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Diagnosis of Pregnancy
Lecturer: Dr. Mercado | August 7, 2017
Transcribed by: AAG l JBG l ECL l ABL l RAM

1. Presumptive Evidence of Pregnancy
i. Nausea with or without vomiting
ii. Disturbances in urination - Small, frequent feedings
iii. Fatigue - Avoidance of fatty foods
iv. Perception of fetal movement - Light, dry, low fat diet is recommended
v. Breast Symptoms - Ice chips to relieved heartburn, which is the
2. Presumptive Signs of Pregnancy most common cause of vomiting
i. Cessation of Menstruation
ii. Anatomical Breast changes
iii. Changes in Vaginal Mucosa Hyperemesis gravidarum
iv. Skin pigmentation - Severe nausea and vomiting that might lead to
v. Thermal Signs severe dehydration
3. Probable Evidence of Pregnancy - Might require hospitalization
i. Abdominal Enlargement - Intractable vomiting - secondary to gestational
ii. Changes in the uterine size, shape and
thyrotoxicosis, request for FSH and monitor up to
iii. Changes in the cervix 3 months.
iv. Braxton Hicks Contraction
v. Ballottement Disturbances in urination
vi. Outlining the fetus - Enlarging uterus causes direct pressure on the
vii. Endocrine Test bladder
4. Positive Signs of Pregnancy
- Frequent urination, dribbling, bladder irritability,
5. Differential Diagnosis
i. Pseudocyesis nocturia and urinary tract infection
6. Identification of Fetal Life or Death - UTI - compressed bladder retained urine
7. Radiologic Evidences of fetal demise bacterial growth
- Bacteruria - >100,000 microorganism
Molar Pregnancy (-) pregnancy test (PT) result d/t high levels - Proper urine collection
of -hCG. Midstream
Shifting of hormones reason for (+) PT prior to menstruation Separate labia
- (+) epithelial cells means not properly
Diagnosis of Pregnancy collected
The manifestations of pregnancy have been classified into 3 - Asymptomatic patient request for urine culture
groups: to check before treating
1. Presumptive - Most marked during the second and third months
2. Probable of pregnancy and recur during late trimester
3. Positive evidences of pregnancy - 1st trimester uterus - pelvic organ
- 2nd trimester (mid) uterus abdominal organ
Presumptive Evidence of Pregnancy - Nocturia sign of good renal perfusion
- Based on signs and symptoms that may involve - Sleep more on left lateral best position because
different organs it will release the compression of major blood
- Most prominent in the reproductive tract vessel.

Nausea with or without vomiting Fatigue

- About 50% - Increased metabolism in pregnancy
- cravings or pica
- Occurs in the morning Perception of fetal movement
- Correlates significantly with the amount of serum - quickening part of knowing the gestational age
hCG. especially those px who doesnt remember their
- Usually appears at 6 weeks, reaches a peak at LMP
about 60 70 days - Primigravids 18th 20th weeks of gestation
- Multigravids 14th 16th weeks of gestation

OBSTETRICS Diagnosis of Pregnancy

Breast Symptoms Skin Pigmentation Changes

- mastodynia - Chloasma, linea nigra, striae gravidarum, spider
- Effects of estrogen which stimulate the mammary telangiectasia
duct system and by progesterone which stimulate - d/t increased melanocyte stimulating factors and
the alveolar component estrogen production
- very prominent in the cheek bone
Presumptive Signs of Pregnancy - mask of pregnancy
Cessation of Menstruation - Linea nigra d/t stimulation of melanophores by
- Not all cessation of menstruation is secondary to the increased melanocyte stimulating hormone
pregnancy - Striae gravidarum secondary to separation of
- Earliest sign of pregnancy underlying collagen
- Abrupt cessation of menstruation in a healthy - Spider telangiectasia vascular sellate marks d/t
reproductive aged women who previously has increased estrogen
experienced spontaneous, cylindrical, predictable - Palmar Erythema
menses is highly suggestive of pregnancy
- Usually delay of 10 days Thermal Signs
- others: delay of 3 days (+) PT - Perceptible elevation of body temperature for
- Amenorrhea is not always a reliable indicator as longer than 3 weeks
delay may cause by other factors like: - Thermogenic effect of progesterone.
o Irregular menstrual cycles
o Emotional stress Probable Evidence of Pregnancy
o Chronic disease Abdominal enlargement
o Drugs - Linear measurement from the symphysis pubis to
o Endocrine disorders the uterine fundus on an empty bladder correlates
o Lactation vis--vis with the age of gestation from 16 to 32
o Genitourinary tumors weeks.
- 25% of cases implantation bleeding as the - In actual practice it doesnt follow this theory.
blastocyst implants in the uterus - In Asian at 36weeks of gestation usually fundic
- Implantation bleeding height measures 28-30cm, if its >35-36 cm big
1 day bleeding baby
- Usually mistaken as menstruation
- spotting
- to establish the age of gestation check past 3
months of menstrual cycle

Anatomical Breast Changes

- 6 to 8 weeks after conception
- Breast enlargement
- Vascular engorgement
- Montgomery tubercles become hypertrophied
and very prominent
- 16th weeks colostrum may be expressed from
the breast by gentle massage
- Breast size before pregnancy does not
necessarily correlate with volume of milk
production during lactation
12 weeks uterus palpable at the level of symphysis
16 weeks between symphysis and umbilicus
Changes in the Vaginal Mucosa
18 weeks below the umbilicus
- 6th week of pregnancy Chadwicks Sign
20 weeks at the level of umbilicus

OBSTETRICS Diagnosis of Pregnancy

Changes in the Cervix

- Softening of the cervix occurs at about 6-8weeks
- Cervical mucus during pregnancy has a
characteristic beaded cellular pattern when seen
under the microscope
- Progesterone
- beading cervical mucus, progesterone
- ferning amniotic fluid , estrogen

Braxton Hicks Contraction

- Painless, irregular contractions
- Usually occurs at 3rd trimester, after fetal
36 weeks fundus at below the ensiform cartilage - false contractions
remain until the onset of labor in multipara
40 weeks descend engagement Ballottement
- Description of fetal head
- before 20 weeks : bimanual examination - Leopolds maneuver
- beyond 20 weeks: fundic height (upper border of - bounce back
symphysis up to the level of the fundus) - Fetal head round, ballottable
- Breech large, irregular, nodular and not
- Abdominal enlargement is more pronounced in
multigravida patients Outlining the fetus

Changes in the Uterine size, shape and consistensy LEOPOLDS MANEUVER I

1. Hegars sign - To check the fetal
- Softening of the uterine isthmus
- 6th to 8th week of pregnancy

- To check the fetal heart
- Fetal back hard and
2. Goodells sign - Extremities small and
- Cyanosis and softening of the cervix due to the
increased vascularity of the cervical tissue
- May occur as early as 4 weeks

- 12th week uterus is a globular with an average

diameter of about 8cm all around.

OBSTETRICS Diagnosis of Pregnancy

- Doppler 10 to 12 weeks
- Fetal echocardiography can demonstrate as early
as 48 days from the last normal menstruation
- to check if there is engagement
of unengaged - Real time sonography can demonstrate fetal heart
action and movement by the second month of
Engangement pregnancy
fetal head is not palpable - Other sounds:
because the fetal head is now o Funic souffl or umilical cord souffl
located below the symphysis
produced by the sound of the blood
fundic height: descend rushing through the umbilical arteries
- sharp, whistling sound, synchronous with
the fetal heart beat.
o Uterine souffl
soft blowing sound that is synchronous
LEOPOLDS MANEUVER IV with the maternal pulse
- to check fetal attitude
- either hyperextended or well
- appreciate near both hypogastric areas
flexed fetal head of the abdomen
- due to maternal blood rushing through
- Check cephalic prominence if the dilated uterine vessels
at the same level of the fetal - can be heard with conditions resulting
back hyperextended fetal from increases flow through the uterine
- cephalic prominence at the o Sound from movement of the fetus
level of small nodularities o Maternal pulse
well flexed fetal head o Gurgling gas in the mothers
gastrointestinal tract

Funic souffl Uterine souffl

Endocrine Tests Sharp, whistling sound Soft, blowing sound
- Presence of the glycoprotein hCG produced by Synchronous w/ fetal heart beat Synchronous w/ maternal pulse
fetal trophoblasts is the basis of most commonly Passage of blood in umbilical Passage of blood in dilated
used tests. arteries uterine vessel
- The hCG supports early pregnancy by preventing
involution of the corpus luteum, which is the
principal site of progesterone formation Perception of Fetal Movement by the Examiner
- After 20th week active fetal movement may be
Human chrorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) seen and actually felt by the examiner
- Can be detected from maternal biological fluids
as early as 8 to 9 days after ovulation Recognition of Embryo or Fetus by Ultrasound
- Levels increased from the day of implantation - 4th week thickened endometrium
- 60 to 90 days serum levels of approximately - 5th week gestational sac may be demonstrated by
50,000mIU transvaginal sonography
- During gestational sac 1500 2000 mIU hCG - 6th week fetal heart beat
- 14 to 16 weeks of pregnancy nadir is reached - 12th week CRL should be predictive of gestational
- Decreased symptoms (nausea/ vomiting) after 3 age
months because of the decreased level of hCG
CRL most accurate measurement of age of gestation
Positive Signs of Pregnancy For the age of gestation:
1) Identification of fetal heart action If UTZ < 1 week difference with the LMP follow LMP
2) Perception of active fetal movement by the If UTZ > 1week follow first UTZ
3) Recognition of the embryo or fetus by ultrasound
Fetal Heart Action
- 110 to 160 bpm
- Ordinary stethoscope 18th week on the average
OBSTETRICS Diagnosis of Pregnancy

Radiographic evidences of fetal demise:

1. Spaldings sign
- overlapping of the fetal skill due to liquefaction of
the brain
2. Exaggeration of the fetal spine curvature
3. Roberts sign
- demonstration of gas bubbles in the fetus

Diagnosis of Pregnancy
- availability of commercially over the counter do it
yourself pregnancy kits
- Advent of ultrasound
The threshold level identifies the earliest we can visualize - Good history taking and physical exams including a well
the gestational sac : 4weeks + 3days
done pelvic evaluation are important tools on hand
- Proper management and monitoring
- Assure a good healthy fetus to be borne at the most

The earliest sign of an intrauterine pregnancy by

transvaginal ultrasound is the double decidual sac sign
- (+) gestational sac + yolk sac

Differential Diagnosis
- imagery pregnancy or spurious pregnancy
- Women nearing menopause or strongly desirous of

Identification of Fetal Life or Death

- diagnosis of fetal demise is unexplainable in about
- Uterus ceases to grow
- Cessation of fetal movement
- Decrease in fundic height
- On IE - soft, collapsible fetal skull
- Efforts to hear fetal heart rate through doppler are
- Tobacco stained amniotic fluid