(s c) B (s c)(s a)
(i) sin = , sin = ,
The following symbols in relation to 'ABC are 2 bc 2 ca
universally adopted. A (s a)(s b)
C
mBAC = A sin =
2 ab
mABC = B
c b A s( s a ) B s(s b)
mBCA = C (ii) cos = , cos = ,
A + B + C = S 2 bc 2 ca
AB = c, BC = a, CA = b
B
a C C s( s c )
sin =
a+b+c 2 ab
Semi-perimeter of the triangle, s =
2 A (s b)(s c) B (s c)(s a)
(iii) tan = , tan = ,
So, a + b + c = 2s 2 s( s a ) 2 s(s b)
The radius of the circumcircle of the triangle, i.e., C (s a)(s b)
circumradius = R tan =
2 s( s c )

18 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


Area of Triangle tan A + tan B
(i) Area of a triangle in terms of sides (Heron's formula) 1= ( tan 45 = 1)
1 tan A tan B
= s(s a)(s b)(s c) ? tan A + tan B + tan A tan B = 1
(ii) Area of triangle in terms of one side and sine of or, 1 + tan A + tan B + tan A tan B = 1 + 1
three angles. (1 + tan A) + tan B (1 + tan A) = 2
(1 + tan A)(1 + tan B) = 2
a2 sin B sin C b2 sin A sin C
= . = . 2. Since, D, E and J are in A.P,
2 sin A 2 sin B
+
c 2 sin A sin B cos
= . + 2
2 sin C ? 2E = D + J cot E = cot =
2 +
PROBLEMS sin
2
1. If A + B = 45, show that (1 + tan A) (1 + tan B) = 2.
y
2. If D, E and J are in A.P., show that Multiplying and dividing by 2 sin , we get
sin sin 2
cot E = +
cos cos 2 cos
. sin

2 2 sin sin
3. Find the maximum and minimum value of cot E = =
cos2 T 6 sin T . cos T + 3 sin2 T + 2 + cos cos
2 sin . sin
2
2
4. Find the most general solutions for
3. We have, cos2 T 6 sin T . cos T + 3 sin2 T + 2
2sin x + 2cos x = 21 1/ 2
.
= (1 sin2 T) 3 sin 2T + 3 sin2 T + 2
5. Solve the equation = 2 sin2 T 3 sin 2T + 3
sin x + cos x 2 2 sin x cos x = 0 . = (1 cos 2T) 3 sin 2T + 3
= 4 (cos 2T + 3 sin 2T) (i)
C B
6. Solve: b cos 2 + c cos2 in terms of k where k is as we have, 10 cos 2 + 3 sin 2 10
2 2
perimeter of the 'ABC. ? 10 (cos 2 + 3 sin 2) 10
7. With usually notations, if in a triangle ABC, or, 4 10 4 (cos 2 + 3 sin 2) 4 + 10 (ii)
b+c c+a a+b From (i) and (ii), we get
= = , then prove that:
11 12 13 4 10 cos2 6 sin cos + 3 sin2 + 2 4 + 10
cos A cos B cos C Hence, 4 + 10 and 4 10 are the maximum and
= =
7 19 25 minimum values.

8. In a 'ABC, c cos
2 A C 3b
+ a cos2 = , then show 4. As we know, A.M. t G.M.
2 2 2 2
sin x
+2
cos x
a, b, c are in A.P. 2
sin x . cos x
2
9. A circular wire of radius 7.5 cm is cut and bent so 2
as to lie along the circumference of a hoop whose (equality holds only when 2sin x = 2cos x)
sin x + cos x
radius is 120 cm. Find in degrees the angle which is ? 2sinx + 2cosx 2. 2 (i)
subtended at the centre of the hoop. Now, equation (i) admits minimum value when
10. A horse is tied to a post by a rope. If the horse moves
sinx + cosx is ( 2 )

{using }
along a circular path always keeping the rope tight
and describes 88 metres when it has traced and 72 a2 + b2 a cos x + b sin x a2 + b2
at the centre, find the length of the rope.
sin x cos x 2
SOLUTIONS
? 2 +2 2. 2
sin x cos x 2 /2
or 2 +2 2.2
tan A + tan B
1. We know, tan (A + B) = sin x cos x 11/ 2
1 tan A tan B or 2 +2 2

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 19


Thus the equation holds only when, and b + c = 11k, c + a = 12k, a + b = 13k ...(ii)
2sin x = 2cos x sin x = cos x tan x = 1 Solving (i) and (ii), we get
and a = 7k, b = 6k, c = 5k
x = n + is the general solution.
4 Hence,
5. Let (sin x + cos x) = t and using the equation b2 + c 2 a 2 36k 2 + 25k 2 49k 2 12 1 7
cos A = = = = =
t2 1 2bc 60k 2 60 5 35
sin x . cos x = , we get
2
a2 + c 2 b2 49k 2 + 25k 2 36k 2 38 19
t2 1 cos B = = = =
= 0 2t t 2 = 0
2
t 2 2 2ac 70k 2 70 35
2
a 2 + b2 c 2 49k 2 + 36k 2 25k 2 60 5 25
t = 2 and
1
t1 = 2 , t 2 =
1
are roots of cos C = = 2
= = =
2 2 2ab 84k 84 7 35
this quadratic equation, thus the solution of the given cos A cos B cos C
equation reduces to the solution of two trigonometric = =.
7 19 25
equations.
c a 3b
1 8. Here (1 + cos A) + (1 + cos C ) =
sin x + cos x = 2 and sin x + cos x = 2 2 2
2
1 1 a + c + (c cos A + a cos C) = 3b
sin x + cos x = 1 a + c + b = 3b (using projection formula)
2 2
1 1 1 a + c = 2b
sin x + cos x = which shows a, b, c are in A.P.
2 2 2
9. Radius of the circular wire is 7.5 cm.
sin x . cos + sin cos x = 1 ? Length of the circular wire = 2S 7.5 = 15 Scm
4 4
Radius of the hoop = 120 cm
1 Let T be the angel subtended by the wire at the centre
Similarly, sin x . cos + sin cos x =
4 4 2 of the hoop. Then,
1 arc
 sin x + = 1 and sin x + = =
4 4 2 radius
c c o
15 180
 x + = (4n + 1) and x + = n + ( 1)n . = = = 22 30
4 2 4 6 120 8 8
10. L e t t h e p o s t b e a t B
 x = 2n + and x = n + ( 1)n
4 6 4 point P and let PA be the
C B length of the rope in tight
6. Here, b cos 2 + c cos2 position. Suppose the horse
2 2
b c moves along the arc AB
 (1 + cos C ) + (1 + cos B) so that APB = 72 and
2 2 72
b+c 1 a rc AB = 88 m. L et r be
 + (b cos C + c cos B) the length of the rope i.e., P A
2 2 PA = r metres.
[using projection formula]
b+c 1 a+b+c 2
c c
 + a = Here, T = 72 = 72 =
2 2 2 180 5
C B k arc
? b cos2 + c cos2 = [where k = a + b + c] ? T=
2 2 2 radius
b+c c+a a+b 2 88 5
7. Let = = =k = r = 88 = 70 metres (approx).
11 12 13 5 r 2
2(a + b + c) = 36k ...(i)

20 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


*3(::?0 :LYPLZ

CBSE
Trigonometric Functions and
Principle of Mathematical Induction
IMPORTANT FORMULAE

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
X sin(A + B) = sinA cosB + cosA sinB
3 tan A tan3A
X tan 3A =
X sin(A B) = sinA cosB cos A sinB 1 3 tan2A
X cos(A + B) = cosA cosB sinA sinB
X cos A + cos B = 2 cos A + B cos A B
X cos (A B) = cosA cosB + sinA sinB 2 2

tanA + tanB X cos A cos B = 2 sin A + B sin B A


X tan(A + B) = 2 2
1 tanAtanB
tanA tanB X sin A + sin B = 2 sin A + B cos A B
X tan(A B) = 2 2
1+ tanAtanB
A+ B A B
X sin A sin B = 2 cos
2 2
cot A cot B 1 sin
X cot( A + B ) =
cot A + cot B
X 2sinAcosB = sin(A + B) + sin(A B)
cot A cot B + 1
X cot( A B ) = X 2cosA sinB = sin(A + B) sin(A B)
cot B cot A
X 2cosAcosB = cos(A + B) + cos(A B)
2 tan A
X sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A = X 2sinAsinB = cos(A B) cos(A + B)
1 + tan2 A
X sin(A + B) sin (A B) = sin2A sin2B = cos2B cos2A
X cos 2A = cos2A sin2A = 1 2sin2A X cos(A + B)cos(A B) = cos2A sin2B = cos2B sin2A
1 tan2 A 2n A
= 2cos2A 1 = X cosA cos 2A cos 22A ..... cos 2n1A = sin
n
1 + tan2 A 2 sin A

X tan 2A =
2 tan A X sin T = 0 T = nS, n Z
1 tan2 A
X sin 3A = 3sinA 4sin3A X cos T = 0 T = (2n + 1) , n Z
2
X cos 3A = 4cos3A 3cosA X tan T = 0 T = nS, n Z

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 21


X sin T = sinD T = nS + (1)n D, n Z X Cosine formula
X cos T = cosD T = 2nS D, n Z b2 + c 2 a2
cos A =
X tan T = tanD T = nS + D, n Z 2bc
X sin2T = sin2D T = nS D, n Z
a2 + c 2 b2
X cos2T = cos2D T = nS D, n Z cos B =
2ac
X tan2T = tan2D T = nS D, n Z
a2 + b2 c 2
X cos T = cos D and sinT = sinD T = nS + D, n Z cos C =
2ab
Properties of triangles
X Napolian or Napiers Analogy or Tangent Law
X Sine formula (sine rule)
The sines of the angles are proportional to the A B a b C
tan = cot
lengths of the opposite sides. 2 a+b 2
A B C b c A
AB = c tan = cot
BC = a
2 b+c 2
AC = b
C A c a B
tan = cot
2 c + a
C
2
B
X If A, B, C are angles of a triangle ABC, then
sin A sin B sin C sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 4sinAsinBsinC
i.e., = =
a b c tanA + tanB + tanC = tanAtanBtanC

PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION

X The proposition P(n) involving a natural number X But for many problems, following extended form
n is assumed to be true for all natural numbers of the principle of mathematical induction is used.
n if the following two conditions are satisfied : X If P(n) is proposition such that :
X The proposition P(n) is true for n = 1 i.e., X P(1), P(2), ....., P(k) are true.
P(1) is true.
X P(m), P(m + 1), ....., P(m + k 1) are true
X P(m) is true P(m + 1) is true. P(m + k) is true.
i.e., P(m + 1) is true whenever P(m) is true. Then P(n) is true for all natural numbers n.

WORK IT OUT SHORT ANSWER TYPE


VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE 6. Assuming the distance of the earth from the moon
to be 38400 km and the angle subtended by the
1. In a 'ABC , if a = 3 + 1 , B = 30 and C = 45, then moon at the eye of a person on the earth to be 31c
find the value of c. find the diameter of the moon.
2. In a 'ABC, if b = 3 + 1 , c = 3 1 and A = 60, 7. The angles of a triangle are in A.P. and the ratio of
B C the smallest angle in degrees to the greatest angle in
then find the value of tan
2
. radians is 60 : S. Find the angles of the triangle in
degrees and radians.

3. If A + B = , then find the value of 8. If m = tan x + sin x and n = tan x sin x, prove that
4
(1 + tan A) (1 + tan B). m2 n2 = 4 mn
4. If 3 tan T tan M = 1. Prove that 2 cos (T + M) = cos (T M)
5. Prove that cos 55 + cos 65 + cos 175 = 0. {
9. Evaluate sin n + ( 1)n

4}; where n is an integer.

22 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


1 SOLUTIONS
10. Prove that sin Asin (60 A)sin (60 + A)= sin 3A .
4 1. We have, B = 30 and C = 45
A = 105
LONG ANSWER TYPE - I a c
? By sine rule, =
sin A sin C
11 Find the number of solutions of the equation
3 +1 c ( 3 + 1) 1
2 sin3 x + 2 cos3 x 3 sin 2x + 2 = 0 in [0, 4S].  = c = 2 2 = 2
sin 105 sin 45 3 +1 2
a c
12. In a 'ABC, if 2 2 + 2 2
= 0 , then find the 2. By Napier's Analogy, we have
value of B. b c b a
B C b c A B C 2
tan = cot tan = cot 30 = 1
2 b+c 2 2 2 3
y +1 1 + sin
13. If 0 < T < , and if = , then find the
2 1 y 1 sin 3. From given, we have tan (A + B) = tan
value of y. 4
? tan A + tan B = 1 tan A tan B
14. Show that n3 + (n + 1)3 + (n + 2)3 is divisible by 9 for tan A + tan B + tan A tan B = 1
every natural number n. (1 + tan A) + tan B (1 + tan A) = 1 + 1
(by adding 1 on both sides)
15. If D and E be two different roots of the equation
(1 + tan A) (1 + tan B) = 2
2ab
a cos T + b sin T c, prove that sin (D + E) = 2 2 . 4. Given, 3 tan Ttan M = 1 or cot T cot M = 3
a +b
cos cos 3
or =
LONG ANSWER TYPE - II sin sin 1
16. By using law of Mathematical induction, prove that By componendo and dividendo, we have
the statement cos cos + sin sin 3 + 1 cos ( )
= =2
cosD + cos(D + E) + cos(D + 2E) + ... cos cos sin sin 3 1 cos ( + )
+ cos(D + (n 1)E) 2 cos (T + M) = cos (T M)
(n 1) n
cos + sin 5. L.H.S. = cos 55 + cos 65 + cos 175
2 2
equals n N . 55 + 65 55 65
= 2 cos cos + cos 175
sin 2 2
2
= 2 cos 60 cos (5) + cos 175
cos 4 A sin 4 A 1
17. If + = 1 , prove that : = 2 cos 5 + cos (180 5) = cos 5 cos 5 = 0
cos2 B sin2 B 2
(i) sin4 A + sin4 B = 2 sin2 A sin2 B 6. Let AB be the diameter of the moon and O be the
observer on earth.
cos 4 B sin 4 B 31
(ii) + =1 Given, AOB = 31c = radians.
cos2 A sin2 A 60 180
18. Show by using the principle of mathematical Since angle subtended by the moon is very small,
induction that therefore, its diameter will be approximately equal
1 2 to the arc of a circle whose centre is the eye of the
1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n < (2n + 1) observer and radius is the distance of the earth from
8
n sin cos the moon. Also the moon subtends an angle of 31c at
19. If tan E = , show that
1 n sin2 the centre of this circle.
B
l
tan (D E) = (1 n) tan D T=
r
sin ( + ) 1 m 31 AB
C 31c O
20. If = , prove that ? =
cos ( ) 1 + m 60 180 38400
A
31 22 26
tan tan = m AB = 38400 = 346 km
4 4 60 7 180 63

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 23


7. Let the angles of the triangle be (T d), T, (T + d), x x x
where d > 0. Then, 2 sin cos + 2 cos2 = 0
2 2 2
 T d + T + T + d = 180 3T = 180 T = 60
 2 cos cos + sin = 0
x x x
Hence the angles are (60 d), 60 and (60 + d)
2 2 2
least angle in degrees 60
Given, =
greatest angle in radians x
 cos = 0 or cos + sin = 0
x x
(60 d ) 2 2 2
 =
60
1 = 180 radians x
 cos = 0 or tan = 1
x
(60 + d ) 2 2
180
(60 d ) 180 60 60 d 1 x
Now if, cos = 0 x = , 3
 . = = d = 30  2
(60 + d ) 60 + d 3
x 3 7
Thus the angles are 30, 60, 90. and tan = 1 x = ,
In radians, the angles are 2 2 2
Hence, there are 4 solutions.

30 180 , 60 180 , 90 180 12. We have,
a
=
b
=
c
= k (say)
sin A sin B sin C
i.e., , and . a c
6 3 2 ? 2 2+ 2 =0
b c b a2
8. L.H.S. = m2 n2 = (tan x + sin x)2 (tan x sin x)2
= 4 tan x sin x k sin A k sin C
+ 2 =0
Now, R.H.S. = 4 mn = 4 (tan x + sin x )(tan x sin x ) k (sin B sin C) k (sin2 B sin2 A)
2 2 2

sin A sin C
4 4 sin2 x  + =0
= 4 sin 2 x = = 4 tan x sin x = L.H.S. sin (B + C) sin (B C) sin (B + A) sin (B A)
cos x cos x
 1 1
+ =0
9. Since, sin (S + T) = sin T sin (B C) sin (B A)
? sin (nS + T) = ( 1)n sin T  sin (B A) + sin (B C) = 0

{
? sin n + ( 1)n

4 } {
= ( 1)n sin ( 1)n

4 }  sin (A B) = sin (B C)
 A B = B C  A + C = 2B  B = 60.
2n 1 ( A + B + C = 180)
= ( 1)n ( 1)n sin = ( 1) sin = sin =
4 4 4 2
y +1 1 + sin
10. L.H.S. = sin A sin (60 A) sin (60 + A) 13. We have, =
1 1 y 1 sin
= sin A [2 sin (60 + A) sin (60 A)]
2 2
1
= sin A [cos (60 + A 60 + A) cos + sin
2 y +1 2 2 1 + y cos + sin
= = 2 2
cos (60 + A + 60 A)] 1 y
2

1 y
1 cos sin cos sin
= sin A (cos 2 A cos 120) 2 2 2 2
2

1
= (2 cos 2 A sin A 2 cos 120 sin A) 1 + y 1 + tan 2
4  = y = tan
1 y 2
1 1 1 tan
= sin (2 A + A) sin (2 A A) 2 sin A 2
4 2 14. Let P (n) = n3 + (n + 1)3 + (n + 2)3 is divisible by 9.
1
=
1
(sin 3A sin A + sin A) = sin 3A Now, P (1) = 13 + 23 + 33 = 36, which is divisible by 9
4 4 ? P(1) is true. ...(i)
11. We have, 2 sin3 x + 2 cos3 x 3 sin 2x + 2 = 0 Let P(m) be true P (m) = m + (m + 1) + (m + 2)3
3 3
sin3 x + cos3 x + 1 3 sin x cos x = 0 is divisible by 9
a3 + b3 + c 3 3abc = 0 P (m) = m3 + (m + 1)3 + (m + 2)3 = 9k, where k is
sin x + cos x + 1 = 0
a + b + c = 0 an integer

24 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


To prove P(m + 1) is true i.e., P (m + 1) is divisible by 9 Now, we prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
3 3
Now, P (m + 1) = (m + 1) + (m + 2) + (m + 3)
3
i.e., P(k + 1) : cosD + cos(D + E) + ...
= (m + 1)3 + (m + 2)3 + m3 + 9m2 + 27m + 27 + cos(D + (k 1)E) + cos(D + kE)
= [m3 + (m + 1)3 + (m + 2)3 ] + 9m2 + 27m + 27 k (k + 1)
cos + sin
= 9k + 9(m2 + 3m + 3), 2 2
=
which is divisible by 9.
sin
Hence P(m + 1) is true whenever P(m) is true. ...(ii) 2
Now, L.H.S. of P(k + 1)
From (i) and (ii), it follows that P(n) is true for all
= cosD + cos(D + E)+ ...
natural numbers n.
+ cos(D + (k 1)E) + cos(D + kE)
15. Given, D and E are the roots of the equation = P(k) + cos(D + kE)
a cos T + b sin T = c k 1 k
cos + sin
? a cos D + b sin D = c ...(i) 2 2
= + cos( + k)
and a cos E + b sin E = c ...(ii)
sin
Subtracting (ii) from (i), we get 2
a (cos D cos E) + b (sin D sin E) = 0 (k 1) k
b (sin D sin E) = a (cos E cos D) 1 2 cos( + 2 )sin 2 + 2 cos( + k)sin 2
=
2
+ sin
 b 2 cos
2
sin 2
2

+ sin + k + sin
  = a 2 sin 1 2
2
sin
2
2
=
2
+ b sin
tan = 2
2 a
2 + k k + 1
2 cos sin
, are different, sin 2 0 2 2
=

+ b 2 sin
2 tan
2 2
2ab 2
Now, sin (D + E) = = a2 = 2 k k + 1
+ a + b2 cos + sin
2
b
1 + tan2 1 + 2
2 =
a2 = R.H.S of P(k +1)

16. Let P(n) : cosD + cos(D + E) + ... + cos(D + (n 1)E) sin
2
n 1 n Hence, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true. ...(ii)
cos + sin
2 2 Hence, by (i) and (ii), it proves that P(n) is true for all
=
natural numbers n.
sin 4 4
2
Let n = 1 17. Given, cos A + sin A = 1 = cos2 A + sin2 A
? L.H.S. = P(1) = cosD and cos2 B sin2 B
cos 4 A sin 4 A
? cos 2
A = sin 2
A
cos( + 0) sin cos2 B sin2 B
R.H.S. = 2 = cos
cos2 A(cos2 A cos2 B) (sin2 B sin2 A)
sin 2
= sin A
? P(1) is true
2
...(i) cos2 B sin2 B
2
cos A
Let P(k) is true, where 2
(cos2 A cos2 B)
P(k) : cosD + cos(D + E) + .... + cos(D+ (k 1)E) cos B
(k 1) k sin2 A
cos + = 2 [(1 cos2 B) (1 cos2 A)]
sin
2 2 sin B
=
2
cos A sin2 A
sin (cos 2
A cos 2
B ) = (cos2 A cos2 B)
2 cos2 B sin2 B

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 25


cos2 A sin2 A n sin cos
(cos2 A cos2 B) 2 =0
2
cos B sin B = cos2 [Dividing numerator and
1 n sin2 denominator by cos2 D]
If cos2 A cos2 B = 0, then cos2 A = cos2 B 2
2
cos cos
cos2 A sin2 A
If = 0 , then cos2 A sin2 B = sin2A cos2 B n tan n tan
cos2 B sin2 B = =
sec n tan 1 + tan2 n tan2
2 2
cos2 A (1 cos2 B) = (1 cos2 A) cos2 B
n tan
cos2 A cos2 A cos2 B = cos2 B cos2 A cos2 B tan E= ...(1)
cos2 A = cos2 B 1 + (1 n)tan2
tan tan
Thus in both cases, cos2 A = cos2 B Now, L.H.S. = tan (D E) =
? 1 sin2A = 1 sin2 B sin2 A = sin2 B 1 + tan tan
n tan
(i) L.H.S. = sin4 A + sin4 B tan
1 + (1 n)tan2
= (sin2 A sin2 B)2 + 2 sin2 A sin2 B = [From (1)]
n tan
= 2 sin2 A sin2 B = R.H.S. [ sin2 A = sin2 B] 1 + tan .
1 + (1 n)tan2
cos 4 B sin 4 B cos 4 B sin 4 B
(ii) L.H.S. = + = + tan + (1 n)tan3 n tan
cos2 A sin2 A cos2 B sin2 B =
[ cos2 A = cos2 B, sin2A = sin2B] 1 + (1 n)tan2 + n tan2
= cos2 B + sin2 B = 1 = R.H.S. (1 n)tan + (1 n)tan3
1 =
18. Let P(n) : 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n < (2n + 1)
2 1 + tan2
8
1 2 9 (1 n)tan (1 + tan2 )
When n = 1, L.H.S. = 1 and R.H.S. = 3 = = = (1 n) tan D = R.H.S.
8 8 1 + tan2
9
Clearly, 1 < ? P(1) is true. sin ( + ) 1 m
8 20. Given, =
Let P(m) be true cos ( ) 1 + m
1
1 + 2 + 3 + ... + m< (2m + 1)2 ...(1) sin ( + ) + cos ( ) 1 m + 1 + m
8 =
sin ( + ) cos ( ) 1 m 1 m
To prove P(m + 1) is true.
[By componendo and dividendo]
i.e., 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + m + m + 1 < 1 (2m + 3)2 = D(say)
8
..(2) sin ( + ) + sin ( )
2 = 2 = 1
1
From (1), 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + m + m + 1 < (2m + 1)2 2m m
8 sin ( + ) sin ( )
2
+ (m + 1) = E(say) ...(3)

1 1 sin + . cos
Now, D E = (2m + 3)2 (2m + 1)2 (m + 1) 4 4 1
8 8 =
1 m
= 4(m + 1) 2 (m + 1) = 0 cos + . sin
8 4 4
? D = E ...(4) 1
tan + . cot =
From (3), 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + m + m + 1 < D [ E = D] 4 4 m
1
or 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + m + m + 1 < (2m + 1)2 1
8 tan + cot =
Hence P(m + 1) is true whenever P(m) is true. 4 4 m
So by principle of mathematical induction it follows
m = cot + tan
that P(n) is true for all natural numbers n. 4 4
n sin cos
19. We have, tan =
= tan . tan

1 n sin2 4 4

26 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


Class XI

T his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their


extent of understanding of specied chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your
readiness.

Trigonometric Functions

Total Marks : 80 Time Taken : 60 Min.


Only One Option Correct Type 6. Points D, E are taken on the side BC of a 'ABC
such that BD = DE = EC. If BAD = x, DAE = y,
1. The general solution of e 1/ 2 (e sin x + e cos x ) = 2 is sin(x + y )sin( y + z )
EAC = z, then the value of is
(4m + 1) sin x sin z
(a) x = mS (b) x = equal to
4
(4m + 1) (a) 1 (b) 2
(c) x = (d) None of these
2 (c) 4 (d) none of these
2. If x sin a + y sin 2a + z sin 3a = sin 4a One or More Than One Option(s) Correct Type
x sin b + y sin 2b + z sin 3b = sin 4b 7. The equation
x sin c + y sin 2c + z sin 3c = sin 4c 2 2
Then, the roots of the equation 3sin 2 x + 2 cos x + 31sin 2 x + 2 sin x = 28
is satisfied for the values of x given by
z y + 2 z x
t3 t2 t+ = 0 , a, b, c, z nSare (a) cos x = 0 (b) tan x = 0
2 4 8 (c) tan x = 1 (d) none of these
(a) sin a, sin b, sin c (b) cos a, cos b, cos c 8. The line joining the in-centre to the circum-centre of
(c) sin 2a, sin 2b, sin 2c (d) cos 2a, cos 2b, cos 2c a triangle ABC is inclined to the side BC at an angle
cos B + cos C + 1
3. In 'ABC, a = 2b and |A B| = , then C is equal (a) tan =
3 sin C sin B
to
cos B + cos C 1
(a) (b) (b) tan =
2 3 sin C sin B
1 cos B cos C
(c) (d) none of these (c) tan =
4 sin B sin C
sin2 2 x + 4 sin 4 x 4 sin2 x cos2 x 1 (d) none of these
4. If =
2
4 sin 2 x 4 sin x 2 9 9. The least positive non-integral solution of
sin S(x2 + x) sin Sx2 = 0 is
and 0 < x < S, then the value of x is
(a) rational
(a) S/3 (b) S/6 (b) irrational of the form p
(c) 2S/3 (d) none of these
p 1
5. In any triangle ABC, (c) irrational of the form , where p is an
4
a3 cos (B C) + b3 cos (C A) + c3 cos (A B) = odd integer
p 1
(a) 3abc (b) 3a + 3b + 3c (d) irrational of the form , where p is an
(c) 3 (a b c) (d) 3a2 b2 c2 odd integer 4 p+4

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 27


mc s
sin cos
10. If tan = , then
sin + cos
(a) sin D cos D = 2 sin
(b) sin D + cos D = 2 cos
(c) cos 2T = sin 2D (d) sin 2T + cos 2D = 0
11. If cos4x + sin4x sin 2x + (3/4) sin22x = y, then
(a) y = 1 if x = 15 S/2 (b) y z 0 for any value of x MEMORY
(c) y = 0 if x = 15S
2 4
(d) y = 1 if sin 2x = 0
12. If A = sin x + cos x, then for all real x
CONTEST
13
(a) A 1 (b) 1 d A d 2 1 Who can participate ?
16
3 13 3 If you have taken any of the exams given below and
(c) A (d) A 1 possess plenty of grey cells, photographic memory
4 16 4
then you are the right candidate for this contest. All
13. 5 sin x 12 cos x = 13 sin 3x, if you have to do is write down as many questions (with
(a) sin (2x I/2) = 0 (b) sin (x + I/2) = 0 all choices) you can remember, neatly on a paper
(c) cos (x + I/2) = 0 (d) cos (2x + I/2) = 0 with name of the exam, your name, address, age,
your photograph and mail them to us.
12
where = sin 1 .
13 2 The Exams
Comprehension Type PMT: AIIMS, JIPMER, SRMJEEE . etc.
We have cos D + cos (D + E) + cos (D + 2E) + .... +
Engineering: VITEEE, UPSEE, AMU, SRMJEEE,
n Odisha JEE, BIT SAT, COMED-K. etc.
sin
cos( + n 1 ) = 2 cos 2 + n 1
3
sin 2 The Benefits
2 Plenty! Each complete question with answer will
and sin D + sin (D + E) + sin (D + 2E) + .... + make you richer by Rs. 100*. More the questions, the
merrier it will be. We will make you famous by
n publishing your name (photo if possible). Also you
sin
sin( + n 1 ) = 2 sin 2 + n 1 sin 0 can derive psychological satisfaction from the fact
that your questions will benefit thousands of readers.
sin 2 2
2 4 And Lastly The Pitfalls
n 1
r
14. cos 2 = ...... Don't send incomplete question. Our panel of
r =1 n experts will cross-check your questions. You have to
n n send it within a month of giving the particular exam.
(a) +1 (b) 1
2 2 Mail to : The Editor ,
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2 Plot 99, Sector 44
Institutional Area, Gurgaon 122003(HR)
15. 1 + cos + 1 + cos 2 + 1 + cos 3 + ... upto Tel. :0124-6601200
n terms = or email at editor@mtg.in
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sin sin *Conditions apply
4 cos n 4 cos (n + 1) Payment will be made after the MCQs are published.
(a) (b)

sin 4 sin 4 Kindly note that each question should be complete.
Payment will be made only for complete questions.
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(c) 2 4 cos (n + 1) (d) none of these conditions apply. The decision of the Editor, MTG shall be
4 final and binding.
sin
4

28 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 29
Matrix Match Type Integer Answer Type
16. Match the following : A B C
17. In triangle ABC, tan , tan , tan are in H.P.,
Column I Column II 2 2 2
2 2 1. A C
P. sin 24 sin 6 = 2 then the value of cot cot is equal to
Q. tan6 tan42 tan66 tan78 = 2. 2 2 2

If sin x + cosec x = 2, then B C


R. 3. 1 18. If b + c = 3a, then cot cot is equal to
sinnx + cosecnx = 2 2
S. If cos x + sec x = 2, then
5 1 19. The value of 3 tan6 10 27 tan4 10 + 33 tan2 10
for a +ve odd integer n, 4.
cosnx + secnx is 8 equals

P Q R S 20. The angle T whose cosine equal to its tangent is


(a) 4 3 1 2 given by sin T = n sin 18. Then n is equal to
(b) 3 4 1 2

(c) 1 4 3 2
(d) 2 4 3 1 Keys are published in this issue. Search now! -
Check your score! If your score is
> 90% EXCELLENT WORK ! You are well prepared to take the challenge of nal exam.

No. of questions attempted 90-75% GOOD WORK ! You can score good in the nal exam.

No. of questions correct 74-60% SATISFACTORY ! You need to score more next time.
Marks scored in percentage < 60% NOT SATISFACTORY! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

30 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


)(:,+
65
*):,

Relations and Functions, Inverse Trigonometric


Functions & Matrices and Determinants

1. Show that f : N o N, given by 8. Show that the relation R defined by (a, b) R (c, d)
x + 1, if x is odd a + d = b + c on the set N N is an equivalence
f (x ) =
x 1, if x is even relation.
is both one-one and onto. 9. Let * be a binary operation defined by
a * b = 3a + 4b 2. Find 4 * 5.
2. Let f, g : R o R be two functions defined as
f(x) = _x_ + x and g(x) = _x_ x, for all x  R. Then 10. Let S be the set of all rational numbers except 1 and *
find fog and gof. be defined on S by a * b = a + b ab, for all a, b  S.
Prove that :
3. L e t f : N o N b e a f u n c t i on d e f i n e d a s (i) * is a binary operation on S.
f(x) = 9x2 + 6x 5. Show that f : N o S, where S (ii) * is commutative as well as associative.
is the range of f, is invertible. Find the inverse of
11. Prove that
f and hence find f 1(43) and f 1(163).
4. Consider the binary operations * : R R o R cos x + cos y x y
cos1 = 2 tan1 tan tan .
and o : R u R o R defined as a * b = |a b| and 1 + cos x cos y 2 2
a o b = a for all, a, b R. Show that * is commutative 12. Express the equation :
but not associative, o is associative but not
y 3 4x 2 1 3 4x
2
commutative. cot 1 = 2 tan 1 tan
1 x2 y2 4x 2 x2
5. Let * be a binary operation on the set of rational
numbers given as a * b = (2a b) 2 , a, b  Q. as a rational integral equation in x and y.
Find 3 * 5 and 5 * 3. Is 3 * 5 = 5 * 3 ? 13. If x = cosec (tan1 (cos (cot1 (sec (sin1 a))))) and
6. Let A = R R and * be the binary operation on A y = sec (cot1 (sin (tan1 (cosec (cos1 a))))), where
defined by (a, b) * (c, d) = (a + c, b + d). Show that a [0, 1]. Find the relationship between x and y in
* is commutative and associative. Find the identity terms of 'a'.
element for * on A. 14. Solve :
7. Show that the relation S in the set 2
3 sin 1
2x
1 1 x + 2 tan 1 2x =
A = {x Z : 0 d x d 12} given by 1 + x 2
4 cos 1 x 2 3
1+ x2
S = {(a, b) : a, b Z, _a b_ is a multiple of 4} is
an equivalence relation. Find the set of all elements 15. Solve the equation :
related to 1. sin1 6x + sin1 6 3x = S/2.

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 31


1 1 1 27. Using properties of determinants, prove that
16. Prove that : 4 tan 1 tan 1 + tan 1 =
a2 + 1 ab ac
5 70 99 4
52 ab 2
b +1 bc = 1 + a 2 + b2 + c 2
17. Solve for x : (tan1x)2 + (cot1x)2 =
8
18. Find the number of positive integral solutions of the ca cb c2 + 1
equation : 28. Prove the following, using properties of determinants.
y 3
tan1x + cos1 = sin1 . x y z
1+ y 2 10 2 2
x y z2
19. Solve for x : 2 (sin1 x)2 (sin1 x) 6 = 0
y+z z+x x+y
2 0 1
= (x y) (y z) (z x) (x + y + z).
20. If A = 2 1 3 , find A2 5A + 4I and hence
1 1 0
yz x 2 zx y 2 xy z 2
find a matrix X such that A2 5A + 4I + X = O. 29. Prove that zx y
2
xy z 2 yz x 2 is divisible
21. A trust fund, ` 35,000 is to be invested in two different xy z 2 yz x 2 zx y 2
types of bonds. The first bond pays 8% interest per
by (x + y + z), and hence find the quotient.
annum which will be given to orphanage and second
bond pays 10% interest per annum which will be 30. Find the equation of the line joining A(1, 3) and
given to an N.G.O. (Cancer Aid Society). Using B(0, 0) using determinants and find the value of k if
matrix multiplication, determine how to divide D(k, 0) is a point such that area of 'ABD is 3 square
` 35,000 among two types of bonds if the trust fund units.
obtains an annual total interest of ` 3,200. What are 31. Two schools A and B decided to award prizes
the values reflected in this question? to their students for three values, team spirit,
1 1 a 1 truthfulness and tolerance at the rate of ` x,
22. I f A = and B = and (A + B)
2
` y and ` z per student respectively. School A, decided
2 1 b 1
2 2
to award a total of ` 1,100 for the three values to 3,
= A + B , then find the values of a and b. 1 and 2 students respectively while school B decided
3 2 4 to award ` 1,400 for the three values to 1, 2 and 3
students respectively. If one prize for all the three
23. Express the matrix A = 3 2 5 as the sum
values together amount to ` 600 then
1
1 2
(i) Represent the above situation by a matrix
of a symmetric and skew symmetric matrix. equation after forming linear equations.
24. Using elementary operations, find the inverse of the (ii) Is it possible to solve the system of equations
1 1 2 so obtained using matrices?
(iii) Which value you prefer to be rewarded most
matrix 1 2 3
3 1 1 and why?
32. The monthly incomes of Aryan and Babban are in
25. Using properties of determinants, prove that
the ratio 3 : 4 and their monthly expenditures are
a2 bc ac + c 2 in the ratio 5 : 7. If each saves ` 15,000 per month,
find their monthly incomes using matrix method.
a2 + ab b2 ac = 4a 2 b2 c 2 .
This problem reflects which value?
ab b2 + bc c2
33. Two institutions decided to award their employees
26. Using properties of determinants, prove that for the three values of resourcefulness, competence
and determination in the form of prizes at the rate
b+c a a
of ` x, ` y and ` z respectively per person. The first
b c+a b = 4abc.
institution decided to award respectively 4, 3 and 2
c c a+b employees with a total prize money of ` 37,000 and

32 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


the second institution decided to award respectively
f (0) if x 0
5, 3 and 4 employees with a total prize money of ? (fog) (x) = f(g(x)) =
f (2 x ) if x < 0
` 47,000. If all the three prizes per person together
amount to ` 12,000 then using matrix method find 0 if x 0 0 if x 0
= =
the value of x, y and z. What values are described 2(2 x ) if x < 0 4 x if x < 0
in the question? and (gof) (x) = g(f(x))
1 2 3 g (2 x ) if x 0 0 if x 0
= = = 0 x R.
34. Find A1,
where A= 2 3 2 . g (0) if x < 0 0 if x < 0
3 3 4 3. Let f : N o S, f(x) = 9x2 + 6x 5
Hence solve the system of equations Consider, f(x1) = f(x2)
x + 2y 3z = 4; 2x + 3y + 2z = 2; 9x12 + 6x1 5 = 9x22 + 6x2 5
3x 3y 4z = 11. 9(x12 x22) + 6(x1 x2) = 0
(x1 x2)[9x1 + 9x2 + 6] = 0
35. Using matrices, solve the following system of equations :
x1 = x2 [' x1, x2 N]
2x + y + z = 7, x y z = 4, 3x + 2y + z = 10.
f is one-one.
SOLUTIONS Since, S is the range of f. ? f is onto.
1. Here, f : N o N s.t. Since, f is one-one and onto.
So, f is invertible.
x + 1, if x is odd
f (x ) = Let y  S be arbitrary number.
x 1, if x is even Consider, y = f(x) x = f 1(y)
Let x, y N s.t. f(x) = f(y) y = 9x2 + 6x 5 y = (3x + 1)2 6
We shall show that x = y
y + 6 1
(i) If x and y both are even y + 6 = 3x + 1 x =
3
f(x) = f(y) x 1 = y 1 x = y
(ii) If x and y both are odd 1 y + 6 1 1 x + 6 1
Also, f ( y ) = or f (x ) =
f(x) = f(y) x + 1 = y + 1 x = y 3 3
(iii) If x is odd and y is even 49 1 7 1
Now, f 1 (43) = = =2
f(x) = f(y) x + 1 = y 1 y x = 2 ...(1) 3 3
R.H.S. is even but L.H.S. is odd.
169 1 13 1
Equation (1) in N is not possible. and f 1 (163) = = =4
3 3
(iii) does not arise.
4. b * a = _b a_ = _a b_ [' _x_ = _x_  x  R]
(iv) If x is even and y is odd, does not arise.
= a * b a, b  R
In any case, f(x) = f(y) x = y * is commutative on R.
f is one-one Also, for a = 2, b = 4, c = 5
For any y  N (co-domain), y can be even or odd (a * b) * c = (2 * 4) * 5 = _2 4_ * 5
When y is odd, y + 1 is even, so = 2 * 5 = _ 2 5_ = 3
f(y + 1) = (y + 1) 1 = y and a * (b * c) = 2 * (4 * 5) = 2 * _4 5_
When y is even, y 1 is odd, so = 2 * 1 = _2 1_ = 1.
f(y 1) = (y 1) + 1 = y ? (a * b) * c z a * (b * c)
f : N o N is onto. * is not associative on R.
Hence, f is both one-one and onto. Also, (a o b) o c = a o c = a
2. Here, f, g : R o R s.t. and a o (b o c) = a o b = a
2 x if x 0 (a o b) o c = a o (b o c) a, b, c  R
f (x ) =| x | + x = o is associative on R.
0 if x < 0
Now, a o b = a, b o a = b
0 if x 0 aobzboa
and g (x ) =| x | x =
2 x if x < 0 o is not commutative on R.

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 33


5. We have, a * b = (2a b)2 (iii) Transitive: Let (a, b), (c, d), (e, f) N N such that
? 3 * 5 = (2 3 5)2 = (6 5)2 = 1 (a, b) R (c, d) and (c, d) R (e, f)
5 * 3 = (2 5 3)2 = (10 3)2 = 49 Now, (a, b) R (c, d) a + d = b + c ...(i)
Thus, 3 * 5 z 5 * 3 and (c, d) R (e, f) c + f = d + e ...(ii)
6. Here A = R R and * on A is defined as Adding (i) and (ii), we get
(a, b) * (c, d) = (a + c, b + d)  a, b , c, d R (a + d) + (c + f) = (b + c) + (d + e)
Now (c, d) * (a, b) = (c + a, d + b) = (a + c, b + d) a + f = b + e (a, b) R (e, f)
= (a, b) * (c, d) (a, b), (c, d)  A Thus, (a, b) R (c, d) and (c, d) R (e, f) (a, b) R (e, f).
* is commutative on A. So, R is transitive.
Again [(a, b) * (c, d)] * (e, f) = (a + c, b + d) * (e, f) ? R is an equivalence relation.
= ( a + c + e, b + d + f ) = ( a + (c + e), b + (d + f ) ) 9. Here a * b = 3a + 4b 2
= (a, b) * (c + e, d + f) ? 4 * 5 = 3(4) + 4(5) 2 = 12 + 20 2 = 30
= (a, b) * [(c, d) * (e, f)] (a, b), (c, d), (e, f)  A 10. We have, S = Q {1}
a * b = a + b ab a, b  S
* is associative on A.
(i) As a, b S a, b  Q and a z 1, b z 1 ...(1)
Also 0  R and (0, 0)  A.
? a + b ab  Q
? (a, b)  A, (a, b) * (0, 0) = (a + 0, b + 0) = (a, b)
We check : a + b ab z 1
and (0, 0) * (a, b) = (0 + a, 0 + b) = (a, b)
Suppose a + b ab = 1 a + b ab 1 = 0
(0, 0) acts as an identity element in A w.r.t. *.
(1 a) ( 1 + b) = 0
7. We have, A = {x Z : 0 d x d 12} Either 1 a = 0 or 1 + b = 0
? A = {0, 1, 2, 3, ..., 12} a = 1 or b = 1
and S = {(a, b) : _a b_ is a multiple of 4} This contradicts (1).
(i) Reflexive : For any a A, ? a + b ab z 1 a + b ab  Q {1} = S
_a a_ = 0 is a multiple of 4. * is binary operation on S.
Thus, (a, a) S ? S is reflexive. (ii) Let a, b  S
(ii) Symmetric : For any a, b A, a * b = a + b ab = b + a ba = b * a, * is commutative
Let (a, b) S _a b_ is a multiple of 4 in S.
_b a_ is a multiple of 4 (b, a) S Let a,b,c  S
i.e., (a, b) S (b, a) S ? S is symmetric. Then a * (b * c) = a * (b + c bc)
(iii) Transitive : For any a, b, c A, = a + b + c bc a(b + c bc) = a + b + c ab bc
Let (a, b) S and (b, c) S ca + abc
= a + b ab + c (a + b ab) c = (a * b) * c
_a b_ is a multiple of 4 and _b c_ is a multiple of 4
? * is associative
a b = 4k1 and b c = 4k2; k1, k2  N
x y
 (a b) + (b c) = 4 (k1 + k2); k1, k2 N 11. Let tan tan = tan T ...(i)
a c = 4 (k1 + k2); k1, k2 N 2 2
Consider,
_a c_ is a multiple of 4 (a , c) S
? S is transitive. 1 tan2(x/2) 1 tan2( y/2)
+
Hence, S is an equivalence relation. cos x + cos y 1 + tan2(x/2) 1 + tan2( y/2)
=
The set of elements related to 1 is {5, 9}. 1 + cos x cos y 1 tan2(x/2) 1 tan2( y/2)
1+
8. (i) Reflexive : Let (a, b) be an arbitrary element of 1 + tan2(x/2) 1 + tan2( y/2)
NN (1 tan2(x/2)) (1 + tan2( y/2))
a+b=b+a
+ (1 + tan2(x/2)) (1 tan2( y/2))
(a, b) R (a, b) for all (a, b) N N =
So, R is reflexive. (1 + tan2(x/2)) (1 + tan2( y/2))
(ii) Symmetry: Let (a, b), (c, d) N N such that + (1 tan2(x/2)) (1 tan2( y/2))
(a, b) R (c, d)  a + d = b + c b + c = a + d 1 tan2(x/2) + tan2( y/2) tan2(x/2)tan2( y/2) + 1
c + b = d + a (c, d) R (a, b). tan2( y/2) + tan2(x/2) tan2(x/2)tan2( y/2)
Thus, (a, b) R (c, d) =
 (c, d) R (a, b) for all (a, b), (c, d) N N. 1 + tan2(x/2) + tan2( y/2) + tan2(x/2)tan2( y/2) + 1
So, R is symmetric. tan2(x/2) tan2( y/2) + tan2(x/2) tan2( y/2)

34 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


2 2 tan2(x/2 )tan2( y/2) 1 tan2 1
= = {from (i)} y = sec cot 1
2 + 2 tan2(x/2)tan2( y/2) 1 + tan2 2 a2
= cos 2T
? L.H.S. = cos1 (cos 2T) = 2T y = 3 a2  ...(ii)
x y From (i) and (ii), x = y = 3 a 2
= 2 tan 1 tan tan = R.H.S. 14. Let tan1 x = T for x 0
 2 2
Case I : When 0 x < 1, then 0 T < S/4 and
y 1 x2 y2 so 0 2T < S/2
12. cot 1 = tan 1 2 x
1 x 2 y 2 y ? sin1 = sin1 (sin 2T) = 2T = 2 tan1 x
1 + x2
3 4x 2 4x 3 4x 2 1 x2
also, 2 tan1 = tan1 cos1 = cos1 (cos 2T) = 2T = 2 tan1x
4x 2 8x 2 3 1 + x2
2x
Hence the given equation is, tan1 = tan1 (tan 2T) = 2T = 2 tan1 x
4x 3 4x 2 1 x 2
1 x2 y2
tan1 = tan1 Thus,
y 8x 2 3 2x
1 1 x
2
1 2x

3 sin 1 4 cos + 2 tan = ,
3 4x 2 1+ x2 1+ x2 1 x2 3
tan1
x2 3 (2 tan1x) 4 (2 tan1 x) + 2 (2 tan1 x) = S/3
4x 3 4x 2 2 tan1 x = S/3 tan1x = S/6 x = 1/ 3
3 4x 2
1 1
8 x 2 3 x 2 as 0 < 1, x = is a solution.
= tan 1
3 3
2
1 + 4x 3 4x 3 4x
2 2x
Case II : When x = 1, tan1 is not defined.
8x 2 3 x 2 1 x2
(3 4x 2)3/2 ? x =1, cannot be a solution.
= tan 1 3

Case III : If x > 1, then < T < and so < 2T < S
9x 8x 4 2 2
1 x 2 y 2 (3 4x 2)3/2 2x
? ? sin1 = sin1 (sin 2T) = S 2T = S 2 tan1 x.
y
=
9x 8x 3 1 + x 2
Squaring and simplifying, we get 2x
cos1 = cos1 (cos 2T) = 2T = 2 tan1 x.
1 x2 (3 4x 2 )3 27 27x 2 1 + x 2
= 1 + =
y 2 (9x 8x )3 2
(9x 8x 3)2 2x
and tan1 = tan1 (tan 2T)
x 2(9 8x 2 )2 1 x 2 = 2T S= 2 tan1 x S
y2 =
27 Thus the given equation becomes,
13. Here, x = cosec (tan1 (cos (cot1 (sec (sin1 a)))))
3 (S 2 tan1 x) 4 (2 tan1 x) + 2 (2 tan1 x S 
1 3
x = cosec tan 1 cos cot 1  S 10 tan1 x =  or tan1x =
1 a2 3 15
i.e., x = tan S/15 < tan S/4 < 1.
1 ? x = tan S/15 is not a solution.
x = cosec tan 1 ? x = 1/ 3 is the only solution for the given equation
2 a2 for x 0.
 x = 3 a2 ...(i) 15. We have, sin (sin1 6x) = sin (sin1 6 3x S/2)
and y = sec (cot1 (sin(tan1 (cosec(cos1 a))))) 6x = sin (sin1 6 3x + sin1 1)
1  6x = sin (sin1 1 108x 2 )
y = sec cot 1 sin tan 1
1 a2 6x = 1 108x 2 ...(i)

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 35


Squaring both sides, we get
1 3x 1 + 3x
36x2 = 1 108x2 144x2 = 1 or tan1 = tan1  y =
 x = 1/12 and x = 1/12 y 1 + 3x 3x
1 As x, y are positive integers, x = 1, 2 and corresponding
If x = , we get y = 2, 7.
12
? Solutions are (x, y) = (1, 2), (2, 7) (i.e.,) two solutionss.
1 3
sin 1 + sin 1 = = 19. Let sin1 x = y, we get
2 2 6 3 2
2y2 y 6 = 0 y = 2 and y = 1.5
Thus x = 1/12 is the root of given equation. But, when
substituting in (i), we get
? sin1 x = 2 and sin1 x = 1.5
Since 2 > S/2 and | 1.5 | < S/2, the only solution is x
1
L.H.S 6x = , R.H.S 1 108x 2 = 1 / 2 = sin (1.5).
2
Thus L.H.S z R.H.S of equation (i) 20. A2 5A + 4I
Thus x = 1/12 is a root of the given equation as it satisfy 2 0 1 2 0 1
both given and equation (i).
= 2 1 3 2 1 3
1 1 1
16. 4 tan 1 tan 1 + tan 1 1 1 0 1 1 0
5 70 99
1 1 1 2 0 1 1 0 0
= 2 2 tan 1 tan 1 + tan 1
5 70 99 5 2 1 3 + 4 0 1 0
2 (1 / 5) 1 1 + tan 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1
= 2 tan 1 tan
1 (1 / 5)
2 70 99 5 1 2 10 0 5 4 0 0
5 1 1
= 2 tan 1 tan 1 tan 1 = 9 2 5 10 5 15 + 0 4 0
12 70 99 0 1 2 5 5 0 0 0 4
1 1
1 1 3
2 (5 / 12 )
= tan 1 tan 1 70 99
1 (5 / 12)
2 1 1 = 1 3 10
1 +
70 99 5 4 2
120 1
= tan 1 tan 1 Since, A2 5A + 4I + X = O X = (A2 5A + 4I)
119 239
1 1 3
120
1 ? X = 1 3 10

= tan 1 119 239 = tan 1(1)= 5 4 2
120 1 4
1 + 119 239 21. Trust fund = ` 35,000.
Let ` x be invested in the first bond and then
52 ` (35,000 x) will be invested in the second bond.
17. We have (tan1x)2 + (cot1x)2 = Interest paid on the first bond = 8% = 0.08
8
52 Interest paid on the second bond = 10% = 0.10
(tan1x + cot1 x)2 2 tan1x cot1x =
2 8 Total annual interest = ` 3,200.
52 0.08
2 tan x (S/2 tan x) = 8
1 1
? In matrices,[x 35, 000 x]
2 = [3, 200]
32 0.10
2 (tan1 x)2 S tan1 x =0 x 0.08 + (35,000 x) 0.10 = 3,200
8
tan x = S/4, 3S/4 tan x = S/4 x =1
1 1 8x + 3,50,000 10x = 3,20,000
2x = 30,000 x = 15,000
y 3 ? ` 15,000 should be invested in the first bond and
18. Here, tan1x + cos1 = sin1 .
1+ y2 10 ` 35,000 ` 15,000 = ` 20,000 be invested in the second
1 bond.
tan x + tan = tan1 (3)
1 1
y The values reflected in this question are :
1 (i) Spirit of investment.
or tan1 = tan1(3) tan1 (x) (ii) Giving charity to cancer patients.
y (iii) Helping the orphans living in the society.

36 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


1 1 a 1 24. We have A = IA
22. We have, A = and B = 1 1 2 1 0 0
2 1 b 1
1 2 3 = 0 1 0 A
1 1 a 1 1 + a 0 3 1 1 0 0 1
Consider, (A + B) = + =
2 1 b 1 2 + b 2 Applying R2 o R2 + R1, R3 o R3 + 3R1, we get
1 + a 0 1 + a 0 1 1 2 1 0 0
Now, (A + B)2 =
2 + b 2 2 + b 2 0 3 5 = 1 1 0 A
(1 + a)2 0 (1 + a)2 0
= = 0 4 7 3 0 1
(2 + b)(1 + a 2) 4 (2 + b)(a 1) 4 Applying R2 o R2 R3, we get
1 1 2 1 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 0
Now, A2 = =
2 1 2 1 0 1 0 1 2 = 2 1 1 A
0 4 7 3 0 1
a 1 a 1 a2 + b a 1
and B 2 = = Applying R1 o R1 + R2, we get
b 1 b 1 ab b b + 1 1 0 0 1 1 1
a2 + b 1 a 1
? A2 + B2 = 0 1 2 = 2 1 1 A
ab b b 0 4 7 3 0 1

It is given that (A + B)2 = A2 + B2 Applying R3 o R3 + 4R2, we get
(1 + a)2 0 a2 + b 1 a 1 1 0 0 1 1 1
? =
(2 + b)(a 1) 4 ab b b
0 1 2 = 2 1 1 A
By equality of matrices, comparing the corresponding 0 0 1 5 4 3
elements, we get
a 1 = 0 a = 1 and b = 4 Applying R2 o R2 2R3, we get
Also, (1 + a)2 = a2 + b 1 and (2 + b) (a 1)= ab b 1 0 0 1 1 1
satisfied by a = 1 and b = 4
0 1 0 = 8 7 5 A
1 1
23. We know that, A = ( A + A) + ( A A) 0 0 1 5 4 3

2 2 Applying R1 o(1)R1, R2 o (1)R2, R3 o(1)R3, we get
1 1
Here, ( A + A) is symmetric matrix and ( A A) is
2 2 1 0 0 1 1 1
skew symmetric matrix.
 0 1 0 = 8 7 5 A
3 2 4 3 3 1 0 0 1 5 4 3
Now, A = 3 2 5 A = 2 2 1

1 1 1
1 1 2 4 5 2 1
Hence, A = 8 7 5
6 1 5
5 4 3
(A + A) = 1 4 4 , which is symmetric.
1 1
?
2 2 a2 bc ac + c 2
5 4 4
25. L.H.S. = = a2 + ab b2 ac
0 5 3
1 1 ab b2 + bc c2
and (A A) = 5 0 6 which is skew symmetric.
2 2 Taking a, b, c common from C1, C2, C3 respectively, we get
3 6 0
a c a+c
6 1 5 0 5 3 ' = abc a + b b a
1
4 + 5 0 6
1
? A = 1 4
2 2 b b+c c
5 4 4 3 6 0 Applying C3 oC3 C1 C2, we get
3 1/ 2 5 / 2 0 5 / 2 3 / 2 a c 0
A= 1 / 2 2
2 + 5 / 2 0 3

 ' = abc a + b b 2b

5 / 2 2 2 3 / 2 3 0 b b + c 2b

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 37


Applying R2 oR2 R3, we get Applying C1 o C1 + C2 + C3, we get
a c 0 a 2 + b2 + c 2 + 1 b2 c2
' = abc a c 0
a 2 + b2 + c 2 + 1 b 2 + 1 c2
b b + c 2b
a 2 + b2 + c 2 + 1 b2 c2 + 1
= abc(2b)(ac ac) = 2ab2c(2ac)
= 4a2b2c2 = R.H.S.
b+c a a Taking (a2 + b2 + c2 + 1) common from C1, we get
26. L.H.S. = b c+a b 1 b2 c2
c c a+b (a2 + b2 + c 2 + 1) 1 b2 + 1 c2
Applying R1 oR1 R2 R3, we get
1 b2 c2 + 1
0 2c 2b
b c+a b Applying R2 o R2 R1, R3 o R3 R1, we get
c c a+b 1 b2 c2
Taking 2 common from R1, we get (1 + a2 + b2 + c 2 ) 0 1 0
0 c b 0 0 1
(2) b c + a b
= (1 + a2 + b2 + c2) (1) (1 0)
c c a+b
= (1 + a2 + b2 + c2) = R.H.S.
1 1
Applying C2 C2 , C3 C3 , we get
c b x y z
0 1 1 2 2
28. L.H.S. = x y z2
(2) bc b 1 + a / c 1
y+z z+x x+ y
c 1 a / b +1
Applying R3 oR3 + R1, we get
Applying C2 oC2 C3, we get
x y z
0 0 1
2 2
x y z2
2bc b a / c 1
c a / b a / b + 1 x+ y+z x+ y+z x+ y+z
Taking (x + y + z) common from R3, we get
= 2bc ( a a) = 4abc = R.H.S.
x y z
a2 + 1 ab ac
27. L.H.S.= ab 2 (x + y + z ) x 2 y2 z2
b + 1 bc
ac cb c2 + 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 Applying C1 oC1 C2, C2 oC2 C3, we get
Applying R1 R1 , R2 R2 , R3 R3 , we get
a b c xy yz z
1 2 2 2 2
a+ b c (x + y + z ) x y y z z2
a
1 0 0 1
abc a b+ c
b Taking (x y ) and (y z ) common from C1 and C2
1
a b c+ respectively, we get
c
1 1 z
Applying C1 o aC1, C2 o bC2, C3 o cC3, we get
(x + y + z )(x y )( y z ) x + y y+z z2
a2 + 1 b2 c2
abc 0 0 1
a2 b2 + 1 c2
abc = (x + y + z) (x y) (y z) [(y + z) (x + y)]
a2 b2 c2 + 1 = (x y) (y z) (z x) (x + y + z) = R.H.S.

38 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


yz x 2 zx y 2 xy z 2 3 1 2 x 1100

where, P = 1 2 3 ; X = y and Q = 1400
29. Let = zx y 2 xy z 2 yz x 2
1 1 1 z 600
xy z 2 yz x 2 zx y 2
3 1 2
Applying C1 o C1 + C2 + C3, we get
(ii) Now | P | = 1 2 3 = 3 + 2 2 = 3 z0
(x 2 + y 2 + z 2 xy yz zx ) zx y 2 xy z 2 1 1 1
1
= (x 2 + y 2 + z 2 xy yz zx ) xy z 2 yz x 2 Thus, P exists. So, system of equations has unique
solution and it is given by X = P1Q
(x 2 + y 2 + z 2 xy yz zx ) yz x 2 zx y 2
1 1 1
Taking (x2 + y2 + z2 xy yz zx) common from C1, we get
'= (x2 + y2 + z2 xy yz zx) Now, adj P = 2 1 7
1 zx y 2 xy z 2 1 2 5
1 xy z 2 yz x 2 1 1 1
1 1 1
1 yz x 2 zx y 2 P = adj P = 2 1 7
|P| 3
Applying R1 o R1 R3, R2 o R2 R3, we get 1 2 5
'= (x2 + y2 + z2 xy yz zx) Now, X = P Q1

0 (x y )(x + y + z ) ( y z )(x + y + z ) x 1 1 1 1100


y = 2 1 7 1400
1
0 (x z )(x + y + z ) ( y x )(x + y + z ) 3
1 yz x 2 zx y 2 z 1 2 5 600
Taking (x + y + z) common from R1 and R2 both, we get 300 100
' = (x2 + y2 + z2 xy yz zx) (x + y + z)2 1
= 600 = 200

0 xy yz 3
900 300
0 xz yx
x = 100, y = 200, z = 300.
1 yz x 2 zx y 2 Thus, the above system of equations is solvable.
' = (x + y + z) (x3 + y3 + z3 3xyz) (iii) The value truthfulness should be rewarded the most
[(x y) (y x) (x z) (y z)] because a student who is truthful will be also tolerant
' = (x + y + z) (x3 + y3 + z3 3xyz) and will work with a team spirit in the school.
(xy + yz + zx x2 y2 z2) 32. Let the monthly income of Aryan be ` 3x and that
'= (x + y + z) (x3 + y3 + z3 3xyz) of Babban be ` 4x
(x2 + y2 + z2 xy yz zx) Also, let monthly expenditure of Aryan be ` 5y and that
Hence, ' is divisible by (x + y + z) and quotient is of Babban be ` 7y
(x3 + y3 + z3 3xyz)(x2 + y2 + z2 xy yz zx) According to question,
30. Using determinants, the line joining A(1, 3) and 3x 5y = 15000
x y 1 4x 7y = 15000
B(0, 0) is given by 1 3 1 = 0 1(3x y) = 0 y = 3x These equations can be written as
AX = B
0 0 1
3 5 x 15000
Now, D(k, 0) is a point s.t. area of 'ABD = 3 sq. units where, A = , X = , B =
1 3 1 4 7 y 15000
1 3 5
? 0 0 1 = 3 (0 3k) = 6 k = 2 |A|= = (21 + 20) = 1 0
2 4 7
k 0 1
Thus, A1 exists. So, system of equations has a unique
31. (i) Given, value of prize for team spirit = ` x
Value of prize for truthfulness = ` y solution and given by X= A1 B
Value of prize for tolerance = ` z 7 5
Now, adj( A) =
Linear equation for School A is 3x + y + 2 z = 1100 4 3
Linear equation for School B is x + 2 y + 3z = 1400
adj( A) 7 5
Linear equation for Prize is x + y + z = 600 ? A1 = =
The corresponding matrix equation is PX = Q | A| 4 3

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 39
7 5 15000 6 17 13
Now, X = A1B =
4 3 15000 Now, adj A = 14 5 8
x 30000 15 9 1
 =
y 15000 6 17 13
x = 30000 and y = 15000 1 1 1
A = adj A = 14 5 8
So, monthly income of Aryan = 3 30000 = `90000 | A| 67
Monthly income of Babban = 4 30000 = `120000 15 9 1
From this question we are encouraged to save a part of The given system of equations is
money every month. x + 2y 3z = 4
33. According to question, we have 2x + 3y + 2z = 2
x + y + z = 12000 3x 3y 4z = 11
4x + 3y + 2z = 37000 The system of equations can be written as AX = B
5x + 3y + 4z = 47000
The system of equations can be written as AX = B 1 2 3 x 4

1 1 1 x 12000 where, A = 2 3 2 ; X = y , B = 2
3 3 4
where, A = 4 3 2 ; X = y ; B = 37000 z 11
5 3 4 z 47000 ? A exists, so system of equations has a unique solution
1
given by X = A1 B
1 1 1 x 6 17 13 4
1
| A | = 4 3 2 = 6 6 3 = 3 z0  y = 14 5 8 2
5 3 4 67
z 15 9 1 11
? A 1 exists. So, system of equations has a unique
201 3
solution and it is given by X = A1B 1
= 134 = 2
6 1 1 67
67 1
adj A = 6 1 2
x = 3, y = 2, z = 1.
3 2 1 35. Given equations can be written as AX = B
6 1 1 2 1 1 x 7

where, A = 1 1 1 , X = y , B = 4

1 1 1
A = adj A = 6 1 2
| A| 3
3 2 1 3 2 1 z 10
Now, X = A1 B
2 1 1
x 6 1 1 12000
1 | A | = 1 1 1 = 2 4 + 5 = 3 z0
y = 6 1 2 37000
3 3 2 1
z 3 2 1 47000
? A1 exists.
12000 4000
1 1 1 0
= 15000 = 5000
3 Now, adj A = 4 1 3
9000 3000 5 1 3
x = 4000, y = 5000; z = 3000
The values described in this question are 1 1 0
1 1 1
resourcefulness, competence and determination. ? A = adj A = 4 1 3
| A| 3
1 2 3 5 1 3
34. Here, A = 2 3 2 1
Since A exists. So, system of equations has a unique

solution given by X = A1B
3 3 4
1 2 3 x 1 1 0 7 3 1
1 1
| A | = 2 3 2 = 6 + 28 + 45 = 67 z0  y = 4 1 3 4 = 6 = 2
3 3
3 3 4 z 5 1 3 10 9 3
? A1 exists.  x = 1, y = 2, z = 3.

40 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


*3(::?00 :LYPLZ

CBSE
Matrices and Determinants
IMPORTANT FORMULAE

MATRICES h Ri o Ri + kRj or Ci o Ci + kCj


z If A, B and C are any three matrices , then z If A and B are two square matrices such that
h Commutative law : A + B = B + A AB = BA = I, then B is the inverse matrix of A and
h Associative law : (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) is denoted by A1.
(AB)C = A(BC) z Inverse of a square matrix, if it exists, is unique.
h Distributive law : A(B + C) = AB + AC DETERMINANTS
(A + B)C = AC + BC
h Existence of identity : A + O = A = O + A a1 b1 c1
c2 is given by
IA = A = AI z Determinant of matrix A = a2 b2
h Existence of inverse : A + (A) = O = (A) + A a3 b3 c3
z If A and B are comparable matrices and k is a scalar, a1 b1 c1
then k(A + B) = (kA + kB)
| A | = a2 b2 c2
z If k1, k2 are scalars and A is any matrix, then
h (k1 + k2)A = (k1A + k2A) a3 b3 c3
h k1(k2A) = (k1k2)A
b2 c2 a2 c2 a2 b2
z If A is an (m n) matrix and B is an (n p) matrix, = a1 b1 + c1
then AB exists and it is an (m p) matrix. b3 c3 a3 c3 a3 b3
z (i, k)th element of AB = sum of the products of
corresponding elements of ith row of A and kth column (expanding along R1)
of B. z For square matrix A, |A| satisfy the following
z Properties of Transpose properties:
T T
h (A ) = A h |AT| = |A|, where AT = transpose of A.
T T T
h (A+B) = A +B , where A and B are of same order
T T
h If we interchange any two rows (or columns),
h (kA) = kA , where k be any scalar (real or complex)
T T T then sign of determinant changes.
h (AB) = B A
T T T T h If any two rows or any two columns are identical
h (ABC) = C B A
or proportional, then value of determinant is
h A is a symmetric matrix if AT = A.
T zero.
h A is a skew symmetric matrix if A = A.
h If we multiply each element of a row or a column
z Any square matrix can be represented as the sum of
a symmetric and a skew symmetric matrix. of a determinant by constant k, then value of
z Elementary operations of a matrix are as follows : determinant is multiplied by k.
h Ri l Rj or Ci l Cj h Multiplying a determinant by k means multiply
h Ri o kRi or Ci o kCi elements of only one row (or one column) by k.

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 41


h If elements of a row or a column in a determinant h (kA)1 = k1A1 if k z 0
can be expressed as sum of two or more elements, h (AB)1 = B1A1
then the given determinant can also be expressed h (ABC.... Z)1 = Z1 Y1..... B1A1
as sum of two or more determinants. h (AT)1 = (A1)T
h If in each element of a row or a column of a h If A = diag.(O1, O2, ...., On), then
determinant, the equimultiples of corresponding
elements of other rows or columns are added, A1 = diag. (O11, O21, ...., On1) when Oi z 0 i
then value of determinant remains same. z A system of equation is consistent or inconsistent
h Area of a triangle with vertices (x1, y1), (x2, y2) according as its solution exists or not.
and (x3, y3) is given by z If a1 x + b1 y + c1 z = d1
x1 y1 1 a2 x + b2 y + c2 z = d2
1 a3 x + b3 y + c3 z = d3
= x2 y2 1 then these equations can be written as AX = B, where
2
x3 y3 1 a1 b1 c1 x d1

z Minor of an element aij of the matrix A is the A = a2 b2 c 2 , X = y and B = d2
determinant obtained by deleting ith row and jth a3 b3 c 3 z d3
column and is denoted by Mij.
h If |A| z0, there exists unique solution given by
z Cofactor of aij is given by Aij = (1)i+j Mij X = A1B.
z det(AB) = detAdetB, where A and B are matrices h If |A| = 0 and (adj A) B z O, then there exists
of same order. no solution.
z det(kA) = kndet A, if A is of order n un h If |A| = 0 and (adj A) B = O, then system may or
z det(An) = (det A)n if n I+ may not be consistent.
a11 a12 a13 z Cramer's Rule : Let there be a system of n simultaneous
z If A = a21 a22 a23 , then linear equations in n unknowns given by
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn = b1
a31 a32 a33
a21 x1 + a22 x2 + ... + a2n xn = b2
A11 A21 A31
adj A = A12 A22 A32 , where Aij is cofactor of aij an1 x1 + an2 x2 + ... + ann xn = bn

A13 A23 A33 a11 a12  a1n

Let D = 21 22  2n and let D j be the


z A square matrix A is said to be singular or non- a a a
singular according as |A| = 0 or |A| z0 respectively.   
z Properties of adjoint an1 an2  ann
h A(adj A) = (adj A) A = |A| In determinant obtained from D after replacing the jth
h adj (AB) = (adj B)(adj A) b1
h |adj A| = |A|n 1
2 b
h |adj (adj A)| = |A|n 1) column by 2 .
n 
h |adj OA| = O 1 adj A
h adj (adj A) = |A|n2A bn
h adj (AT) = (adj A)T D1 D D
Then, x1 = , x = 2 , ..., xn = n , provided that
h adj (O) = O, (adj I) = I D 2 D D
D z0.
h If A is symmetric, then adj (A) is symmetric.
h If D 0, then the given system of equations is
z If AB = BA = I, where B is square matrix, then B is
consistent and has a unique solution given by
called inverse of A. Also A1 = B or B1 = A and hence
(A1)1 = A. D D D D
x = 1 , x2 = 2 , x3 = 3 ,...., xn = n
z A square matrix A has inverse if and only if A is D D D D
non-singular. h If D = 0 and D1 = D2 = D3 = ... = Dn = 0, then
z Properties of Inverse the given system of equations is consistent, with
infinitely many solutions.
( adj A)
h A 1 = , for non-singular square matrix A h If D = 0 and at least one of the determinants D1,
| A| D2, D, ..., Dn is non-zero, then the given system
h AA1 = A1A = In of equations is inconsistent and have no solution.

42 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


WORK IT OUT
1 1 0
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE
12. If A = 2 5 3 , find A1 using elementary row
1. Construct a 3 2 matrix A, whose elements are 0 2 1
(i + 2 j)2
given by aij = . transformations.
2
x +1 x+2 x+a 13. Using properties of determinants, prove that :
a b c
2. If a, b, c are in A.P., prove that x + 2 x +3 x +b
x+3 x+4 x+c a b b c c a = a3 + b3 + c3 3 abc.
= 0. b+c c+a a+b
3 7 13 14. Verify that (AB)1 = B1 A1 for matrices
3. Evaluate 5 0 0 . 2 3 1 2
0 11 2 A = 1 4 and B = .
1 3
x 2 15. Solve the following system of equations by using
4. If A = and |A4| = 625, find the value(s) of x.
2 x matrix method.
3x + 4y = 7
5. Find the additive inverse of A + B where A and B 6x + 8y = 14
2 5 1 2
are given as A = ,B= LONG ANSWER TYPE - II
9 3 3 9
3 5 2
16. If A = and f(x) = x 5x 14, find f(A).
SHORT ANSWER TYPE 4 2
6. Find the values of a and b for which the following Hence obtain A3.
hold : 4 2 1
3 5 7
a b 2 5 17. Express the matrix as the sum of
a 2b 1 = 4 1 2 1

symmetric and skew symmetric matrix.
2 2 2 18. Using properties of determinants, show that
7. If matrix A = and A = pA, then write
2 2 a2 + 1 ab ac
the value of p.
ba b2 + 1 bc = a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + 1.
2 1 0 4
8. If A = and B =
7
, find the c2 + 1
1
ca cb
3 2
2
determinant of the matrix 3A 2B. 19. The management committee of a residential colony
2 3 decided to award some of its members (say x)
9. If A = 1
5 2 , write A in terms of A. for honesty, some (say y) for helping others and
some others (say z) for supervising the workers to
10. If the points (a1, b1), (a2, b2) and (a1 + a2, b1 + b2) keep the colony neat and clean. The sum of all the
are collinear then using determinants, show that awardees is 12. Three times the sum of awardees
a1b2 = a2b1. for helping others and supervision added to two
LONG ANSWER TYPE - I times the number of awardees for honesty is 33.
If the sum of the number of awardees for honesty
0 6 7 0 1 1 2 and supervision is twice the number of awardees

11. If A = 6 0 8 , B = 1 0 2 and C = 2 , for helping others, using matrix method, find the
7 8 0 1 2 0 3 number of awardees of each category. Apart from
these values, namely, honesty, helping others and
then calculate AC, BC and (A + B)C. Also verify that supervision, suggest one more value which the
(A + B)C = AC + BC. management of the colony must include for awards.

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 43


1 1 0 2 2 4 1 7
5. Let C = A + B =
20. If A = 2 3 4 and B = 4 2 4 , find AB. 12 6
0 1 2 2 1 5 1 7
Now, (C) =
Hence solve the system of equations : 12 6
x y = 3, 2x + 3y + 4z = 17, y + 2z = 7 ? (C) is the additive inverse of A + B.
SOLUTIONS a b 2 5
6. Given, =
(i + 2 j)2 a 2b 1 4
1. aij = ; i = 1, 2, 3 and j = 1, 2 2 a + b (1) 5 2a b 5
2 = =
(1 + 2 1)2 9 (1 + 2 2)2 25 (a) 2 + 2b (1) 4 2a 2b 4
a11 = = , a12 = = ; 2a b = 5 ...(i)
2 2 2 2 and 2a 2b = 4 a + b = 2 ...(ii)
(2 + 2 1)2 (2 + 2 2)2 Adding (i) and (ii), we get 3a = 3 a = 1
a21 = = 8, a22 = = 18; From (ii), 1 + b = 2 b = 3
2 2
Hence, a = 1, b = 3.
(3 + 2 1)2 25 (3 + 2 2)2 49
a31 = = , a32 = = . 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 7. A2 =
2 2 2 2
9 25 2 2 + (2) (2) 2 (2) + (2) 2 8 8
2 2 = =

Hence, the required matrix A = 8 18 . (2) 2 + 2 (2) (2)(2) + 2 2 8 8
25 8 8 2 2
49 Given A2 = pA = p 2 2
8 8
2 2
2. Given, a, b, c are in A.P., 8 8 2 p 2 p
=
 ? a + c = 2b a + c 2b = 0 ...(i) 8 8 2 p 2 p
x +1 x + 2 x + a 0 0 a + c 2b 8 = 2p, 8 = 2p p = 4
x +2 x +3 x +b = x +2 x +3 x +b 2 1 2 1 4 3 2 2 1 4
8. A2 = = =
x+3 x+4 x+c x+3 x+4 x+c
3 2 3 2 6 + 6 3 + 4 12 1
(Using R1 o R1 + R3 2 R2) 1 4 0 4
? 3A2 2B = 3 2
0 0 0 12 1 1 7
= x +2 x +3 x +b = 0 (Using (i)) 3 12 0 8
=
x+3 x+4 x+c 36 3 2 14
3. On expanding along R2, we get 30 12 8 3 20
= =
3 7 13 36 (2) 3 14 38 11
7 13 3 13 3 7
5 0 0 = (5) +0 0 2 3 20
11 2 0 2 0 11 | 3A 2B | = = 3(11) 38(20)
0 11 2 38 11
= 33 + 760 = 727
= 5 (14 143) = 785. 2 3
9. Given, A =
4. Given, A =
x 2
? |A|= x2 4 5 2
2 x
2 3
Now, |A4| = (|A|)4 = 625 ? adj A =
(x2 4)4 = 625 (x2 4)2 = 25 5 2
x2 4 = r5 x2 4 = 5 or x2 4 = 5 2 3
Now, |A|= = 4 15 = 19 0
x2 = 9 or x2 = 1 5 2
x2 = 9 or x = 3, 3 ( x2 t 0, x R) A1 exists

44 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


1 1 2 3 0 2 + 7 (2) + 8 3 10
? A 1 = adj A =
| A| 19 5 2 = (5) 2 + 0 (2) + 10 3 = 20 ...(i)
8 2 + (6)(2) + 0 3 28
1 2 3 1
= = A
19 5 2 19 9 1 9 + 1 10

Now, AC + BC = 12 + 8 = 12 + 8 = 20 ...(ii)
10. The given points are collinear
30 2 30 2 28
a1 b1 1
? a2 b2 1 =0 From (i) and (ii), we get
(A + B)C = AC + BC
a1 + a2 b1 + b2 1
1 1 0
a1 b1 1
12. Given, A = 2 5 3 , then A = I3A
a2 a1 b2 b1 0 = 0
0 2 1
a2 b2 0
[Applying R2 R2 R1, R3 o R3 R1] 1 1 0 1 0 0

a1 b1 2 5 3 = 0 1 0 A
=0 [Expanding along C3] 0 2 1 0 0 1
a2 a1 b2 b1
[Applying R2 R1 + R2] Using R2 oR2 2R1, we get
a1 b1 1 1 0 1 0 0
=0
a2 b2 0 7 3 = 2 1 0 A
a 1b 2 a 2b 1 = 0 a 1b 2 = a 2b 1. 0 2 1 0 0 1

0 6 7 2 Using R2 o R2 3R3, we get

11. AC = 6 0 8 2 1 1 0 1 0 0
7 8 0 3
0 1 0 = 2 1 3 A
0 2 + 6 (2) + 7 3 9 0 2 1 0 0 1


= (6) 2 + 0 (2) + 8 3 = 12 Using R3 o R3 2R2, we get

7 2 + (8) (2) + 0 3 30 1 1 0 1 0 0

0 1 1 2 0 2 + 1 (2) + 1 3 1 0 1 0 = 2 1 3 A
0 0 1 4 2 7
BC = 1 0 2 2 = 1.2 + 0.(2) + 2 3 = 8
1 2 0 3 1 2 + 2 (2) + 0 3 2 Using R1 o R1 + R2, we get

0 6 7 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 3

A + B = 6 0 8 + 1 0 2 0 1 0 = 2 1 3 A
7 8 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 4 2 7

0+0 6 + 1 7 + 1 0 7 8 1 1 3

= 6 + 1 0 + 0 8 + 2 = 5 0 10 I3 = BA, where B = 2 1 3
7 + 1 8 + 2 0 + 0 8 6 0 4 2 7

0 7 82 1 1 3

? (A + B) C = 5 0 10 2 Hence, A1 = 2 1 3
8 6 0 3 4 2 7

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 45


13. Using R2 o R2 R1 and R3 oR3 + R1, we get
1 3 2 4 3
a b c a b c Now, B1 A1 = 11 1 1 1 2

a b b c c a = b c a
1 14 5
b+c c +a a+b a+b+c a+b+c a+b+c = ...(ii)
11 5 1
a b c From (i) and (ii), we find that (AB)1 = B1 A1.
= (a + b + c) b c a 15. The given system of equations can be written as
1 1 1
3 4 x 7
Applying C1 oC1 C3 and C2 oC2 C3 = i.e., AX = B ...(i)
6 8 y 14
ac bc c
3 4 x 7
= (a + b + c) b a c a a where, A = , X = and B = .
0 0 1 6 8 y 14
3 4
Now expanding along R3 Now, | A | = = 24 24 = 0
= (a + b + c)((c a)(a c) (b a)(b c)) 6 8
= (a + b + c)(ac c2 a2 + ac (b2 bc ab + ac)) The given system may or may not be consistent.
= (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 ab bc ca) 8 4
= a3 + b3 + c3 3abc (Using algebraic identities) ? adj A = and
6 3
2 3 1 2 8 4 7
14. We have, A = and B = 1 3  (adj A) B =

6 3 14
1 4
2 3 1 2 1 5 56 56 0
 ?AB = = = = =O
1 4 1 3 5 14 42 + 42 0
1 5 The given system is consistent and has infinitely
| AB | = = 14 25 = 11 z 0 many solutions.
5 14
For the solutions of the given system :
(AB)1 exists.
Let y = k, where k is any number.
14 5 ? From (i), we get
adj (AB) =
5 1 1
3x + 4k = 7 and 6 x + 8k = 14 x = (7 4k) and
1 1 14 5 3
? ( AB)1 = adj ( AB) = 1 1
| AB | 11 5 1 x = (14 8k) = (7 4k )
6 3
1 14 5
= ...(i)
Hence, the solutions of the given system is
11 5 1 1
x = (7 4k ), y = k , where k is any number
2 3 3
Now, | A | = = 8 3 = 11 0 A 1 exists 3 5
1 4 16. We have, A =
4 2
4 3
adj A = 3 5 3 5
1 2  ?A2 = AA =
4 2 4 2
1 1 4 3 1 4 3
? A1 = adj A = = 3 3 + (5) (4) 3 (5) + (5) 2 29 25
11 1 2 11 1 2 = =
4 (5) + 2 2 20 24
| A|
1 2 4 3 + 2 (4)
|B| = = 3 2 = 1 0 B 1 exists. Given f(x) = x2 5x 14
1 3
f(A) = A2 5A 14I2
3 2 1 3 2
adj B = , ? B1 = adj B = 29 25 3 5 1 0
= 5 14
1 1 |B| 1 1
20 24 4 2 0 1

46 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


29 25 15 25 14 0 1
= 0 2 1
20 24 20 10 0 14 0 1 2
A AT 1
9 =
1 9
29 15 14 25 (25) 0 0 0 Let Q = = 1 0 0
= = =O 2 2 2 2
20 (20) 0 24 10 14 0 0 2 9 0 9
1 0
A2 = 5A + 14I2 ...(i) 2
? A3 = AA2 = A(5A + 14I2) (Using (i)) 1
T
1
= A(5A) + A(14I2) = 5AA + 14(AI2) 0 2 1 0 2 1
= 5A2 + 14A = 5 (5A + 14I2) + 14A (Using (i))
1 9 1 9
3 5 1 0 QT = 0 = 0 = Q
= 39A + 70I2 = 39 + 70 2 2 2 2
4 2 0 1 9 9
1 0 1 0
117 195 70 0 187 195 2 2
= + =
156 78 0 70 156 148
Hence Q is skew symmetric.
A + AT A AT
4 2 1 4 3 1 Now + =P +Q
T 2 2
17. Let A = 3 5 7 .Then, A = 2 5 2
5 1
1 2 1 1 7 1 4 2 0 0 2 1
4 2 1 4 3 1 4 2 1
=
5 5 + 1 9 = 3 5 7 = A
Therefore, A + A = 3 5 7 + 2
T
5 2
5 0
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 1 1 2 1
7 1 0
5
1 1
9
0
2 2
8 5 0
A + A A AT
T
= 5 10 5 Hence, A = +
0 5 2 2 2
= symmetric + skew symmetric matrix
5
4 2 0 18. Using C1 aC1, C2 bC2 and C3 cC3, we get
a2 + 1 ab ac a3 + a ab2 ac 2
1 T 5 5
Let P = ( A + A ) = 5 1
2 2 2 ba b2 + 1 bc = ba2 b3 + b bc 2
5 abc
0 1 ca cb c2 + 1 ca2 cb2 c3 + c
2
T
1 a2 + 1 b2 c2
Now PT = ( A + AT )
2 abc
T = a2 b2 + 1 c2
5 5 abc
4 2 0 4 2 0 a2 b2 c2 + 1

5 5
=
5 5 Using C1 o C1 + C2 + C3, we get
= 5 5 =P
2 2 2 2
5 5 a 2 + b2 + c 2 + 1 b2 c2
0 1 0 1
2 2 = a 2 + b2 + c 2 + 1 b2 + 1 c2
Hence, P is symmetric.
a 2 + b2 + c 2 + 1 b2 c2 + 1
4 2 1 4 3 1
T
Now, A A = 3 5 7 2 5 2 1 b2 c2
1 2 1 1 7 1 = (a2 + b2 + c 2 + 1) 1 b2 + 1 c2
4 4 2 3 1 1 0 1 2 1 b2 c2 + 1
= 3 2 5 5 7 + 2 = 1 0
9 Using R2 o R2 R1, R3 o R3 R1, we get
1 + 1 2 7 1 1 2 9 0
MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 47
may include the value vigilance because if some
1 b2 c2
members are vigilant they can save the residents of
= (a2 + b2 + c 2 + 1) 0 1 0 the colony from crimes and mishaps.
0 0 1 1 1 0 2 2 4
(a2 + + + 1) 1 (1 0)
b2 c2
= 20. AB = 2 3 4 4 2 4
= a2 + b2 + c2 + 1. 0 1 2 2 1 5

19. According to given conditions, we have 2+4+0 22+0 4 + 4 + 0
x + y + z = 12, 2x + 3(y + z) = 33, x + z = 2y
= 4 12 + 8 4+64 8 12 + 20
i.e., x + y + z = 12, 2x + 3y + 3z = 33, 04+4
0+22 0 4 + 10
x 2y + z = 0.
The given system of equations can be written as 6 0 0

AX = B = 0 6 0 = 6 I3
1 1 1 x 12 0 0 6

2 3
3 , X = y and B = 33
where A =
1 1
1 2 1 z 0 A B = I3 A 1 = B (By def. of inverse)
6 6
1 1 1 2 2 4
Now, | A | = 2 3 3 1 1
A = 4 2 4
1 2 1 6
2 1 5

= 1 (3 + 6) 1 (2 3) + 1 (4 3) The given system of equations is
=9+17=3z0 x y + 0z = 3
A1 exists and so the given system has a unique 2x + 3y + 4z = 17
solution X = A1 B. 0x + y + 2z = 7
9 3 0 This system can be written as
1 1 0 x 3
Now, adj A = 1 0 1

7 3 1 2 3 4 y = 17

0 1 2 z 7
9 3 0
1 1 1
? A = adj A = 1 0 1 x 3
| A| 3
7 3 1
i.e., AX = C where X = y and C = 17
9 3 0 12 z 7
1
? X = A 1B = 1 0 1 33 As A1 exists, the given system has a unique solution
3
7 3
1 0 X = A1 C
108 99 + 0 2 2 4 3
1 1
= 12 + 0 + 0 X = 4 2 4 17
6
3
84 + 99 + 0 2 1 5 7

x 6 + 34 28 12 2
x 9 3 1 1
1 y = 12 + 34 28 = 6 = 1
y = 12 = 4 x = 3, y = 4, z = 5. z 6 6 17 + 35 6 24 4
3
z 15 5

? The number of awardees for honesty = 3, for x = 2, y = 1, z = 4
helping others = 4 and supervising the work = 5. Hence, the solution of the given system of equations
Apart from the values honesty, helping others is x = 2, y = 1, z = 4.
and supervision, the management of the colony

48 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


3 Class XII

T his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their


extent of understanding of specied chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your
readiness.

Matrices and Determinants

Total Marks : 80 Time Taken : 60 Min.


Only One Option Correct Type (a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) 2
4 0 0 One or More Than One Option(s) Correct Type
1. The rank of 0 3 0 is equal to 1 2 2

0 0 5
7. Let A = 2 1 2 , then
(a) 4 (b) 3 (c) 5 (d) 1

3 1 + f (1) 1 + f (2) 2 2 1
1
2. If f (n) = n + n and 1 + f (1) 1 + f (2) 1 + f (3) (a) A2 4A 5I3 = O (b) A 1 = ( A 4 I3 )
5
1 + f (2) 1 + f (3) 1 + f (4) (c) A3 is not invertible (d) A2 is invertible
= k (1 )2 (1 )2 ( )2 , then k is equal to 8. The determinant
(a) 1 (b) 1 (c) DE (d) DEJ b c b + c
3. For a fixed positive integer n, if = c d c + d is equal to
n! (n + 1)! (n + 2)!
b + c c + d a3 + 3c
D = (n + 1)! (n + 2)! (n + 3)! ,
zero, if
(n + 2)! (n + 3)! (n + 4)!
(a) b, c, d are in A.P. (b) b, c, d, are in G.P.
D (c) b, c, d are in H.P.
then 3 4 is divisible by (d) O is a root of ax3 bx2 + cx d = 0
(n!)
(a) 3n (b) n2 9. Suppose a1, a2, ...... real numbers, with a1 z 0. If a1,
(c) n (d) none of these a2, a3, .... are in A.P. then
4. If n is a positive integer, then a1 a2 a3
n+ 2 n+ 3 (a) A = a4 a5 a6 is singular
Cn Cn+1 n+ 4 Cn+ 2
n+ 3 a5 a6 a7
Cn+1 n+ 4 Cn+ 2 n+ 5 Cn+ 3 = (b) the system of equations a1x + a2y + a3z = 0,
n+ 4
Cn+ 2 n+ 5 Cn+ 3 n+ 6 Cn+4 a4x + a5y + a6z = 0, a7x + a8y + a9z = 0 has finite
number of solutions
(a) 3 (b) 1 (c) 5 (d) 9
a ia2
5. If B, C are square matrices of order n and if A = B + C, (c) B = 1 is non singular
BC = CB, C2 = O, then for any positive integer p, 2 a1
ia
Ap + 1 = Bk [B + (p + 1) C], k is (d) none of these
(a) p + 1 (b) p (c) p 1 (d) p + 2 10. Let A, B and C be 2 2 matrices with entries from
6. If A + B + C = S, then the set of real numbers. Define * as follows :
sin( A + B + C ) sin B cos C A * B = 1/2 (AB + BA), then
(a) A * B = B * A (b) A * A = A2
sin B 0 tan A is equal to
(c) A * (B + C) = A * B + A * C
cos( A + B) tan A 0 (d) A * I = A
MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 49
11. For all values of O, the rank of the matrix Q. 2. a + 2b
2 x 3 3x 2 5x + 7 2
1 4 5 + 3c + 5d
If (x ) = 4 x 3 7 x 3x + 2 1
A= 8 8 6 = 156
1 + 2 8 + 4 2 + 21 7 x 3 8x 2 x 1 3

= a + bx + cx2 + dx3 + ex4, then
(a) for O = 2, U(A) = 1 (b) for O = 1, U(A) = 2
(c) for O z 2, 1, U(A) = 3 (d) none of these R. x 1 5x 7 3. c + d
12. If D1 and D2 are two 3 3 diagonal matrices, then If (x ) = x 2 1 x 1 8 = 119
(a) D1D2 is a diagonal matrix 2x 3x 0
(b) D12 + D22 is a diagonal matrix = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d, then
(c) D1D2 = D2D1
4. 3a + 2b
(d) D1n is a diagonal matrix n N + 5c + 5d
13. The value of T for which the system of linear equations = 187
in x, y, z given as (sin 3T) x y + z = 0, (cos 2T) x + 4y P Q R
+ 3z = 0, 2x + 7y + 7z = 0, has a non trivial solution (a) 1 3 4
m
(a) (b) mS (b) 1 4 2
2 (c) 4 3 1
n
(c) n + (1) (d) none of these (d) 2 3 4
6
Integer Answer Type
Comprehension Type
k
1 2 0 2 2
If A = 2 1 0 , evaluate three roots (O1, O2, O3) of cos 3 sin 3 1 0
17. If =
2
then the least

sin
2
0 1
0 0 1 cos
3 3
O from the equation |A OI| = 0. Construct a non-
null invertible matrix X such that AX = OX where value of k(k 0) is _____.
O = diagonal (O1, O2, O3). p 15 8
14. The three roots of O are 18. If Dp = p2 35 9 , then the value of
(a) 1, 0, 2 (b) 1, 1, 3 (c) 2, 2, 3 (d) 5, 1, 3
p3 25 10
15. Matrix A satisfies
(a) A2 (O1 + O2) A + O1O2I = 0 1
5

(b) A2 (O1 + O3) A + O1O3I = 0 5


100 D p 37 must be _____.
p =1
(c) A2 (O2 + O3) A + O2O3I=0
(d) none of these a a 2 1 + a3
G G
Matrix Match Type 19. If b b 2 1 + b3 = 0 and A =(1, a, a2 ), B =(1, b, b2 )
16. Match the following : c c 2 1 + c3
G
Column I Column II and C = (1, c, c 2 ) are non-coplanar, then the value
of (abc) is _____.
P. 2
x 5x + 3 2 x 5 3 1. 3a + 4b
+ 5c + d 20. If the system of equations 3x 2y + z = 0, Ox 14y +
If (x ) = 3x 2 + x + 4 6 x + 1 9 15z = 0, x + 2y + 3z = 0 have a non trivial solution,
= 141
7 x 2 6 x + 9 14 x 6 21 then the difference of digits of O is _____.
= ax3 + bx2 + cx + d, then
Keys are published in this issue. Search now! -
Check your score! If your score is
> 90% EXCELLENT WORK ! You are well prepared to take the challenge of nal exam.

No. of questions attempted 90-75% GOOD WORK ! You can score good in the nal exam.

No. of questions correct 74-60% SATISFACTORY ! You need to score more next time.
Marks scored in percentage < 60% NOT SATISFACTORY! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

50 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 51
M aths Musing was started in January 2003 issue of Mathematics Today. The aim of Maths Musing is to augment the chances of bright
students seeking admission into IITs with additional study material.
During the last 10 years there have been several changes in JEE pattern. To suit these changes Maths Musing also adopted the new
pattern by changing the style of problems. Some of the Maths Musing problems have been adapted in JEE benefitting thousand of our
readers. It is heartening that we receive solutions of Maths Musing problems from all over India.
Maths Musing has been receiving tremendous response from candidates preparing for JEE and teachers coaching them. We do hope
that students will continue to use Maths Musing to boost up their ranks in JEE Main and Advanced.

JEE MAIN COMPREHENSION


1. The mirror image of the curve given by The curve y = f (x) passes through the point (0, 1) and
x
z 3
arg =
the curve y = g( x) = f (t) dt passes through the point
z i 6
in the real axis is given by

1 . The tangents drawn to the curves at the point
0 ,
z + 3 z 3 2
= (b) arg =
z + i 6
(a) arg
z +i 6 with equal abscissae intersect on the x-axis. Then
z +i z +i ( f ( x ) )2 1 =
(c) arg = =
z + 3 6
(d) arg 7. lim
z 3 6 x0 x
2. In a triangle ABC with incentre I, if AI + AB = BC, (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
then B + 3C = 8. The area bounded by the curve y = g(x) and the
2 5 7 lines x = 0, x = 1, y = x is
(a) (b) (c) (d) 6 2 2 2 2
3 6 (a) e 1 (b) e 2 (c) e 3 (d) e 3
2 3 3 4
3. Let y = f(x) be the solution of the equation
INTEGER TYPE
dy
= xy + x 3 y 3 , y(0) = 1. The area bounded by the 9. Two circles pass through the points (0, 1) and
dx (0, 1) and touch the line y = mx + c. If the circles
curve y = f(x) and the lines, y = 0, x = 1 is
intersect orthogonally, then c2 m2 is
3
(a) (b) (c) (d) 2 MATRIX MATCH
2 2
4. The vertices of a triangle are A(8, 5), B(15, 19), 10. The equation (1 + )x2 2xy + ( 2)y2 4x + 3 = 0
C(1, 7). The bisector of A is ax + 2y + c = 0 where represents
ca=
List I List II
(a) 67 (b) 68 (c) 71 (d) 73
(P) a pair of lines if = 1. 4
5. The product of real values of x such that
(Q) a parabola if = 2. 2
2
(log x 2)2 (log 2 x )2 = log 2 x is
x 2
(R) an ellipse if = 3.
(a) 2 (b)
1 7
2 1
(S) a hyperbola if = 4.
(c) 2 2 (d) None of these 2
JEE ADVANCED P Q R S
(a) 3 2 1 4
6. If the sum of the digits of the number (b) 1 2 4 3
N = 200011 2011 is S, then the sum of the digits of (c) 3 2 4 1
S is (d) 2 3 1 4
(a) 10 (b) 13 (c) 15 (d) 16 See Solution Set of Maths Musing 174 on page no. 84

52 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


SOLVED
PAPER

2017
ADVANCED
PAPER-1

SECTION 1 (Maximum Marks : 28) 3. Let f : R o (0, 1) be a continuous function. Then ,


s This section contains SEVEN questions. which of the following function(s) has (have) the
s Each question has FOUR options (a), (b), (c) and (d).
value zero at some point in the interval (0, 1)?
ONE OR MORE THAN ONE of these four options is(are)
correct.
s For each question, darken the bubble(s) corresponding to 2
the correct option in the ORS. (a) x9 f(x) (b) f (x) + f (t )sin t dt
s For each question, marks will be awarded in one of the 0
following categories :
x
Full Marks : +4 If only the bubble corresponding 2 x
f (t )cos t dt (d) e f (t )sin t dt
x
to all the correct option(s) is (are) (c) x
darkened. 0 0
Partial Marks : +1 For darkening a bubble corresponding
to each correct option, provided NO 4. Let [x] be the greatest integer less than or equals
incorrect option is darkened. to x. Then, at which of the following point(s) the
Zero Marks : 0 If none of the bubbles is darkened.
function f(x) = xcos(S(x + [x])) is discontinuous?
Negative Marks : 2 In all other cases.
s For example, if [a], [c] and [d] are all the correct options
(a) x = 2 (b) x = 1
for a question, darkening all these three will get +4 (c) x = 1 (d) x = 0
marks; darkening only [a] and [d] will get +2 marks; 5. If a chord, which is not a tangent, of the parabola
and darkening [a] and [b] will get 2 marks, as a wrong y2 = 16x has the equation 2x + y = p and midpoint
option is also darkened.
(h, k), then which of the following is (are) possible
1. Let X and Y be two events such that value(s) of p, h and k?
1 1 2 (a) p = 2, h = 2, k = 4
P(X ) = , P(X / Y ) = and P(Y / X ) = . Then (b) p = 2, h = 3, k = 4
3 2 5
(c) p = 1, h = 1, k = 3
1 1
(a) P(X Y ) = (b) P(X / Y ) = (d) p = 5, h = 4, k = 3
5 2
4 2 6. Which of the following is (are) NOT the square of a
(c) P(Y ) = (d) P(X Y ) =
15 5 3 3 matrix with real entries?
2. Let a, b, x and y be real numbers such that a b = 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
and y z 0. If the complex number z = x + iy satisfies
(a) 0 1 0 (b) 0 1 0
az + b
Im = y, then which of the following is 0 0 1 0 0 1
z + 1
(are) possible value (s) of x?
1 0 0 1 0 0
2
(a) 1 + 1 + y 2 (b) 1 + 1 y (c) 0 1 0 (d) 0 1 0

(c) 1 1 + y 2 (d) 1 1 y
2 0 0 1 0 0 1

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 53


7. If 2x y + 1 = 0 is a tangent to the hyperbola 11. For a real number D, if the system
x 2
y 2 1 2 x 1
2
= 1, then which of the following CANNOT
a 16 1 y = 1
be sides of a right angled triangle? 2
(a) a, 4, 2 (b) a, 4, 1 (c) 2a, 8, 1 (d) 2a, 4, 1 1 z 1
of linear equations, has infinitely many solutions, then
SECTION 2 (Maximum Marks : 15)
1 + D + D2 =
s This section contains FIVE questions.
s The answer to each question is a SINGLE DIGIT INTEGER 12. Words of length 10 are formed using the letters
ranging from 0 to 9, both inclusive. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J. Let x be the number of
s For each question, darken the bubble corresponding to the such words where no letter is repeated; and let y be
correct option in the ORS. the number such words where exactly one letter
s For each question, marks will be awarded in one of the
following categories : is repeated twice and no other letter is repeated.
Full Marks : +3 If only the bubble corresponding to
y
the correct answer is darkened. Then, =
Zero Marks : 0 In all other cases. 9x
8. The sides of a right angled triangle are in arithmetic SECTION 3 (Maximum Marks : 18)
progression. If the triangle has area 24, then what is s This section contains SIX questions of matching type.
the length of its smallest side? s This section contains TWO tables (each having 3 columns
and 4 rows).
9. For how many values of p, the circle x2 + y2 + 2x + 4y p = 0 s Based on each table, there are THREE questions.
and the coordinate axes have exactly three common s Each question has FOUR options [a], [b], [c], and [d].
points? ONLY ONE of these four options is correct.
10. Let f : R o R be a differentiable function such that s For each questions, darken the bubble corresponding to
the correct option in the ORS.

f (0), = 0, f = 3 and f (0) = 1. s For each question, marks will be awarded in one of the
2 following categories :
/2 Full Marks : +3 If only the bubble corresponding to
If g (x) = [ f (t)cosect cot t cosect f (t)]dt the correct answer is darkened.
x Zero Marks : 0 If none of the bubbles is darkened
Negative Marks : 1 In all other cases
for x 0, , then lim g (x) =
2 x 0
Answer Q. 13, Q. 14 and Q. 15 by appropriately matching the information given in the three columns of the
following table.
Columns 1, 2, 3 contain conics, equations of tangents to the conics and points of contact, respectively.
Column 1 Column 2 Column 3
a 2a
(I) x2 + y2 = a2 (i) my = m2x + a (P) 2 , m
m

2
ma a
(II) x2 + a2y2 = a2 (ii) y = mx + a m + 1 (Q) ,
m2 + 1 m2 + 1

a2m 1
2 2 2
(III)y = 4ax (iii) y = mx + a m 1 (R) ,
a2m2 + 1 a2m2 + 1

a2m 1
(IV) x2 a2y2 = a2 (iv) y = mx + a2m2 + 1 (S) ,
a2m2 1 a2m2 1

54 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


13. The tangents to a suitable conic (Column 1) at combination for obtaining its equation?
1 (a) (I) (i) (P) (b) (III) (i) (P)
3, is found to be 3x + 2 y = 4, then which
2 (c) (II) (ii) (Q) (d) (I) (ii) (Q)
of the following options is the only CORRECT
15. If a tangent to a suitable conic (Column I) is found
combination?
(a) (II) (iv) (R) (b) (IV) (iii) (S) to be y = x + 8 and its point of contact is (8, 16),
(c) (II) (iii) (R) (d) (IV) (iv) (S) then which of the following options is the only
CORRECT combination?
14. For a = 2, if a tangent is drawn to a suitable conic (a) (III) (i) (P) (b) (I) (ii) (Q)
(Column 1) at the point of contact (1, 1), then
(c) (II) (iv) (R) (d) (III) (ii) (Q)
which of the following options is the only CORRECT

Answer Q.16, Q.17 and Q. 18 by appropriately matching the information given in the three columns of the following
table.
Let f(x) = x + logex xloge x, x (0, f)
s Column 1 contains information about zeros of f(x), f c(x) and f cc(x).
s Column 2 contains information about the limiting behaviour of f(x), f c(x) and f cc(x) at infinity.
s Column 3 contains information about increasing/ decreasing nature of f(x) and f c(x).

Column 1 Column 2 Column 3

(I) f(x) = 0 for some x (1, e2) (i) lim f (x) = 0 (P) f is increasing in (0, 1)
x

(II) f c(x) = 0 for some x  (1, e) (ii) lim f (x) = (Q) f is decreasing in (e, e2)
x

(III) f c(x) = 0 for some x (0, 1) (iii) lim f (x) = (R) f c is increasing in (0, 1)
x

(IV) f cc(x) = 0 for some x (1, e) (iv) lim f (x) = 0 (S) f cis decreasing in (e, e2)
x

16. Which of the following options is the only (a) (III) (iv) (P) (b) (II) (iii) (S)
CORRECT combination? (c) (I) (ii) (R) (d) (IV)(i) (S)
(a) (II) (ii) (Q) (b) (III) (iii) (R)
18. Which of the following options is the only
(c) (IV) (iv) (S) (d) (I) (i) (P)
INCORRECT combination?
17. Which of the following options is the only (a) (I) (iii) (P) (b) (II) (iii) (P)
CORRECT combination? (c) (III) (i) (R) (d) (II) (iv) (Q)
PAPER-2

SECTION 1 (Maximum Marks : 21) 1. Let S {1, 2, 3, ..., 9}. For k = 1, 2, ..., 5, let Nk be
s This section contains SEVEN questions. the number of subsets of S, each containing five
s Each question has FOUR options (a), (b), (c) and (d). elements out of which exactly k are odd. Then N1 +
ONLY ONE of these four options is correct. N2 + N3 + N4 + N5 =
s For each question, darken the bubble corresponding to the (a) 125 (b) 252
correct option in the ORS. (c) 210 (d) 126
s For each question, marks will be awarded in one of the
following categories : 2. Let O be the origin and let PQR be an arbitrary
Full Marks : +3 If only the bubble corresponding to triangle. The point S is such that
the correct option is darkened.        
Zero Marks : 0 If none of the bubbles is darkened. OP OQ + OR OS = OR OP + OQ OS
Negative Marks : 1 In all other cases.    
= OQ OR + OP OS

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 55


Then the triangle PQR has S as its Zero Marks : 0 If none of the bubbles is darkened.
(a) orthocentre (b) centroid Negative Marks : 2 In all other cases.
(c) circumcentre (d) incentre s For example, if [a], [c] and [d] are all the correct options
for a question darkening all these three will get +4 marks;
3. If f : R o R is a twice differentiable function darkening only [a] and [d] will get +2 marks; and darkening
such that f cc(x) > 0 for all x R, and [a] and [b] will get 2 marks, as a wrong option is also
1 1 darkened.
f = , f (1) = 1, then
2 2 8. If the line x = D divides the area of region
(a) f c (1) d 0
1
(b) < f (1) 1 R = {(x, y) R2 : x3 d y d x, 0 d x d 1} into two
2 equal parts, then
1 1
(c) 0 < f (1) (d) f c (1) > 1 1
(a) < < 1 (b) 0 <
2 2 2
4. The equation of the plane passing through the point (c) D4 + 4D2 1 = 0 (d) 2D4 4D2 + 1 = 0
(1, 1, 1) and perpendicular to the planes 2x + y 2z
= 5 and 3x 6y 2z = 7, is sin 2x

(a) 14x + 2y 15z = 1 (b) 14x 2y + 15z = 27


9. If g (x) = sin 1(t )dt , then
sin x
(c) 14x + 2y + 15z = 31 (d) 14x + 2y + 15z = 3

5. How many 3 3 matrices M with entries from {0, (a) g = 2 (b) g = 2
2 2
1, 2} are there, for which the sum of the diagonal
entries MTM is 5?
(c) g = 2 (d) g = 2
(a) 162 (b) 135 (c) 126 (d) 198 2 2
6. If y = y(x) satisfies the differential equation 1 x(1+ | 1 x |) 1
10. Let f (x) = cos for x 1. Then
|1 x | 1 x
8 x ( 9 + x )dy = ( 4 + 9 + x )1dx, x > 0
(a) lim f (x) does not exist
and y(0) = 7 , then y(256) = x 1
(a) 9 (b) 3 (c) 80 (d) 16 (b) lim f (x) does not exist
7. Three randomly chosen non-negative integers x, y x 1+

and z are found to satisfy the equation x + y + z = (c) lim f (x) = 0 (d) lim f (x) = 0
x 1+ x 1
10. Then the probability that z is even, is
5 1 36 6 11. If f : R o R is a differentiable function such that
(a) (b) (c) (d) f c(x) > 2f(x) for all x R and f(0) = 1, then
11 2 55 11
(a) f c(x) < e2x in (0, f) (b) f(x) > e2x in (0, f)
SECTION 2 (Maximum Marks : 28)
s This section contains SEVEN questions. (c) f(x) is increasing in (0, f)
s Each question has FOUR options [a], [b], [c] and [d]. (d) f(x) is decreasing in (0, f)
ONE OR MORE THAN ONE of these four options is (are)
correct. 12. Let D and E be non-zero real numbers such that
s For each question, darken the bubble(s) corresponding to 2(cosE cosD) + cosDcosE = 1. Then which of the
the correct option(s) in the ORS. following is/are true?
s For each question, marks will be awarded in one of the
following categories :
Full Marks : +4 If only the bubble(s) corresponding 477*3(::?0 ANSWER KEY
to the all the correct option(s) is 1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (b) 4. (b) 5. (a)
(are) darkened.
Partial Marks : +1 For darkening a bubble corresponding 6. (c) 7. (a, c) 8. (b, c) 9 . (c, d) 10. (a,b,c,d)
to each correct option, provided NO 11. (a,b,d) 12. (d) 13. (a, c) 14. (b) 15. (c)
incorrect option is darkened. 16. (a) 17. (3) 18. (2) 19. (1) 20. (2)

56 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


16. If the triangle PQR varies, then the minimum value
(a) tan + 3 tan = 0 of cos(P + Q) + cos(Q + R) + cos(R + P) is
2 2
3 5 5 3
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(b) tan 3 tan = 0 2 3 3 2
2 2
Paragraph II

(c) 3 tan + tan = 0 Let p, q be integers and let D, E be the roots of the
2 2
equation, x2 x 1 = 0, where D z E. For n = 0, 1, 2, ...., let
an = pDn + qEn.
(d) 3 tan tan = 0
2 2 FACT : If a and b are rational numbers and a + b 5 = 0,
then a = 0 = b.
cos 2x cos 2x sin 2x
17. a12 =
13. If f (x) = cos x cos x sin x then
(a) 2a11 + a10 (b) a11 a10
sin x sin x cos x (c) a11 + 2a10 (d) a11 + a10
(a) f c(x) = 0 at exactly three points in (S, S) 18. If a4 = 28, then p + 2q =
(b) f(x) attains its minimum at x = 0 (a) 21 (b) 14
(c) f(x) attains its maximum at x = 0 (c) 7 (d) 12
(d) f c(x) = 0 at more than three points in (S, S) ANSWER KEYS
98 k +1 PAPER 1
k +1
14. If I = dx, then 1. (b,c) 2. (b,d) 3. (a,c) 4. (a,b,c) 5. (b)
k =1 k
x(x + 1)
6. (b,d) 7. (a,b,c) 8. (6) 9. (2) 10. (2)
49 11. (1) 12. (5) 13. (a) 14. (d) 15. (a)
(a) I < (b) I > loge 99 16. (a) 17. (b) 18. (c)
50
PAPER 2
49
(c) I < loge 99 (d) I > 1. (d) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (d)
50
6. (b) 7. (d) 8. (a,d)
SECTION 3 (Maximum Marks : 12) 9. (No choice is correct)
s This section contains TWO paragraphs. 10. (b,d) 11. (b,c) 12. (a,b) 13. (c,d) 14. (c,d)
s Based on each paragraph, there are TWO questions. 15. (c) 16. (a) 17. (d) 18. (d)
s Each question has FOUR options [a], [b], [c] and [d]. For detailed solutions please refer
ONLY ONE of these four options is correct.
MTG JEE Advanced Explorer
s For each question, darken the bubble corresponding to the
correct option in the ORS.
s For each question, marks will be awarded in one of the
following categories :
Full marks : +3 If only the bubble corresponding
to the correct option is darkened.
Zero Marks : 0 In all other cases.1
Paragraph I
  
Let O be the origin, and OX , OY and OZ be three unit
  
vectors in the directions of the sides QR, RP and PQ,
respectively, of a triangle PQR.
 
15. | OX OY | =
(a) sin(P + R) (b) sin2R
(c) sin(P + Q) (d) sin(Q + R)

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 57


These observations imply that in the product
n2 + 1
1. Let an = for n = 1, 2, 3,... a 1a 2 ... ak1 ak ak+1 ... an, the numerator of ak,
n4 + 4
and let bn be the product a1 a2 ... an. Prove that 1 + k2, is cancelled by (k 1)2 + 2(k 1) + 2 in the
2
bn n2 + 1 denominator of ak1 and (k + 1) + 2(k + 1) + 2 in
= the denominator of ak+1.
2 n2 + 2n + 2
1 bn
n 1 2 1 + n2
and deduce that < < Therefore, bn = ,
(n + 1)3 2 n + 1 n3 2 + 2n + n2
for all positive integers n. since all the numerator terms cancel except the
2. Find the largest constant k such that numerator of the first and last terms.
To obtain the inequalities, we consider
kabc
(a + b)2 + (a + b + 4c)2 bn 1 + n2
a +b+c =
for all a, b, c, > 0. 2 n2 + 2n + 2
3. In 'ABC, let D and E be the intersections of the
bn n n2 + 1 n
bisectors of ABC and ACB with the sides AC, and =
AB, respectively. Determine the angles A, B, 2 n +1 n + 2n + 2 n + 1
2

C, if
BDE = 24, CED = 18. (n + 1) n2 + 1 n n2 + 2n + 2
= ...(i)
4. In a group of nine mathematicians each speaks at (n + 1) n2 + 2n + 2
most three languages and any two of them speak at Let r represent the expression in (i). Then r can be
least one common language. Show that at least five written as :
of them share a common language. r=
5. Find the exact value of 2n + 1
2 4 6 16 (n + 1) n2 + 2n + 2 ((n + 1) n2 + 1 + n n2 + 2n + 2 )
cos cos cos ... cos .
17 17 17 17
2n + 1
SOLUTIONS = .
n(n + 1)(n2 + 2n + 2) + (n + 1)2 n2 + 2n + 2 n2 + 1
1. Observe that, n4 + 4 = n4 + 4n2 + 4 4n2
Now,
= (n2 + 2)2 4n2
2 (n + 1) 2 (n + 1) 1
= (n2 + 2n +2) (n2 2n + 2) r< < = .
3 2 3
Also (k 1) + 2 (k 1) + 2 = k2 +1
2 (n + 1)[n + (n + 1)n ] (n + 1)2n n3
and (k + 1)2 2 (k + 1) + 2 = k2 + 1 To obtain the other inequality :

58 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


This is equivalent to r r
(2n + 1) (n + 1)3 > (n + 1) [n (n2 + 2n + 2) + (n + 1) ID = and IE = ...(1)
1 1
sin + sin +
n2 + 1 n2 + 2n + 2 ] 2 2
A
or (2n + 1) (n + 1)2 > n (n2 + 2n + 2) + (n + 1) D
2 2
n + 1 n + 2n + 2 . E
This is equivalent to I C

n3 + 3n2 + 2n + 1 > (n + 1) n2 + 1 n2 + 2n + 2
n2 B
or + n2 + n + 1 > n2 + 1 n2 + 2n + 2 .
n +1 Applying the law of sines to triangle IDE we have
If n = 1, 7/2 > 10 is true. 1
If n t 2, n2/(n + 1) > 1, then sin +
2 sin18
= . ...(2)
n2 1 sin 24
n2 + n + 1 + > n2 + n + 2. sin +
n +1 2
If we can show that n2 + n + 2 > n2 + 1 n2 + 2n + 2 As BDE = 24 and CED = 18,
for n t 2, we will be done. (n2 + n + 2) > 1
n2 + 1 we have DIE = 138 = 90 + = 96.
2 1 1
n2 + 2n + 2 iff (n2 + n + 2)2 > (n2 + 1) (n2 + 2n + 2) Thus, E + J = 84 so J = 84 E and = 42 .
iff 2 (n2 + n + 1) > 0, n t 2. 2 2
This is clearly true, hence the inequalities are true. ...(3)
Now using (3) in (2) we get
2. By the A.M.-G.M. inequality,
1
(a + b)2 + (a + b + 4c)2 = (a + b)2 + (a + 2c + b + 2c)2 sin 42 +
2 sin 18
(2 ab )2 + (2 2ac + 2 2bc )2 = .
1 sin 24
= 4ab + 8ac + 8bc + 16c ab. sin 84
2
Therefore,
Expanding and doing some calculations gives
(a + b)2 + (a + b + 4c)2 1 sin 18 sin 84 sin 24 sin 42
(a + b + c) tan = ,
abc 2 sin 24 cos 42 + sin18 cos 84
4ab + 8ac + 8bc + 16c ab and this equals tan 6
(a + b + c)
abc {To see this we have
4 8 8 16 sin18 sin 84 sin 24 sin 42 sin 6
= + + + (a + b + c) =
c b a ab sin 24 cos 42 + sin18 cos 84 cos 6
just in case
1 1 1 1 1 a a b b
= 8 + + + + + + + + c sin 18 sin2 84 sin 24 sin 42 cos 6
2c b a ab ab 2 2 2 2 = sin 6 sin 24 cos 42 + sin 18 sin2 6,
sin 18 [cos2 6 sin2 6]
1 5 a2b2c
8 5 5 5 = 100, = sin 24 [sin 6 cos 42 + cos 6 sin 42],
2a2b2c 24 sin 18 cos 12 = sin 24 sin 48,
sin 18 = 2 sin 12 sin 48,
again by the A.M.-G.M. Inequality. Hence the
sin 18 = cos 36 cos 60,
largest constant k is 100. For k = 100, equality holds
1
if and only if a = b = 2c > 0. sin 18 = 2 sin2 18 + .
2
3. Let I be the incenter of triangle ABC. Let Dc be the giving the equivalent condition
projection onto AC of I, and let A = D, B = E 1
1 2 sin2 18 + sin 18 = 0.
and C = J, as usual. Now ADB = + . So, 2
2
MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 59
1 different language other than L2 (since any two
This is the same as sin 18 = (1 + 5 ), which is mathematicians have only one common language)
4
true.} which is not possible as no mathematician speaks
1 more than three languages and we are done.
So, = 6, = 12 and = 96, = 12, = 72.
2 2 4 6 16
5. Let I = cos cos cos ... cos ;
4. If any one of them speaks less than three languages 17 17 17 17
then,
then by the pigeon hole principle one of the
2 1 4 4 6 16
languages he (or she) speaks should be spoken by I sin = sin cos cos ... cos
four others and we are done. Suppose now that 17 2 17 17 17 17
each speaks three languages. Three cases arise: 1 8 8 6 10 12
= sin cos cos cos cos
(i) Two mathematicians have all the three 4 17 17 17 17 17
languages in common. Here again we are through 14 16
cos cos
since one of the three languages should be 17 17
spoken by at least three of the remaining seven 1 16 16 6 10 12 14
= sin cos cos cos cos cos
mathematicians. 8 17 17 17 17 17 17
(ii) Some two mathematicians have two languages
1 2 6 10 12 14
in common, say, M1 and M2 have L1 and L2 in = sin cos cos cos cos
16 17 17 17 17 17
common. Let L3 and L4 be the third languages
Thus,
of M1 and M2 respectively. If there is one more
6 1 6 6 10 12 14
mathematician having L1 and L2 as two of his I sin = sin cos cos cos cos
languages then we are done as follows: Suppose 17 16 17 17 17 17 17
M3 speaks (L1, L2, L5). Of the remaining six 1 12 12 10 14
= sin cos cos cos
mathematicians if there are more than two who 32 17 17 17 17
speak L1 or L2 then we are through; if not, there are 1 10 10 14
= sin cos cos
four mathematicians who do not speak L1 or L2. But 64 17 17 17
then these four are forced to speak L3, L4, L5 to be 1 14 14
= sin cos
able to converse with M1, M2, M3 and so there will 128 17 17
be five mathematicians who speak L3, L4 and L5. So 1 28 1 6
= sin = sin .
suppose only two have L1 and L2 common. Consider 256 17 256 17
the pair (L3, L4). If some three mathematicians 1
speak both these languages we are done as before; Therefore, I = .
256
if not, there are five who do not speak L3 and L4
simultaneously. But then these five should speak
either L1 or L2 to be able to converse with both M1 ASSAM at
and M2 which in turn implies that either L1 or L2 is Suravi Sahitya Kutir- Dibrugarh
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Suppose not; say M5 has L2 in common with M1.
Now M5 has to speak to each of M2, M3, M4 in a

60 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


hallen ing
PROBLEMS
CALCULUS
ON

[P(x)] (a) = 0 (b) < 0


1. Evaluate the limit lim , where P(x) is a (c) > 0 (d) depends on f (x)
x P([x])
polynomial with positive coefficients, ([] denotes x 2 21x + 1
greatest integer function) 9. Consider the function f (x) = , then for
x2 + 1
(a) 0 (b) 1
(c) 1 (d) does not exist real x and y the maximum value of |f(x) f(y)| is
(a) 20 (b) 21 (c) 40 (d) 42
2. The number of non-differentiable points in (0, 2S)
of the function f (x) = lim
2m
cos2m x + sin2m x ,
nk(n k)! + (k + 1)
m 10. Evaluate the limit lim
n k =0 (k + 1)!(n k)!
x R is/are
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 4 (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) e (d) e 1
3. If f is twice continuously differentiable on R such 11. For real numbers x, y, z we have
that f (0) = 1, f c(0) = 0 and f cc(0) = 1, then for
5
a
x [x] y = 2[ y] z = 3[z] x = , ([.] denotes greatest
a R, lim f = 21
x x
integer function), then x + y + z has the value
2
a2 a2 /2 a 44
(a) e (b) e (c) a2 (d) e (a)
41
(b)
44
(c)
41
(d)
4. For a positive integer n, a local extremum value of 7 7 7 7
x2 xn 12. Let f (x) be a real valued function defined on
the function f (x) = 1 + x + + .... + e x is
2! n! positive reals such that
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) e1 (d) e (i) f (x)< f (y) if x < y and
5 5 1/m 2xy f (x) + f ( y)
2 m 2 m (ii) f = for all x, y. Then
5. Compute lim 2 sin + cos x + y 2
m m +1 m + 1
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) e (d) e2 (a) f (x) is positive for all x
1 (b) f (x) is negative for all x
6. Evaluate lim (n + 1 + n cos n) 2n + n sin n (c) f (x) is negative for exactly one value of x
n (d) f (x) is negative for some value of x.
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) e (d) e2
13. The number of real solutions to the system of
1 2 n
7. Evaluate the limit lim 1 + 1 + .... 1 + equations
n n2 n2 n2
(a) 1 (b) e (c) e2 (d) e x 2 2x + 6 log 3(6 y) = x,

8. If f (x) is an increasing function from R o R y 2 2 y + 6 log 3(6 z) = y, and


such that f cc(x) > 0, f (x) z 0 and f 1 exists then
d 2( f 1(x)) z 2 2z + 6 log 3(6 x) = z is/are
is (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 4
dx 2
By : Tapas Kr. Yogi, Visakhapatnam Mob : 9533632105.
MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 61
14. A function f : R o R such that for all x R, x
a
b a 2b b 3. (b) : Let L = lim f .
f x + 2x x 2 + f x + 2x x x
a b a a
where a, b be fixed positive real numbers then Taking log on both sides, we get
minimum value of f (1) is a log( f (a t ))
log L = lim x log f = lim+ ,
(a) 1 (b) 1/2 (c) 2 (d) 3/2 x x t 0 t
15. If p, q are relatively prime positive integers then 1
where x =
p 2p (q 1) p t
+ + .... + = ____ , {.} denotes

q q q af (a t )
= lim (using L Hospitals rule)
the fractional part. t 0 2 t f (a t )
(a) q (b) q 1
q 1 ( p 1)(q 1) a2 f (a t ) a2
(c) (d) = lim =
2 2 t 0 2 f (a t ) + 2a t f (a t ) 2
2 2 2
16. Let m = 144sin x + 144cos x, then the number of Hence, L = e a /2
possible integral values of m are
(a) 24 (b) 120 (c) 122 (d) 145 x n x
4. (b) : f (x) = e , f (x) = 0 x = 0
17. The number of values of n for which all solutions of n!
the equation x3 3x + n = 0 are integers is/are If n is even, f c(x) < 0 for x z 0. So no extrema.
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3 If n is odd, f c(x) > 0 for x < 0 and f c(x) < 0 for
n +t n x > 0.
1
18. For n N, let tn be defined by 1 + = e, then So, f (0) = 1 is a (global) max. value of f.
n
lim tn =
1/m
n m5 m5
5. (b) : Since, 1 2 sin2 + cos2 m2
(a) 0 (b) 1/2 (c) 1 (d) 1 m +1 m + 1
19. There exist a function f : N o Z such that
1/m
m5 m5
(i) f (5) = 21 and it follows that lim 2 sin2 + cos2 =1
(ii) f (xy) = f (x) + f (y) + kf (gcd(x, y)) for all m m +1 m + 1
x, y N, then number of possible integral (By sandwich rule)
values of k are 6. (b) : We have,
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3 1 1
1 < (1 + n + n cos n) 2n + n sin n < (1 + 2n) 2n + n sin n
20. Given that the polynomial f (x) = + xn a1xn 1
+ ..
+ an with integral coefficient is equal to 5 for four 1
distint integers a, b, c, d. The number of integral k and 1 < (1 + 2n) 2n+n sin n < (1 + 2n)1/n
such that f (k) = 7 is/are
So, by Sandwich rule, we have
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 4
1
B>;DC8>=B lim (1 + n + n cos n) 2n + n sin n =1
1. (c): Since P(x) is a polynomial with positive n
coefficients for x > 1. 1 2 n
P(x) 1 [P(x)] P(x) 7. (d) : Let L = lim 1 + 2 1 + 2 .... 1 + 2
We have, n n n n
P(x) P[(x)] P(x 1)
Taking log on both sides, we have
So, by Sandwich Rule, lim [P(x)] = 1 1 2
x P([x]) log L = lim log 1 + 2 + log 1 + 2 + ....
n n n
2. (c): Notice that f (x) = max. {|sinx|, |cosx|}.
n
Clearly, f is continuous on R and non-differentiable at + log 1 + 2
x = S/4 and x = 3S/4 in (0, S). n

62 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


n 5
k So, x = 3(1)
= lim log 1 + etc.
n k =1 n2 21
Now, using expansion of log(1 + x) series, we have 44
Hence, x + y + z =
7
x2
x < log(1 + x) < x, x > 0 12. (d) : Given f is an increasing function. So either
2
lim f (x) = or lim f (x) = a for some real
k k2 k k x 0+ x 0+
So, < log 1 + 2 < 2
2
n 2n 4 n n number a.
Now, summing these k = 1, 2, ..., n inequalities and Let us assume that lim f (x) = a
x 0+
putting n o f, we have
Now, in the given relation we fix x and y o 0+
1
log L = i.e. L = e1/2 = e 2xy
2 then since lim = 0 , we have
+ x+y
y 0
8. (b) : f is an increasing function. So, f c(x) > 0 and f (x) + a
f cc(x) > 0 is given. a= i.e. f (x) = a = constant function
2
Let g(x) = f 1(x) then f (g(x)) = x Contradiction.
1 Hence, we should have lim f (x) =
So, g (x) = g (x) > 0
x 0+
f ( g (x))
Again differentiating, f (x) < 0 for some positive x.
1 13. (b) : (x, y, z) (f, 6). We rewrite the equations
g (x) = f ( g (x)) g (x) given as
( f ( g (x)))2
x
Hence, gcc(x) < 0 2
y = 6 3 x 2x +6 . Similarly for the others.
21(x 2 1)
9. (b) : f (x) = Consider a function
(x 2 + 1)2 t
So, f (x) increases for x (f, 1] [1, f) and decreases 2
f (t ) = 6 3 t 2t +6 , t (, 6)
for (1, 1). So, fmax = f (1) and fmin = f (1)
So, for any x, y Now, f c(t) < 0 in t (f, 6). So, f is strictly decreasing
|f (x) f (y)| d |f (1) f (1)| d 21 f (f (f (t))) is also decreasing.
10. (b) : Given summation The given relation gives f (x) = y, f (y) = z, f (z) = x
n n f (f (f (x))) = x. Hence, f (x) = x
k 1
= + Now, y = f (x) is a decreasing function and y = x is an
k =0 (k + 1)! k =0 k !(n k)! increasing function.
n
So, f (x) = x has only one solution x = 3.
1 1 1 n n
= + n ! Ck
x=y=z=3
k =0 k ! (k + 1)! k =0 b
n 14. (c): Putting y = x in the L.H.S. of the inequality,
1 2 a
=1 + a b
(n + 1)! n ! b
we have f ( y) y 2 + and while putting y = x + in
So, required limit = 1 0 + 0 = 1 as n o f b a a
the R.H.S of the inequality given, we have
11. (b) : From given equation, we have
a 2 b
5 f ( y) y +
x = 3[z] [x] = 3[z] 1 b a
21
a 2 b
Similarly from the other relations, we have Hence, f (x) = x + .
[y] = [x] 1, [z] = 2[y] 1 b a
Solving these three equations, we get
[x] = 2, [y] = 1, [z] = 1
15. (c): If a = bc + r, r o remainder then {}
a
b
=
r
b

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 63


Let r1, r2, ...., rq 1 be the remainders of the numerators 1 1
in the given question. Since p, q are relatively prime, tn = n, let 1 + = y; n , y 1
1 n
these remainders represent a permutation of the log 1 +
n
numbers 1, 2, 3, ..., (q 1). Hence, the given expression
1 1
becomes So, lim tn = lim
n y 1 log y y 1
r1 r2 rq 1 1 2 q 1 q 1
+ + ... + = + + .... + =
q q q q q q 2 y 1 log y 0
= lim form
16. (c): Consider the function f (t) = 144t + 1441 t, y 1 ( y 1)log y 0
Where t = sin2x, t [0, 1] 1
? f c(t) = log144 [144t 1441 t] = (using L Hospitals rule twice)
2
f c(t) = 0 for t = 1/2
19. (c): Putting x = y, we have f (x2) = (k + 2) f (x)
So, f is decreasing on 0, and increasing on , 1
1 1 So, f (x4) = (k + 2) f (x2) = (k + 2)(k + 2) f (x)
2 2
1 = (k + 2)2 f (x) ... (1)
So, f min = f = 24 and fmax = f (0) = f (1) = 145 Putting y = x3, we have
2
So every integer between 24 and 145 is possible. f (x 4 ) = f (x) + f (x 3) + kf (x) = (k + 1) f (x) + f (x 3)
17. (c): If the given equation has integer root D then = (k + 1) f (x) + f (x) + f (x 2 ) + kf (x)
n = D3 + 3D n is an integer too. = (2k + 2) f (x) + f (x 2 )
Let f (x) = x3 3x, f c(x) = 3(x 1)(x + 1) = (2k + 2) f (x) + (k + 2) f (x) = (3k + 4) f (x) ... (2)
So, f is increasing on (f, 1] [1, f) and decreasing
on (1, 1) and f (1) = 2, f (1) = 2. Divide (1) and (2), we have,
So f (x) = n has three real roots iff |n| d 2 (k + 2)2 f (x) = (3k + 4) f (x) k = 0, 1
Possible n = {2, 1, 0, 1, 2} 20. (a) : Let f (x) = (x a)(x b)(x c)(x d) g(x) + 5
Moreover, one of the integer solutions has to be where g(x) is a polynomial with integral coefficient of
{1, 0, 1}.
(n 4)th degree. If f (k) = 7 then
So, n {f (1), f (0), f (1)} = {2, 0, 2}
(k a)(k b)(k c)(k d) g(k) = 2 ... (i)
Direct checking gives, valid values of n are 2, 2
Now, 2 has only 4 distinct integral factors (2, 1, 1, 2).
n + tn
1 Since (k a), (k b), (k c), (k d) are distinct the
18. (b) : Given, 1 + = e,
n above product (i) can't be 2.
Taking log on both sides, we have Hence, no such k exists.

64 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


Time : 1 hr. Marks : 60
PAPER-1
MULTIPLE CORRECT CHOICE TYPE 5. For all x (0, 1)
This section contains 10 multiple choice questions. Each (a) ex < 1 + x (b) loge (1 + x) < x
question has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of (c) sinx > x (d) loge x > x
which ONE or MORE may be correct. [Correct ans. 3
marks and wrong ans., no negative mark] 6. A function f : R o R satisfies the equation
f(x + y) = f(x) f(y) for all x, y R and f(x) z 0 for
| x 3 |, x 1
2 any x in R. Let function be differentiable at x = 0
1. The function f (x) = x 3x 13 is
+ , x <1 and f c(0) = 2. Then
4 2 4
(a) continuous at x = 1 (a) f(x) is continuous at x = 0
(b) derivable at x = 1 (b) f(x) is not differentiable at infinitely many points
(c) not derivable at x = 1 (c) f(x) = e2x (d) None of these
(d) not derivable at x = 3
7. The function f(x) = 1 + |sinx| is
2. The solutions of the quadratic equation (a) continuous everywhere
(3 | x | 3)2 = | x | + 7, which belongs to the domain
(b) not differentiable at an infinite number of points
of definition of the function y = (x 4)x is/are
(c) differentiable nowhere
1
(a) (b) 2 (d) not differentiable at x = 0
9 1
(c) 2 (d) 8. Let [x] denote the greatest integer less than or
9
equal to x. If f(x) = [xsin Sx], then f(x) is
3. Which of the following functions (is) are injective
maps ? (a) continuous at x = 0
(a) f(x) = |x + 1|, x [1, f) (b) continuous in (1, 0)
1 (c) differentiable at x = 1
(b) g (x) = x + , x (0, )
x (d) differentiable in (1, 1)
(c) h(x) = x + 4x 5, x (0, f)
2
9. If f (x) = 1 + 2 sinx + 2 cos2x, 0 dxdS /2, then f(x) is
(d) k(x) = ex, x [0, f)
(a) greatest at x = S/6
x +2 (b) least at x = S/6
4. Let y = g (x) = , then
x 1

(a) g (1) = 3 (b) x = g(y) (c) increasing in 0, and decreasing in ,
6 6 2
(c) y increases with x for x > 1
(d) g is a rational function of x (d) least at x = 0 and x = S/2
By : Vidyalankar Institute, Pearl Centre, Senapati Bapat Marg, Dadar (W), Mumbai - 28. Tel.: (022) 24306367

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 65


| x |3 x
3
10. If f (x) = sin3 x + sin2 x, < x < then 14. The left hand limit of f (x) = , where
2 2 3
3
(a) f(x) has a point of inflection if O = 0
[x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to
(b) f(x) has exactly one point of maximum and x, is
exactly one point of minimum if |O| < 3/2
a cos x b sin x
(c) f(x) has exactly one point of maximum and exactly 15. The derivative of tan 1 is at x =
b cos x + a sin x 3
3 3
one point of minimum if , 0 0, is k 5, if k =
2 2

(d) all of the above 16. If f(x) = |cos x sin x|, then f is equal to
2
INTEGER TYPE 17. If f(x + y) = f(x) f(y) for all x and y and f(5) = 2,
This section contains 10 questions. Each question, when f c(0) = 3, then f c(5) is equal to
worked out will result in one integer from 0 to 9 (both
18. A food company produces x quality A and y
inclusive). [Correct ans. 3 marks and wrong ans., no
quality B items per day, where y(5 x) = 10 (4 x),
negative mark]
0 d x d 4. If the profit on each quality A item is
sin x twice the profit on quality B item, then the most
11. lim , where [.] denotes the greatest integer
x 0 x profitable number of quality A items per day to
manufacture is.
function is
2 | x 2 + 5x + 6 |, x 2
12. Consider the function f(x) = x |x x2|, 1 d x d2. 19. If f (x) = then the minimum
2
Find the number of points of non-differentiability a + 1, x = 2
of f(x) for x [1, 2]. value of |a| so that f (x) has maxima at x = 2 is
cos2(1 cos2(1 cos2(..... cos2(x))))...) k 20. From a fixed point A on the circumference of a
13. lim =
x 0 x + 4 2 circle of radius r, the perpendicular AY is let fall on
sin the tangent at P. The maximum area of the triangle
x
3 3 2
where k =
APY is r , for k =
k
PAPER-2
Time : 1 hr. Marks : 60
SINGLE CORRECT CHOICE TYPE
n x
This section contains 10 multiple choice questions. Each 3. Value of lim cos i is
question has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) for its n i =1 2
answer, out of which ONLY ONE is correct. [Correct (a) sinx (b) sinx/x (c) x/sinx (d) 1
ans. 3 marks & wrong ans.-1] 2 2 2 2
4. lim 1cosec x + 2cosec x + ..... + ncosec x sin x is
x n+1 (n + 1)x + n x 0
1. lim =
x 1 2
(x 1) (a) n (b) n2 (c) 0 (d) 1
n(n +1) d 2
(a) n(n + 1) (b) 5. If y = sin x, then (cos7 x) is equal to
2 dy 2
3n
(c) n + 1 (d) (a) 35 cos3 x 42 cos5x (b) 35 cos3 x + 42 cos5x
2
(c) 42 cos3x 35 cos5x (d) 35 cos3x 42 cos5x
tan3 x ln (1 + 3x)
2. lim 2
= 1
x 0 tan 1 x e5 3 x 1 6. If 5 f (x) + 3 f = x + 2 and y = x f(x), then
x
3 3 dy
(a) (b) 1 (c) (d) 0 is equal to
5 5 dx x=1

66 MATHEMATICS TODAY |JULY 17


(a) 14 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d) 7/8 x
11. If f (x) = ; then D f (x) is
x x ln x
7. If f (x) = and g (x) = where 0 < x d 1,
sin x tan x
then in this interval ln x 1 2x(ln x 1)
(a) 2
(b)
(a) both f(x) and g(x) are increasing functions (ln x) (ln x)
(b) both f(x) and g(x) are decreasing functions
2x(ln x 1) 2x(ln x 1)
(c) f(x) is an increasing function (c) (d)
(d) None of these (ln x) 2 (ln x)3
8. A square piece of tin of side 18 cm. is to be made 12. If function g(x) = xx, then D g(x) |x=1 is
into a box without top, by cutting a square from (a) 1 (b) 2ee
each corner and folding up the flaps to form the (c) 2 (d) not defined
box. The maximum possible volume of the box is
Paragraph 2
given by (in cm2)
Given a function g which has a derivative gc(x)
(a) 420 (b) 338
(c) 432 (d) None of these for every real x and which satisfy gc(0) = 2 and
g(x + y) = eyg(x) + exg(y)for all x and y.
1
9. The function f (x) = has 13. The function g(x) is
1 + x tan x
(a) x(2 + xex) (b) x(ex + 1)
(a) one point of minimum in the inter val
(c) 2x ex (d) x + ln(x + 1)
(0, S/2)
(b) one point of maximum in the inter val 14. The range of the function g(x) is
(0, S/2) 2
(c) no point of maximum, no point of minimum in (a) R (b) ,
e
the interval (0, S/2)
(d) two points of maxima in the interval (0, S/2) 1
(c) , (d) [0, f)
2
e
f (2h + 2 + h ) f (2)
10. lim , given that f c(2) = 6 and Paragraph 3
h0 f (h h2 + 1) f (1)
Consider a function defined in [2, 2] is
f c(1) = 4
(a) does not exist (b) is equal to 3/2 {x}, 2 x < 1

(c) is equal to 3/2 (d) is equal to 3 f (x) |sgn(x)|, 1 x 1
{x}, 1< x 2
PARAGRAPH TYPE
This section contains 2 paragraph. Based upon each of where {x} denotes the fractional part function.
the paragraphs 3 multiple choice questions have to be
answered. Each of these questions has four choices (a), 15. The function f(x) is continuous at x =
(b), (c) and (d) out of which ONLY ONE is correct. (a) 2 (b) 3/2
[Correct ans. 3 marks and wrong ans.-1] (c) 1 (d) All of these
Paragraph 1 16. The total number of points of discontinuity of f(x)
In calculus the derivative of any function y = f(x) is in x [2, 2] are
defined as (a) 1 (b) 3
f (x + h) f (x) (c) 4 (d) infinite
Df (x) = lim
h0 h MATCHING LIST TYPE
Now instead of this usual definition of derivative This section contains 4 questions, each having two
Df (x), define a new kind of derivative D f(x), which matching lists. Choices for the correct combination of
can be calculated by the formula elements from List-I and List-II are given as options (a),
f 2(x + h) f 2(x) (b), (c) and (d), out of which one is correct. [Correct
D f (x) = lim ; where f 2(x) = ( f (x))2
h0 h ans. 3 marks and wrong ans.-1]

MATHEMATICS TODAY |JULY 17 67


17. Math the following: Q. The ratio of radius to the 2.
2
Column I Column II altitude of the cone of the
P. Period of the function 1. S/2 greatest volume which can be
f(x) = |sin(cosx) | + cos (sinx) inscribed in a given sphere is
Q. Period of the function 2. can't be R. The cone circumscribing of 3. 32/3
f(x) = [sin(4x)] + |cos 4x| determined sphere of radius r has the
([.] denotes the greatest minimum volume if its semi
integer function) vertical angle is T is such that
33 sin T=
R. If the function f : R o R be 3. 2S
such that f(x) = Sx [Sx], S. The greatest value of x 3 y 4 if 4. 11
w here [.] denotes t he 2x + 3y = 7 and x t 0, y t 0 is
greatest function, then the P Q R S
period of the functionf1(x) (a) 1 2 4 3
is (b) 1 4 2 3
S. Period of the function 4. S (c) 1 2 3 4
f(x) = min{sinx, |x|} is (d) 2 1 4 3
20. Match the following:
P Q R S
(a) 1 2 3 4 Column I Column II
(b) 4 1 2 3 P. Range of [sin 2x] [cos 2x] is 1. {1, 2, 3}
(c) 1 2 4 3
(d) 1 4 2 3 Q. Domain of x2 +4x 2. {1}
C
2x 2 + 3
a sin x bx + cx 2 + x 3
18. If L = lim and is finite, R. Range of log(cos(sin x)) is 3. {0, 1}
x 0 2x 2 log(1 + x) 2x 3 + x 4
S. Range of [|sinx| + |cosx|] is 4. {0, 1}
then match the following
P Q R S
Column I Column II (a) 3 1 4 2
P. a+b 1. 0 (b) 2 1 4 3
Q. c 2. 6 (c) 1 2 4 3
(d) 4 1 2 3
R. 20 L 3. 12
ANSWER KEY
S. a 4. 1.5
PAPER-1
P Q R S 1. (a, b, d) 2. (c, d) 3. (a, c, d)
(a) 1 2 3 4 4. (b, d) 5. (b) 6. (a, c) 7. (a, b, d)
(b) 2 4 1 3 8. (a, b, d) 9. (a, c, d) 10. (a, c)
(c) 3 1 4 2 11. (0) 12. (2) 13. (4) 14. (9) 15. (4)
16. (1) 17. (6) 18. (3) 19. (1) 20. (8)
(d) 1 4 2 3
PAPER-2
19. Math the following.
1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (b) 4. (a) 5. (a)
Column I Column 6. (d) 7. (c) 8. (c) 9. (b) 10. (d)
II 11. (d) 12. (c) 13. (c) 14. (b) 15. (d)
P. The ratio of altitude to the 1. 16. (b) 17. (b) 18. (c) 19. (d) 20. (a)
1/ 2
r a d iu s of t h e c y l i n d e r of For detailed solution to the Sample Paper,
maximum value that can be visit our website www. vidyalankar.org
inscribed in a given sphere is

68 MATHEMATICS TODAY |JULY 17


PROBLE
10 BEST MS

Math Archives, as the title itself suggests, is a collection of various challenging problems related to the topics of
JEE Main & Advanced Syllabus. This section is basically aimed at providing an extra insight and knowledge to the
candidates preparing for JEE Main & Advanced. In every issue of MT, challenging problems are offered with detailed
solution. The readers & comments and suggestions regarding the problems and solutions offered are always welcome.

1. Let X ={x : x = n3 + 2n + 1, n R} and (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4


Y = {x : x = 3n2 + 7, n R} then X Y is a subset of 1 1 3
(a) {x : x = 3n + 5, n N} 7. If 3rd, 6th and last term of HP is , and
(b) {x : x = n2 + n + 1, n N} respectively. Find number of terms. 3 5 203
(c) {x : x = 7n 1, n N} (a) 50 (b) 70 (c) 85 (d) 100
(d) {x : x = 3n2 + 5, n N}
8. Consider the A.P. a1, a2, ...., an, .... and the G.P.
2. If z z 0 is a complex number such that 9
Arg(z) = S/4, then b1, b2, ..., bn, ... such that a1 = b1 = 1; a9 = b9 and ar = 369
(a) Re(z2) = 0 (b) Im(z2) = 0 then r=1
2
(c) Re(z ) = Im(z )2 (d) Re(z) = 0 (a) b6 = 27 (b) b7 = 27
3. In a triangle PQR, R = S/2. If tan (P/2) and (c) b8 = 81 (d) b9 = 18
tan (Q/2) are the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 9. The coefficient of a8 b4 c9 d9 in {ab(c + d) + cd (a + b)}10
where a z 0, then is
(a) a + b = c (b) b + c = a (10)!
(c) a + c = b (d) b = c (a) (b) 10!
8! 4 !9!9!
sec x cos x sec2 x + cot x cos ec2 x (c) 2520 (d) 5!
4. Let f ( x ) = cos x cos x
2 2 2
cos ec x 10. If (10)9 + 2(11)1 (10)8 + 3(11)2 (10)7+ ... + 10(11)9
1 cos2 x cos ec2 x = k(10)9, then k is equal to
121 441
/2
(a) 100 (b) 110 (c) (d)
then value of f ( x ) dx is 10 100
/ 4
(a) 0 (b) S/48 SOLUTIONS
1 1 1. (c) : x X Y n3 + 2n + 1 = 3n2 + 7
(c) (d) 1 log 2
2 15 2 2 8 2 n3 3n2 + 2n 6 = 0 (n 3)(n2 + 2) = 0
5. The determinant of a skew symmetric matrix of n = 3 as n R x = 3 32 + 7 = 34
order 3 is In (a) and (b), x z 34 for any n N and in (c),
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) 2 x = 34 for n = 5.
Hence X Y is a subset of (c).
6. Let D and E be the roots of x2 6x 2 = 0, with
D > E. If an = Dn En for n t 1, then the value of 2. (a) : As arg (z) = S/4, we can write
a10 2a8
is z = r cos + i sin , where r = |z|
2a9 4 4
By : Prof. Shyam Bhushan, Director, Narayana IIT Academy, Jamshedpur. Mob. : 09334870021

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 69


a 2a8
z 2 = r 2 cos + i sin For n = 10, we have a10 2a8 = 6a9 or 10 =3
2 2 2a9
(Using De Moivres Theorem) 7. (d) : As 3rd, 6th and last term of H.P. are
= r 2(0 + i) = ir 2 Re(z 2 ) = 0 1 1
, and
3
respectively.
3. (a) : We have 3 5 203
203
So, 3rd, 6th & last term of A.P. are 3, 5 & resp.
P Q b P Q c 3
tan + tan = and tan tan =
2 2 a 2 2 a Let a and d be first term and common difference of A.P.
P Q T3 =a + 2d = 3 ...(1) T6 = a + 5d = 5 ...(2)
Now, P + Q = tan + = tan 203
2 2 2 4 Tn = a + (n 1) d = ...(3)
tan(P / 2) + tan(Q / 2) b / a b 3
= 1 = =1 2 5
1 tan(P / 2)tan(Q / 2) 1 c / a a c On, solving (1) and (2), d = and a =
3 3
a c = b c = a + b Putting value of a and d in (3), we get
4. (d) : Applying R2 o R2 R3, we get n = 100 ? Number of terms is 100.
sec x cos x sec2 x + cot x cos ec2 x 8. (b) : a1 = b1 = 1; a9 = 1 + 8d = b9 = 1 R8
f (x) = sin2 x 0 0 9

1 2
cos x cos ec x 2 Now ar =
r=1
9
2
9
2
( )
(1 + a9 ) = 1 + R8 = 369 R = 3

= sin2 x cos xcosec2 x cos2 x(sec2 x + cot xcosec2 x) b7 = 1 R6 = 1( 3)6 = 27



9. (c) : (abc + abd + acd + bcd )
10
3
cos x
= cos x sin2 x 10
sin x 1 1 1 1
1 1 = a10b10c10d10 + + +
= cos x (1 cos 2x) sin x cos x a b c d
2 sin x coefficient of a8b 4c 9d 9
/2 /2 1 /2
Thus f (x)dx = cos xdx dx = coefficient of a 2b 6c 1d 1 in
/ 4 / 4 2 / 4
10
1 /2 /2 1 1 1 1 1 10 ! 10 9 8 7
+ cos 2xdx sin x cos xdx + + + = = = 2520
2 / 4 / 4 sin x a b c d 2 ! 6 !1!1! 2
1 1 10. (a) : Let S = (10)9 + 2(11)1(10)8 + 3(11)2(10)7 +
= 1 log 2 ... + 9(11)8(10) + 10(11)9 ...(1)
2 8 2
11
5. (b) : AT = A = A A = 0 A.G.P. with r =
10
6. (c) : The roots of x2 6x 2 = 0 are D and E 11S
= (11)1(10)8 + 2(11)2(10)7 + .... + 9(11)9
So D + E = 6 and DE = 2 10
Then an 2an 2 = Dn En 2(Dn 2 En 2) + (11)10 ...(2)
= (Dn 2Dn 2) (En 2En 2) Subtracting (2) from (1), we get
= Dn 2(D2 2) En 2(E2 2) ...(1) S
= (10)9 + (11)1(10)8 + (11)2(10)7 + .... + (11)9 (11)10
Since D and E are roots of x2 6x 2 = 0 10
So, D2 6D 2 = 0 or D2 2 = 6D
11 10
and E2 6E 2 = 0 or E2 2 = 6E (10)9 1
Putting D2 2 = 6D and E2 2 = 6E in (1), we get 10 a(r n 1)
= (11)10 Sn = , r > 1
an 2an2 = n2 6 n2 6 11 r 1
1
(
= 6 n1 n1 = 6an1) 10
This gives S = (10)11 and hence k = 100.
Hence, an 2an 2 = 6an 1

70 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 71
Series-1
Time: 1 hr 15 min.

The entire syllabus of Mathematics of JEE MAIN is being divided in to eight units, on each unit there will be a Mock
Test Paper (MTP) which will be published in the subsequent issues. The syllabus for module break-up is given bellow:
Unit Topic Syllabus In Details
No.
Sets, Relations Sets and their representation; Union, intersection and compliment of sets and their algebraic
& Functions properties; Power set. Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Denition of relation. Domain
and range of a relation. Types of relations, equivalence relations. Function as a special kind
of relation from one set to another. Domain, co-domain and range of a function. One-one,
into and onto functions, Composition of functions. Real valued function of a real variable,
UNIT NO.1

domain and range of these functions, constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus,
Signum and greatest integer functions with their graphs, sum, difference, product and
quotients of functions.
Trigonometry Measurement of Trigonometric Angles. Denition of Trigonometric functions, Associated
angles
Co-ordinate Cartesian coordinates, distance between two points, section formulae, shift of origin. Locus
Geometry-2D problems.

1. Which is the simplified representation of (Ac (b) R1 = R


Bc C) (B C) (C A) Where A, B, C are (c) Domain of R = {1, 2, 3}
subsets of universal set S? (d) Range of R = {5}
(a) A (b) B 5. Let n be a fixed positive integer. Define a relation
(c) C (d) S ( A B C ) R in the set Z of integers by aRb if and only if a b
2. For any three sets A1, A2 , A3, let B1 = A1, divides n. The relation R is
B2 = A2 A1 and B3 = A3 ( A1 A2 ) then (a) reflexive (b) symmetric
(a) A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 (c) transitive
(d) an equivalence relation.
(b) A1 A2 A3 = B1 B2 B3
(c) A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 6. Let R be a relation defined on the set of integers and
(d) none of these it is given by (x, y) R |x y| d 1. Then R is
(a) reflexive and transitive
3. If A = {a, b} , B = {c, d} , C = {d, e} , then (b) reflexive and symmetric
{(a, c ) , (a, d ) , (a, e ) , (b, c ) , (b, d ) , (b, e )} = (c) an equivalent relation
(s) A ( B C ) (b) A ( B C ) (d) symmetric and transitive
(c) A ( B C ) (d) A ( B C ) 7. The range of the function f (x) = sin[x],

x
4. The relation R defined in A = {1, 2, 3} by aRb, if 4 4
|a2 b2| d 5 . Which of the following is false? where [x] denotes the greatest integer is :
(a) R = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (2, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3), (a) {0} (b) {0, 1}
(3, 2)} (c) {0, sin1} (d) {0, sin1}
%\6DQNDU*KRVK+2' 0DWK 7DNVK\DVKLOD0RE
72 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17
sin x 1
8. Let f ( x ) = Then D( f )contains: x 3 + 1, x < 0 ( x 1) 3 , x < 1
1 + 3 sin x 16. If f (x) = , g (x) =
2 1
(a) (0, S) x + 1, x 0
( x 1) 2 , x 1
(b) (0, 2S)
(c) (2S, 4S) (d) (4S, 6S) then (gof)(x) =
9. Domain of the function f(x) = sin1(2x2 + 3x + 1)is : (a) x,x R (b) x 1, x R
(a) (1, 1) (b) (f, f) (c) x + 1, x R (d) none of these
3 1 17. Let, then f ( x ) = 1 + x 1 , 1 x 3 and
(c) , 0 (d) , (2, )
2 2
g ( x ) = 2 x + 1 , 2 x 2 , then (fog)(x) =
10. Let f : ( 4, 6) (6, 8) be a function defined by
x + 1, 2 x 0 x 1, 2 x 0
x (a) (b)
f ( x ) = x + (where [.] denotes the greatest x 1, 0 < x < 2 x + 1, 0 < x < 2
2
integer function), then f 1 ( x ) is equal to x 1, 2 x 0
(c) (d)none of these
(a) x
x
2
(b) x 2 x 1, 0 < x < 2
1 18. f : R R o R such that f(x + iy) = x 2 + y 2 then f
(c) x 2 (d)
is
x+
6 (a) many-one into (b) one-one and onto
ax 1 (c) many-one and onto (d) one-one and into.
11. If the real valued function f (x) = is even,
then n is equals to x n(a x + 1) 19. Let U be a universal set and A B C = U. Then
2 1 ((A B) (B C) ((C A))c=
(a) 2 (b) (c) (d) 3
3 4 (a) A B C (b) A B C
12. Let g(x) = 1 + x [x], [x] is the greatest integer not (c) A ( B C ) (d) A ( B C )
greater than x. 20. The period of the function f (x) =| cos 4x | + |sin 4x |
1, x < 0 is

If f (x) = 0, x = 0 , then for all x, f(g(x)) equals (a) S (b) (c) (d)
1, x > 0 2 4 8

21. If = , Where n is positive integer, then the
(a) x (b) 1 (c) f(x) (d) g(x) 4n
13. If the function f : [1, f)  o [1, f) is defined by value of tan tan 2 tan 3..... tan (2n 1) =
f(x) = 2x(x 1), then f 1(x) is (a) 1 (b) tan (c) cot T (d) 0
x(x 1)
(a)
1 1 22. If a and b are positive the minimum value of
(b) (1 + 1 + 4 log 2 x )
2 2 a2 b2
+ is
(c)
1
(1 1 + 4 log 2 x ) cos2 x sin2 x
2 (a) a + b (b) a2 + b2
(d) none of these. (c) (a + b)2 (d) (a b)2
14. Let f(x) = (x + 1)2 1(x t 1) then the set 23. If 1 + sin x + sin2 x + ... = 4 + 2 3, 0 < x < then x
{x : f1 (x) = f(x)} contains: equal to
3 + i 3 3 i 3
(a) 0, 1, , (a) (b)
2 2 6 4
(b) {0, 11} (c) {0, 1} 2
(d) {x : x(x 1) = 0} (c) or (d) or
3 6 3 3
15. If R1 and R2 are symmetric relations (not disjoint)
on a set A , then the relation R1 R2 is 2 4
24. If x = y cos = z cos , then xy + yz + zx =
(a) reflexive (b) symmetric 3 3
(c) transitive (d) none of these. (a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) 2

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 73


5 3 = C ( A B ) [C ( A B )]
25. In the interval , , the value of
4 2

1 2 = C ( A B) ( A B) = C U = C
=
cos cot
2
(
2. (b) : B1 B2 = A1 ( A2 A1 ) = A1 A2 A1 )
(a) 1 tan
(c) cot 1
(b) tan 1
(d) 1 cot ( )
= ( A1 A2 ) A1 A1 = ( A1 A2 ) U = A1 A2

26. If the orthocentre and centroid of a triangle are B1 B2 B3 = ( B1 B2 ) B3 = ( A1 A2 ) A3 ( A1 A2 )


(3, 5) and (3, 3) then the circumcentre is
(a) (6, 2) (b) (0, 8) = ( A1 A2 ) A3 ( A1 A2 )

(c) (6, 2) (d) (0, 4).

27. Shift the origin to a suitable point so that the = ( A1 A2 ) A3 ( A1 A2 ) ( A1 A2 )

equation y2 + 4y + 8x 2 will not contain term in y
and the constant term, is = A1 A2 A3 U = A1 A2 A3
3 3
(a) , 2 (b) , 2 3. (c) : Since the elements of the given set are ordered
4 4 pairs ? it has been derived from a cartesian product.
3 3 Again since the number of elements of set A is 2 and
(c) , 2 (d) , 2
4 4 the number of elements of the given set is 6 ? the
28. If in a 'ABC (whose circumcentre is origin), number of elements of the set with which the cartesian
a d sinA, then for any point (x, y) inside the product of set A produces the given set is 6 2 = 3.
circum circle of triangle ABC : ? t h e s e t w i l l b e B C = {c, d} {d , e} = {c, d , e}
1 1 ?the given set will be equal to A (B C) .
(a) xy (b) xy >
8 8 4. (d) : Given, A = {1, 2, 3} and R = {(a, b) : |a2 b2| d 5}
1 1 Now, |12 12| = 0 < 5 ? (1, 1) R i.e. 1R1
(c) < xy < (d) none of these |22 22| = 0 < 5 ? (2, 2) R i.e., 2R2
8 2
29. The coordinates of B and C of a triangle ABC are |32 32| = 0 < 5 ? (3, 3) R i.e., 3R3
(6, 0) and (6, 0). If BAC = 90, the locus of the 12 22| = 3 < 5 ? (1, 2) R i.e., 1R2
centroid of the triangle is |12 32| = 8 > 5 ? (1, 3) R i.e., 1 R 3
(a) x 2 + y 2 = 1 (b) x 2 + y 2 = 4 |22 32| = 5 ? (2, 3) R i.e., 2R3
Similarly (2, 1) R i.e., 2R1, (3, 2) R i.e., 3R2
(c) x 2 + y 2 = 9 (d) x 2 + y 2 = 36
Thus R = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (1, 2), (2, 3) (2, 1), (3, 2)}
30. Area of the triangle with vertices (a, b), (x1, y1) and Now R1 = { (y, x) : (x, y) R}
(x2, y2) where a, x1,x2 are in G.P. with common ratio = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (2, 1), (3, 2), (1, 2), (2, 3)} = R
r and b, y1 ,y2 are in G.P. with common ratio s , is Domain of R = {x : (x, y) R} = {1, 2, 3} and range
ab of R = {y : (x, y) R} = {1, 2, 3}
(a) (r 1)(s 1)(s r)
2
1 5. (d) : The given relation may be written in set-builder
(b) ab(r + 1)(s + 1)(s r) form as
2
R = {(a, b ) : a b divides n and a, b Z }
1
(c) ab(r + 1)(s + 1)(r s) As a a = 0 and 0 divides n ? (a, a)R
2
? R is reflexive.
1 Let a, b Z such that (a, b) R
(d) ab(r + 1)(s + 1)(r s)
2 Then (a, b) R a b divides n.
B>;DC8>=B a b = nk for some integerk b a = n( k)
1. (c): ( A B C ) ( B C ) (C A) ? (a, b) R (b, a) R
? R is symmetric.
= ( A B ) C [( B A) C ]
Now, (a,b), (b,c) R

74 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


Now, a b = nc1 and b c = nc2 for some integers c1 3 3 3
and c2. x + ' 0 x 2 a2 a x a
4 4 4
? (a b) + (b c) = n(c1 + c2)
 a c = nk where k = c1 + c2, an integer. 3
x 0
 (a, c) R. 2
? (a,b), (b,c) R (a,c) R
? R is transitive and hence R is an equivalence relation. x x
10. (c): Here, we have 4 < x < 6 2 < <3 =2
6. (b) : The given relation may be written in set-builder x
2 2
So, f ( x ) = x + = x + 2 , x ( 4 , 6 )
form as R = {( x, y ) : x y 1and x, y Z } 2
As x x = 0 x x = 0 1 (true) Let y (6, 8) such that f(x) = y. Now f(x) = y gives
? (x, x) R therefore R is reflexive.
y = x +2 x = y 2
Let x, y Z such that ( x, y ) R, then
f 1 ( y ) = y 2 f 1 ( x ) = x 2
( x, y ) R x y 1 y x 1 (y, x)R
Therefore, R is symmetric. ax 1
Let x, y, z Z such that ( x, y ) , ( y, z ) R, then 11. (d) : Given f (x) = n x is even.
x (a + 1)
x y 1 and y z 1
ax 1

/ x z 1 f (x) = f (x) n x
x (a + 1)
Thus ( x, y ) , ( y, z ) R
/ ( x, z ) R
a x 1 1 ax (a x 1)
Therefore, R is not transitive. = =
(x)n(a x + 1) (x)n(1 + a x ) (1)n x n(a x + 1)
7. (d) : The given function is f(x) = sin[x]
1
Clearly x < 0 [ x ] = 1 1=
4 (1)n

and 0 x < [ x ] = 0 Clearly the above relation is true for n = 3
4 12. (b) : The given functions are
sin x
8. (a) : The given function is f ( x ) = 1, x < 0
3
1 + sin x
g (x) = 1 + x [x] and f (x) = 0, x = 0
f(x) is defined when sinx > 0 and 1 + 3 sin x 0 1, x > 0

Clearly x (0, S), thus the required domain is (0, S)
We see that g (x) = 1 + x [x] = 1 + (x [x])
(
9. (c) : The given function f ( x ) = sin 1 2x 2 + 3x + 1) = 1 + {x} 1 (' 0 {x} < 1)
f(x) will be defined when 1 2x + 3x + 1 12
? f(g(x)) = 1 for all x
1 3 1 1
x2 + x + 13. (b) : Here f (x) = 2 x (x 1) = y (say)
2 2 2 2
log 2 y = x(x 1)log 2 2 x(x 1) log 2 y = 0
2
1 3 3 1 9 1
( x ) + 2x + +
2
1 1 + 4 log 2 y
2 4 4 2 16 2 x 2 x log 2 y = 0 x =
2
2
1 3 1 1 1 + 1 + 4 log 2 y
x +
2 4 16 2 x= (' x > 0)
2

( )
2 1
1 1 3 1 1 f 1(x) = 1 + 1 + 4 log 2 x
+ x + +
2 16 4 2 16 2
2 2 14. (c): Given that f(x) = (x + 1)2 1
7 3 9 3 9
x + 0 x + Let y = f(x) (x + 1)2 1 = y
16 4 16 4 16
x = y + 1 1 (x t 1).

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 75


f 1( y) = y + 1 1 f 1(x) = x + 1 1 = (A B C) (A B C)

Now f(x) = f 1(x) gives = ( A B C ) [' A B C = U ]


3
[( A B ) ( B C ) (C A)]
c
(x + 1)2 x + 1 = 0 x + 1 ( x + 1) 2 1 = 0


3
= ( A B C ) = A B C.
x + 1 = 0 or ( x + 1) = 1 x = 1 or x = 0
2

Thus {x : f 1(x) = f(x)} = {1, 0} 20. (d) : Here f(x) = |cos4x| + |sin4x|
15. (b) : Let a, b A such that (a, b) R1 R2then
f x + = cos 4 x + + sin 4 x +
(a, b) R1 R2 (a, b) R1 and (a, b) R2 8 8 8
aR1b and aR2b =|sin 4x | + | cos 4x |= f (x).
bR1a and bR2a [' R1 and R2 are symmetric]
(b, a) R1 and (b, a) R2 (b, a) R1 R2
' f x + = f (x) , therefore the period of the given
Hence R1 R2 is symmetric 8

x + 1, x < 0
3
function is .
16. (a) : Here, f (x) = 8
2
x + 1, x 0
21. (a) : tan tan 2 tan 3..... tan (2n 1)
1
( x 1) 3 , x < 1 = 4n 2n = 2 and tan (2n 1) = tan (2n - )
and =
1
( x 1) , x 1
2
= tan = cot
2
When x < 0, then ( gof )(x) = g ( f (x)) = g (x 3 + 1)
1 1 = tanTtan ((2n 1)T) tan2Ttan((2n 2)T)....tannTcotnT
{(
= x +1 13
) } 3 3
[' x < 0 x + 1 < 1] = ( )
x 3 3
=x = (tanTcotT) (tan2Tcot2T)(tannTcotnT =1 .1.1.....1 = 1
2 2
When x 0, then ( gof )(x) = g ( f (x)) 22. (c) : We have, a + b
1 cos2 x sin2 x
{( ) }
= g (x 2 + 1) = x 2 + 1 1 2 [' x 0 x 3 + 1 1] = a2sec2x + b2cosec2x
= a2(1 + tan2x) + b2(1 + cot2x)
1
= ( )
x 2 2
= x = x [' x 0]
= a2 + b2 + (atanx)2 + (bcotx)2
= a2 + b2 + (atanx bcotx)2 + 2abtanx cotx
Therefore (gof) (x) = x for all x R t a2 + b2 + (atanx bcotx)2
f ( x + 3) , 1 x + 3 2 a2 b2
17. (d): ( fog )( x ) = + (a + b)2
f (x + 1) , 1 x + 2 2 2 2
cos x sin x
f ( x + 3) , 1 x + 3 2 x + 1, 2 x 1
23. (d): 1 + sin x + sin2 x + ... = 4 + 2 3, 0 < x <
= f (x + 1) , 1 x + 1 1 = x 1, 1 x 0
f (x + 1) , 1 x + 1 2 x 1, 0 x 2 1 1
= 4 + 2 3 1 sin x =
1 sin x 4+2 3
18. (a) : Since f(x + iy) = f(x iy) ? f is many one.
Also Range R+ and Co-domain R 42 3 2 3
= =
? range co domain f is into 4 2
Hence f is many one into. 2 3 3 2
sin x = 1 = x = or
19. (b) : ( A B ) ( B C ) (C A) 2 2 3 3

76 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 77
2 4 1 Thus for any point (x, y) inside the circumcircle , we
24. (b): x = y cos = z cos = (say) 1
3 3 k have x 2 + y 2
4
1 1 2 k 1 4 k
= k, = k cos = , and = k cos = Again we have
x y 3 2 z 3 2
x2 + y2 1
1 1 1 k k x 2 y 2 xy [' A.M. G.M.] xy
+ + = k = 0 xy + yz + zx = 0 2 8
x y z 2 2
29. (b) : Let (h, k) be the co-ordinates of the centroid.
25. (b) : 1

2
= sec2 2 tan Let the co-ordinates of A be (D, E).
2
cos cot +66
h= = 3h
3
= 1 + tan2 2 tan = (1 tan )2 +0+0
and k = = 3k
3
= 1 tan = tan 1 Thus A(D,E) = A(3h,3k). Now AB2 + AC2 = BC2 gives
(3h + 6)2 + (3k)2 + (3h 6)2 (3h, 3k)
5 3 A
'tan > 1 when 4 , 2 + (3k)2 = (6 + 6)2

9h2 + 36 + 9k2 + 9h2 + 36 B C
26. (a) : From geometry , we know that the centroid (6, 0) (6, 0)
+ 9k2 = 144
divides the line segment joining orthocentre and
18h2 + 18k2 = 72
circumcentre in the ratio 2:1.
h2 + k2 = 4
2 x + 1 ( 3) ? The locus of the centroid is x2 + y2 = 4
3=
2 +1
30. (a) : We have, x1 = ar, x2 = ar2, y1 = bs, y2 = bs2
2 y +1 5
x = 6 and 3 = y =2 The area of the triangle is given by
2 +1
So, the required circumcentre is (6, 2) . a b 1 a b 1
1 1
= x1 y1 1 = ar bs 1
27. (b) : Let us shift the origin to a point(h, k) such 2 2
that x = xc + h and y = yc + k x2 y2 1 ar 2 bs 2 1
The given equation of the curve is
y2 + 4y + 8x 2 = 0 ......(1) 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1
Now by translation (1) becomes = ab r s 1 = ab r 1 s 1 0
(yc + k)2 + 4(yc + k) + 8(xc + h) 2 = 0 2 2
r2 s2 1 r 2 1 s2 1 0
yc2 + 2(k + 2)yc + 8xc + k2 + 4k + 8h 2= 0
Now in order to vanish the y-term and constant term, (Applying R2 oR2 R1, R3 oR3 R1)
we make
0 0 1
k + 2 = 0 and k2 + 4k + 8h 2 = 0 1
= ab(r 1)(s 1) 1 1 0
3 2
 k = 2 and h = r +1 s +1 0
4
3
Therefore, the origin must be shifted to , 2 (Applying C1 oC1 C3, C2 oC2 C3)
4
a and taking (r 1), (s 1) common from C1 and C2
28. (a) : Given a sin A 1 respectively
sin A
1
1 a b c = ab(r 1)(s 1)(s r)
2R 1 R ' = = = 2R 2
2 sin A sin B sin C

78 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


@B13D935@1@5B
Useful for JEE (MAIN & ADVANCED), BITSAT and other Engineering Exams

1. Which of the following is negative? 8. If all the words formed from the letters of the word
(a) cos(tan1(tan 4)) (b) sin(cot1(cot 4)) "HORROR" are arranged in the opposite order as
(c) tan(cos1(cos 5)) (d) cot(sin1(sin 4)) they are in a dictionary, then the rank of the word
"HORROR" is
2. If in a right angled triangle ABC, 4 sinA cosB 1 = 0
(a) 57 (b) 58 (c) 56 (d) 59
and tanA is real then A, B, C are in
(a) A.P. (b) G.P. 9. Let ax + by + c = 0 be a variable straight line, where
a, b and c are 1st, 3rd and 7th terms of an increasing
(c) H.P. (d) none of these
A.P. respectively. Then the variable straight line
3. If D and E are roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 always passes through a fixed point which lies on
then roots of the equation (a) y2 = 4x (b) x2 + y2 = 5
a(2x + 1)2 b(2x + 1)(3 x) + c(3 x)2 = 0 are (c) 3x + 4y = 9 (d) x2 + y2 = 13
2 + 1 2 + 1 3 + 1 3 + 1 10. Three equal circles each of radius r touch one
(a) , (b) ,
3 3 2 2 another. The radius of the circle touching all the
2 1 2 + 1 three given circles internally is
(c) , (d) none of these
2 2 (2 + 3)
(a) (2 + 3) r (b) r
n 3
4. Sum of series (r 2 + 1) r ! is (2 3)
r =1 (c) r (d) (2 3) r
(a) (n + 1)! (b) (n + 2)! 1 3
(c) n(n + 1)! (d) none of these 11. The equation of the tangent to the parabola
y = (x 3)2 parallel to the chord joining the points
5. If the sides a, b, c of a triangle ABC are in A.P. then (3, 0) and (4, 1) is
b (a) 2x 2y + 6 = 0 (b) 2y 2x + 6 = 0
belongs to
c (c) 4y 4x + 13 = 0 (d) 4x + 4y = 13
(a) (0, 2/3) (b) (1, 2) 12. The number of rational points on the ellipse
(c) (2/3, 2) (d) (2/3, 7/3)
x2 y2
6. The sum of coefficients of the last eight terms in the + = 1 is
9 4
expansion of (1 + x)16 is equal to
(a) f (b) 4 (c) 0 (d) 2
(a) 215 (b) 214
1 (16)! 13. The angle between the tangents from (2, 1) to the
(c) 215 (d) none of these hyperbola 2x2 3y2 = 6 is
2 (8 !)2
(a) tan1(2) (b) S/3
7. If (1 + x)5 = a0 + a1x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + a4 x4 + a5x5. (c) tan1(1/2) (d) S/6
Then the value of (a0 a2 + a4)2 + (a1 a3 + a5)2 is 14. A function F(x) satisfies the functional equation
equal to x2 F(x) + F(1 x) = 2x x4 for all real x. F(x) must be
(a) 243 (b) 32 (a) x2 (b) 1 x2
(c) 1 (d) 210 (c) 1 + x 2 (d) x2 + x + 1
Sanjay Singh Mathematics Classes, Chandigarh, Ph : 9888228231, 9216338231
MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 79
/2
(2sin x 1)[ln(1 + sin 2x)] x 1
tan 1 x
15. lim is equal to 22. If I1 = sin x dx and I =
2 dx , then
x 0 x tan 1 x 0 0
x
I1
(a) ln2 (b) 2 ln2 (c) (ln2)2 (d) 0 =
I2
16. The function (x) = [x]2 [x2] (where [y] is
(a) 1 (b) 1/2 (c) 2 (d) S/2
the greatest integer less than or equal to y), is
discontinuous at 23. If An is the area bounded by y = x and y = xn, n N,
(a) all integers then A2 . A3 ........ An =
(b) all integers except 0 and 1 1 1
(c) all integers except 0 (a) (b) n
n(n + 1) 2 n(n + 1)
(d) all integers except 1
1 1
1 dy dx (c) n1
(d) n2
17. If y = , then the value of + + 3 is 2 n(n + 1) 2 n(n + 1)
x 4
1+ y 1+ x4
equal to 24. The degree of the differential equation whose
(a) 0 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 3 general solution is given by
18. The points of contact of the vertical tangents to y = (c1 + c2 ) cos(x + c3) c4e x +c5
the curve whose parametric equation is given as where c1, c2, c3, c4, c5 are arbitrary constants, is
x = 2 3 sin T, y = 3 + 2 cos T (where T is a parameter) (a) 5 (b) 4 (c) 1 (d) 2
are
(a) (2, 5), (2, 1) (b) (1, 3), (5, 3) 25. If |z2 1| = |z|2 + 1 then z lies on a
(c) (2, 5), (5, 3) (d) (1, 3), (2, 1) (a) circle (b) parabola
(c) ellipse (d) none of these
19. If f(x) and g (x) = f (x) 1 2( f (x))2
26. A can hit a target 4 times in 5 shots, B three times
are monotonically increasing, then  x R
in 4 shots and C twice in 3 shots. They fire a target
2
(a) |f (x)| d 1 (b) | f (x)| < if exactly two of them hit the target then the chance
3 that it is C who has missed is
1 1 (a) 6/13 (b) 1/5
(c) | f (x)| < (d) | f (x)| <
2 2 (c) 4/5 (d) 4/15

2x 2 + 2 / x 2 ; 0 < | x | 2 27. In a quadrilateral ABCD, let


20. Let f (x) =
1 ; x =0 cos A sin A cos(A + D)
Then f(x) has = cos B sin B cos(B + D) , then ' is
(a) least value 4 but no greatest value cos C sin C cos(C + D)
(b) greatest value 4 (a) independent of A and B only
(c) neither greatest nor least value (b) independent of B and C only
(d) least value 1 but no greatest value (c) independent of A, B and C only
3x 4 (d) independent of A, B, C and D all
21. If f = x + 2 then f (x)dx
3x + 4
is equal to
0 1 2
3x 4
(a) e x+2 ln +c 28. If A = 1 0 3 , then A + 2AT equals
3x + 4 2 3 0
8 2 (b) AT (c) AT (d) 2A2
(b) ln |(1 x)| + x + c (a) A
3 3
29. A vector of magnitude 3, bisecting the angle between
8 x G ^ ^ ^
(c) ln | x 1 | + + c G ^ ^ ^
3 3 the vectors a = 2 i + j k and b = i 2 j + k and
G
(d) none of these making an obtuse angle with b is

80 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


^ ^ ^ ^ ^ b 2
3i i i +3j 2k ? , 2
(a) (b) c 3
6 14
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 6. (c) : Sum of the coefficients of last eight terms
3(i + 3 j 2 k) 3i j
(c) (d) 216 16C8
14 10 = 16C + 16C + ..+ 16C =
9 10 16
30. If plane ax by + cz = d contains the line 2
x a y 2d z c 7. (b) : Put x = i
= = b
, then = (1 + i)5 = (a0 a2 + a4) + i (a1 a3 + a5)
a b c d
 |1 + i |5 = |(a0 a2 + a4) + i (a1 a3 + a5)|
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 0 (d) 3
 (a0 a2 + a4)2 + (a1 a3 + a5)2 = 25 = 32
SOLUTIONS
8. (b) : RRROOH
1. (d) : (a) = cos(tan1 tan(4 S))
cos(tan1(tan4))
5!
= cos(4 S) = cos4 > 0 R = 30
(b) sin(cot1(cot 4)) = sin(cot1cot(4 S)) 2! 2!
= sin(4 S) = sin4 > 0 5!
(c) tan(cos1(cos 5)) = tan(cos1 cos(2S 5)) O = 20
3!
= tan(2S 5) = tan 5 > 0
4!
(d) cot(sin1(sin4)) = cot(sin1 sin (S 4)) HR =6
= cot(S 4) = cot4 < 0 2! 2!
2. (a) : Since 4sinA cosB = 1, so A and B cannot be HORRRO 1 HORROR 1
90 (as if B = 90, then cosB = 0 and if A = 90, tanA Total = 30 + 20 + 6 + 1 + 1 = 58
is not defined) 9. (d) : Let the common difference of A.P. is d
? C = 90 and B = 90 A then b = a + 2d and c = a + 6d, so variable straight
? 4sinA cos(90 A) = 1 line will be
1 1 ax + (a + 2d)y + a + 6d = 0
sin2 A = sin A =  A =

4 2 6 a(x + y + 1) + d(2y + 6) = 0
 B = which always passes through (2, 3).
3
10. (b) : 'DEF is equilateral
So angle , , are in A.P.
6 3 2 with side 2r. If radius of circum-
circle DEF is R1, then
(2x + 1)2 (2x + 1)
3. (b) : a +b +c =0 3
(x 3) 2 (x 3) Area of 'DEF = (2r)2 = 3r 2
4
2x + 1 2x + 1
= or = 2r 2r 2r 2r
x 3 x 3 3r 2 = R1 =
4R1 3
 2x + 1 = Dx 3D x(D 2) = 1 + 3D
1 + 3 1 + 3 ? Radius of the circle touching all the three given
x= , circles = r + R1
2 2
4. (c) : Tr = (r2 + 1 + r r) r! 2r (2 + 3)r
=r+ =
Tr = r (r + 1)! (r 1) r! 3 3
Sn = n(n + 1)!
5. (c) : a = 2b c 477*3(::?00 ANSWER KEY
b 2 1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (c) 4. (b) 5. (b)
a + b > c 2b c + b > c >
c 3 6. (b) 7. (a,b,d) 8. (b,d) 9. (a,c)
b 10. (a,b,c,d) 11. (a,b,c) 12. (a,b,c,d)
Also, b + c > a b + c > 2b c <2
c 13. (b,c) 14. (b) 15. (d) 16. (b) 17. (3)
Again c + a > b 2b > b b > 0 18. (3) 19. (1) 20. (7)

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 81


7 1 1 dy 1
11. (c) : yc = 2(x 3) = 1 gives the point , and 17. (b) : y = = 2 x 2dy + dx = 0
2 4 x dx x
1 7
the required tangent is y = 1 x
4 2 x2 dx
or 4y 4x + 13 = 0. dy + =0
1+ x4 1+ x4
x2 y2
12. (a) : + =1 dy dx dy dx
9 4 + =0 + =0
Let any point on ellipse be (3 cosT, 2 sinT)
1
+1 1+ x4 1+ y4 1+ x4
Since sinT and cosT can be rational for infinite many x4
values of T [0, 2S]. dy dx
+ +3=3
4 4
x y2 2 1+ y 1+ x
13. (c) : = 1; y + 1 = m(x + 2)
3 2 dx
or y = mx + (2m 1) touches the hyperbola 18. (b) : For vertical tangents = 0 so, we have
d
' c2 = a2m2 b2 ? (2m 1)2 = 3m2 2 3
3cos T = 0 = or
m2 4m + 3 = 0 m = 1 and 3 2 2
Corresponding to these values of T, we have
3 1 1 1
? tan = = = tan 1
1+ 3 1 2 2 x = 2 3 sin = 1, y = 3 + 2 cos = 3;
 2 2
14. (b) : We have, x2F(x) + F(1 x) = 2x x4 3 3
x = 2 3 sin = 2 + 3 = 5, y = 3 + 2 cos = 3
Replacing x by (1 x) gives ...(i) 2 2
(1 x)2 F(1 x) + F(x) = 2(1 x) (1 x)4 ...(ii) Thus the required points are (1, 3), (5, 3).
Eliminating F(1 x) from (i) and (ii), we get [1 4 ( f (x))2] f (x)
F(x) = 1 x2 19. (c) : g (x) =
1 2( f (x))2
sin x
(2 1)[ln(1 + sin 2x)]
15. (b) : lim Now, as f(x) and g(x) are monotonically
x 0 tan 1 x
2
x 1
x increasing, f c(x) > 0 and gc(x) > 0 | f (x)| <
sin x
2
2 1 sin x ln(1 + sin 2x) sin 2x 20. (d) : For x o 0
= lim 2
x 0 sin x x sin 2x 2x 2 1
2x 2 + 2 also 2 x 2 + 2 4
= 2ln2 x x
16. (d) : Note that (x) = 0 for each integral value of 3x 4
x. 21. (b) : Put =t
3x + 4
Also, if 0 d x < 1, then 0 d x2 < 1 4t + 4
 3x 4 = 3xt + 4t  x =
? [x] = 0 and [x2] = 0 (x) = 0 for 0 d x < 1. 3(1 t )
4t + 4
Next, if 1 x < 2 , then f (t ) = +2
3(1 t )
1 d x2 < 2 [x] = 1 and [x2] = 1
4x + 4 4(x 1) + 8
 f (x) = +2= +2
Thus, f (x) = [x]2 [x 2] = 0 if 1 x < 2 3(1 x) 3(1 x)
It follows that f (x) = 0, if 0 x < 2
4 8 2 8
This shows that (x) must be continuous at x = 1.  f (x) = 2 =
3 3(x 1) 3 3(x 1)
However, at points x other than integers and not lying
between 0 and 2 , (x) z 0. 2 8
? f (x)dx = 3 x 3 ln | x 1 | +c
Thus, is discontinuous at all integers except 1.

82 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


tan 1 x
1 4 3 2
22. (c) : I2 = dx, x = tan Then P(A) = , P(B) = and P(C) =
x 5 4 3
0 ? P(Cc/E)
/ 4 /2
2 1 x 1 P(A)P(B)P(C c )
I2 = sin 2
d =
2 sin x
dx = . I1
2
= =
0 0 P(A) P(B)P(C c ) + P(A)P(Bc )P(C) + P(Ac )P(B)P(C)
I 6
1 =2 =
I2 13
23. (d) : y 27. (d) : Applying C3 o C3 C1 cosD + C2 sinD, we get
'= 0, hence ' is independent of A, B, C, D all.
0 1 2 0 2 4
28. (c) : A = 1 0 3 , 2A = 2 0 6
T T
x 2 3 0 4 6 0
0 1

1 0 1 2
1 x 2 x n+1
An = (x x ) dx =
n
2A + A = 1 0 3 = AT
T

0 2 n + 1 0 2 3 0
1 1 n 1 Alternate solution :
= =
2 n + 1 2(n + 1) AT = A (' A is skew symmetric)
1 1 2 3 n 1 So 2AT + A = AT + A A = AT.
Thus A2 A3 A4.....An = n1 . . ... G G
2 3 4 5 n +1 29. (c) : A vector bisecting the angle between a and b is
1 G G
= n2 a b 2 ^i + ^j k^ ^i 2 ^j+ k^
2 n(n + 1) G G ; in the case
|a | |b | 6 6
24. (c) : We can write y = A cos(x + B) Cex ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
c5 i.e., 3 i j or i + 3 j 2 k
where A = c1 + c2, B = c3 and C = c4e 6 6
dy
= A sin(x + B) Ce x A vector of magnitude 3 along these vectors is
dx
3(3 ^i ^j) 3(^i + 3 ^j 2 k^)
d2 y x d2 y or
2
= A cos( x + B) Ce 2
+ y = 2Ce x 10 14
dx dx 3 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
Now, (i + 3 j 2 k) (i 2 j+ k) is negative and hence
d3 y dy 2
x d y 14
+ = 2Ce = +y G
dx 3 dx dx 2 3 ^ ^ ^
(i + 3 j 2 k) makes an obtuse angle with b
d3 y d 2 y dy 14
+ y =0 30. (b) : Given plane contains the line
dx 3 dx 2 dx
 a2 b2 + c2 = 0 ... (i)
Which is a differential equation of degree 1 2
and a 2bd + c = 0 2 ...(ii)
25. (d) : On putting z = x + iy the equation is same as By using (i) and (ii) we get b/d = 2
|x2 y2 + 2ixy 1| = x2 + y2 + 1
(x2 y2 1)2 + 4x2y2 = (x2 + y2 + 1)2
 x = 0 Solution Sender of Maths Musing
 z lies on imaginary axis, so (a), (b), (c) are ruled
out. SET-174
26. (a) : Let A represents the event 'A hits the target', 1. N. Jayanthi (Hyderabad)
B represents the event 'B hits the target', C represents 2. V. Damodhar Reddy (Telangana)
the event 'C hits the target' and E be the event that
exactly two of A, B and C hit the target. 3. Khokon Kumar Nandi (West Bengal)

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 83


a y z
x a y b z c a y z
1 1 0 =0 + + =0
SOLUTION SET-174 1 0 1 x a y b z c

1. (b) : We have an = an 1 an 2 + an 3 an 4 for n 5


a5 = a4 a3 + a2 a1 = 23 20 + 75 11 = 67 a x x+a
= 2 and =1 = 1
a6 = a5 a4 + a3 a2 = a1 xa xa xa
a7 = a6 a5 + a4 a3 = a2 6. (b, c) :Let a < b < c be selected numbers, a + b + c = 30
a8 = a3, a9 = a4, a10 = a5 a = 0, (b, c) = (1, 29), (2, 28), .....(14, 16), 14 pairs
a11 = a1, a12 = a2, a13 = a3, a14 = a4, a15 = a5 a = 1, (b, c) = (2, 27), (3, 26), .....(14, 15), 13 pairs
Hence, a31 a53 + a75 = a1 a3 + a5 = 11 20 + 67 = 58. a = 2, (b, c) = (3, 25), (4, 24), .....(13, 15), 11 pairs
1
2. (b) : xyz = 1, x + = 5 x + xy = 5 a = 9, (b, c) = (10, 11), one pair
z The total number of ways = 1 + 2 + 3 + ..... + 15
1
But y + = 29 (3 + 6 + 9 + 12 + 15) = 75 = 3 52
x
0 in [0, sin 1)
5 x 1 29 x 1 1 7. (c) : [sin 1 x ] =
= 29 = x=
x x x 5 1 in [sin 1, 1]
1 1 in [0, cos 1]
Now, y = 29 y = 29 5 = 24 [cos1 x ] =
x 0 in (cos 1, 1 ] 1 in [0, cos 1]
1
Also, = 5 x = 5 =
1 24
z=
5 1 1
f(x) = [sin x] + [cos x] = 0 in (cos 1, sin 1)
z 5 5 24
1 in [sin 1, 1]
1 5 1 1
z+ = + = f(x) is not differentiable at x = cos 1 and sin 1.
y 24 24 4
8. (a) : f(x) = 0 in (cos 1, sin 1)
1 1 1 2
3. (d) : 2 + 2 =
r r1
(
s + (s a)2 ) The length of the interval = sin 1 cos 1
sin 1 cos 1
= 2 = 2 sin 1 .
a2 + b2 + c 2 2 2 4
1 2
= (a + b2 + c 2 ) = 4
4
9. (d) : The girls can sit in 1, 2; 2, 3 ; . . . . ; 11, 12 = 22
ways. If one boy sits between them, they sit in 1, 3; 2, 4;
= 4(cot A + cot B + cot C)
. . . . . .; 10, 12 = 20 ways
4. (c) : OA = a + bcot If two boys sit between them, they sit in
OB = b + atan 1, 4; 2, 5; .....; 9 12 = 18 ways
6
(a, b) = (4, 1) The desired number is 12 ! 6010 ! = . 12 !
OA + OB = 5 + 4tan + cot 11
1 t 1
5 + 2 4 tan cot = 9 , by A.M. and G.M. inequality. 10. (d): P. xy = , x = , y =
4 2 2t
x t 1 1
a y z Tangent + y = OA = t , OB =
2t 2 2 t
5. (a) : x b z = 0 OAOB = 1
x y c Q. Tangent at (cos , sin ) is xcos + y sin = 1
1 1
Using R2 R2 R1, R3 R3 R1, we get OA = sec , OB = cosec + =1
2
OA OB2
a y z
R. Tangent at (cos , sin ) is
4 4
xa b y 0 =0 xsin2 + y cos2 = sin2 cos2
xa 0 cz OA = cos2 , OB = sin2 , OA + OB = 1
S. Tangent at (cos3 , sin3 ) is
C1 C C
Using C1 , C2 2 , C3 3 , we get x sin + y cos = sin cos
xa yb zc OA = cos , OB = sin , AB = 1

84 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17


Y U ASK 1 r
= na1 .r n1
1 r n

WE ANSWER
Do you have a question that you just cant get answered?
? An Hn = a12r(n 1) = Gn2

The G.M. of G1, G2, , Gn is (


1
G1G2 ...Gn n )
...(1)

1
Use the vast expertise of our MTG team to get to the bottom
of the question. From the serious to the silly, the controversial
= ( A1H1 . A2 H 2 ... An Hn 2n )
to the trivial, the team will tackle the questions, easy and tough. = (A1 A2 An H1H2 Hn)1/2n.
The best questions and their solutions will be printed in this
r 1 n 6
column each month.
3. Let 'r = (r 1)2 2n2 4n 2 .
G G G G G G G
1. If A (B C ) = B / 2 and A, B, C are unit vectors (r 1)3 3n3 3n2 3n
G G
then find the angle between A and C . n
(Prashant Aditya, Patna) Find the sum r . (Vidushi Varshney, Delhi)
G r =1
G G G B
Ans. Given, A (B C ) = n

G G G G G G
2
G G G B
G (r 1) n 6
r =1
Also, A (B C ) = ( A C ) B ( A B) C = n
2 n

On comparing coefficients, we have


Ans. r = (r 1)2 2n2 4n 2
r =1
G r =1
G G G B G G G
( A C )B = and ( A B) C = 0 n
2 (r 1)3 3n3 3n2 3n
G G 1 G G 1 r =1
AC = |A| |C| | cos | = T=
2 2 3
n(n 1)
2. Let a1, a2, be positive numbers in G.P.. For each n 6
2
n, let An, Gn , Hn be the arithmetic mean, geometric (n 1)n(2n 1)
= 2n2 2(2n 1)
mean and harmonic mean of a1, a2, , an. Express 6
the geometric mean of G1, G2, , Gn in terms of (n 1)2 n2
A1, A2, , An, H1, H2, , Hn. 3n3 3n(n 1)
4
(Kushagra Pandey, Hyderabad)
(n 1)n 2n 12
Ans. Let the G.P. be a1, a1r, a1r2, , a1rn 1 1
= (n 1)n(2n 1) 12n2 12(2n 1)
a + a + ... + an a1 48
An = 1 2 = (1 + r + r2 + + rn 1)
n n (n 1)2 n2 12n3 12n(n 1)
a 1 rn
= 1 By taking factors (n 1) n from C1, 2n from C2 and 12
n 1 r
from C3, we get
1 1
( )
Gn = (a1a2 ...an )n = a1nr1+2+...+(n1) n = a1r(n 1)/2
1
1 1 1
(n 1)n2 2n 1 6n 2n 1 = 0
n n 2
Hn = =
1 1 1 1 1 1 (n 1)n 6n2 n(n 1)
+ + ... + 1 + + ... +
a1 a2 an a1 r r 1
n

MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17 85


86 MATHEMATICS TODAY | JULY 17