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English 11: ORAL COMMUNICATION IN CONTEXT (SHS)

TOPIC/ LESSON NAME Communication Models


CONTENT STANDARD The learner understands the nature and elements of oral communication in context.
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS The learner designs and performs effective controlled and uncontrolled oral communication activities based
on context.
LEARNING COMPETENCIES Differentiates the various models of communication. (EN11/12OC-Ia-3)
SPECIFIC LEARNING OUTCOMES The learner can make a comparison matrix of the various models of communication.
The learner can prepare and present a situation that illustrates their own model.
TIME ALLOTMENT 1.5 hours

LESSON OUTLINE
During the lesson, the learners will:
1. Introduction: Discuss with the teacher previous learning about the Speech Communication Transaction Model. (5 minutes)
2. Motivation: Accomplish the Sender-Receiver Model Worksheet to enrich knowledge of the various components of
communication. (5 minutes)
3. Instruction/Delivery: Present ones researches on their assigned model of communication and discuss. (40 minutes)
4. Practice: Make a comparison matrix of the various models of communication. (15 minutes)
5. Enrichment: Analyze the communication system in the family and choose a model that illustrates it. (10 minutes)
6. Evaluation: Prepare and present a situation that illustrates a model of communication of their choice. (15 minutes)

MATERIALS
Abulencia, Efren et.al Fundamentals of Speech Communication. Rex Bookstore. 2009
http://communicationtheory.org/aristotle%E2%80%99s-communication-model/
http://lms.oum.edu.my/econtent/OUMH1303KDP/content/24094922OUMH1303_OralCommunication_v1/
RESOURCES OUMH1303_Topic1/OUMH1303_1_2.html
http://thecommunicationprocess.com/models-of-communication/
http://www.iacact.com/?q=modelshttp://communicationtheory.org/lasswells-model/
http://www.praccreditation.org/resources/documents/APRSG-Comm-Models.pdf Accessed April 28, 2016

Prepared by: KATRIN B. LUTAO, SHS Subject Teacher May 2016


PROCEDURE MEETING THE LEARNERS NEEDS
INTRODUCTION
1. Have a review of previous discussion on the nature of communication.
2. Ask the students the following questions:
a. How can you define communication based on your own understanding?
b. What did you learn about the Speech Communication Transaction Model?

MOTIVATION Teacher Tip:


1. Provide the students with the Source-Receiver Model Worksheet. Explain their task to Briefly explain first to the students the
create a specific example that shows how the model illustrates the various components example given so they will find it easy to
of communication. Let them work in pairs. Afterwards, ask few students to answer this create their own specific example.
question:
a. How does this model help you understand the various components of
communication?
INSTRUCTION/DELIVERY Teacher Tip:
1. Students will share what they learned based from their researched readings about their While discussing, have students identify some
assigned model of communication. The teacher will ask volunteers to draw the model strengths and weaknesses of each model of
on the board as the discussion is going on. communication. In addition, provide concrete
2. The following are some information about the models of communication.
examples that apply to each.
a. Aristotelian Model

Aristotle, a great philosopher initiative the earliest mass communication model called
Aristotles Model of Communication. He proposed model before 300 B.C who found the
importance of audience role in communication chain in his communication model. This model is
more focused on public speaking than interpersonal communication.

Prepared by: KATRIN B. LUTAO, SHS Subject Teacher May 2016


Aristotle Model of Communication is formed with 5 basic elements:

(i) Speaker, (ii) Speech, (iii) Occasion, (iv) Audience and (v) Effect.

Aristotle advises speakers to build speech for different audience on different time (occasion)
and for different effects.
Speaker plays an important role in Public speaking. The speaker must prepare his speech and
analysis audience needs before he enters into the stage. His words should influence in audience
mind and persuade their thoughts towards him.
Example:
Alexander gave brave speech to his soldiers in the war field to defeat Persian Empire.
Speaker Alexander
Speech about his invasion
Occasion War field
Audience Soldiers
Effect To defeat Persia

b. Laswells Model
Harold Dwight Lasswell, the American political scientist states that a convenient way to describe
an act of communication is to answer the following questions

Prepared by: KATRIN B. LUTAO, SHS Subject Teacher May 2016


Who
Says What
In Which Channel
To Whom
With what effect?

This model is about process of communication and its function to society, According to Lasswell
there are three functions for communication:
1. Surveillance of the environment
2. Correlation of components of society
3. Cultural transmission between generation
Lasswell model suggests the message flow in a multicultural society with multiple audiences.
The flow of message is through various channels. And also this communication model is similar
to Aristotles communication model.
In this model, the communication component who refers the research area called Control
Analysis,
Says what is refers to Content Analysis,
In which channel is refers to Media Analysis,
To Whom is refers to Audience Analysis
With What Effect is refers to Effect Analysis
Example:
CNN NEWS A water leak from Japans tsunami-crippled nuclear power station resulted in

Prepared by: KATRIN B. LUTAO, SHS Subject Teacher May 2016


about 100 times the permitted level of radioactive material flowing into the sea, operator Tokyo
Electric Power Co said on Saturday.
Who TEPC Operator
What Radioactive material flowing into sea
Channel CNN NEWS (Television medium)
Whom Public
Effect Alert the people of japan from the radiation.
Advantage of Lasswell model:
It is Easy and Simple
It suits for almost all types of communication
The concept of effect
Disadvantage of Lasswell model:
Feedback not mentioned
Noise not mentioned
Linear Model

c. The Shannon and Weaver Model


The original model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and telephone technologies.
Their initial model consisted of three primary parts: sender, channel, and receiver. The sender
was the part of a telephone a person spoke into, the channel was the telephone itself, and the
receiver was the part of the phone where one could hear the other person.

Shannon and Weaver also recognized that often there is static that interferes with one listening
to a telephone conversation, which they deemed noise. The noise could also mean the absence
of signal. In a simple model, often referred to as the transmission model or standard view of
communication, information or content (e.g. a message in natural language) is sent in some
form (as spoken language) from an emisor/ sender/ encoder to a destination/
receiver/ decoder. This common conception of communication views communication as a
means of sending and receiving information.

The strengths of this model are simplicity, generality, and quantifiability. Social scientists Claude

Prepared by: KATRIN B. LUTAO, SHS Subject Teacher May 2016


Shannon and Warren Weaver structured this model based on the following elements:
An information source, which produces a message. A transmitter, which encodes the message
into signals. A channel, to which signals are adapted for transmission. A receiver, which
'decodes' (reconstructs) the message from the signal. A destination, where the message
arrives. Shannon and Weaver argued that there were three levels of problems for
communication within this theory. The technical problem: how accurately can the message be
transmitted? The semantic problem: how precisely is the meaning 'conveyed'? The effectiveness
problem: how effectively does the received meaning affect behavior?

d. Berlos SMCR Model

In 1960, David Berlo expanded on Shannon and Weavers (1949) linear model of communication
and created the SMCR Model of Communication. The Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver Model

Prepared by: KATRIN B. LUTAO, SHS Subject Teacher May 2016


of communication separated the model into clear parts and has been expanded upon by other
scholars.

e. Schramms Model
Communication is usually described along a few major dimensions: Message (what type of
things are communicated), Source / emisor / sender / encoder (by whom), Form (in which
form), Channel (through which medium), Destination / receiver / target /decoder (to whom),
and Receiver.

Schramm's Model of Commnunication was postulated by Wilbur Schramm in 1954, where he


suggested that communication is a two way process where both sender and receiver take turns
to send and receive a message. The message is only sent after encoding so the sender is also
called Encoder and the encoded message is decoded under receipt by the receiver, making him
the Decoder.
Schramm's Model has different components for communications where
Sender (transmitter) is the person who sends the message.
Encoder is the person who converts the message to be sent into codes.
Decoder is the person who gets the encoded message which has been sent by the encoder
and converts it into the language understandable by the person.
Interpreter is the person who tries to understand and analyze the message. Message is
received after interpretation. Interpreter and receiver is the same person.
Receiver is the person who gets the message. He/she decodes and interprets the actual
message.
Message is the data sent by the sender and information that the receiver gets.
Feedback is the process of responding to the received message by the receiver.

Prepared by: KATRIN B. LUTAO, SHS Subject Teacher May 2016


Medium or media is the channel used to send the message.
Noise is the interference and interruptions caused during the process. It is also
created when the intended meaning of the message sent by the sender and the meaning
interpreted by the receiver is different which is known as Semantic Noise.

PRACTICE Teacher Tip:


1. Divide the class into five groups. Tell each to make a comparison table of the various Students may also perform a task of analyzing
models of communications. The characteristics will be presented to guide them in posts of famous personalities, focusing on the
analyzing the similarities and differences of the models. They will be given 10 minutes message, and check which model suits the
to work on the task and 5 minutes to present in the class their output.
communication.
ENRICHMENT
1. Ask students to analyze the communication system in their own family. They will
choose a model that illustrates the communication. They will share to the class their
analysis.
EVALUATION Teacher Tip:
1. The students will prepare and present a situation that illustrates a model of The teacher may provide/assign students
communication of their choice. They will be given 10 minutes to prepare and 5 minutes with contexts/setting from which they will
for presentation. think of a situation to present.

Prepared by: KATRIN B. LUTAO, SHS Subject Teacher May 2016