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Laboratoire de Constructions Hydrauliques

Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne

Communication 15

Effects of obstacles and jets on


reservoir sedimentation due to
turbidity currents

Christoph Oehy

Editeur : Prof. Dr A. Schleiss Lausanne, 2003


Communications du Laboratoire de constructions hydrauliques
Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne
Editeur: Prof. Dr A. Schleiss

N 6 1998 N. Beyer Portner


Erosion des bassins versants alpins suisse par ruissellement de
surface
N 7 1998 G. De Cesare
Alluvionnement des retenues par courants de turbidit
N 8 1998 J. Dubois
Comportement hydraulique et modlisation des coulements de
surface
N 9 2000 J. Dubois, J.-L. Boillat
Routing System - Modlisation du routage de crues dans des
systmes hydrauliques surface libre
N 10 2002 J. Dubois, M. Pirotton
Gnration et transfert des crues extrmes - Le logiciel Faitou
N 11 2002 A. Lavelli, G. De Cesare, J.-L. Boillat
Modlisation des courants de turbidit dans le bassin Nord du Lac
de Lugano
N 12 2002 P. de Almeida Manso
Stability of linings by concrete elements for surface protection of
overflow earthfill dams
N 13 2002 Erik Bollaert
Transient water pressures in joints and formation of rock scour due
to high-velocity jet impact
N 14 2003 Daniel S. Hersberger
Wall roughness effects on flow and scouring in curved channels
with gravel bed
N 15 2003 Christoph Oehy
Effects of obstacles and jets on reservoir sedimentation due to
turbidity currents

  

  

   
   


            
  

         



 
   

          


 
  
                   

    

  
     
               

           
      

   

          
     
   
  
 


  
   
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Volumes
7000
Switzerland [106 m3]
9 3
6000 World [10 m ]
Estimated Developement
5000 Storage
Capacity
4000

3000

2000
Reservoir
Sedimentation
1000

Years [-]
0
1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 2040
  
  
    
 


 

 
         

    
  
   
  
  
   
 

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Measures against
reservoir sedimentation

in the catchment area in the reservoir at the dam

Soil conservation Dredging Sluicing

Settling basins Dead storage Turbidity current venting


Slope and bank protection Turbining suspended
Flushing
works sediments
Bypassing structures Hydrosuction, Air-lift Dam heightening
Off-stream storage Heightening of intake and
reservoir bottom outlet structures
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     &  
 



3" '   % 2 % 22  2?2  " # 

_SW _RW _ W _ W _ $W _U%W _ $W _U%W _U%W _RW _RW _%? W _%?W _%?W _%?W
#PH +M OJO HIN PLLLJ HIP HPPKK KNM INJL PKNM PPKJO PPPPJJ PPPI+IJ PPPPPOLK
#PI +M ONJ HIJ PLLL+ HHI HPPKI KNM INJM PKNM PPKJO PPPPNK PPPIJO+ PPPPPLOO
#PK +M ONN HIH PLLLM HHI HPPI+ ILH IH+N PILH PPIOJ PPPPN+ PPPINIH PPPPPNNN
#P+ +J+ +M MOI HI+ PLLLM HHL HPPKK KOI IOHO PKOI PPKNM PPPPOH PPPILNO PPPPHHHN
  07 
 

       


 
    2 


3" '   % 2 % 22  2?2  " # 
    
_SW _RW _ W _ W _ $W _U% W _ $W _U% W _U% W _RW _RW _%? W _%?W _% ?W _%?W
3PH +J+ +M MNL HKJ PLLLI HII HPPKK +PJ ILLP P+PJ PPKLL PPPPNO PPPIOJO PPPPHH+K
3PI +J+ +M MJK HKI PLLLK HHJ HPPKP KNO INOM PKNO PPKNH PPPPJJ PPPI+IJ PPPPPLPP
3PK +M OJP HKK PLLL+ HIJ HPPKK KLI IOLP PKLI PPKOM PPPPNI PPPIJ+N PPPPHPHL
3P+ +M ONM HPL PLLLM HHH HPPKK KNO INLP PKNO PPKNH PPPPNJ PPPINL+ PPPPHPKN
  07 
 

     0  
 
      2 

3" '   % 2 % 2 2  2?2  " # 
     
_SW _RW _ W _ W _ $W _U% W _ $W _U% W _U% W _RW _RW _%? W _% ?W _% ?W _%? W
)PH +M ONJ LO PLLLM HPO HPPK+ KOM IO+H PKOM PPKNO PPPPNP PPPIMN+ PPPPPLNI
)PI +M OJL HHO PLLLJ HIH HPPK+ KNO INLI PKNO PPKNH PPPPOP PPPIL+H PPPPHPLH
 
07 
 

     -  
 
!!! 


JL
NP
( %&'   
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NH
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u[cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   B1 
 
8
  
   6  7  53

               D 
"   * 
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 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP JNH +JO HOH J++ HKO PIN
IIP JON +NI HOH JOI H++ PIJ
KIP L+K +PJ I+H JIP HMK PIJ
+IP HPNO KJI HOH M+M HMH PHN
MIP HI+O KMO KPI MH+ H++ PI+
JHP HJKO ILM I+H +JN HMO PHM
  ' 
 

 
7  


 
  

 7  53

NI
2.0 2.0
z/h [-] 220 cm z/h [-] 220 cm
320 cm 320 cm
420 cm 420 cm
1.5 520 cm 1.5 520 cm
610 cm 610 cm
1.0 1.0

0.5 0.5

[-] [-]
0.0 0.0
u/U u/U

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
 07  5>  07  53
    
  
     6
2 
 

       


 
          
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8                 !  
    

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  "     "            

NK
x [cm]

600

500

400

300

200

100 no data

A01 A02 A03 A04 A05 A06 A07 A08 A09 A10 t [s]
0
0 120 240 360 480 600 720 840
  8
       5

      


 8     6HLLJ7   "   
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   8      

    
  
   
     
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3" _SW 8PH 8PI 8PK 8P+ 8PM 8PJ 8PN 8PO 8PL 8HP
* 
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'
_SW HHH PLM HPK HHP HHH HHI PO+ PLP PLP PNI
 
8
     
     5

N+
3
10 15.0
m [mg/cm2] db [mm]
b

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
t [s] x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
  8
      7  53  
  * 


       * 
  ?$     

   
  +I           PO+SHHI   "   
 
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D          
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* 
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 H+P HPN PNM HHI
  8
     
  
 
 

  
    !




 
    !  
     ?

NO
x [cm]

600

Obstacle
500

400

300

200

100 no data
reflection

B01 B02 B03 B04 B05 t [s]


-
- 120 240 360 480 600 720 840
  8
     7   
! 
   
 !
   ?

     
        
 /    
    
        
 ) +HP
   
   6+HP6 7
+HP677   

      6+HP67


+HP6
77  "    
D    6"   PI7
  
 6"   PM7
                
       

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IM  "   PM 3         
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D      "   PK     
  


 
   
       
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NL
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm] z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 07  ?, B,   07  ?, B> 
B**>@ D  B,11 E  B*F D  B*F, E 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm] z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 07  ?1 B,   07  ?1 B> 
B+F3 D  B1>+ E  B*F D  B,>+ E 
  =  6    ?     !  
 F*

 F*
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6 ) +HH677 
  

  

        
 
  "   
   
       
  
   
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 8
" 8I    IHH

% *.  

 "      
       
 
 / K+K ) 
       

OP
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Obstacle
1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 07  ?,  BC
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Obstacle

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 07  ?1  BF>FC
  8
    
  
7
    
  *    
 !

  ?

OH
 
(!     

  

 1  7  &*  BF>FC

MP    
 MPM      
     
6"7   
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  8
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        !  !
     "   
 
  "    D     !
    

        "      
  

OI
x [cm]

600

Screen
500

400

300

200

100 no data
reflection

C01 C02 C03 C04 C05 t [s]


-
- 120 240 360 480 600 720 840
  8
     7   
! 
   
   &

  
  D    %   !
&     

      
 !    
   
    
   !
          
 6   7         
         
  
  
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* 
              
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"  
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3" _SW $PH $PI $PK $P+ $PM


* 
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* 
  _ UW IHM ILJ KHN HLK HNN
* 
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  8
     
  
 
 

  
    



 
   
  
     &

OK
                  
  "            

  3   
" 
     

        


  "  HIP 

"   $PH $PI
$PM 
 !       
    
    
    
   "   6$PK
$P+7   "  HHO
        
     
                
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    HIP          6 
  K+7
      
   
     
     
       PM
  
   ) +H+    
   6+H+6 7

+H+677   
     6+H+67
+H+6
77 
"    D    6"   $P+7
  

6"   $PK7
         
    D   6$P+7

  
 "   6$PK7       "  
   6 ) +HP7      
   
          "      
    
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 8
" 8K    IIK

%% *.  # # &


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 6/ #7
 
     

O+
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 07  &, B,   07  &, B111 
B@3> D  B11 E  B**>3 D  B,3 E 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 07  &F B,   07  &F B111 
B**@ D  B,+* E  B*>, D  B* E 
  =  6    &     ! 
 F*F

 F*F
  !  
    
    F*F!
 F*F 

  

 6/ 37  
 MHM     

          KHP
KHH
     
     
 
 


    
  "    
 '  

   
 D    & 

  


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  &

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  !
      
 
      

  
  


    

    
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 !     
 

    / I+  $  I  


    !

OM
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Screen
1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 07  &F  BC
3
10 2 15.0
m [mg/cm ] db [mm]
b

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Screen

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 07  &,  BF>FC
  8
    
  
7  
  
  * (  **@

OJ
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Screen
1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 07  &1  BC
3
10 2 15.0
m [mg/cm ] db [mm]
b

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Screen

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 07  &  BF>FC
  8
    
  
7  
  
  * (  *

ON
  (!       
 /

 
  1  7  

  
   
  
  
  8  !  
 &   
       &     

   "   #PH   &    


 
   
       "         &  
   !     ) +HO  D    &  


    
     "   #PI    
   &     

  
         
  
   

  

 
 ) +HL        
     +M 8        
  

    &  &  


        
   
   
      

       PLM

   
 ) +IP    
 
 6+IP6 7
+IP677

      &

6+IP67
+H+6
77  "    D    6"  
#PI7
  
 6"   #P+7

3" _SW #PH #PI #PK #P+


* 
 _ UW KKI KNL KM+ +JL
* 
 _ UW 
 INI I+M K++
  8
     
  

  

 
    
 /      B



OO
  G   
 /  7    B*  E D
B3F  E 

x [cm]

600

Vertical diffuser
500

400

300

200

100 no data

D01 D02 D03 D04 t [s]


-
- 120 240 360 480 600 720 840
  8
     7   

  
 /   

OL
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm] z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s] u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 07   BF   07   B>* 
B+F D  BF+F E  B*3,, D  B>> E 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm] z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s] u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 07  F BF   07  F B>* 
B*F+ D  B1* E  B*F1* D  B,FF E 
 
 =  6         !  
 F

 F
  !   
 
    
 / 2  F!
 F 

             &     

   
  !    
   

 
     
     


"   #PI  D    
)       &
 6V+IP  7   

   
   
  

  

        &
   +J  
 
#  
    
    
      & 
       
  #  * 
   
    
   
      LM   

 6   
 
     !
7  
    
      &
 
   
 HUIP
HUHP          !"     
   
         
    M 

LP
0 
  
3" #    #  #  ?# 
_SW _ UW _ U W _ W _ UW _ UW _SW _ W
    

#PH KOI IK+ LI+ KLNK HNH PHP HIJN


#PI IHP NP L+I +JMK IKP PPM IOO
#PK ION HKI HI+I MK+H IKP PPM NHK
#P+ KPL HMK HP+L M+JM IOM PPJ MJK
  &

     
 /
 !   

HPR        +J 


         D  
     &   !    ?*    
 0

8  6HLLH7        &  "   #PI    

   ! 
  !  
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      &
    &
  / 3 "    &    
 +M  

  '  


    
 D    &



    


  &   D   &


  & ) +II             
  
         
&       
&        
  
    !
 
      
        !
  

   

         !  
  !
          D  
 !    &
 
 
     
  
#    &
      
     
 !     
         
) +IK6 7
+IK67             &

 
  
    
    
  
 

       !


 !
  !
   
   
   "
         
  
  
* 
 
* 
              
 * 
  
  
  
  
  

 ) +I+ 8     ) +I+           

LH
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Diffuser
1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 07    BC
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Diffuser

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 07  F  BF>FC
 
 8
    
  
7  
  
  * 

LI
 

(!        /



 
  *  7  0F

LK
 07  0*  BF>FC

 07  0F  BC


 
9 
  ! 

  
    0
7  

              



 
 
  
            " "
 
  ! 
    
&       
    
    

   D    !  
   
&    "   3PI     & 
      
    
    
   +N
        
   
   
      

       PLM

   
 ) +IM    
 
 6+IM6 7
+IM677   
      
&

 6+IM67
+IM6
77  "    D   
6"   3PK7
  
 6"   3PH7
  &     
        !  
 
   
    
 

3" _SW 3PH 3PI 3PK 3P+


* 
  _ UW +LK +MJ KJ+ +HL
* 
  _ UW K+H 
 IIP IKM
* 
  _ UW H+J 
 
 

  8
     
  
 
 

  
      2 




    !  
     0  B



L+
x [cm]

600

Inclined diffuser
500

400

300

200

100 no data
reflection

E01 E02 E03 E04 t [s]


-
- 120 240 360 480 600 720 840
 
8
       0

 

 

     

 
"   
      
      
  

  )       &


 6VKIP  7 
  
   
   
  

  
         
&      +O
      
      &
 
  
  HUH+
HUN 8        !"     
   
         
   
N  HIR        +O 
        
  D        &   !    
   &  "   3PH        "   3PI
 &     
   
 
       
              &      
 
    "        "   3PH

0 
  
3" #  (  #  #  ?#   ? 
_SW _ UW _ U W _ W _ UW _ UW _SW
    
_SW _ W
3PH KLK ILP LMK MP+H IJN PPO HPL HPKN
3PI MLL JNK LKI +KK+ IPI PH+ KK+ KHHK
3PK KOJ INL LHN +PLL HOK PPL HMI HKLO
3P+ KJP I+K HPML +ONH II+ PPN HPL HHMP
  &

      /
 !   

LM
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 07  0* B,   07  0* B>* 
B+1, D  B1+ E  B* D  B,*+ E 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 07  0, B,   07  0, B>* 
B+*3 D  BFF3 E  B**@ D  B@ E 
 
=  6    0     ! 
 F1

 F1
  !  
    
     / 2  F1!

 F1 

LJ
3P+
  HM  "   3PK  &  "   3PI   
 
  



   "   3PK  D   

3PI    


    ) +IJ )  "  
  
   
   


  
   
    "  
   

   
       

  

    
 / # 

   
   

  
    "   
  

       "   3PH
 "       "     
  


   
 8
" 8+    IKM

%' *.   (# 


     "     
       

   !  "      
    
      
 / K+M  
  
    
          KHI
 
       
     
   
 
   


  !     

    !  
!

       
   
     

 G
) ] 6HLLO7  
"

      
    !  

 
             "  
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D  "  KS+  
  
  "   )PI    !"   HM    

 "              

           
     

 

   
  "       
'  
    
    D  

      

      !  "  
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'  
    
      
  

 !
   
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   #-"    

6 Velocity profiles
0.90 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.20

A01-A09
A10 (S=0)
62 Electrodes
6.85

  07 


  I    5   
   
6 

3" ' % 2 % 2   "


_SW _RW _ $W

_U% W _ $W _U% W _RW _%? W
  
_%?W
8PH +J+ HKP PLLLK HPO HPP+P K+NN PP+JK PPPPLJ
8PI +J+ HPI PLLLO HHK HPPKH IKOI PPKHJ PPPPNM
8PK +J+ OL PLLLL HP+ HPP+J K+OJ PP+JI PPPPNI
8P+ +J+ OO PLLLL HHK HPPIN IPJJ PPIN+ PPPPOM
8PM +J+ HKI PLLL+ HPK HPPMJ +JKP PPJHJ PPPHKN
8PJ +J+ LP PLLLO HPO HPPKK IJHP PPKMK PPPPOJ
8PN +J+ HIH PLLLM HHP HPP+H K++O PP+ML PPPPMP
8PO +J+ HPK PLLLN HHO HPPKL KHPM PP+HI PPPPJK
8PL +J+ HPM PLLLM HHP HPPMN +MM+ PPJPJ PPPPNH
8HP HIL PLLLM HII HPP+P KKNH PP++L PPPPNK
  07 
 

  5   

HLK
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B1   B>* 
 
= 
   6  7  5

HL+
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP LPN JI+ IPM OMH HKJ PIK
IIP HPMO JI+ I+J LPH H++ PIK
KIP HPOM MLI I+J OLI HMH PIK
+IP HKIH MJP IPM OML HMK PHJ
MIP HKPI +LN IPM NNK HMJ PHJ
JHP HKKK MKK KJL NJI H+K PIO
 
' 
 

 
7  
  7  5

3
10 15.0
m [mg/cm2] db [mm]
b

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15
10
20
30
40
50

60
70
80

90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160

t [s] x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
  8
      7  5
 

7      * 

HLM
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B1   B>* 
  = 
   6  7  5,

HLJ
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP HPPM MJP HJ+ OK+ H+L PHJ
IIP HPJP MOM HJ+ LP+ HMM PHM
KIP HPHM JP+ HJ+ LPN HMP PHJ
+IP LNL JPP HJ+ OOL H+O PHN
MIP HHMP MMN IPM OHO H+N PHO
JHP HHOP MJH IPM NOJ H+P PHN
  ' 
 

 
7  
  7  5,

3
10 15.0
m [mg/cm2] db [mm]
b

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15
20

30
40
50

60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130

t [s] x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
  8
      7  5,
 

7      * 

HLN
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B1   B>* 
  = 
   6  7  5F

HLO
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP LPI JMH IPM ONM HK+ PIK
IIP HPIJ JIM IPM OOI H+H PIP
KIP HPLK MOI I+J ONK HMP PIK
+IP HIIK MJ+ HJ+ OL+ HML PHK
MIP HH+N MNH IPM OM+ HMP PHO
JHP HHOM MNL IPM OIH H+I PHN
  ' 
 

 
7  
  7  5F

3
10 15.0
m [mg/cm2] db [mm]
b

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15
20
30
40
50
60

70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140

t [s] x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
  8
      7  5F
 

7      * 

HLL
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B1   B>* 
  = 
   6  7  5>

IPP
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP LKP JJL HIK ONO HKH PHK
IIP LOH JNH HJ+ LHO HKN PHN
KIP HPJN JI+ IPM LHH H+J PHL
+IP HPPJ JMJ HJ+ L+H H+K PHJ
MIP HKPP JPH IPM LKI HMM PHJ
JHP HIOJ MLL IPM LPI HMH PHJ
  ' 
 

 
7  
  7  5>

3
10 15.0
m [mg/cm2] db [mm]
b

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

110
120
130

t [s] x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
  8
      7  5>
 

7      * 

IPH
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B1   B>* 
  = 
   6  7  53

IPI
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP JNH +JO HOH J++ HKO PIN
IIP JON +NI HOH JOI H++ PIJ
KIP L+K +PJ I+H JIP HMK PIJ
+IP HPNO KJI HOH M+M HMH PHN
MIP HI+O KMO KPI MH+ H++ PI+
JHP HJKO ILM I+H +JN HMO PHM
  ' 
 

 
7  
  7  53

3
10 15.0
m [mg/cm2] db [mm]
b

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170

t [s] x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
  8
      7  53

 
7      * 

IPK
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B1   B>* 
 
= 
   6  7  5@

IP+
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP O+K M+K I+H NML H+P PIL
IIP L+M MHN HOH NNM HMP PHL
KIP HHKN +MH I+H NHL HML PIH
+IP HIPO +MI I+H JLL HMM PIP
MIP HILI +H+ HOH JIP HMP PH+
JHP HMHH KJJ HOH M+N H+L PHI
  ' 
 

 
7  
  7  5@

3
10 15.0
m [mg/cm2] db [mm]
b

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15
30
40
50
60
70

80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170

t [s] x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
  8
      7  5@

 
7      * 

IPM
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B1   B>* 
  = 
   6  7  5+

IPJ
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP OPL J+M I+H OLJ HKL PKP
IIP O+N JIM HOH LHH H+J PIH
KIP LLN M+O HOH OKO HMK PHO
+IP HHI+ MIO HOH OKP HMN PHJ
MIP HHLM MHH I+H N+N H+J PIP
JHP HKOI +NL I+H JOI H+I PHN
  ' 
 

 
7  
  7  5+

IPN
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B, 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B1   B>* 
  = 
   6  7  5*

IPO
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP LMO M+I I+J NMH HKL PIJ
IIP LN+ MPK KPO JLP HKN PKI
KIP LJL +NP KPO JMN H+P PKI
+IP 
 
 
 
 
 

MIP HP+P +HJ HOM MOI H+P PHO
JHP HPNN KLL KPO MJ+ H+H PIL
  ' 
 

 
7  
  7  5*

3
10 15.0
m [mg/cm2] db [mm]
b

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
180
170

t [s] x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
  8
      7  5*

 
7      * 

IPL
IHP
 "#$   #

4 Velocity profiles
3.00 1.00 1.00 1.20

Solid B04+B05
Obstacle
B01-B03 (S=0)
5.00
62 Electrodes

  07 


  I    ?   
   
6 

3" ' % 2 % 2   
"
_SW _RW _ $W _U% W _ $W _U% W _RW _%?W
 
_%?W
PH HKI PLLLJ HHN HPPKH IMNP PPK+I PPPPNK
PI HI+ PLLLJ HH+ HPPII HLHK PPIM+ PPPPOP
PK HHL PLLLN HKK HPPKP I+KI PPKIK PPPPNH
P+ +J+ HHO PLLLJ HIP HPPKH IJH+ PPK+N PPPPMJ
PM +J+ HHJ PLLLJ HKJ HPPKI IJKN PPKMP PPPPOK
  07 
 

  ?   

IHH
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u[cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   B> 
  = 
   6  7  ?*

IHI
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP OOJ +MK HOM MO+ HIL PIH
IIP LOO MHI HOM JJ+ HKP PHL
KIP HI+P +KO KPO JHN H+H PIM
JIP HIJO HOP I+J INN HM+ PHL
  ' 
 

 
7  
  7  ?*

3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Obstacle

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
  8
      7  ?*

 
7      * 

IHK
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u[cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B   B> 
 
 = 
   6  7  ?

IH+
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP 
 
 
 
 
 

IIP HIIM KOL I+J MIN HKM PIP
KIP 
 
 
 
 
 

JIP H+P+ IPJ KPN I+J HHL PII
 
' 
 

 
7  
  7  ?

3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Obstacle

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 
 8
      7  ?

 
7      * 

IHM
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u[cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   B> 
 

= 
   6  7  ?,

IHJ
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP LIN KN+ KPO +LH HKH PKK
IIP LOI +HM I+J MMJ HK+ PIM
KIP HHJO KMM I+J MPM H+I PIH
JIP IHI+ H+K I+J IIM HMN PHI
  ' 
 

 
7  
  7  ?,

3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Obstacle

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 
8
      7  ?,

 
7      * 

IHN
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u[cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   B> 
 
= 
   6  7  ?F

IHO
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP JOI +OK HOH JJL HKL PIN
IIP NNK +M+ HOH JNM H+L PIK
KIP ONI KLI HOH MOL HMP PIH
JIP H+JO I+O KPI K+L H+H PIH
  ' 
 

 
7  
  7  ?F

3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Obstacle

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 
8
      7  ?F

 
7      * 

IHL
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u[cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   B> 
 
 = 
   6  7  ?1

IIP
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP NOJ MLI I+H NLI HK+ PKH
IIP LHN MLK I+H O+M H+I PIJ
KIP L+N MJL HOH OKO H+N PHL
JIP H+PP KJL KJI MIJ H+K PIJ
  ' 
 

 
7  
  7  ?1

3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Obstacle

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 
 8
      7  ?1

 
7      * 

IIH
III
 "#$   


5 Velocity profiles
1.35 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.20

Screen C01-C03

C04+C05 (S=0)
5.05
62 Electrodes

 
 07 
  I    &   
   
6 

3" ' % 2 % 2   "


_SW _RW _ $W

_U% W _ $W _U% W _RW _%? W
  
_%?W
$PH +J+ HIM PLLL+ HHO HPP+H K+KN PP+MN PPPPNL
$PI +J+ HHI PLLLM HHH HPP+L KLMJ PPMIJ PPPPNP
$PK +J+ HHI PLLLM HPM HPP+P KILI PP+KO PPPPJO
$P+ HPL PLLLN HHP HPPIL IKLM PPKHO PPPPJK
$PM HHO PLLLN HHP HPPKP I+M+ PPKIJ PPPPJO
  07 
 

  &   

IIK
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B111 
 
 = 
   6  7  &*

II+
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP NK+ MJN HOH N+K HKH PIM
IIP OHL MOP HOH OHP H+P PII
KIP LNJ MJP I+H OIP H+J PIM
+IP HHI+ MPO I+H NKH H++ PIH
MMM HKIK HPN HOH HJO HMN PH+
  ' 
 

 
7  
  7  &*

3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Screen

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
   8
      7  &*

 
7      * 

IIM
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   B111 
   = 
   6  7  &

IIJ
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP J+K MNJ HOH NNO HKM PIO
IIP NML M+I I+H NJO H+I PKI
KIP OOI MKK HOH NLN HMP PIH
+IP 
 
 
 
 
 

MMM LJH IJL I+H KNO H+H PIM
  ' 
 

 
7  
  7  &

3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Screen

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 
8
      7  &

 
7      * 

IIN
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B111 
  = 
   6  7  &,

IIO
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP NHP MKN HOH NKL HKO PIM
IIP NOP MKL HOH NNI H+K PIK
KIP ONJ MPM HOH NNH HMK PIH
+IP OKM ++K HOH JKO H++ PII
MMM HHJN KPN KPI +II HKN PIJ
  ' 
 

 
7  
  7  &,

3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Screen

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
  8
      7  &,

 
7      * 

IIL
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B111 
  = 
   6  7  &F

IKP
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP NLJ +MJ IMP JPL HK+ PKH
IIP OJM +KN IMP JHP H+P PIL
KIP HPHO KLH IMP MJJ H+M PIM
+IP HH+P K+L IMP MIK HMP PII
MMM HIJK IPH IMP KIJ HJI PIP
 
 ' 
 

 
7  
  7  &F

3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Screen

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
   8
      7  &F

 
7      * 

IKH
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B111 
   = 
   6  7  &1

IKI
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP NO+ +LN HON JJI HKK PI+
IIP LJL +JI KN+ JMI H+H PKL
KIP LJI +++ HON JIP H+P PHL
+IP H+OK KOH IMP JPK HMO PHN
MMM LOJ HMN KHI IKK H+O PKI
 
 ' 
 

 
7  
  7  &1

3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Screen

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
   8
      7  &1

 
7      * 

IKK
IK+
% "#$   # # &

5 Velocity profiles
0.95 0.95 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.20

Injection
nozzle
5.15
62 Electrodes

   07 


  I    
 0   
 
  6 

3" ' % 2 % 2   "


_SW _RW _ $W
_U% W _ $W _U% W _RW _%? W
  
_%?W
#PH HIN PLLLJ HIP HPPKK INJL PPKJO PPPPJJ
#PI HIJ PLLL+ HHI HPPKI INJM PPKJO PPPPNK
#PK HIH PLLLM HHI HPPI+ IH+N PPIOJ PPPPN+
#P+ +J+ HI+ PLLLM HHL HPPKK IOHO PPKNM PPPPOH
3PH +J+ HKJ PLLLI HII HPPKK ILLP PPKLL PPPPNO
3PI +J+ HKI PLLLK HHJ HPPKP INOM PPKNH PPPPJJ
3PK HKK PLLL+ HIJ HPPKK IOLP PPKOM PPPPNI
3P+ HPL PLLLM HHH HPPKK INLP PPKNH PPPPNJ
 

07 
 

  
 0   

IKM
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   BF 
   = 
   6  7  *

IKJ
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP OPK +LH IMP JJ+ HKM PKH
IIP LHH +LN KHI JLN H+P PK+
KIP LJ+ +IP IMP JPK H++ PIJ
+IP LI+ +KP IMP MLM HKO PIN
JHP 
 
 
 
 
 

 
' 
 

 
7  
  7  *

3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Diffuser

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
   8
      7  *

 
7      * 

IKN
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B>* 
 
= 
   6  7  

IKO
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP NLH MPH HON JJM HKK PI+
IIP OOM +L+ IMP JJL HKM PIO
KIP LNI +OJ KHI JNJ HKL PKI
+IP L+I +L+ IMP JO+ HKO PIN
JHP HNKK IJJ +KN K+H HIO PIM
 
' 
 

 
7  
  7  

3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Diffuser

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
  8
      7  

 
7      * 

IKL
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B>* 
  = 
   6  7  ,

I+P
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP LHN +N+ IMP JKK HK+ PIN
IIP HPKI +JO KHI JKP HKM PKP
KIP HHPN +ML IMP JIN HKN PIK
+IP HI+I +KP KHI JHM H+K PIM
JHP HLPO IIM +LL INJ HIK PIJ
 
' 
 

 
7  
  7  ,

I+H
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B>* 
  = 
   6  7  F

I+I
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP NML J+M I+M ONI HKM PKI
IIP OMJ MLN I+M O+M H+I PIL
KIP LHP MLL HO+ OOK H+N PIP
+IP HP+L MIH HO+ NLH HMI PHO
JHP H+MH K++ +IL +KI HIJ PKP
 
 ' 
 

 
7  
  7  F

3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Diffuser

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
   8
      7  F

 
7      * 

I+K
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B>* 
   = 
   6  7  0*

I++
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP NN+ MOM HO+ OP+ HKN PI+
IIP LPL M+I I+M OPH H+O PIN
KIP LMK MIL HO+ NLM HMP PHL
+IP LMO +JI I+M JJP H+K PIJ
JHP IHPP KHL I+M +PJ HIN PHI
 
 ' 
 

 
7  
  7  0*

3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Diffuser

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
   8
      7  0*

 
7      * 

I+M
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B, 
   = 
   6  7  0

I+J
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP NML MO+ I+M OI+ H+H PKI
IIP NOM M+J HO+ OHN HMP PIK
KIP LKI +JM HII NPK HMH PHK
+IP 
 
 
 
 
 

JHP 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 ' 
 

 
7  
  7  0

3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Diffuser

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
   8
      7  0

 
7      * 

I+N
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u[cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   B>* 
   = 
   6  7  0,

I+O
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP OOO +MN IMP ML+ HKP PIO
IIP OJN +LI HON JMH HKI PII
KIP LHN ++N IMP JPH HK+ PIN
+IP 
 
 
 
 
 

JHP IHHO IIO KN+ ILL HKH PHO
 
 ' 
 

 
7  
  7  0,

3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Diffuser

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 
8
      7  0,

 
7      * 

I+L
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u[cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   B>* 
  = 
   6  7  0F

IMP
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP OHK MPH HON JJP HKI PIK
IIP LOP +OO IMP JJP HKM PIJ
KIP HPML +JP IMP J+I H+P PI+
+IP 
 
 
 
 
 

JHP IPOO HOL IMP I+N HKH PHI
   ' 
 

 
7  
  7  0F

IMH
IMI
' "#$    (# 

5 Velocity profiles
0.95 0.95 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.20

Injection
nozzle
5.15
62 Electrodes

  07 


  I    -   
   
6 

3" ' % 2 % 2   " 

_SW _RW _ $W _U%W _ $W _U%W _RW _%?W _%?W


)PH LO PLLLM HPO HPPK+ IO+H PPKNO PPPPNP


)PI HHO PLLLJ HIH HPPK+ INLI PPKNH PPPPOP
   07 
 

  -   

IMK
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u[cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 B,   B>* 
  = 
   6  7  -

IM+
  *   *  *  ?*   ?
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW _SW _SW
HIP O+M MKP IMP JLP HKP PKP
IIP LJK MII KHI JLL HK+ PKI
KIP LJH MHM KHH NPM HKN PKI
JHP HMPH KHP KHH +HO HKM PIH
 
' 
 

 
7  
  7  -

3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
Bubble curtain
t [10 s]

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
   8
      7  -

 
7      * 

IMM
IMJ
"  '   %&' 
 +  

(   #-"    

6 Velocity profiles
0.90 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.20

A07-A09

6.85

  07 


  I    5   
   
6 

3" ' % 2 % 2   "


 _RW _ $W _U% W _ $W _U% W _RW _%? W _%?W
  

8PN +J+ HIH PLLLM HHP HPP+H K++O PP+ML PPPPMP


8PO +J+ HPK PLLLN HHO HPPKL KHPM PP+HI PPPPJK
8PL +J+ HPM PLLLM HHP HPPMN +MM+ PPJPJ PPPPNH
  07 
 

  5   

IMN
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
k [cm /s ] / s [%]
c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B1   B>* 
 
= 
 6           

        
  

 
 ! "     
     
7  53
IMO
; 
  $ 
 
  *   *  *  ?*  * *  *  ?*  $
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW  _ W _ UW _ UW  _RW 
HIP JNH +JO HOH J++ HKO JPI 6HP7 +OM 6+7 NPO 6HP7 H+J 6J7 H+MO PMP
IIP JON +NI HOH JOI H++ OPK 6HN7 +++ 6J7 JMN 6+7 H+O 6I7 PLPK P+L
KIP L+K +PJ I+H JIP HMK LLN 6J7 +HM 6I7 JPJ 6I7 H+J 6+7 PJIJ P+O
+IP HPNO KJI HOH M+M HMH HHNH 6L7 KL+ 6L7 MOJ 6O7 H+L 6H7 P+NJ P+O
MIP HI+O KMO KPI MH+ H++ HK+M 6O7 KNO 6J7 MJP 6L7 H+O 6K7 PKNN P+N
JHP HJKO ILM I+H +JN HMO H+OO 6L7 KJN 6I+7 MKM 6HM7 H+J 6O7 PKHL P+N
 
&
   

    
 
  7  53

IML
3
10 15.0
m [mg/cm2] db [mm]
b

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
t [s] x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 8
     
3
10 15.0

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170

t [s] x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 &      
  &
   

      
     7  53

IJP
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
d
16
d50
d
84

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
     "   
   
 

   7  53 B*3 

IJH
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
k [cm /s ] / s [%]
c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B1   B>* 
  = 
 6           

        
  

 
 ! "     
     
7  5@
IJI
; 
  $ 
 
  *   *  *  ?*  * *  *  ?*  $
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW  _ W _ UW _ UW  _RW 
HIP O+K M+K I+H NML H+P JMO 6II7 MIL 6K7 N+J 6I7 H+H 6H7 HMHI P+N
IIP L+M MHN HOH NNM HMP OMI 6HP7 +LH 6M7 NHI 6O7 H+M 6K7 PLON P+J
KIP HHKN +MH I+H NHL HML HP++ 6O7 +JH 6I7 JNL 6J7 H+N 6O7 PNPP P+J
+IP HIPO +MI I+H JLL HMM HIPK 6P7 +KL 6K7 J+L 6N7 H+O 6+7 PMMP P+J
MIP HILI +H+ HOH JIP HMP HKOK 6N7 +IH 6I7 JHO 6P7 H+N 6I7 P+KO P+M
JHP HMHH KJJ HOH M+N H+L HM+I 6I7 +PO 6HH7 MLL 6HP7 H+N 6I7 PKJO P+M
  &
   

    
 

 
7  
  7  5@

IJK
3
10 15.0
m [mg/cm2] db [mm]
b

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15
30
40
50
60
70

80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
t [s] x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 8
     
3
10 15.0

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170

t [s] x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 &      
  &
   

      
     7  5@

IJ+
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
d
16
d50
d
84

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
     "   
   
 

   7  5@ B*3 

IJM
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
k [cm /s ] / s [%]
c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B1   B>* 
  = 
 6           

        
  

 
 ! "     
     
7  5+
IJJ
; 
  $ 
 
  *   *  *  ?*  * *  *  ?*  $
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW  _ W _ UW _ UW  _RW 
HIP OPL J+M I+H OLJ HKL JHI 6I+7 JKO 6H7 OLO 6P7 H+H 6H7 IKHH P+J
IIP O+N JIM HOH LHH H+J NLH 6N7 MLN 6+7 ON+ 6+7 H+J 6P7 HM++ P+M
KIP LLN M+O HOH OKO HMK LJJ 6K7 MJ+ 6K7 OIH 6I7 H+J 6M7 HHHL P+M
+IP HHI+ MIO HOH OKP HMN HHHL 6P7 MKL 6I7 NLO 6+7 H+O 6J7 POOP P+M
MIP HHLM MHH I+H N+N H+J HILP 6O7 MHL 6I7 NN+ 6+7 H+L 6I7 PJLL P++
JHP HKOI +NL I+H JOI H+I H+IN 6K7 MP+ 6M7 N+I 6L7 H+N 6K7 PMLM P++
  &
   

    
 

 
7  
  7  5+

IJN
3
10 15.0

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15
10

20

30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
t [s] x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
  &       7  5+

3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
d
16
d
50
d
84

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
     "   
   
 

   7  5+ B*F 

IJO
( "#$   #

4 Velocity profiles
3.00 1.00 1.00 1.20

Solid B05
Obstacle
B03 (S=0)
5.00
6.86

  07 


  I    ?   
   
6 

3" ' % 2 % 2   "


 _RW _ $W _U%W _ $W _U%W _RW _%?W _%?W

PK HHL PLLLN HKK HPPKP I+KI PPKIK PPPPNH


PM +J+ HHJ PLLLJ HKJ HPPKI IJKN PPKMP PPPPOK
  07 
 

  ?   

IJL
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u[cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
k [cm /s ] / s [%]
c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B,   B> 
 
= 
 6           

        
  

 
 ! "     
     
7  ?,

INP
; 
  $ 
 
  *   *  *  ?*  * *  *  ?*  $
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW  _ W _ UW _ UW  _RW 
HIP LIN KN+ KPO +LH HKH OII 6HH7 KLO 6J7 M+K 6HH7 HKJ 6+7 H+OJ HPI
IIP LOI +HM I+J MMJ HK+ LO+ 6P7 KMP 6HJ7 MPM 6L7 H++ 6O7 HPON HHJ
KIP HHJO KMM I+J MPM H+I HPL+ 6J7 KHO 6HP7 +JM 6O7 H+J 6K7 POHL HHO
JIP IHI+ H+K I+J IIM HMN KMKJ 6JJ7 PNK 6+L7 HMI 6KI7 IPO 6KI7 PP+I KJL
  &
   

    
 

 
7  
  7  ?,

INH
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Obstacle
1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 8
     
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
Obstacle

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 &      
  &
   

      
     7  ?,

INI
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
d
16
d50
d
84

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
     "   
   
 

   7  ?, B1F 

INK
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u[cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
k [cm /s ] / s [%]
c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B,   B> 
  = 
 6           

        
  

 
 ! "     
     
7  ?1

IN+
; 
  $ 
 
  *   *  *  ?*  * *  *  ?*  $
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW  _ W _ UW _ UW  _RW 
HIP NOJ MLI I+H NLI HK+ NJL 6I7 MNN 6K7 OHI 6K7 H+H 6M7 H+++ P++
IIP LHN MLK I+H O+M H+I LMP 6+7 M+J 6O7 OPP 6M7 H+N 6K7 HPIP P+K
KIP L+N MJL HOH OKO H+N HHKK 6IP7 MHN 6L7 NJN 6O7 H+O 6H7 PNJM P+K
JIP H+PP KJL KJI MIJ H+K HKNI 6I7 +IL 6HJ7 JKJ 6IH7 H+O 6+7 PK+L PK+
  &
   

    
 

 
7  
  7  ?1

INM
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Obstacle
1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 8
     
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
Obstacle

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 &      
  &
   

      
     7  ?1

INJ
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
d
16
d50
d
84

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
     "   
   
 

   7  ?1 B,> 

INN
INO
( "#$   


5 Velocity profiles
1.35 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.20

Screen C03
C04 (S=0)
5.05
6.85

  07 


  I    &   
   
6 

3" ' % 2 % 2   "


 _RW _ $W _U% W _ $W _U% W _RW _%? W _%?W
  

$PK +J+ HHI PLLLM HPM HPP+P KILI PP+KO PPPPJO


$P+ HPL PLLLN HHP HPPKK IJJO PPKM+ PPPPJM
  07 
 

  &   

INL
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4
 B111 
  = 
 6           

        
  

 
 ! "     
     
7  &,
IOP
; 
  $ 
 
  *   *  *  ?*  * *  *  ?*  $
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW  _ W _ UW _ UW  _RW 
HIP NHP MKN HOH NKL HKO JMO 6N7 MJJ 6M7 OPP 6O7 H+H 6K7 HJJN P+M
IIP NOP MKL HOH NNI H+K O++ 6O7 MIO 6I7 NON 6I7 H+L 6+7 HHHH P+M
KIP ONJ MPM HOH NNH HMK HPIH 6HN7 +LJ 6I7 NKN 6+7 H+L 6K7 POHH P+M
+IP OKM ++K HOH JKO H++ HHHP 6KK7 +NP 6J7 JJP 6K7 H+P 6I7 PJLH P+J
MMM HHJN KPN KPI +II HKN HPIL 6HI7 KKL 6HP7 +++ 6M7 HKH 6M7 PMKL PJ+
  &
   

    
 

 
7  
  7  &,

IOH
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Screen
1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 8
     
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
Screen

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 &      
 
 &
   

      
     7  &,

IOI
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
d
16
d50
d
84

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 
    "   
   
 

   7  &, B1 

IOK
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4
 B111 
 

= 
 6           

        
  

 
 ! "     
     
7  &F
IO+
; 
  $ 
 
  *   *  *  ?*  * *  *  ?*  $
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW  _ W _ UW _ UW  _RW 
HIP NLJ +MJ IMP JPL HK+ NJO 6+7 KLH 6H+7 MKP 6HK7 HKJ 6H7 HMNL HPM
IIP OJM +KN IMP JHP H+P L+I 6L7 K+H 6II7 +NI 6IK7 HKO 6H7 HHH+ HIP
KIP HPHO KLH IMP MJJ H+M HPNJ 6J7 KPH 6IK7 +KM 6IK7 H+M 6P7 PNNH HII
+IP HH+P K+L IMP MIK HMP HHI+ 6H7 INK 6II7 KLL 6I+7 H+J 6I7 PJIN HIM
MMM HIJK IPH IMP KIJ HJI LKL 6IJ7 HJ+ 6HO7 IHM 6K+7 HKH 6HL7 P+IL HLL
  &
   

    
 

 
7  
  7  &F

IOM
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Screen
1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 8
     
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
Screen

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 &      
 
&
   

      
     7  &F

IOJ
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
d
16
d50
d
84

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 
   "   
   
 

   7  &F B1@ 

ION
IOO
(% "#$   &  .

5 Velocity profiles
0.95 0.95 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.20

Injection D04/E01
nozzle
D02/E03 (S=0)
5.15
6.85

 
07 
  I    
 0   
 
  6 

3" ' % 2 % 2   "


 _RW _ $W _U% W _ $W _U% W _RW _%?W _%?W
 

#PI HIJ PLLL+ HHI HPPKI INJM PPKJO PPPPNK


#P+ +J+ HI+ PLLLM HHL HPPKK IOHO PPKNM PPPPOH
3PH +J+ HKJ PLLLI HII HPPKK ILLP PPKLL PPPPNO
3PK HKK PLLL+ HIJ HPPKK IOLP PPKOM PPPPNI
  07 
 

  
 0   

IOL
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4
 B>* 
 
 = 
 6           

        
  

 
 ! "     
     
7  &
ILP
; 
  $ 
 
  *   *  *  ?*  * *  *  ?*  $
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW  _ W _ UW _ UW  _RW 
HIP NLH MPH HON JJM HKK OPO 6I7 +HL 6HJ7 MNK 6H+7 HKN 6K7 HNPH HP+
IIP OOM +L+ IMP JJL HKM LN+ 6HP7 KJL 6IM7 MKK 6IP7 H++ 6N7 HIMI HHL
KIP LNI +OJ KHI JNJ HKL HHKL 6HN7 KKP 6KI7 +LH 6IN7 H+L 6N7 PLIO HIL
+IP L+I +L+ IMP JO+ HKO 
 IJL 6+J7 +JP 6KK7 HNH 6I+7 PJHP HLH
JHP HNKK IJJ +KN K+H HIO HKPM 6IM7 KHH 6HN7 +KO 6IO7 H+H 6HP7 P+OJ PON
 
&
   

    
 

 
7  
  7  

ILH
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Diffuser
1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 8
     
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
Diffuser

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 &      
 
 &
   

      
     7      



ILI
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
d
16
d50
d
84

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 
    "   
   
 

   7   B1, 

ILK
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4
 B>* 
 
 = 
 6           

        
  

 
 ! "     
     
7  F
IL+
; 
  $ 
 
  *   *  *  ?*  * *  *  ?*  $
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW  _ W _ UW _ UW  _RW 
HIP NML J+M I+M ONI HKM NMJ 6P7 MOI 6HP7 OIP 6J7 H+H 6+7 HMHJ P+M
IIP OMJ MLN I+M O+M H+I LKJ 6L7 MMI 6O7 OHP 6+7 H+N 6+7 HPJ+ P+K
KIP LHP MLL HO+ OOK H+N HHIN 6I+7 MIH 6HK7 NNN 6HI7 H+L 6H7 PNLH P++
+IP HP+L MIH HO+ NLH HMI HKPP 6I+7 +LJ 6M7 N+H 6J7 H+L 6I7 PJHO P+K
JHP H+MH K++ +IL +KI HIJ HNML 6IH7 +MK 6KI7 JHM 6+I7 HKJ 6O7 P+KH P+L
  &
   

    
 

 
7  
  7  F

ILM
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Diffuser
1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 8
     
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
Diffuser

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 &      
   &
   

      
     7  F

ILJ
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
d
16
d50
d
84

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
      "   
   
 

   7  F BF1 

ILN
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 [cm/s]
u
0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B,   BF 
80 [cm]
z
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0 [cm/s]
u

-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4
 B>* 
 
= 
 6           

        
  

 
 ! "     
     
7  0*
ILO
; 
  $ 
 
  *   *  *  ?*  * *  *  ?*  $
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW  _ W _ UW _ UW  _RW 
HIP NN+ MOM HO+ OP+ HKN NIO 6J7 MOK 6P7 OIK 6I7 H+H 6K7 HMON P+M
IIP LPL M+I I+M OPH H+O LHK 6P7 MMP 6H7 OPK 6P7 H+J 6H7 HHPI P++
KIP LMK MIL HO+ NLM HMP HHPI 6HJ7 MHO 6I7 NNK 6K7 H+L 6H7 POH+ P+M
+IP LMO +JI I+M JJP H+K HNIK 6OP7 ++P 6M7 N+M 6HK7 HJL 6HL7 PMMH PJM
JHP IHPP KHL I+M +PJ HIN HNPN 6HL7 +KI 6KM7 MLN 6+N7 HKO 6L7 PKI+ P+P
  &
   

    
 

 
7  
  7  0*

ILL
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Diffuser
1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 8
     
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
Diffuser

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 &      
  &
   

      
     7  0*

KPP
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
d
16
d50
d
84

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
     "   
   
 

   7  0* BF 

KPH
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u[cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
[cm /s ] / s [%]
k c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B*   B 
80 [cm]
z
80 [cm]
z
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40
30 30
20 20
10 10
0 u [cm/s] 0 u [cm/s]
-2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14 -2 0 2 4 6 28 210 12 14
k [cm /s ] / s [%]
c [cm /s ] / s [%]
k c

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
 B,   B>* 
  = 
 6           

        
  

 
 ! "     
     
7  0,

KPI
; 
  $ 
 
  *   *  *  ?*  * *  *  ?*  $
 W _ W _ UW _ W _ UW  _ W _ UW _ UW  _RW 
HIP OOO +MN IMP ML+ HKP NLI 6HH7 +IH 6O7 MNJ 6K7 HKN 6M7 HNNM HPJ
IIP OJN +LI HON JMH HKI LJP 6HH7 KJL 6IM7 MKH 6HO7 H++ 6L7 HKPP HII
KIP LHN ++N IMP JPH HK+ H+MN 6ML7 ILJ 6K+7 MPM 6HJ7 HNH 6IN7 POIH HOI
JHP IHHO IIO KN+ ILL HKH IJPO 6IK7 HMK 6KK7 IIL 6IK7 HMP 6H+7 PPO+ HI+
  &
   

    
 

 
7  
  7  0,

KPK
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

Diffuser
1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 8
     
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
Diffuser

2
10 1.50
t [10 s]

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
 &      
   &
   

      
     7  0,

KP+
3
10 2 15.0
mb [mg/cm ] db [mm]
d
16
d50
d
84

2
10 1.50

1
10 0.15

x [cm]
- 100 200 300 400 500 600
      "   
   
 

   7  0, B1+ 

KPM
KPJ
       
 2  %  
4  555

KPN
           * E     
 

  @  F  

KPO
 
         * E     
 

  @  FF  

KPL
           * E     
 

  F@  >F  

KHP
           * E     
 

  >@  @F  

KHH
KHI
*       

 !    *

KHK
           * E     
 

  !

  @  F  

KH+
 
         * E     
 

  !

  @  FF  

KHM
           * E     
 

  !

  F@  >  

KHJ
           * E     
 

  !

  >@  @F  

KHN
Communications du Laboratoire de constructions hydrauliques
Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne
Editeur: Prof. R. Sinniger

N 1 1986 W. H. Hager
Discharge measurement structures
N 2 1988 N. V. Bretz
Ressaut hydraulique forc par seuil
N 3 1990 R. Bremen
Expanding stilling basin
N 4 1996 Dr R. Bremen
Ressaut hydraulique et bassins amortisseurs, aspects hydrauliques
particuliers
N 5 1997 Compte-rendu du sminaire l'EPFL
Recherche dans le domaine des barrages, crues extrmes

Communications du Laboratoire de constructions hydrauliques


Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne
Editeur: Prof. Dr A. Schleiss

N 6 1998 et suivants, voir verso page titre

2003 - LCH-Communication 15
Prof. Dr A. Schleiss
Laboratoire de constructions hydrauliques - LCH
EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne
http://lchwww.epfl.ch
e-mail: secretariat.lch@epfl.ch

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