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mgqk
msgq wxl
c,frdams; fyj;a mia rys; j.dj 01
c,frdams; j.df b;sydih 02
c,frdams; j.df uq,sl wjYH;djhka 03
jr.SlrKh 04
fmdaIl djK ;=, j.dj
djK ixirKh jk j.d l%u
fmdaIl mg, ;dCIKh 05
.eUqre fmdaIl Odrd ;dCIKh 06
djK ixirKh fkdjk j.d l%u
c,Sh udOHhl uq,a .s,ajQ j.d ;dCIKh 09
mdfjk ia:rhl j.d ;dCIKh 12
flaIdlrIl wjfYdaIK j.d ;dCIKh 13
>k udOHhl j.dj
isria f,i /|jQ j.d u ;dCIKh 14
;sria j.d u ;dCIKh 15
>k udOH msrjQ ldkq fyda md;a;s ;=< j.d ;dCIKh 16
nka ;=< j.dj 17
jdhj frdams; j.dj 18

c,frdams; j.dj i|yd ;jdka me< ieliSu 19

c,frdams; j.df fmdaIl ,ndu 23

mqyqKq lsu yd lmamdj 30

md,s; ;;aj hgf;a c,frdams; j.dj 32

j.djkays we;sh yels .eg yd tajd uyrjd .ekSu 32

c,frdams; j.df kv;a;= yd md,k wjYH;djhka 37

c,frdams; j.df jdis 39

iSudld idOl 39

c,frdams;j j.d l< yels fnda. 40

c,frdams; j.df wiajkq fk<su" fYa%.; lsu yd bm;a lsu 40

c,frdams; j.djka i|yd wjYH WmlrK 41


2
c,frdams; fyj;a mia lrk ,o mrfhaIK j, m%;sM,hla f,i c,frdams;
fyj;a mia rys; j.dj (Hydroponics/Soil-
rys; j.dj less culture) hqKq we;' f,dj mqrd m%p,s;
fjka mj;sk ldrhu nka je by, wiajkq
,ndfok fuu j.d l%u ms<sn| uQ,sl wjfndaOhla
,nd u fuu m%ldYkfha wruqK f'

c,frdams; fyj;a mia rys; j.djla hkqfjka


ykajkqfha Ydl-fmdaIl wvx.= c,Sh udOHhla
u.ska Ydl fmdaIKh islr ,nd .kakd j.djls'
ksrmdxY=l fnda. j.dj hkqfjka o ykajk fuu
j.d l%uh yhsfv%dfmdakslaia hk bx.%sis kdufhka
jvd;a m%p,s;h'
jd;h
fmdaIl ,ndu mia Nd;d fkdlr fjk;a ldnksl
c,h fyda wldnksl udOHh ;=<ska fyda lsis >k udOHhla
rys;j isl, yelsh ^2 jk rEmh&'
fmdaIl

1 jk rEmh ( mfiys jefvk me,hla

im%hsl lDIslrudka;fha" fnda. jrOkh i|yd


wjYH jk fmdaIl" c,h iy jd;h ,ndfok mi
^1 jk rEmh&" fkdfhla wjia:djkays j.dj i|yd
iSudld idOlhla njg m;af' iS>%fhka jejk
ck.ykh" kd.lrKh" ksrka;rj j.d lsfuka
yd mdxY= fida mdj fya;=fjka j.d ksire u"
mdxY= frda.ldrl q ka iy jgmkqjka jeu
iy wd,sl;djh yd ,jk;djh wys;lr f,i
2 jk rEmh( c, frdams; i,do j.djla
jrOkh u ksid j.dj i|yd iqiq m%udKh
wvqu fukau im%hdkql+, fnda. j.df wiajkq im%hsl lDIslruh yd ii|k g c,frdams;
m%udKd;aulj yd .=Kd;aulj wvq ugul mej;Su j.dfjka fndfyda jdis ,nd .; yel' fnda. jrOkh
tfia ug fya;=ldrl f' ioyd iSudld f,i n,mdk idOl wju lr m%Yia;
;;ajhka ,ndf yelshdj we;s neka by, wiajkq
mfiys j.d lsf u;=jk O iSudld idOl ,nd .ekSf Njh c,frdams;$mia rys; j.djka
uyeru ioyd Nd;d l, yels l,am l%u ms<n
s oj j, Wmu f' mdxY=ckl jHdldrlhka ksid
3
u;=jk frda. yd lD ydks u.yerug;a fuu l%u msms[a" flduvq iy fjk;a t<j j.djka i|yd
Nd;h bjy,a f' mdxY= jdkqyrKh" mdxY= ;;ajh hr ldnksl fmdfydr Nd;d l< hq.h olajd ys
je hqKq lsu" jeks ld,h yd Y%uh wl f,i hhs' nef,dakh
s df t,af,k Whk" weiafgla ys mdfjk
jeh jk ho l%u u.yrjd .ekSugo f u.ska f.dfmd, hkdh i;H f,iu c,frdams; j.djka
yelsf' foaY.=l n,mEfuka f;drj jir mqrd ys uQ,dorY (Prototypes) f,i yekah yelsh'
fjf<| fmd, b,lal lr .;a ksIamdok ls%hdj,shka
miq ld,Skj me<E fN!;fka mrfhaIK i|yd
jqjo fuu.ska ie<iq lsf yelshdj we;' ;jo
fYaI;
s fmdaIl Nd;d lr me<E jrOkh wOHhkh
lDIs ridhk Nd;h wju lr" frda.ldrl j,ska
l< w;r th fmdaIl j.dj (Nutriculture) f,i
f;dr" mia rys ; b;d ms is wia j eka k la
yekah' fuu fmdaIl j.dj flfrys m%dfhda.sl
mdfNda.slhdg ,ndf yelshdj o ,ef ^3 jk
f,i wjOdkh fhduq jQfha 1925 muK ld, iSudf
rEmh&'

3 jk rEmh ( c,frdams; j.d moaO;s lsysmhla

Y%uh uQ,sljQ im%hsl lDIslrufhka neyer jk y;d.dr ;=< j.dj i|yd Wkkaj we;s u;a
;reK mrmqr yg lDIslrudka;h wNsudkfhka iuh' y;d.dr ;=< j.df we;sjQ O .eg
l,yels jD;a;shla njg yrjd Tjqka lDIsldrl fya;=fjka tajd ;=< msys mi jkajr bj;a lsug
ks I a m dokhg fmd,Ujd .;yels l% u hla f,i is u .eg iy.; h' f fya;f= jka mia fjkqjg
c,frdams; j.dj jeo.;a f' Nd;d l< yels l,am udOH yd ta i|yd fhd.;
yels fmdfydr ms<sn| mrfhaIlhka f.a wjOdkh
fhduq h'
c,frdams; j.df
b;sydih 1929 le,sf*dak
a h
s d Yaj oHd,fha wdpdrh ,sh
t*a' .%sfla iska ;lald,s Ydlhla c,Sh fmdaIl
fuh Y; jr I .Kkdjlg by; wefika " udOHhl idr:l f,i j.d l< w;r ;lald,s
nef,dakhs dj" Bma;j
= " kh yd bkahdj jeks mer Ydlh gr 7'5 la muK .g jrOkh h' Tyq
YsIaGdpdr j, ksiqka je,s iys; .xd fda j, tu l%uh c, frdams; j.dj (Hydroponics)
4
f,i k lf<ah' .%Sl NdIdfjka yhsfv%d (Hydro) c,frdams; j.df uQ,sl
hkq c,h iy fmdafkdia hkq (Ponos) ls%hdld
hk jpk tla l%shdld c,h hk wr: ,nd fok
wjYH;djhka
yhsfv%dfmdakslaia hk jpkh iE we;' mfia j.d lsf Ydlfha uQ, moaO;sfha jrOkh
i|yd n,mdk jd;kh iy WIaK;ajh mi u.ska
uQ,drNfha fmdaIl djK ;=< j.dj muKla
iajNdlj md,khg ,laf' mdxY= ;;aj rj,
yhsfv%dfmdakl
s i
a a f,i yekah' miq ld,skj fmdaIl
wjia:djkays jd;kh iy WIaK;ajh m%udKj;a
djK ;=< fukau mdxY= fkdjk fjk;a udOH ;=<
f,i hdukh fkdfuka fnda. jrOkh wvd, f'
j.dj o yhsfv%dfmdakslaia j.d f,i k h'
h iSrdj je" c, jykh rj, mil fnda. j.d
jr;udkfha mia rys;j" fjk;a udOH iys;j fyda
lsu wmyiq jkafka o tu fya;f= jks' mdxY= iajdrCIl
rys;j fmdaIl djK Wmldrfhka lrkq ,nk ish
Ndjh o udOHh ;=<skau fnda. j.djg ys;lr m
j.djka c,frdam; s $ksrm dxY=l j.djka f,i ykajhs'
md,kh f' mfiys iajNdlj ckkh jk fmdaIl
1960 yd 70 oYl fol ;=< jdc ugf c, jr. Ydl j,g wjfYdaIKh lr .ekSf yelshdjla
frdams; j.djka wnqvd" weuldj" fn,ahu" we;'
fvkaudrlh" cruksh" ,kaoh" brdkh" b;d,sh"
c,fha" udOHfha fyda djKfha wd,sl;dj yd
cmdkh yd reishdkq iuQy wdKavqj wd rgj,
CIdh;dj ^mSt w.h& iy oaHq;a ikakdhl;dj
hqKqjg m;a h'
Ydl uQ, uKav,hg ys;lr mrdihl fkdfjkiaj
1980 oYlh ;=< iS>f% hka hqKj
q Q c,frdam;
s j.djka mej;Su iajdrCIl;dj f,i ykajhs' c,frdams;
m.Kl wdY%fhka iajhxl%Shj l%shd;aul jk Yd, j.df fuu ;;a;ajhka lD;%Su wdldrhg md,kh
m%udKfha yhsfv%dfmdakslaia f.dfmd,j,a olajd l< hq;=f'
jrOkh h'

1990 oYlfha .DydY%s; ugf


l=vd mudK c, frdam;
s j.djka
m%p,s; u wdrN h'

wkQj oYlfha wdrNjQ YS%


,xldf c,frda m s ; j.djka
l%ufhka jHdma; fjka mj;SS'
c,S h udOH Nd;h fuka u
fldyqn;a jeks >k udOH Nd;d
lr wdrlaIs; .Dy ;=< ^4 jk
remh& fukau jD; f;% ;=<o
islrk j.djka YS% ,xldf
kg m%p,s;h'

4 jk rEmh( ,a .Dy ;=< c,frdams; iafg%dafn j.djla

5
kEu c,frdams; j.d moaO;shl my;ska olajd we;s jD; moaO;s ;=< djK
lreKq m%Yia; f,i iemhSu yd md,kh lsu j.d ixirKh fkdjk l%u
l%ufha uQ,sl wjYH;djhka f,i lah yel '
l c,Sh fmdaIl udOHhl uq,a .s,ajQ j.d
l Nd;d lrk c,fha fyda udOHfha ;dlaIKh
iajdrl Ndjh (Root Dipping Technique)
l Nd;d lrk fmdfydr Y%k djKh Ydl l mdfjk ia:rhl j.d ;dlaIKh
wjYH;djhka imqrd,k uyd fmdaIl yd CIq (Floating Technique)
fmdaIl j,sska iuka; u
l flaIdlrIl wjfYdaIK j.d ;dlaIKh
l fmdaIl djKfha iajdrCIl Ndjh Ydl (Capillary Action Technique)
uQ, uKav,hg yd udOHhg ys;lr mrdihl
mej;Su 2' >k udOHhl j.dj
l c,fha" udOHfha fyda uQ, uKav, l,dmfha (Solid media culture
ksr;=re jd;kh yd Ydl uQ, uKav,hg or Aggregate system)
ys;lr WIaK;ajh
jD; fyda ixjD; l%uhg j.d jHqy Nd;d l,
yels f'
jr.SlrKh
l isria f,i /|jQ j.d u ;dCIKh
c,frdams; j.djka djK ;=< j.dj" >k udOHl Hanging Bag Technique
j.dj yd jdhj frdam;
s j.dj hkqfjka m%Odk fldgia
l ;sria j.d u ;dCIKh
3 lg fn we;' ixjD; j.d moaO;shl" fhd
Horizontal Grow Bag Technique
.kakdjQ fmdaIl djKh pl%SlrKh lrk w;r
jD; j.d moaO;s j, tfia is fkdlrhs' l >k udOH msrjQ ldkq fyda md;a;s ;=< j.d
;dlaIKh

1' fmdaIl djK ;=< Trench or Trough Technique


j.dj l nka ;dCIKh
(Solution culture or Pot Technique
Liquid hydroponic)
3 jdhjfrdams; j.dj
ixjD; moaO;s ;=< Aeroponics
ixirKh jk l%u
l fmdaIK djK j<djla ;=< j.d ;dlaIKh
l fmdaIK djK mg, ;dCIKh Fog Feed Technique
(Nutrient Film Technique - NFT)
l fmdaIK djK isreula ;=< j.d
l .eUqre fmdaIK Odrd ;dCIKh ;dlaIKh
(Deep Flow Technique - DFT) Root Mist Technique
6
fuu j.d l%u j,ska iqiq l%uhla f;af my; fmdaIl djK ;=< j.dj
i|yka idOl flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lsu jeo.;a
Solution culture or Liquid
f'
hydroponic
l mirfhys ,nd .; yels bv

l fhoh yels im;a yd uQ,Ok m%udKh


fmdaIl djK mg, ;dlaIKh
Nutrient film technique (NFT)
l myiqfjka$ ,dNhsj ,nd.; yels iajNdl
fyda lD;%Su udOHh fuh i;H c,frdams; j.djla jk me<E j, uq,a
Rcqju fmdaIl udOHh yd inkaO jk j.d l%uhls'
l talSh fCIa;%hlska ,nd.; yels wiajekak fuys b;d ;=kS ^ '' 5 la muK jQ& djK mg,hla"
myiqfjka kefuk iq fYaIs; ;yvq uska iE
l ksIamd;fha .=Kd;aul Ndjh
j.d k,hla ;=<ska .uka lrug i,iajhs ^5 jk
meyeh" fmkqu" yevh rEm igyk&'
lDIs ridhk j,ska f;dr u

ksidg ydkshl CIq kaf.ka f;dr


u

j.d k,h
lrdu lmdgh msiS k,h

,S ;gqj
fmrkh
fmdaIl gexlsh
fmdaIl djKh
djKh ;=< .s,ah
ld,.klh yels fmdmh

5 jk rEmh ( fmdaIl djK mg, j.d moaO;shl uQ,sl fldgia

7
j.d udOHhl fyda l=vd nkl isgqjkq ,enQ me<
;yvqf uOHfha ;nd jdIamlS rKh u iy wdf,dalh
m;s;u je,elau i|yd ;yvq odr fol tlg
isk fia ;nd lgq .id ;%sfldaKdldr k,hla f,i
ilikq ,ef' k,fha yrialv 6 iy 7 jk rEm
igyka uska fmkajhs' l=vd me< fmdaIl djKfhka
fmdfydr yd c,h ,nd .kakd w;r uq,a jrOkh
7 jk rEmh( NFT j.d k,fha isrialv
jkg uq,a cd,h k,h ;=< me;s jef' k,fhys
Wmu . gr 5-10 la w;r jk w;r nEjqu 1(50
isg 1(75 olajd fjkia lr .; yelsh'


lgq

6 jk rEmh ( NFT j.d k,fha uQ,sl ieleiau

k,fha by, fl,jrg fmdm lrk fmdfydr wvx.= .eUqre fmdaIK Odrd ;dCIKh
c,h nEjqu Tiafia k,fha my< fl<jrg .uka lr Deep flow technique (DFT)
gexlshg kej; tl;= f' kej; Nd;hg fmr k, l%uh
djKfha ,jK idkaKh mlaId lr ksjer lrkq Pipe system
,ef' iuyrla j.d lrejka iska iEu i;shlg
jrla fmdaIK djKh w;a lrhs' fmdaIK djKh fi' ' 10 l IalNh iys; k, ;=<ska fi' ' 2-
,nd f iS>%;djh ks;a;=jlg ,Sgr 2-3 la muK 3 la .eUqre Odrdjla fia fmdaIK djKh .uka
jk w;r th k,fha . wkqj fjkia f' Wig lrug i,iajhs' k,h Wvme;af;a ilia l< isre
jefvk me<E i|yd wdOdrl iemhSu wjYH f' ;=<ska ,a nka j, ieliQ me< k,h ;=< djKh
iu. .eu is f' mSiS ng ;ks ;gqjg isk
b;d ;=kS mg,hla f,i fmdaIK djKh iemhSu f,i fyda wla-jlaa (Zig-Zag) wdldrhg j.d moaO;s
m%dfhda.l
s j ;rula wmyiq ksid fuu l%uh fkdfhl=;a ieliSug yels w;r" fnda.h wkqj fjkia lr .;
fjkia ls j,g Ndckh lr kg Nd;d lrhs' yels f' 8 yd 10 jk rEm igyka fuu l%uj,
uQ,sl wx. fmkakq lrhs' mSiS k,fha me;slv 13
jk rEm igyk u.ska fmkakq lrhs'
8
mSiS k,

bj;a jk fmdaIl
djKh kej; gexlshg
.uka lrhs

CI fmdaIl
iemhq k,

N+.; fmdaIl
fmdmh ix; gexlsh

8 jk rEmh( ;ks ;gqf DFT j.d moaO;sh

;ks ;gq kd, l%uh ishu fnda. tk Wig


jrOkh jk je,a wdldr fnda. fukau mre wdldr
fnda. j,g o tlfia fhda.Hh' wla-jlaa wdldrhg
ieliSfuka N+ Nd;h jvd;a ldrhlaIu jk kuq;a
ishu fnda. i|yd fhda.H fkdf'

fldyq n ;a fyda ldnkS l D; oyhs h d fyda fuu


fojr.fhau Y%khka nka udOH i|yd Nd;d
l< yel' j.d udOH nkg oeug fmr khsf,daka
oe,a lene,a,lska nka we;=,; wdjrKh lsfuka
9 jk rEmh( ;ks ;gqf NFT j.d moaO;shl i,do j.djla >k udOH fmdaIl djKh ;=<g .uka lsu j<lajhs'

9
fmdaIl djK
iemhq k,

iq meye;s
j.d k,

bj;a jk fmdaIl djKh


uQ,sl gexlshg .uka lrhs



fmdmh

N+.; fmdaIl ix; gexlsh

10 jk rEmh( wla-jla wdldr j.d moaO;shl uQ,sl ie,eiau

,a nka fjkqjg me;sj, isre lSmhla iys;


ma,diala nka jqjo Nd;d l< yelsh ^12 jk
rEmh&' fmdaIl djKh ixirKh f yd ix;
gexlshg fhduq f fydka jd;kh f' mSiS
k,fha nEjqu 1( 30-40 j;a h hq;= w;r f ksid

,a nka ma,diala nka

11 jk rEmh( wla-jla wdldr DFT j.d moaO;shl j.djlaa


isgqug iqiq ;;a;ajfha me< iys; nka
12 jk rEmh( O nka jr.
10
ysia wjldYh
Tlaiscka wjfYdaIKh lrk uq,a

j.d k,h

fmdaIl djKh

13 jk rEmh( mSsiS k,fha isrialvla

taldld f,i fmdaIK djKh my<g .e,Sula isf' c,Sh fmdaIl udOHhl uq,a
k,fha msg; mDIaGfha iq mdg wdf,am lsfuka .s,ajQ j.dj
djKfha WIaK;ajh by< keSu wvq f' fuu
j.d l%uh jD; fCIa;% j.d l%uhg fukau" md,s; fuu l%ufha rE" rdnq" ler jeks fnda. i|yd
j.d ;;a;ja hgf;a (Controlled Environment >k udOHhla iys;j Nd;d l< yels jHqy fukau"
Agriculture) wdrlaIs; .Dy ;=< jqjo myiqfjka wfkl=;a fnda. i|yd djK udOHh muKla Nd;d
ia:dmkh l< yel ^9 iy 11 jk rEm&' jk jHqy ykajd w;'

^w& w, fnda. yer wfkl=;a fnda.


djk ixirKh fkdjk i|yd
j.d l%u fuys mshk iys; nkla j.dj i|yd Nd;d f'
Non circulating solution kEu yevhl yd jr.hl nkla f;`rd .; yels
culture jqjo f,dayuh nka iqiq fkdf' iaghsrfmda fyda
,S nka" ma,diala fm fukau isfuka;s j,ska
fuys fnda. i|yd wjYH fmdaIl" djKhla u.ska idok ,o ;e jqjo Nd;d l< yel' WIaK;ajfha
,nd fok w;r" djKfha ^ixjD; Ndckhl"
by< ke.Sula is fkdjk neka iaghsrfmda fm
ixirKh fkdjk& uQ, uKav,hg wjYH jd;dY%h jvd;a iqiqq f' nfka .eUqr fi'' 28-30 la
yd WIaK;ajh m%Yia:j md,kh lrhs' muK h hq;=h' fujeks nkl isrialv fmkqu
14 jk rEmh u.ska fmkakq lrhs'
11
jd ixirKh yd djKh
kej; msrf isr
me< iys; l=vd nk
mshk
nka udOHh
jd;h wjfYdaIKh
lrk uq,a
fmdaIl wjfYdaIKh
lrk uq,a
djK nk

fmdaIl djKh

14 jk rEmh( ixirKh fkdjk fm wdldr j.d nkl isrialv

m<uqj '' 0'15 >klu l fmd,s;Ska j,ska nk


we;=<; wdjrKh lrhs ^15jk rEmh&' tuska
fmdaIl djKh nfkka jEiaiuS j<lk w;r nk
;=<g wdf,dalh we;=,au j,lS' wdf,dalh we;=,au
je<elau i|yd fukau me< /|u i|yd mshkla
o wjYH f ^16 jk rEmh&' mshfkys ilik ,o
isre ;=<ska nka.; me< djKh yd inkaO
lrkqq ,ef' 16 jk rEmh( me< /|u Nd;d lrk isre iys; mshk

j.d lrk fnda.h wkqj we;s lrkq ,nk isre


ixLHdj fjkia f' nka me< ;nk isre j,g
wu;rj tla isrla fmdaIl udOH kej; iemhSu
i|yd ysiaj ;nd .; hq;=h' f isr u.ska nk
;=< jd; ixirKh isf' nfka isgqu i|yd
wjYH me< ilid .ekSu i|yd ,a nka fyda l=vd
ma,diala fldamma Nd;d l< yels f ^17 jk rEmh&'
ma,diala fldamam j, ;a;sfha yd m;=f,a isre we;s
l< hq;=h' nka udOH ug fmr fld, meye;s
khsf,daka l=vd ,lska (green net) nk we;=<;
15 jk rEmh( l fmd,s;ska wdjrKh l< nk
wdjrKh lr jdkqy; fldyqn;a fyda lr lrk
,o oyhshd fyda ta fojr.fha Y%khlska nka
mqrjd .kq ,ef'

12
fujeks imQrK l< fm ^19 jk rEmh& ,a
.Dy" md,s; mir ;;a;aj hgf;a wdrlaIs; .Dy
17 jk rEmh( Nd;d l< yels ;=<" idudkH jD; ia:dkhl fyda jrId wdjrKhla
frdamK jH nka iys; ;ekl fukau ksji ;=<o ;eh yel' Wig
jrOkh jk me<E i|yd wdOdrl iemhSu wjYH
f'
c fl,skau nfka me< lsuo l< yelsh' uq,a
nfka fmdaIK djKhg by<ska m%udKj;a ysia
jrOkh i|yd m%udKj;a bvla djKhg by,ska
wjldYhla mj;ajdf.k hdfuka uq,a jrOkh fydka
;sh hq;= neka fmfhys 2$3 la muKla msfrk
isf' ixirKh fkdjk c, frdams; j.d l%ufha
fia fmdaIl udOH mqrjkq ,ef' me< nka iys;
idr:l Ndjh r mj;skafka jd;hg ksrdjrKh
wdjrK ,E,a, 18 jk rEm igyk m ;nkq
jk uQ, uKav, m%udKh yd tajdfha iS>% jrOkh
,ef' nka j, hg fldgfika fi'' 2-3 la muK
u;hs' jvd;a iqiq jkafka uQ, uKav,fha by<
fmdaIl udOHfha .sf,k fia ;eh hq;= f'
;=fkka foll fldgila jd;hg ksrdjrKh u;a
wfkla fldgi fmdaIl djKh ;=< .s,S yd md
;su;ah'

fnda. jrOkh jkg fmdaIl djKfha ugu


wvqu;a iu. djKfha whk idkaKh je h
yel' fujeks wjia:dj, tu djKh bj;a lr
kj fmdaIl djKhla tl;= l< hq;=h' kuq;a mSt
udml fyda oaH;
q a ikakdhl;d udml u.ska djKfha
idkaKh uek .; yels k msis c,h fhd
djKh ielish yelsh' tfia ieliSf m%Yia:
18 jk rEmh( me< iys; mshk
mSt w.hka ,nd .ekSu i|yd wjYH gl kj
djKh tl;= l< yel'

^wd& w, fnda. i|yd >k udOH


iys; j.d jHqyh
fi'' 20-30la .eUqr fmhla f i|yd Nd;d
lrhs' tys we;=<; mDIaGh l fmd,s;ska j,ska
wdjrKh lr nfkka 1$3 muK jkfia fmdaIl
djKh mqrjkq ,ef' djKhg by<ska fi'' 7'5l
muK ysia wjldYhlaa ;sfnk fia hlv ,la nkg
ilr thg udOHh mqrjd me< isgqu lrkq ,nhs'
l=vd me< j, uQ, uKav,h fmdaIl djKh olajd
jrOkh jk ;=re w,l muK IalNfhka hq;="
19 jk rEmh( iaghsfrdf*da fmhl ieliQ
ixirKh fkdjk j.d moaO;shla
ijr isre iys; mSiS k,h ;=<g >k udOHh
mqrjd fmdaIl udOHh ;=< .sf,k fia ;nk neka
13
fmdaIl djKh flaIdlrYk l%h
s dj,sfhka me< j,g
imhkq ,nhs' uQ, uKav,h fmdaIl djKh lrd
jrOkh jQ miqj >k udOHh bj;a lr.;a tu
k,hu fmda a I l djKh jd;kh u i|yd
wdOdrlhla f,i Nd;d lrhs ^20 jk rEmh&'

jd ixirKh i|yd mSiS k,h


>k udOHh

>k udOHh r|jk ,


jd;kh i|yd bv

fmdaIl djKh
j.d nk

20 jk rEmh( w, fnda. j.d lrk l%uh

mdfjk ia:rhl j.d ;dlaIKh


we;=<; mDIaGh l fmd,s;ska j,ska wdjrKh l,
fi'' 10 la muK .eUqre fmhla f i|yd
Nd;d lrhs' fmdaIl djKh mqrjd iDcqf*da fyda
mdug myiq ieye,a ;yvqjl /|jQ me< djKh
u;=msg mdug i,iajhs' lD;%su jd Odrdjla u.ska
djKh jd;kh ug i,iajkq ,ef ^21 jk rEmh&'

mdfjk ;yvqj
lD;S%u jd
Odrdjla iemfha

fmdaIl djKh

21 jk rEmh( mdfjk ia:rhl is lrk j.dj


14
flaIdlrIK wjfYdaIs; j.d >k udOHhl j.dj
;dlaIKh
Solid media culture or
m;=f,a isre iys; O m%udK nka f i|yd Aggregate system
Nd;d l< yel' >k udOHh msrjQ nka j, me<
isgjd th fmdaIl djKh wvx.= fkd.eUqre Ndckhl f i|yd O j.d udOHhka Nd;d l< yels f'
;nkq ,ef ^22 jk rEmh&' nka udOHh f,i j.d udOHhla f;af my; olajd we;s ,K
fldyqn;a iu. je,s fyda .,al=vq iys; Y%khla iys; udOHhla f;`rd .ekSu jeo.;a f'
Nd;d lsfukaa c,jykh yd jd;kh fydka
l kuHYs,S nj (flexibility)
mj;ajd.; yelsf' fmdaIl djKh wvx.= Ndckfha
djK ugu wvqjk g kej; msru l< hq;= f' l Nx.=rYs,S nj (friability)
fuu l%uh je jkdlula iys; me<E" w,xldr
l c,h r|jd ;nd .ekSf yelshdj
Ydl" .DydY%s; Ydl j.d lsu i|yd fhd.; yel'
(water holding capacity)

l m%Yia: jd;kh (areation)


l fydka c,jykh u (drainage)

l iajdrCIl .=Kh (buffering capacity)

l ridhksl I ix>gl j,ska f;dr u'

l ydkshl laIq yd jg mKq .yK j,ska


f;dr u'

j.dj i|yd Nd;d l<yels >k


udOHh
l wldnksl iajdNdl >k udOH-fndr" .,a
>k udOHh
l=vq

l ldnksl iajdNdl udOH-ldnkSlD;


oyhshd" ,S l=vq" fldyqn;a" mS fudia
fmdaIl
djKh l wldnksl lD;S%u fyda ieliQ >k udOH
-frdla jQ,a" mr,hs" jrlHq,hs

l ldnksl lD;Su udOH-fmd,shqfr;ska"


fmd,smSfkd,a" fmd,sB;r" fmd,sjhskhs,a
22 jk rEmh( flaIdlrYK wjfYdaIs; j.d nkl isrialvla
>k udOH u; islrk j.df >kudOH r|jkakd
jQ O jHQy wkqj id.; yels j.d moaO;Ska
my; i|yka f''

15
fuu j.d u" wdOdrlhl isria w;g t,a,d iqre
isria f,i /|jQ j.d u c, imdok ysila u.ska tys by< wNHka;rhg
;dlaIKh taldldj fmdaIl djKh imhkq ,ef' ilid .;a
Hanging bag technique ;jdka me< fy` o~qlen,s j.d uj, iE l=vd
isre ;=<ska fldyqfl udOHfha isgjkq ,ef'
fuu l%ufhaos gr 1'3 la os." is,k
s v
a rdldr" mdrcnq,
lsrK m%;sfrda" fmd,s;Ska j,ska ie u ;=< mqrjk fm`Il djKh fldyqfl yryd me<E uQ,uKav,
,o cSjdkqyrKh l< fldyq fl|s iys; j.d u j,g fm`IKh ,ndfoka my,g .,d hhs ' bj;ajk
Nd;d lrkq ,ef' fuu fmd,s;ska nE.fha msg; fm`Il djKh k, ;=,ska kej; fm`Il gexlshg
iq meye;s jk w;r we;=<; l meye;s f' u,af,ys tl;= f ^23 jk rEmh&'
my, fl<jr uqd ;nd we;s w;r by< fl<jr
l=vd mSiS k,hlg inkaO lr we;'

fmdaIl djK
iemhq k,
fldyq fl msrjQ
j.d u

plS%lrkh jk
fmdaIl djKh

fmdmh

N+.; gexlsh

23 jk rEmh( isria f,i /|jQ j.d u iys; moaO;shl uQ,sl fldgia

16
fuu l%uh fld, t<j" iafg%dafn iy l=vd u,a
jr. j.d lsu i|yd fhda.H f ^24 jk rEmh&'
j.d u,af,ys l meye;s we;=<; mDIaGh" nk ;=<
mdis yd ,Sr jrOkh j<lk w;r uQ,uKav,fha
ys;lr jrOkhg wjYH wre mirh ,nd foa'

;sria j.d u ;dlaIKh


Horizontal grow bag
technique
fuu l%ufha o gr 1'5 la muK ." mdrcnq,
lsrK m%;sfrda" msg; iq iy we;=<; l meye;s
fmd,s;Ska nka" jdkqy; fldyq fl j,ska mqrjd
Nd;d lrhs' j.d u,af,ys Wi fi'' 6-10 la jk
w;r m<, fi'' 18 ls' fujeks u j.d f
;sria w;g" tla j.d u,a,l fl<jr wfkla j.d
u,af,a fl<jr yd iamrY jk f,i" ;ks fma,s fyda
fofma,s l%uhg ;eh yel' fma,s 2la w;r mr;rh
24 jk rEmh( isria j.d uj, iafg%dafn j.djla tla whl=g myiqfjka tyd fuyd hd yels f,i;a"
fnda.fha kv;a;= lghq;= myiqfjka l< yels f,i;a
;sh hq;=h ^25 jk rEmh&'
fuu l%uhg jD; ia:dkhl fukau wdrs; .Dy;=<
jqjo j.dl, yelsh' wjqre folla muK Nd;d
l,yels fuu u,a,l isgqjk me< m%udKh fn`.h
wkqj fjkia f' i,do me< iaila muK tla
u,a,l isgqh yel'

fldyqn;a $ fl
msrjQ j.d u
fmdaIl djK
m%Odk fmdaIl djK iemhq CIq k,
iemhq k,

25 jk rEmh( j.d u ;nd we;s wdldrh

17
ilid .;a ;jdka me< nfkka bj;a lr j.du
mDIaGfhaa l=vd lemqula ;=<ska fldyq fl udOHfha
isgqjhss' tla j.d u,a,l me< 2-4 la isgqh yelsh'
je c,h bj;a u i|yd iEu j.d u,a,lu h
me;af;a l=vd lemq 2la l, hq;=h'

fuu l%ufha x c, imdok l%uhg l meye;s


fmd,st;s,Ska l=vd ng ;=<ska fmdaIl djKh k,fha
isg u ;=<g iemhSu is lrhs' fmdaIl djKh
fyda c,h w;ska iemhSu o l< yelsh' klg
iemhsh hq;= c, m%udKh fnda.fha jrOl wjh yd
ld,.=K ;;a;ajh u; fjkia f' j.d udOHh
c,fhka fyda fmdaIl djKfhka ika;Dma; u
kqiqiqh' tfia jqjfyd;a me<E uq,a j,g Tlaiscka rEm igyk 26( j.d u j, isgjQ ;lald,s j.djla
,eu rj, Ydl jrOkhg wys;lr h yel'

j.d u ;eug fmr j.d u iq meye;s mdrcnq, >kudOH msrjQ ldkq fy` md;a;s
lsrK m%;sfrda fmd,s;Ska uska wdjrKh l< hq;=h' ;=< j.d ;dlaIKh
fuu iq fmd,s;Skh wdf,dalh mrdjr;kh lrk Trench or Trough technique
w;r me< w;r idfmalaI wdr;djh wvq lrk
jD; j.d l%uhla jk fuh msys f fi'' 30-
neka ,Sr wdidok fukau mdxY= ckl jHdldrl
35la .eUqrg ieliQ ldkqq ;=< ^27 jk rEmh& fyda
ydkso j,lajhs' Odrl Yla;sh fkdue;s fnda. i|yd
fmdf<dj u;=msg .fvd,a fyda fldkal%S Nd;d lr
wdOdrl ,ndu o wjYH f ^26 jk rEmh&'
f.dvkxjk ,o nlals jeks md;a;s ^28 jk rEmh&
j, fnda. j.d lrk l%uhls'

fmd,s;ska mg,h

fmdaIl djK
iemhq k,

c,jyk m%Odk fmdaIl


k,h iemhq k,h

j.d udOH
iys; ldkq

27 jk rEmh( >k udOHh msrjQ ldkqjl me;slvla

18
fmd,s;ska mg,h
j.d udOH
iys; md;a;s
fmdaIl djK
iemhq CIq k,

c,jyk k,h
m%Odk fmdaIl
iemhq k,h

28 jk rEmh( >k udOHh msrjQ md;a;shl me;slvla

nka ;=< j.dj


by; l%u foflysu" c,h ldka fkdjk fia Pot culture
mdrcnq, lsrK j,g m%;sfrda fmd,s;Ska ;gq 2la
ldKqj fyda md;a;s iy ta wjg u jefik fia t,d
bka miqj j.d udOH msrh hq;h
= ' f uska ldkqfjys
wvx.= udOH mi yd .eu j<lajhs' ldkq j, m<,"
j.d l%uh wkqj ;SrKh l< hq;=h' jvd m<,a ldkq
CIq k,
;=< fofma,s l%uhg me< isgqu is lrhs' ldkq j,
.eUqr fnda.h wkqj fjkia jk w;r wju jYfhka >k udOH iys;
fi'' 30 la j;a ;su wjYH f' j.d nk
j.d udOH f,i jdKqy; fldyq n;a ^mer&"
jdKqy; je,s" ,S l=vq" mS" jrlHq,hs" mr,hs"
fyda tajdfha Y%khka Nd;d l< yel'' j.d udOH m%Odk fmdaIl iemhq k,h
frda. ldrl kaf.ka f;dr u wjYH f''
29 jk rEmh( nka j.d l%ufha c, frdams; me<
x c, imdok l% u hla us k a fyda w;s k a
by; ldkq l%uhg iudk j.d l%uhla jk fuys me<
(manually) tla tla me<hg fjk fjku fmdfydr
isgqu lrkqfha fi'' 30 la muK .eUqr ue"
djKh fhu l< yel' fi'' 2'5 la IalNh
ma,diala fyda fmd,s;ska nka j,h ^29 jk rEmh&'
iys; ijr k,hla ldkqf fyda md;a;sfha wvx.=
nfka ;sh hq;= mudj fnda.h wkqj fjkia jk
udOHh hka ;ekam;a lsu uska c,jykh myiq
w;r idudkHfhka th ,Sgr 1-10 olajd fjkia f'
lrhs' msms[a" ;lald,s jeks fnda. i|yd Ydl
j.d udOH" fmdaIl djKh iemhSu" wdOdrl iemhSu
wdOdrl j,g wu;rj" M, ord .ekSu i|ydo
j.d kv;a;=j by; ldkq l%uh yd iudk f'
wdOdrl iemhSu wjYH f'
19
jdhjfrdams; j.dj jdhj frdams; j.dj wdrlaIs; .Dy ;=< is lsu
Aeroponics jvd;a fhda.Hh' y;.Dy ;=< bv ldrhlaIuj
Nd;d lsu i|yd bx.S%is ta wl=r (A) yeve;s
l=vd isre iys; iaghsrf*da ;e fhd ieliQ we;=<; jHqyhla f i|yd Nd;d l< yel' ^30 jk
ysia wjldYh iys; l= fyda fm j,ska iuka; rEmh&'
f' jdhj mirfha t,a,d jefgk uQ,uKav,hla
,efnk m isre ;=<k s a me< j, uQ,uKav,h fm
;=<g we;=,a lrhs' uq,a j, jrOkh u;a lsu
i|yd iy ,Sr jrOkh je<elau i|yd fuu l=
;=<g wdf,dalh fkd,efnk wdldrhg ilid we;
^30 jk rEmh&'

iaghsfrdaf*da
;yvqj

ma,diala wdjrKh fmdaIl djKh biskh

30 jk rEmh( jdhj frdams; j.d moaO;shl fldgia

fuu j.d l%ufha fmdaIl djKh ishq ysula fuu j.d l%ufha iu fCIa;%hl wksl=;a j.d l%u
fyda >k j,djla wdldrhg uq,a j,g ,nd foa' f j, fhdok me< m%udKh fuka fo.=Khla muK
i|yd kd 2-3 jrla ;;amr lSmhla fmdaIK j.d l, yels neka N+ Nd;h jvd;a ldrhCIu
djKh iqrejd ykq ,nhs' f u.ska uQ,uKav,fha f' fld, t<j" is;=re me< iy iafg%dafn jeks
m%Yia; f;;ukh iy jd;kh mj;ajd .ekSug m<;=re o fuu l%u u.ska j.d l< yel' wmkhkh
yelsfjk w;r uq,a j, .efgk djK mg,fhka i|yd mia rys; uq,a weoao jQ is;r= e me< ksIma dokh
fnda. j,g wjYH fmdaIl wjfYdaIKh lr .ekSu l< yels uo ;j;a jdishls'
isf'

20
c,frdams; j.dj i|yd yelsh' jr. fi'' 15l mudj iys; ls'.%E' 5l
;jdka me< ieliSu muK h<s fldyqn;a l=hlg h.eiQ yqKq .%E
100-250 la muK fhh hq;=h' msis fldyqn;a"
Nursery techniques
h,d f;rmSug ,la lr mudj wvqjk wdldrhg
Wiia wia j eka k la fok ieliQ fldyqn;a l= f,i fjf<o fmdf,ka ,nd.;
idr:l j.djla ,nd .;yels yel'
jkafka .=Kd;aufhka hq;= frdamK
jH Nd;fhks' idudkH ;jdka nka yd ;e
j.djl oS fuka u Nursery containers & trays
c,frdams; j.dj i|yd o
c m%frdayKh i|yd iqiq ;;a;aj ,nd h yels
c me< fukau jrOl fldgia
;jdka nka fyda ;e Nd;d l< yel'
u.ska ,nd .kakd frdamK jHh o Nd;d
f' .=Kd;aufhka hq;= frdamK jH 01' nka yd j.d l=
ksmojd .ekSu i|yd ;jdka md,kh (Individual containers/growing
l%udkql+,j isl, hq;=h' blocks)

;jdka udOH lvodis" ma,diala" ue" iaghsrf*da fyda fldyq fl


j,ska idok ,o nka ^31 jk rEmh& yd frdlajQ,a
Growing media
fyda iafmdka l= Nd;d l< yel'
;jdka udOH i|yd f;dard .kakd jH ydkshl
kaf.ka f;dr" c me,fha m%frdayKh yd jrOkh
i|yd iqiq ;;a;aj imqrd,k udOHhla h hq;=h'
j.dj i|yd udOHh f;dard .ekSf ie,lsh hq;=
lreKq fuys o ie,ls,a,g .; hq;=h' f ishu
udOHhka jdKqyrkh lr ;su ksfrda.S u;a
me< ,nd .ekSu i|yd w;HjYH f'

Nd;d l< yels ;jdka udOH


l jdKqy;" mer fldyqn;a
l lr lrk ,o oyhshd
(carbonized rice husk)
l ishq je,s$fldyqn;a Y%kh 31 jk rEmh( O nka jr.
l frdlajQ,a" mS fy` mr,hs

;jdka udOHh i|yd fldyqn;a Nd;d lrkafka k


udi 6 j;a mer ;su W; f' fldyqn;a j,
mSt w.h WiSk ;;ajhg f.k tau i|yd Nd;hg
fmr h .eiQ yqKq Ca (OH)2 wjYH m tla l<

21
02' ;e - Trays l f;;a l< lvishlska fyda fr lene,a,lska
;jdk jid ;nd c m%fr`yKh jk g
f i|yd o kg fjf<| fmdf,ka O wdldrfha
ksrdjrKh lsu hk l%shd wkq.ukh l<
yd m%udKfha ;jdka ;e ,nd .; yel' tla tla
hq;= fs'
;ehl we;s l=r ixLHdj wkqj ksmoh yels
me< ixLHdj fjkia fs' tu ksid isgqug
jrOl fldgia u.ska me<
n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk fnda.h i|yd iqiq ;jdka ;e
ksIamdokh
f;dard .; hq;= f ^32 jk rEmh&'
c me< fukau jrOl fldgia u.ska ,nd .kakd
iaghsfrdf*da ;e
ksfrda.S u;a me< o c, fr`ms; j.dj i|yd
ma,diala ;e (speedling/cell plug Nd;d lrhs' f i|yd ksfrda.S u Ydl j,ska
trays) iqiq frdamk jH f;dard .; hq;=f'

u mre j,ska fjka lr.;a me<


fyda Odjl
f.dgqfld, - jgmKqydksh fkdue;s" kSfrda.S u
mre j,ska ,nd.kakd uq,a iys;"
uOHia: m%udKhg frE me< fyda
Odjl

iafg%dafn - u mre j,ska fjka lr.;a fyda


32 jk rEmh( O ;e jr. Odjl j,ska ,nd .;a me<

crfnrd - u mre j,ska fjka lr.;a me<


c m%frdayKh
o~q fyda l| len,s
je jkdl iys; fnda. c,frdams; j.dj i|yd
Nd;d lrk w;r tjeks fnda.-c j, , wl uql=Kqjekak - uOHia:j fyda fydka frE" fi''
fs' f ksid iEu chlskau b;d fyd| ;;a;ajfha 10-12la . o~q len,s
me<hla ,nd .ekSug wruqKq lr .; hq;= fs'
lxl=ka - uOHia:j frE" .eg 3-4la iys;"
taldld c m%frdayKhla i|yd-
fi'' 20-30la muK . l| len,s
l nka fydaa ;e m<uqj fydka msis lr ^33 yd 34 jk rEm&
le,aish fy` fidah yhsfmdlaf,darhs
x - uOHia:j frE" fi'' 10-12la muK
;Kql djKhlska ^10]& fida yeu
. o~q len,s
l ;jdka udOH msru iy ksh; .eUqka c
idrK - uOHia:j frE o~q len,s
;ekam;a lsu
fuys jdkqy; je,s fyda fldyqn;a j, uq,a woaojd
l m%frdayKh i|yd wjYH m%Yia; f;;ukh"
.;a jrOl fldgia ;jdka nka j, isgqu fyda
WIaK;ajh yd wdr;dj ksishdldrj ,ndu
tlajru ;jdka nka j, isgqu l< yelsh'
22
33 jk rEmh( f;dard .;a lxl=ka o~q len,s
35 jk rEmh' fmdaIl djKh iys; nka j, ;enQ ;jdka me<

f i|yd we,an fmdfydr Y%kfhka ^j.= wxl 3&


.%E 10 la c,h ,Sgr 10l Y% lr id.kakdjQ
djKh iqiq f'

;jdka nka fyda ;e fmdfydr djKh wvx.=


fkd.eUqre Ndckhl nfka wvla muKla .sf,k
fia ;efuka c,h iy fmdaIl Wrd .ekSug ie,eiah
yelsh ^35 jk rEmh&' ;jdka nka fyda ;e j,
34 jk rEmh' uq,a weoaojQ lxl=ka me< h me;af;a we;s isre j,ska fmdaIl djKh
flaYdlrIKfhka ;jdka udOHhg wjfYdaIKh lrhs'
wjYH k l%ufhka me< jrOkh jk g nka
;dhs lxl=ka" idrK yd ks;s c u.skao m%pdrKh
udOH u;=msgg fmdaIl djKh fhh yels f'
lr .; yelsh' iafg%dafn" ldfkaIka" crfnrd jeks
Ydl j, mgl frdams; me< o" c,frdams; j.dj ;jdka udOHh u;=msgg fmdaIl djKh fhf
i|yd fhd .efka'
l ;jdka nk fyda ;eh iu;,d u;=msgl
;nd fmdaIl djKh l=vd me< u;g
;jdka me< j,g fmdaIl
fkdjefgk fia ;jdka udOHfha fl,jrlg
,ndu
fhh hq;=h'
c m%frdayKh m<uq m;% 2-3 la u;=jk ;=re
l c me< uq,a wjfha klg ',S' 5-10la
;jdka udOH w ika;Dma; fkdjk fia msis c,h
tla j;djlg ,ndh hq;=h'
muKla imhkq ,ef' bka miq c me< isgqug
iqiq wjh olajd ffokslj ;kql fmdaIl djKhla l c me< jrOkh jk g ',S' 10-25la
fyda ffoksl c, iemhqu iu. k follg jrla klg tla j;djl fyda foj;djl ,ndh
fmdaIl djKh iemhSu l< hq;=h' hq;=h' fuu m%udKh me< j.d moaO;sfha
ixia:dmkh lsu olajd iqiq f'

23
jrOl fldgia u.ska m%pdrKh lr .kakd Ydl o
by; wdldrhgu fmdaIK djK wvx.= Ndck j,
;eu jvd;a iqiq jk w;r tlajru c, frdams;
nka j,o isgqh yelsh'

;jdka ld,h
c me< fyda w;= len,s ksh; m%udKhg jevqk miq
;jdka ;efhka bj;afldg iqiq j.d moaO;shl
isgqh hq;=hs' fnda. wkqj iy j.d l%uh wkqj
c me< ;jdfka ;sh hq;= ld, iSud fjkia fs' 36 jk rEmh' lmd .;a iafmdka lene,a,

l ;lald,s i;s 3-4 l ^m;% 2-3 wjia:dj&


iafmdkaa l=fha f;;ukh mj;ajdf.k hdu
l f.dajd i;s 4-5 l ^m;% 3-4 wjia:dj& i|yd;a" fmdaIl iemhSu i|yd;a" fuu len,s ;ehla
;=< ;eh hq;=hs' kv;a;= ls%hd idudkH ;e ;jdka
l i,do msms[a[d i;s 3l ^m;% 3-4
fukss' c m%frdayKh m<uq c m;% fol .
wjia:dj&
yefrk wjia:df isg hr fmdaIl ,ndu wdrN
l i,do i;s 2-3 l< hq;= f' iafmdkaa l=h iuu ;jdka me<
j.d udOHfha isgqh yelsh ^37 jk rEmh&'
l fn,a fmmr i;s 4-5

isg
q u i|yd jr.hg wdfksl ,CIK iys; lD;s
j,ska f;dr jQ u;a" kSfrda.S c me< muKla
f;dard .; hq;=hs'

iafmdaka ;jdka l%uh


by; i|yka l< ;jdka udOHhka fjkqjg iafmdka
udOH jqjo me< iEu i|yd Nd;d l< yel'

f i|yd fi'' 2'5 >klu iys; iafmdka lene,a,la


f.k th j._ fi'' 2'5 l l= j,g lmd ^36 jk
rEmh&" l=h f;;a lr" iafmdkaa l=fha ueo
l=vd isrla fyda u;= mska w,a 1$2 muK .eUqrg
uOHh yryd hk lemqula lr c ;ekam;a lsrSu
l< hq;=h'

37 jk rEmh ( isgqug iqiq ;;a;ajfha me<hla


24
uyd uQ,jH w;=ka ldnka (C), yhsv%cka (H) iy
c,frdams; j.df fmdaIl Tlaiscka (O) iajNdlj c,h yd jd;fhka ,efnk
djK ilid .ekSu neka fmdfydr f,i Nd;d fkdlrhss' tfy;a
Preparation of nutrient khsg%cka (N), fmdiamria (P) yd fmdgEish (K)
solution for soil-less fmdfydr f,i ,ndh hq;=h'
culture le,aish (Ca), ue.akSish (Mg) iy i,a*r (S)
oa;Sl uQ,jH hg;g .efka'
me<E jrOkh i|yd uQ,jH 17 la wjYH f ^38
jk rEmh&' Yd, jYfhka Ydl j,g wjYH uQ,jH CIq uQ,jH jk iskala (Zn), fldmr (Cu), hlv
uyd uQ,jH f,i o" thg jvd ;rula wvqfjka (Fe), ueka.kSia (Mn), fndafrdaka (B), fud,sk
wjYH jk uQ,jH oa;Sl uQ,jH f,i o yekaf' (Mo), laf,daka (Cl) iy ksl,a (Ni) Ydl j,g
iq jYfhka jqj;a Ydl jrOkhg wjYH uQ,jH iq jYfhka jqj;a w;HjYH f'
CIq uQ,jH f,i ykajhss'
c, frdams; j.djka j, ishu fmdfydr c,fha
hlr fmdaIl djKhla f,i ,ndfoa' iajNdl
mdxY= udOHfha ndysrfhka fhdok fmdfydrj, fuka
c, fok fyda whkSlrK l%shdj,sh mia rys;
j.d udOH j, is fkdf' tksid c, frdams;
j.djka j, fhdok fmdfydr whkS l rK
;;a;ajfhka ;su wjYH f' hQhd c,fha fydka
hjk kuq;a c,frdams; j.dj i|yd Nd;d l<
fkdyel' hQhd Ydl wjfYdaIKhg wjYH m
c, fokh u fyda iajNdlj mfiys fuka
| fy,Sula c, frdams; udOH j, is fkdu
fuhg fya;=jhs'

c, frdam;
s j.dj," fnda.fha wjYH;dj yd jrOl
N S wjh u; fmdaIl iemhSf yelshdj j.dlrejdg
Ni
Cl we;' f ksid mfiys fuka fmdaIl ,nd .; yels
njg wys;lr n,mEula c,frdams; j.df is
B P Mg Mo fkdjk neka fnda. blaukska jrOkh Wiia
wiajkq ,ndfohs' tfy;a j.dlrejd Ydl fmdaIl yd
Mn tajdfha kv;a;=j ms<sn| fyd| wjfndaOhla ,nd
K Ca Zn ;su u; fuu j.d l%ufha idr:lNdjh rmj;S'
Fe Cu

38 jk rEmh ( fnda. jrOkhg w;HdjYH uQ,jH

25
fmdaIl djK md,kh Ydlhg ,nd.ekSf yelshdj wvqf' djKfha mSt
w.h 6 g jvd wvqjk g fmdiafmdala w,h"
m%Yia: fmdaIl ;Fjhka myiqfjka md,kh l< yels
le,aish iy ueka.kSia j, djH;djh iS>%fhka
kuq;a ksrjoH fkdjk l%u fya;f= jka fmdaIK djKh
wvqf' f ksid j.djl idr:l Ndjh i|yd fhda.Hh
wiu;=<s; fnda.hg ydks fuka j.dj widr:l
mSt mrdih mj;ajdf.k hdu w;HdjYH f'
h yelsh' f ksid ksjer ;=<s; fmdaIl djK
iemhq jev igykla mj;ajd f.k hdu b;d jeo.;a c, frdams; j.dj i|yd m%Yia; mSt mrdih
f' f i|yd djKfha mS t (pH) ugu" 5'8-6'5 w;r f'
WIaK;ajh iy oaH;q a ikakdhl;dj kshudldr f,i
mj;ajdf.k hdu;a wjYH wjia:d j, fmdaIl mSt w.h 4-10 olajd mrdifhys fmdaIl j,
djK w;ska msru;a b;d jeo.;a l%shdjka f' ,nd.; yels nfjys fjkia u 40 jk rEm
igykska fmkajhs' ;sria w;g msys jrK frLd
mSt w.h pH Value j,ska tla tla uQ,jHh ,nd .; yels iq,n;djh
fmkajk w;r" frLdf m<, je jkg Wmu
udOHfha wd,sl;djh yd NdIal;djh fmkakq ,nd .; yels nj fmkakq lrhs' frLdf m<,
lrkakd jQ orYlh f,i ir,j yekah yel' wvq mrdij, fmdaIl ,nd .; yels nj wvqh'
fuh 1-14 olajd mrdihl kq.; lr we;s w;r uQ,jH je m%udKhla myiqfjka ,nd.; yels
1-7 olajd wd,sl mrdih;a" 7 WiSk wjia:dj;a" m%Yia: mSt w.h 6'25 r;= jrK isria frLdj
7-14 olajd NdIal mrdih f,i o iu; h' u.ska fmkakq lrhs' udOHfhys mS t mrdih
m%Yia:j fkdue;sg fmdaIl W!K;d fukau fmdaIl
djKfha mSt w.h 7'5 g jvd jejk g hlv"
I o we;sh yel' fuh fnda. jr.h wkqj
ueka.kSia" fldmr" iskala iy fndafrdaka hk uQ,jH
fjkia f' WyrKhla f,i mSt w.h 7'5
ugfuys .gu mej;=kfyd;a hlv W!K;djh
we;s lrk w;r" th me<Efha m;% j, kdr
w;r lyu fkdfyd;a y;CIh we;su u.ska
fmkakq lrhs'

me,E u.ska fmdaIl wjfYdaIKh lr .kakd g


djKfha mS t w.h fjkia f' f ksid th
km;d mCId lr ksjer lsu l< hq;=h ^39
jk rEmh&' idudkHfhka fm`Il djK ksrfoaY
lsf djKfha iajdrl nj mj;ajd .kakd
ridhks l ixfh`. tl;= lrhs s ' b;d ;kq l
fmdiafmdla w,h fy` khs%la w,h Nd;h
u.ska mSt w.h wvq l, yels w;r" ;kql
fmdgEish yhsfv%dlaihs u.ska mSt w.h je
l, yelsh' mSt w.fha l fjkia fn`.hg
ydkshl ksid udOHfha iajdrCIl Ndjh mj;ajd
39 jk rEmh( ir, mst udkhla
.ekSu w;HdjYH lreKls'

26
b;d b;d
rj, rj, rj, rj,
w wd,sl wd,sl wd,sl wd,sl NdIal NdIal NdIal w NdIal

khsg%cka

fmdiamria

fmdgEish

i,a*r

le,aish

ue.akSish

hlv

ueka.kSia

fndafrdaka

fldmr iy iskala

4'0 4'5 5'0 5'5 6'0 6'5 7'0 7'5 8'0 8'5 9'0 9'5 10
6'25

40 jk rEmh( O mSt w.hkays uQ,jH ,nd .ekSf yelshdj

oahq;a ikakdhl;dj tall grhg fvisiuS ka (dS/m) f' flfia kuq;a


Electrical conductivity-EC fuu kqu u.ska ,efnkqfha djKfha wvx.= djH
,jK idkaKh muKla jk w;r" tla tla fmdaIlhka
oahq;a ikakdhl;dj h djKhl wvx.= djH wvx.= m%udK fkdf'
,jK idkakh fmkakq lrk kquls' djKh
;= < s k a oa h q ; h .uka ls ug i,ia j d oa h q ; a
c,frdam;
s j.d j, m%Yia: oah;
q a ikakdhl;d
ika k dhl;d udkhla Nd;fhka oa h q ; a
mrdih 1'5-2'5 dS/m f'
ikakdhl;djh ukskq ,nhs ^41 jk rEmh&' tys
27
41 jk rEmh ( ir, wdldrfha oaHq;a ikakdhl;d udmlhla

wl oahq;a ikakdhl w.hl djKh ;=< wdi%e;s lr" fnda.hg ydks muqKj
q hs' fmdaIl W!K;d we;sjk
mSvkh fjkia u ksid fmdaIl wjfYdaIKh j<lajk neka djH fkdjk fyda wvq djH;d iys; fmdaIl
w;r" b;d wvq w.hka fnda.fha ksfrda.S njg yd wvx.= ridhk ixfh`. Nd;d fkdl< hq;h = ' kg
wiajekakg ydkshs f,i n,mdhs' Nd;fha mj;sk c, djH fmdfydr tlsfkl Y%
lr .ekS f yels h dj tk ix>;Ndjh
jrOkh jk fn`." fmdaIl djKfhka c,h yd
(Compatibility) j.= wxl 1 ys i|yka f'
fmdaIl Wrd .kakd g djKfha ,jK idkaKh
fjkia f' oahq;a ikakdhl;djh m%Yia: mrdihg WyrKhla f,i wefudaksh khsf% (AN) yd
jvd je jQ g msis c,h tl;= lsu l< yelsh' le,aish khsf% (CAN) tlsfkl Y% l< yel'
th wvqjk g fmdaIl tl;= lsu iqiq f' fujeks ;;a;ajhl tu fmdfydr jr. fol
tlsfkl ix.;Ndjfhka hqla;h' th C ,l=ka
fmdaIl djK ieliSu olajhs' wefudaksh i,afma (AS) yd le,aish
j.dlrejkg wjYH k Tjqkagu fmdaIl Y%kh khsf% (CAN) tlsfkl Y% lsu iS;j is
ilid .; yels w;r ta i|yd imQrK
fhkau c,fha l< yel' fujeks ;;a;ajhl tu fmdfydr jr.
djH ridhks l ixfhda . Nd;d l< hq ; = f ' fol tlsfkl iS; ix.;Ndjfhka hqla; nj
c,frdams; j.df wjYH;djh wkqj f;dard .; ie,lsh hq;=h' th L i,l=fKka olajhs' iS;
yels O fmdfydr jr. fjf<o fmdf,ka ,nd .; ix.; fmdfydr Y% lsf Nd;d lrk fmdfydr
yel' jr. wkqj iqiq f,i fyda Y% l< .iska Nd;d
lsu wjYH f' le,aish khsf% (CAN) yd
je,s" ue fyda frdka uv jeks wmjH wvx.= fkdjk fudfkdwefudakhs fmdiafma jeks fmdfydr Y% lr
fmdfydr f i|yd f;dard .; hq;= w;r" tjeks Nd;d l< fkdyel' fujeks ;;a;ajhl tu
wmjH je g tajd c,imdok moaO;s wjysr fmdfydr jr. fol tlsfkl wix.;Ndjfhka hql; a
nj ie,fla' fuh X i,l=fKka olajhs'
28
j.= wxl1( c, djH fmdfydr iy tajdfha ix>;Ndjh

c, djH fmdfydr AN AS CAN MAP SOP MOP


wefudaksh khsf% (AN) - C C C C C
wefudaksh i,af*a (AS) C - L C C C
C: ix>;
le,aish khsf% (CAN) C L - X C C
L: iS; ix>;
fudfkda wefudaksh fmdiafma (MAP) C C X - C C
fmdgEish i,afma (SOP) C C L C - C X: wix>;

fmdgEish laf,darhs(MOP) C C X C C -
mai (G) X X X X C C
lSirhs (KS) C C C X C C
fmdgEish khsf% (PN) C L C C - C

iuyr ridhksl ixfhda. tlsfkl iu. m%;sls%hd j.= wxl 2( wdpdrh we,ka l+mr iska
lr djH;djh wvq lrhs' wefudaksh i,af*a yd ykajd ka fmdaIl Y%kh ^djK ,S' 1000
fmdgEish laf,darhs Y%k gexlshg tljr fhd la ms<sfh, lsug fhd .kakd ridhksl ixfhda.
Y% lsf fmdgEish i,af*a ie djH;djh j, nr .%E j,ska&
wvqfs' le,aish iy nhsldnfkag wl c,fhys
ridhksl ixfhda. nr ^.%E&
mai wjfCIamKh jk w;r" fuu wjfCIams;
mai jd moaO;sfha l=vd isre wjysr lrhs'
fmdgEish vhsyhsv%cka fmdiaf*a KH2PO4 263'00

c,frdams; j.dj i|yd fhd .; fmdgEish khsf% KNO3 583'00


yels fmdfydr Y%k
le,aish khsf% Ca(NO3)2.H2O 1003'00
O ridhksl ixfhda. wvx.= fmdfydr Y%k ykajd ue.akSish i,af*a MgSO4 513'00
we;s w;r" nyq,j Nd;d lrk tjeks Y%k 2
la j.= wxl 2 iy 3 ys wvx.= f' hlv lSf,ag FeEDTA 79'00

ueka.kSia i,af*a MgSO4 6'10

fndala w,h H3BO3 1'70

fldmr i,af*a CuSO4 0'39

wefudaksh fud,sf NH4Mo7O24 0'37

iskala i,af*a ZnSO4 0'44

29
j.= wxl 03 ( we,an Y%kh ^djK ,S' 1000 fmdfydr-c, iemhqu
la ms<sfh, lsug fhd .kakd ridhksl ixfhda. Fertigation
j, nr .%E j,ska&

ridhksl ixfhda. nr ^.%E&

u,a fla-fmdgEish khsf% KNO3 38'00

msmy le,aish khsf% Ca(NO3)2.H2O 952'00

ue.akSish i,af*a MgSO4 308'0

hlv lSf,ag FeEDTA 8'00

iskala i,af*a ZnSO4 0'15

fndala w,h H3BO3 0'20

ueka.kSia i,af*a MgSO4 1'15

fldmr i,af*a CuSO4 0'10

fudfkd fmdgEish fmdiafma KH2PO4 269'00

fmdgEish i,af*a K2SO4 423'00 42 jk rEmh( fmdfydr Y%k gexlsh iys;


c,imdok tallhla
wefudaksh fud,sf NH4Mo7O24 0'03

c, imdokh iu. me<E jrOkh i|yd wjYH


fmdaIl c,fha hlr ,ndu fmdfydr-c, imdokh
we,an Y%kh foaYSh fjf<o fmdf,ka , .; f'
yel'
fmdfydr-c, imdokfha jdis
fujeks fmdaIl Y%k uQ,uKav, fmdfydrla f,i
,nd u .egjla fkdjk kuq;a m;%uh hr l ksjer iy taldld f,i fmdfydr fhug
fmdfydrla f,i Nd;h iqiq fkdf' fuu Y%k yelsu
j, hlv f,ag ixfhda.hka f,i we;s fyhska hr
l fnda.fha jrOl wjhg i,k m"
fmdfydrla f,i ,ndka g th myiqfjka |
foaY.=l ;;a;ajhg wkql+,j fnda.fha
fy,Su is fkdjk neka tjeks t<j wdydrhg
fmdaIl wjYH;djhka ,ndf yelshdj
.ekSu iqiq fkdf' f ksid m;% fmdfydrla f,i
Nd;d lf,a k ksh; k .Kkla blaujQ miqj l fmdfydr Nd;fha ldrhCIu;djh je u
wiajkq fk,Su W; f' yd uq,uKav, l,dmfhka fmdaIl CIrKh
u wvq lsu u.ska N+.; c, IKh wju
l< yels u

30
l fnda. wiajekak fukau wiajekafka .=Kd;auh c,fha mSt iy oaHq;a ikakdhl;d w.hka yd
o je lr .; yels u djH ,jK jr. wkqj tys .=Kd;auh m%Odk mx;s
3 lg fn we; ^j.= wxl 4&'
l llre Y%uh b;s lr .; yelsu
ydkshl fkdjk iy uOHia: mrdih ;=< msys
fmdfydr c, imdokfha c,h c, frdams; j.dj i|yd Nd;d l< yels f'
ie,lsh hq;= lreKq kuq;a uOHia: mrdifha c,h Nd;d lrkafka k
l j.d udOHfha ,CIK jirlg jrlaj;a j.d moaO;sh msis c,fhka
fidayeh hq;= f'
l Nd;d lrk fmdfydr
l jd c,fha .=Kd;auh fmdfydr-c, imdokh is
lrk wdldrh
m<uq mfo j, ia;r lr we;s udOHfha ,CIK
yd Nd;d l< hq;= fmdfydr jr. yd tajdfha .=Kdx. ffoksl fnda. c, wjYH;djh wkqj hlr .;a
ms<sn| lreKq wkq.ukh lsu jeo.;a f' fmdfydr" c, imdok moaO;sh Tiafia fyda w;ska
fnda. j,g ,ndh yelsh' fnda.h" j.d l%uh iy
c, frdams; j.djka i|yd Nd;d l< hq;= c,h fnda.fha jrOl wjh wkqj Nd;d lrkq ,nk
msis h hq;= w;r" mSt iy oaHq;a ikakdhl;d fmdfydr m%udKh fjkia f'
w.hka fnda. j.djg ys;lr ugf ;sh hq;=h'

j.= wxl 4' jd c, imdokfha c,fha .=Kd;auh i|yd i,lkq ,nk lreKq

ie,lsh hq;= lreKq tall .=Kd;aul mx;sh

ydkshl fkdjk$ uOHia: mrdih ydkshs mrdih


fhda.H mrdih

mSt w.h idudkH mrdih 6'5-8'4

,jK;dj ^oHq;a ikakdhl;dj& dS/m 0.0 -0.8 0.8 - 3.0 >3

fidah ,s iul$,S <3 >3 -

laf,darhs ,s iul$,S <3 >3 -

fndafrdaka ,s .%E$,S <0.7 0.7 - 3.0 >3.0

nhsldnfka ,s iul$,S <1.5 1.5 - 8.5 >8.5

Courtesy: Guidelines for Interpretation of water quality for irrigation, Western fertilizer
handbook, page 38
31
fnda.fha jrOl wjh wkqj fmdaIl wjYH;djh
fjkia jk kuq;a ishu jrOl wj j, djKfha
mSt 5'8-6'5 mrdifha iy oaHQ;a ikakdhl;djh
1'5-2'5 dS/m f,i kv;a;= l< hq;=h'

ixirKh jk DFT iy NFT l%u j, fmr


;SrKh lr .;a ld,dka;r wkqj fmdaIl djK
,nd h hq;= f'

>k udOH i|yd fmdfydr-c, imdokh fmdmhla


u.ska ls%hd;aul jk c, imdok moaO;s Tiafia
fyda w;ska fhu l< yelsh' j.d udOHfha
f;;ukh fCIa;% Od;d ugf /f|k m
fhh hq;=h' fmdaIl m%udKh fmr ;SrKh lr .;a 43 jk rEmh( isria wdOdrl ilr we;s wdldrh
ld,dka;r j,ska Ydlfha uQ,uKav, l,dmhg ,ndh
me< jrOkh jkg kQ, m%Odk l| jgd ,sys,aj
hq;=h'
mg,jhs' Wig jrOkh jk wm; jrOkhla
fmdfydr fkdfhdok wjia:dj, Ydlfha uQ, iys; ;lald,s m%fNao j, iEu mrj 3-4 lg w;ka
uKav,h iys; >k udOHh fCIa;% Od;d ugf Ydl l| isria wdOdrl kQf,a .eg .eiSfuka" me<E
;nd .ekSug wjYH c,h muKla imdokh l< my,g ,siaid hdu j<lshs'
hq;=f'
fnda. yd m%fNao wkqj me< mqyqKq lsf l%u Nd;d
fs' wm; jrOkhla iys; ;lald,s j.djka
mqyqKq lsu yd lmamd j, fndfyda g ;ks l|ka l%uh Nd;d lrhs'
lsu fuys m%Odk l| muKla mj;akd fia iEu mdrYal
wxl=rhlau fi'' 5-6 muK jrOkh jQ wjia:df
mfiys fuka fkdj c,frdams; j.djka j, j.d w;ska lvd bj;a lrhs ^44 jk rEmh&'
udOH u.ska m%udKj;a Odrl yelshdjla ,nd fkdfoa'
j.d udOHhka Nd;d fkdjk djK j.djka j,
fuh jvd;a ;Sj% f' fufia fyhska wu;r wdOdrl
,nd u wjYH f' wm; jrOkhla iys; je,a
wdldr fnda. ^msms[a" ;lald,s& fukau wl f,i
M, ork yd M, j, nr je fnda. ^fn,afmmr" ngq&
i|yd fuu wdOdrl w;HdjYH f'

fuysoS Ydl l| jgd fh ma,diala uqjlg fyda


l| mduq,ska ,sys,aj .eg .eiQ fmd,st;s,ska kQ,a isria
wdOdrl f,i Nd;d lrhs' fuu kQ,a" j.df
by<ska il< ;sria wdOdrl l j, .eg .ikq
,ef ^43 jk rEmh&'
44 jk rEmh( mdrYal wxl=r bj;a lsu

32
.=ld,hla wiajkq ,ndfok wm; jrOkhla we;s lrk w;r" ;sria wdOdrl lh lrd ,d jQ g
;lald,s Ydl j, Wi kv;a;= l< yels ugka w.%ia:h bj;a lr oa;Sl YdLd folla lfha
mj;ajd .eksu wjYH f' fuys me<fha wiajkq fomiska my,g jrOkh ug i,iajhs' i,do
,ndka fldgfia mer m;% lsysmhla ^3-4 la& bj;a msms[a Ydlfha tla .eghlska M, tllg jvd je
lr Ydl l| fi'' 60 la muK my;a lr kej; ixLHdjla yg.; yelsh' tu M, j,ska lD;s
.eg .ihs ^45 jk rEmh&' fuh uq j.d ld,h yevfhka hq;= M, muKla l=vd ld,fhau bj;a
;=<u i;s 2-3 lg jrla l< hq;= w;r" f i|yd lsu l< hq;= f'
isria wdOdrl kQ, m%udKj;a .ska ;sh hq;=h'
j.df me< ish,a, tlu idjlg mqyqKq l< hq;=h'

45 jk rEmh ( me< mqyqKq lrk wdldrh

tla ;lald,s u,a lsks;a;l M, rdYshla yg .kakd


neka taldldr .=Kd;aul wiajekakla i|yd M,
;=kS lssu wjYH h yel' fuh m%fNao wkqj yd 46 jk rEmh( y; .Dy ;=< i,do-msms[a
wjYH lrkq ,nk f.j, Yd,;ajh wkqj fjkia Ydl mqyqKq lsu
jk kuq;a fmdf tla lsks;a;l M, 3-5 la muK
isk fia wfkl=;a M, l=vd ld,fhau bj;a l<
hq;=h'
fn,a fmmr Ydlh oa l|ka l%uhg tk tla Ydlhla
i,do-msm[s
a " m%fNaoh wkqj mqyK
q q lsf l%u fjkia m%Odk l|ka folla iys;j jrOkh jk f,i mqyqKq
f' 46 jk rEmfha lafjkafka l=vhl yevhg lrhs' m%Odk l|ka foflka muKla M, yg .kakd
mqyqKq lr we;s wdldrhhs' f i|yd m%Odk l| f,i m;% 2-3 lg w;ka msys mdrYal wxl=r
;sria wdOdrl lh olajd ;ks l|la f,i kv;a;= bj;a lrhs'
33
md,s; ;;aj hgf;a jrOkhg wjYH CIq foaY.=K ;;a;aj
myiqfjka md,kh lr je .=Kd;auhlska
c,frdams; j.dj hq;= by< wiajkq ,nd .; yelsu
Soil-less culture in
l je >k;aj Ydl .ykh u.ska Wmu fnda.
controlled environment wiajekakla ,nd .; yels u
Agriculture
l fnda. j.djg mi Nd;d l< fkdyels ia:dk
jr;udk lDIslrudka;fha jvd;a iQCIu yd M,hs i|yd fhd .; yels u
j.d l%uh c, frdams; j.d l%uh f,i yekah
l foaY.=l idOl ksid fnda. j.d l< fkdyels
yelsh' uQ,Ok ho wl by< ;dlaIKfhka hq;=
jqj;a wdrlaIs; .Dy ;=< md,s; ;;a;aj yd c, fyda wjku je m%foaY j,g jqjo fhda.Hu
frdam;
s l%u taldnoaO l< g fuu l%ufha M,hs;dj l fmdfydr yd c,h jvd;a ldrhlaIuj Nd;d
jvd;a je lr .; yelsf' fnda.fha jrOkhg l< yels u
n,mdk jdhj fukau uQ,uKav, mir ;;a;aj
fnda.hg W; f,i ,nd u;a wys;lr foaY.=l l wju N+ m%udKhlska Wmu m%fhdack ,nd
idOl u.yeru;a fuu.ska bgq lr .; yelsf' .; yels u

Y%S ,xldj yd wfkl=;a ksjr;k l,dmSh rgj,


wdrlaIs; .Dy fyda oe,a .Dy ;=< WIaK;ajh by<
ke.Su m%Odk .egjls' jD; ixirk c, frdams;
j.d l%u" WIaK;ajh wvq lsu i|yd ;rula bjy,a
f'

jy, uqfkys jd ljq ;eu" ,a fh jy,hg


uola by<ska fmd,s;Ska wdjrKh fhu" WIaK;ajh
je jkg c,h ula f,i biSu (misting),
,s mxld (exhaust fans) u.ska jd ixirKh
lsu" fhd .kakd NdPk iy k, iq meye;s u
47 jk rEmh( c,frdams; j.djla iys; wdrCIs; .Dyhla fyda iq meyeh wdf,am lsu WIaK;ajh wvqlsu
ioyd ;jrg;a bjy,a f'

wdrCIs; .Dy ;=< c,frdams;


j.djkays we;sh yels
j.df uQ,sl jeo.;al
.eg yd tajd uyrjd
l lDIs ridhk jH j,ska f;dr ksIamdokhla .ekSu
,nd .; yelsu
idudkH lafIa;% j.djl fukau c,frdams; j.djka
l mdxY= ix>gl j,ska f;dr wiajekakla ,nd
j,o m,sfndaO ydks" fnda. ldhsl widudkH;d yd
.; yels u
fmdaIl Iu;d fya;=fjka O .eg ;;a;aj
l by< jkdl iys; fouqyq m%fNao j, we;sh yelsh'
34
fnda. ldhsl widudkH;d 2' ;lald,s M, me,Su
Concentric cracking and
laIl mdil fjkial" WIaK;aj p,kh" catface
wl%uj;a fmdfydr yd c, iemhqu jeks fya;= ksid
we;sjk ;;a;aj fuhg wh;a f' iuyrla m%fNao ;lald,s me,fha kgqj jgd pl%dldrj iuflakasl
fujeks ;;a;aj j,g blaukska md;%s f' me,S fyda kgqf isg ys hk me,S we;sf ^49
iy 50 jk rEm&' jd l, wl WIaK;ajh iy jd
1' ;lald,s M, w. l=Kq u rd;%s WIaK;aj fjki je u jeks mdil ;;a;j a
Blossom end rot ksid we;sjk fuu widudkH;djh wdrlaIs; .Dy
;=< md,s; ;;a;aj hgf;a wju lr .; yels f'
;lald,s M,fha w. fl<jr Uqre meye;s .sKq
me,a, we;s f ^48 jk rEmh&' uQ,sl jYfhka
le,aish W!k;djh" laIl f;;uk fjkia"
uQ, uKav, ,jK idkaKh wl u" wl khsgc% ka
iemhSu jeks ;;a;aj fuhg fya;= jk neka tu
;;a;ajhka u.yeru u.ska fuu widudkH;d
u.yrjd .;yels f'

49 jk rEmh( ;lald,s iu flakasl M, me,Su

48 jk rEmh( ;lald,s M, w. l=Kq u


picture courtesy: Compendium of
tomato diseases
50 jk rEmh( ;lald,s kgqf isg ysfok me,S
picture courtesy: Compendium of
tomato diseases

35
3' fn,a fmmr f. yels,Su
Shirnk cracks
fn,a fmmr f. j, Wrysia jgd M,h ;=<g .sKq"
me wdldrhg fuu widudkH;dj fmkakq lrhs
52 jk rEmh( i,do
^51 jk rEmh&' M,h u; we;s c, x CIlj
msms[a f.
jdIam u" jd rd;%s WIaK;aj fjkial fuhg jl%dldrj keu
fya;= f' rd;%s ld,fha hym;a jd ixirKhla
we;sug bvyeu u.ska fuh md,kh lr .; yels
f'

frda. iy lD ydks
idudkH j.djl fukau c,frdams; j.djka j,o
fnda." lD yd frda. ydks j,g md;%s u ish
yelsh' ksfrda.S frdamK jHh Nd;h" fnda.
ikSmdrlaIdj" jrOkh i|yd iqiq mir ;;a;aj
md,kh" ksjer YIH l%u Nd;h fuu ydks md,kh
lr .ekSf uQ,sl w;d,u f' frda. yd m,sfndaO
ydks ksjerj ykdf.k jD; lafIa;% j.df
md,kh i|yd Nd;d lrk l%u wkq.ukh lsu
iy wjYH;djh wkqj ksrfoaYs; m<sfndaOkdYl
Nd;d lsu;a l< hq;=h'

fmdaIl Iu;d
51 jk rEmh( fn,a fmmr f. yels,Su
Nutritional disorders
c,frdams; j.djka j, fmdaIl djKh fnda.hg
m%Yia: f,i fkd,enqKfyd;a fmdaIl W!k;d fukau
4' i,do msms[a f. fmda I l I we;s h yel' fuu Iu;d
jl%dldrj keu fndfydauhla Ydl jrOk f.h" m%udKh" m;% yevh"
Fruit crooking >klu" lf|a jrKh" mrj w;r r" uQ,uKav,fha
iajNdjh" M, yg .ekSu yd M, j, iajNdjhkays
r j , fmda I Kh" M, uq , a wjfha wys ; lr
we;sjk fjkial yd jrK mrhdi u.ska ndysrj
WIaK;ajhka" f;;ukh wl u jeks ;;a;aj
fmkakq lrhs' fuu ndysr ,laIK fnda.h wkqj
ksid fuh we;s f' fujeks ,CIK iys; M, uq,a
fjkia f' fmdaIl Iu;d ksid fnda.hka fmkakq
wjia:dfu bj;a lsu jvd;a iqiqh ^52 jk
lrk fmd ,laIK j.= wxl 5 ys i|yka jk w;r
rEmh&'
tjeks fmd ,CIK lsysmhla rEm igyka wxl 53-
60 u.ska fmkakq lrhs'
36
j.= wxl 5( fmdaIl Iu;d fya;=fjka me<E fmkakq lrk fmd ,CIK
uQ,jHh W!k;d ,CIK wlu fyda Iu ksid fmkajk ,CIK
khsg%cka Ydl jrOkh wvqjk neka mrj fl f' l| isyska ;o fld, meye;s f' m;% fl,jr ms,siaiSu" uQ,
f' mer m;% m<uqfjka ly meye jk w;r uKav,h jrOkh rj, f' u,a yg.ekSu" c
iuia:hla f,i Ydlh ly Y% fld, meyehla .kS' ksIamdokh wvq f'

fmdiamria me<E l=reu" ;o fld, meye;s fyda r;= fyda o ,m m;% j, kdr w;r yrs;CIh we;sf' hlv
meye;s m;% fyda m;% kgq iys; f' iy ;U W!k;d ,CIK fmkakq l< yel'

fmdgEish mer m;% y;CIh iys; ,m yd uereKq fldgia idudkHfhka jemqr wjfYdaIKh fkdlrhs' jemqr
j,ska hq;= u yd r;= jrKl iys; fldgia ;su fyda we;s g th ue.akSish W!K;djh we;s lrk w;r
,sfik iajNdjfhka hqla; f' uex.kSia" iskala iy hlv W!k;d o we;s h yelsh'

i,a*r idudkHfhka W!k;d fmkau r, w;r W!k;djhl jrOkh wvqjk w;r m;% l=vd f' l,d;=rlska m;%
m;% ly meye u is f' W!k;d ,laIK ,m m;% fl,jr ms,siaiSu yd kdr w;r y;CIh we;s f'
j, m<uqj fmkakq lrhs'

ue.akSish m;% fl,jr fyda kdr w;r y;CIh fmkajk fmkakq lrk ,CIK b;d wvqh'
w;r y;CI ,CIK m;% fl,jka wdrN f'

le,aish jrOl ia:dk yd ,m m;% h<S ue hhs' m<;=re fmkakq lrk ,CIK b;d wvqh'
fNda. j, fmkakq lrk ,CIK fnda.hg fYaIs;
f' ;lald,s yd fn,a fmmr j, M, w. l=Kq u
we;sh yel'

hlv ,m m;% j, kdr w;r y;CIh we;sjk w;r iuyr g Uqre meye;s ,m we;s f'
wl W!k;djhl imQrK m;%hu iq ly meye
h hhs'

laf,daka y;CIfhka wdrN" m;% ue,fjk w;r ,m m;% w.% yd r ms,siaiSu" Uqre meyeu" m;% mK;
wdldrhg mgl uefr' uq,a l=re " uq,a w.%ia: >K ug fmr ye,S hdu yd y;CI ,CIK olakg ,ef'
f' jrOk f.h wvq f'

uex.kSia kdr w;r y;CIh we;s f' wl g ,m fyda b mer m;% fyda m;% w. fl,jka y;CIh wdrN
f,i mgl h hhs' y;,j wixOdkh f' f' iuyr g m;% jl% f' jrOkh wvq f'

fndafrdaka jrOl ia:dk ue hhs' mdrYal wxl=r msmsu" M, m,uqj ,m f,i yg.kakd kdr w;r y;CI ,CIK
lD;s u" m;% yev fjkia u is f' fmkajhs'

iskala m;% l=vd u yd yevh fjkia h yel" mrj w;r hlv W!k;d ,CIK fmkakq lrhs'
r wvq u ksid m;% fijkahla f,i lsh yel'
yg.;a m;%" kdr w;r y;CI ,m we;s f'

fldmr W!k;d ,CIK wvqh' ,m m;% ;o fld< meyeu yd jrOkh rj, hlv W!k;djh;a iu. w;= yg
yevh fjkia f' mrd.Kh yd M, yg.ekSu wvq f' .ekSu wvq f' uq,a uy;au yd wiajdNdl l=vd rjrK
jQ uq,a we;s f'

fud,sk m<uqj kdr w;r y;CIh we;s f' fndfyda g l,d;=rlska olakg ,ef' ;lald,s m;% rkajka lymdg
mer m;% j,ska ,laIK wdrN f' f' u,a f.dajd c me, omdg f'
37
53 jk rEmh( iafg%dafnrs le,aish W!k;djh 57 jk rEmh( ;lald,s khsg%cka W!k;djh

54 jk rEmh( iafg%dafnrs hlv W!k;djh 58 jk rEmh( iafg%dafnrs iskala W!k;djh

55 jk rEmh( ;lald,s uex.kSia W!k;djh 59 jk rEmh( ;lald,s ue.akSish W!k;djh

56 jk rEmh( ;lald,s hlv W!k;djh 60 jk rEmh( iafg%dafnrs i,a*r W!k;djh


picture courtesy: Compendium of tomato diseases, Compendium of Strawberry diseases-The
American Phytopathological Society

38
ksishdldrj M, yg fkd.ekSu c,frdams; j.df kv;a;=
wdrlaIs; .Dy ;=< j.d lsf mrd.khg Wmld iy md,k wjYH;djhkaa
lDka fkdue;s u" b;d je yd wvq WIaK;aj j, idr:l j.djla mj;ajdf.k hdu i|yd j.dlrejka
mrd. ls%hdld fkdu" iQrhdf,dalh m%udKj;a iska my; i|yka lreKq flfrys ie,ls,a, fhduq
fkdu" iajNdl iq<x Odrdj,g md;%S fkdu jeks lsu w;HdjYH f' tu lreKq tlla fyda iSudld
O idOl ksid j.dj fydka jrOkh u,a jqjfyd;a wdr:sl jkdlula iys; j.djla ,nd.;
yg.;a; o M, u wvqh yel' fkdyels jkq we;'
ksih
s dldrj mrd.kh is fkdfk lD;%u
S mrd.kh l fmdaIl djKfha mSt w.h 5'8-6'5 w;r
i|yd my; i|yka l%u Nd;d l< yel' mj;ajd.; hq;=h' oHq;a ikakdhl;dj
ffcj l%u - lDka u.ska mrd.khg bv ie,iSu grhg fvisiSuka 1'5-2'5 w;r mrdihl
;su fnda. jrOkh i|yd iqiq f' by;
hdka;%sl l%u - Ydl fi,ug Ndckh lsu i|yd mSt iy oHq;a ikakdhl;d mrdi j,ska je
iq<x Odrd heu fyda wvq w.hl mej;Su djKfhka fm`Il
Ydl laIl lmkhlg ,la l, wjfYdaIKhg iy fnda.fha uQ, uKav,hg ydks
yels ir, lml Nd;h is ug fya;= h yelsh' me<E fmkakq lrk
ridhksl l%u- fydarf udak Nd;h ^f i|yd Tlaik
S ndysr ,CIK fmdaIl djKfha fhda.H;djh
ldKavhg wh;a 0'15% 4CPA ms<sn| fydou orYlh f' tu ,CIK
merdlaf,dafrd mSfkdlais weisla ykdf.k fmdaIl djKh ksjer lsu l<
w,h ;lald,s j.djka j, M, hq;=h ^61 jk rEmh&'
,nd .ekSu i|yd cmdkfha nyq,j
Nd;d f' ;lald,s u,a lsks;a;l
mqIam 3-4 la msmqkq wjia:df u,a
j,g fydafudakh biskq ,nhs' je
idkakfhka fyda tlu u,g lsysm
jdrhla biSu fya;=fjka wNHka;rh
fc,suh iajNdjh iys; M, yg
.ekSug bv we;'

fnda.h iy ;sfnk im;a wkqj iqiq l%uhla f;dard


.; yel'
61 jk rEmh( fmdaIl W!K;d iys; iafg%dafn me<hla

l fmdaIl djKfha CIksl idkaK fjkial


kqiqiqh' f ksid mSt iy oHq;a ikakdhl;d
w.hka fjkia f'
39
l m%udKj;a whqka djKfha WIaK;ajh mj;ajd l jD; j.d l%u j, fnda.h jrOkh jk g
.; hq;h= ' WIaK;ajh by< hk g Ydl iajik nfka fmdaIK djK ugu wvqjk w;r f
f.h je jk neka Tlaiscka wjYH;djh ksid ,jK idkaKh je h yelsh' tjeks
je f' ta iuu djKfha Tlaiscka hf ;;a;aj fnda. jrOkhg fhda.H fkdf' tjeks
yelshdj wvqh' fuh jvd;a ydkslr jkafka wjia:djl b;s we;s djKh bj;a lr
y; iy ,a .Dy ;=< jd ld,fha WIaK;ajh w;a djKhla msru wjYH f'
je jkg h' tjeks ;;a;aj u.yeu i|yd
wjYH ;;a;aj ,ndh hq;=h' l j.dj i|yd m%udKj;a whqka wdf,dalh iy
wfkl=;a wjYH;djka idudkH fCIa;% j.djl
l me<E j, wjfYdaIKh i|yd iEu gu fmdaIK fukau c, frdams; j.df o ,nd hhq;= f'
djKfha h jQ Tlaic
s ka m%udKj;a whqka ;sh
hq;=h' Tlaiscka idkaKh wvq jQ g fmdaIl l c,frdams; j.djka j, mdxY= ckl CIq
wjfYdaIK f.h wvq jk fyhska th wiajkq kaf.ka isjk ydks fndfyda rg wju f'
wvq ug fya;=jla jk w;r uq,a l=Kq u i|yd flfia kuq;a idudkHfhka iq,n frda. iy lD
o fya;= ldrl f' jD; l%ufha kej; Nd;d ydks we;sh yelsh' ks;r mCIdfjka
lrk fmdaIl djKh iajdNdlj jd;kh jk isu;a uQ,sl wjia:dfu ydks ykd.ekSu;a"
fia by< isg fmdaIl djK gexlshg jeug tjeks .eg u.yrjd .ekSug Wmld f' j.dj
ie,eiau l< yelsh' msisj mj;ajd .ekSu;a ksjer YIH md,k
l%u wkq.ukh yd ;=,;s fmdaIl Y%k Nd;h;a
l jD; j.d l%u j, ixirKh is fkdjk tjeks .eg we;su wvq lrhs' ksfrda.S u;a
fyhska nfka fmdaIl djKhg by<ska m%udKj;a j.djla mj;ajd .ekSu m,sfndaO ydks wju
ysia wjldYhla ;sug bv yeh hq;=h ^62 jk lsug fya;=f'
rEmh&' ixirKh fkdjk j.d l%ufha
idr:lNdjh r mj;skfa ka uq,j
a , iS>% jrOkh l ieu gu j.dj wdrN lsu i|yd frda.
i|yd jd;hg ksrdjrKh jk uq,a m%udKh u;h' iy lD ydks j,ska f;dr frdamk jH Nd;d
uq,a uska fnda.hg wjYH jk Tlaiscka lrkak' frda.S Ydl gq .i .,jd kdY
wjfYdaIK lrk neka <m uq,a j, by< 2$3 lrkak'
fldgi jd;hg ksrdjrKh jk f,i iy b;s
l >k udOHh ;=< j.df jgmKqjkaf.a ydks
fldgi fmdaIK djKfha mdfjk whqka ;su
olakg ,efk ishu me< kdY lr j.d
jvd;a fhda.Hh f'
udOH jdkqyrKh lrkak' Nd;d lrk c,ho
jgmKqjkaf.ka f;dr u b;d jeo.;a f'

l frda. iy lD wdidok j,oS lDIs ridhksl


Nd;d lsu wjYH h yel' mirhg iy
mdfNda.l
s hdg ydkshla fkdjk fia lDIs ridhk
jH Nd;d lrkak' ieu gu lDIs ridhk
j,ska f;dr ksIamdokhla lsug W;aidy l<
hq;=h'

62 jk rEmh ( uQ,uKav,h fydka jrOkh jQ j.djla


40
l fmdaIl ixirKh jk k, iy nka ;=< c,frdams; j.df jdis
we,a.S Ydl jrOkh k, wjysr h yel'
l Yd, N+hla wjYH fkdf' uy,a ksjdi
tjeks ;;a;aj uyeru i|yd we;=<; l
meye;s k, Nd;d lrkak' tla j.djla j, by< ud,fha l=vd bvl fukau wdrlaIs;
wjika jQ miqj ;kql laf,daka djKhla .Dy ;=<o j.d l< yelsh'
fhd k, msis lr kej; j.djg fmr l mia Nd;d fkdlrk ksid j.dlrejd msis
msis c,fhka fida ykak' j.d mirhl kshef,a'
l wdrCIs; .Dy ;=< isria fy` ;sria j.d u l md;a;s ieliSu" j,a fk,S" c, imdokh
Nd;d jk l%u j, we;=<; fma<s j,g jeks llre Y%uh wl" Ialr ldrhhka
m%udKj;a f,i iQrhdf,dalh fkd,eu ksid fkdue;'
jrOkh iy wiajekak wvq h yel' f ksid
fma<s msysgqf f ms<sn|j ie,ls,su;a h l wLKav j.djla mj;ajdf.k hdug yels f'
hq;=h' l mdxY= ckl frda. yd jgmKq ydks wju f'
l lD;Suj mrd.Kh l< hq;= wjia:djkays ta l wjdrfha ksIamdokhla ^jD; mirfha
i|yd iqiq l%u wkq.ukh l< hq;=h' foaY.=l idOl iqiq fkdjk ld,mfo
l >k udOHh iys; ixirKh fkdjk j.d l%u j,& l< yelsh'
j, fmdaIl c,h ,nd fuka wk;=rej c, l fkdaxYhla f,i l< yels j.djls'
imdokh lsf fmdaIl laIrKh f
yelshdj jeh' f fya;=fjka fnda. fmdaIl l c, frdams; l%ufha fndfyda fnda. blaukska
W!k;djhka j,g myiqfjka Ndckh h yels wiajkq ,nd foa'
neka ta ms<sn|j wjOdkfhka hq;=j lghq;=
l ksjer md,k l%u hgf;a jvd je wiajekakla
l< hq;=h'
,nd .; yel'
l fnda. w;r m%udKj;a mr;rhla ;eu;a" je,a l j.d l%uh jvd;a wdlrYkSh ksid ^mia iu
fnda. j.d lrk g wdOdrl iemhSu;a jeo.;a inkaO fkdjk neka& llrejka fhug
f' myiq f'
l Ydl l=vd l, isgu mqyqKq lsrSu;a" ksjeros
l mq,a mrdihl t<j yd u,a m%fNao j.d
wdldrhg lmamd lsrsu;a b;d jeo.;ah'
l< yelsh'

l c, ydksh wju l< yelsh'

l ;rld fjf<| fmd, i|yd mia rys;


me< yd uq,a weoao jQ w;= me< ,nd .; yel'

41
iSudld idOl l fld, t<j-i,do" f. i,do (Head
lettuce), lkal=ka" f.dgqfld,
l uQ,Ok hou wl f' wdrCIs; .Dy ;=<
c, frdams; j.djla lrkafka k fuh ;j;a l t<j-;lald,s" ngq" fndax" " oU," ud
je f' ia" fn,a fmmr" f.dajd" u,a f.dajd"
msms[a" rdnq" i,do-msmsCoaC
l fmdaIl udOH ieliSu" mSt yd oHq;a
ikakdhl;dj uekSu" fmdaIl udOHh ksjer l u,a$is;=re me<-weka;+h" fuf.da,a"
lsu" mir md,kh jeks lghq;= i|yd flda,shdia" frdai" ldfkaIka" ls" crfnrd"
;dlaIl kqula iys; mqyqKq Y%uh wjYH lmqre
f' l m<;=re-iafg%dfn" fu,ka
l uQ,sl ksIamdok hou wl fyhska je l l= nvq-mdia,s" ka" T.fkd
jkdl iys; fnda. i|yd iSud f' (Oregano), ia fis,a (Sweet basil)
l tAllh l%shd;aul lsu i|yd bkaOk fyda l ;DK yd OdkH-fida." ndr,s" nruqvd ;DK"
,sh wjYH f' " nvb=
l WIaK;ajh m%Yia: ugka mj;ajd .ekSu l T!IO me<-fl`udld
i|yd wu;r fhojq ,nd ug isf'

j.d l< yels fnda.


mq,a mrdihl fnda. j.d l< yel ^63 jk rEmh&'
fjf<| fmd, b,au wkqj jvd je jkdlula
iys; fnda. j.d lsu fyda mdfNdackh i|yd
.DydY%;
s j wjYH jk fld, t<j yd fjk;a t<j
j.d lsu iqiq f'

63 jk rEmh( c,frdams; f,i j.d l< yels fnda. lsysmhla


42
c,frdams; j.df wiajkq fld< t<j jr. i|yd wiajkq fk<Sf uOHia:j
fk<Su" fY%aKs.; lsu yd frE wjh f;dard .; hq;=h' w,xldr Ydl fyda
u,a j.dfo ta ta jr.hg W; wiajkq fk<Sf
bm;a lsu wjka we;s neka iqiq wji:df fk<d .;
c,frdams; j.df by< .=Kd;aul wiajkq ,nd hq;=h'
.ekSu uQ,sl wruqKls' fuys wiajkq fjf<| fmd,g
bm;a lsf w, m%;Ska ,nd .ekSug my; wiajkq fY%a.; lsu yd
mshjr wkq.ukh l< hq;=h' .nvd lsu
l ksh; wjia:df wiajkq fk<Su' widudkH yeve;s fyda ydks jQ fyda me,a, iys;
f. bj;a lr l=vd" uOHu yd Yd, hkqfjka
l fjf<|fmd, b,au wkqj wiajkq fY%aKs.;
f.j, m%udKh wkqj fY%a.; l< hq;=h'
lsu'
bka miq wjYH k ksIAmdolhd ykd.ekSug f.
l weisu" .nvd lsu yd m%jdykh'
u; l=vd f,an,a we,h yel' fnda.h m<sfndaOkdYl
j,ska f;dr k ta nj jQ f,an,ao fuf,i we,h
wiajkq fk<Su yel'
ksh; wjia:djg wiajkq fk<Su u.ska mYapd;a
fjf<| fmd,g bm;a lrk ;=re fk,d .;a wiajkq
wiajkq ydks wju lr .; yels f' l,a bl=;a ug
YS;-h<s ;;a;ajhl .nvd lr ;eh hq;=h' ta
fmr yd miq wiajkq fk<Sf isjk ydks je<elaug
i|yd l%uj;aj weish yels" jd isre iys; iqiq
M,fha fyda Ydlfha jhi ksjrj k .ekSu wjYHh'
m%udKfha wiqrK Nd;d l< hq;=h'
f i|yd j.d jdr;d igyka Nd;d l< hq;=h'

fn,a fmmr M,h Ydlfha ;shu m%fNaohg ksh; fjf<| fmd,g bm;a lsu
meyeh ,enqKq miq fk<sh hq;=h' ;lald,s" i,do
ksIamdokh yd fjf<| fmd, b,au wkqj iqiq
i|yd Nd;d lrkafka k M,h imQrKfhkau
weiqre yd f,an,a Nd;d lsfuka ksIamdokfha
r;a meye .ekaug m%:u ly r;= meye wjia:df
fjf<| jkdlu jelr .; yelsf ^64 jk
fk<d .; hq;=h'
rEmh&'
i,do msmsCoaC fug m%:u" fi'' 15-20la muK
os.e;s" uOHia:j frE M, fk<d .; hq;=h'

iafg%dafn M,h r;a meye .ekajqk g wiajkq


fk<d.; hq;=h'

wiajkq fk<Sf M,h kgqfjka fjka fkdjk fia


iqiq WmlrKhlska lmd .; hq;=h' fn,a fmmr
i|yd kgqj fi'' 4-6 .g ;su iqiq f' M,
;e,Su fyda ;=jd, is fkdjk m msis w;ajeiq
yd jdKqy; msyshd fyda l;=re Nd;d l< hq;=h' 64 jk rEmh( fp ;lald,s fjf<|fmd,g
bm;a lrk wdldrhla
43
c,frdams; j.djka i|yd
wjYH WmlrK
c, fmdmh
fnda. j.d moaO;sfha Od;djh yd j.d l%uh wkqj
iqiq c, fmdm f;dard .; hq;=h' c, fmdmhla
f;dard .ekSf my; i|yka lreKq .ek ie,ls,u
s ;a
h hq;=h'

l u, fkdnefok jdfka fyda fmd,sldnfka


bfm,rh iys; h hq;=h'

l c, fmdmh yd bfm,rh w;r


c, ldka ula is fkdh hq;=h'

tallfha Yd,;ajh wkqj fmdmfha Od;djh


;SrKh l< hq;= w;r wjuh wYaj n, 0'5 j;a h
hq;=h ^65 jk rEmh&' ixirKh jk c,frdams;
j.djkays" djKh ;=< .s,ah yels wdldr c,
fmdm jqjo Nd;d l< yel ^66 jk rEmh&'

66 jk rEmh( c,fha .s,ah yels fmdmhla

65 jk rEmh( .DydYs%; c, fmdmhla

44
oahq;a moaO;sh kshq% grh
Nutri meter
yisfha we;sh yels ,s ldka je<elah
yels iajhxlS%h ,s ix f Wmdx. wjYH f' oHq;a ikakdhl;djhg wu;rj fmdaIl djKfha
wvx.= fmdaIl m%udKh ms<sn|j k .ekSu i|yd
iajxlS%h WIaK;aj md,l fuh wOdr f ^68 jk rEmh&'

iajhxlS%h ld,.kl udk


me<E uq,a ld,fha Tlaiscka yd fmdaIl ixirKh
l< hq;= ld,h iSudjk neka ,s n, wjYH;djh
wju f' f ksid ld,.kl udk u.ska fmdaIl kshq% grh
djKh iemhsh hq;= ld,h iajhxlS%hj md,kh l<
yels f'

udml
ir, WIa K ;a j udk" f;;a yd h,s n,a n
WIaK;ajudk" mSt udml" oah;
q a ikakdhl;d udml
^67 jk rEmh& jeks ir, WmlrK Nd;d lsfuka fmdaIl djKh
jvd;a ksrjoH md,s; ;;a;j
a hka we;slr .; yelsh'

68 jk rEmh( kshq% grh Nd;h

67 jk rEmh( ir< wdldrfha mSt yd


ohq;a ikakdhl;d udml

45
mSiS fyda fmd,st;s,Ska k, mrd.Kh i|yd Nd; l< yels
WmlrK
l fuu k, mdrcnq, lsrK m%;sfrda u
uQ,l
s wjYH;djhls' tfia fkdjk k, Nd;d l ir, lml (Vibrator)
lrkafka k u;=mg
s iq meye;s ;Sk;
a wdf,am
tla tla Ydlh fjka fjkaj laIl
l< hq;=h ^69 jk rEmh&'
lmkhlg Ndckh lsu i|yd fuh Nd;d
l ;a;s >klu ms<sn| ie<ls,su;a h hq;= lrhs'
w;r mSiS k, y;rjk mx;sfha (class
l f,dajr (Blowers)
iv) u jvd;a iqiqh'
Ydl" iq<x Odrd u.ska fi,ug Ndckh lsu
yd mrd. iqrejd yeug wdOdr f ^70 jk
rEmh&'

69 jk rEmh( mSiS k, moaO;shla

l ng moaO;Ska i|yd 4 mSiS k, iqiqjk 70 jk rEmh( f,dajrhla


w;r c, imdokh i|yd fmd,st;s,k S a k,
jvd iqiqh'

46