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Updated r.8.


Essential vocabulary for reading the New Testament

(especially for IRENT translation)

[See a series of Collections for IRENT Vol. III Supplement, which gives much
detailed coverage for the problems and discussions on the words, terms, and phrases
for various usage and expression.]

[Every word often does not mean what we think it would mean. Especially so, in the
Bible. Translation work often does not help the readers as they themselves use the
words as they think what they mean, not as the Scripture should mean. A plethora of
religious, theological, doctrinal or church jargon (Christianese) is the main culprit
even intentionally so as from ignorance or carelessness.]

[Seeking out the meaning of the Scriptures beyond the literal meaning is absolutely
essential to fully understand Gods Word.]

Words are building blocks of the texts and stepping stones of our thoughts. One may
know well and may need to learn more. Equally important as to know what the words
mean, one has to know as much as possible what they do NOT mean and how so, in
order for the readers to read and understand the text the way it is meant to be. The
footnotes in IRENT often alert the readers about this danger. A little knowledge is a
dangerous thing1, to unlearn is harder than to learn, and without unlearning it is
not possible to learn. What the word is not (in the context of the text) is much more
important than what [as you think] the word is. Often the true intention of the authors
is not discerned. Thus, every claim which is made is true as far as they are concerned.

Any intelligent reading of the Bible requires a knowledge of some general matters.
The vocabulary is one of the most important of them. Such as the names of places,
persons, people (groups), as well as a host of other categories.

As you may find right away, IRENT has scrupulously worked to use the words which
carry meaning and sense as close as to the original, not to let the text comes discolored
and distorted, with different cultural, social, and ideological mindset.

Since every Bible translation carries its own vocabulary which are ever so different
from each other, utilizing words which are ever so slowly changing their meaning and
usage, careful comparison is necessary to avoid confusion and misunderstanding.

Alexander Pope (1709)
Same is true for IRENT translation. Listed below are biblical words and terms. Note
that traditional terms are used as needed in these writings outside the translated text of
the New Testament. E.g. Jesus vs. Yeshua; God vs Elohim, etc.

The readers may encounter and may want to look into also not a few related but non-
biblical expressions (religious, church, theological, literary jargon). There are also
abundant words and terms, not biblical and often unbiblical.

List of transliterate Hebrew words used in IRENT

Those words different from the conventional translations are listed in the table below.
The rationale of adopting as words of Hebrew origin for IRENT translation is in line
with its basic approach to translation linguistic and literary with removal of
anachronism and ecclesiastical overtone, but without sacrificing familiarity. 2 It is
simply to bring the readers into the world where and when the Scripture was written
and was heard without having shackled with our pathetic limited knowledge,
understanding and wisdom. 3
Proper names should only be transliterated based on the pronunciation of the originals.
Nor those modern words, such as James for Yaakob, for example.
Transliterate Hebrew words:
Tanakh Scripture Scriptures (referring to the so-called Old
scripture [passage in Scripture
Pesach Passover
Shavuot Pentecost
Shabbat Sabbath
shofar trumpet
Nebiim Prophets (for the Books of Prophets)
shalom peace
GeHinnom hell; GeHenna
Mishkan (H4908) Sanctuary
Miqdash (H4720) Temple
tefillin phylacteries (Mt 23:5)

[Cf. David (> Dawid); Moses (> Mosheh); Solomon (> Shelomoh)]
IRENT superficially resembles various Sacred Name Bibles (Cf. not to be confused with a sectarian
Sacred Name Movement) but actually it is closer to David Stein (1989) Jewish New Testament.
Transliterate Hebrew names and titles:

Yeshua Jesus
Mashiah; the anointed one; Christ [for Gk. Christos]
Yeshua the Mashiah Jesus Christ
Lord Yeshua Mashiah Lord Jesus Christ
Adonai Lord (LORD)
Elohim God [for the Greek ho theos the God]
YHWH LORD, Lord; Jehovah

Yehudim > Jews Yitzchak > Isaac

Mariam > Mary Yaakob >Jacob; /x: James
Yohan > John Yeshayahu > Isaiah
Yehudah > Yudah; > Judah - most; /x: Judas
(elsewhere as Juda) KJV
Yohanan the Immerser > John the Baptizer

Transliterate Hebrew words for people:

Transliterate Conventional translations

Hebrew words
soferim (sofer) /teachers of religious law NLT; /x: scribes
KJV and most, etc.; /teachers of the law
cf. Torah sages CEV; /experts in the law NET; /teachers
of the Law GNB;
kohen (kohanim) priest; (priests)
Kohen haGadol chief priest
chief kohanim chief priests
Yehudim (Yehudi) Jews (Jew)
talmidim Disciples (of Yeshua).
astrologer-magi wise men (Mt 2:1)
Names, Person, title

God; the God; god; god-being; gods; Elohim; YHWH; Yeshua, Jesus; Mashiah, Christ; Son of
Elohim; Son-of-man; Son of David; Son of Abraham; Kefa, Peter; John, Yohan, Yohanan; Eleazar,
Lazarus, Quirinius, Pilate; Mariam (Maria/Mary); son; Creator

Adonai > LORD >> Lord; (7x in G-Mt; 4x in G-Mk; 14x in G-Lk;
1x in G-Jn)
YHWH [vs. LORD] [Yahueh > Yahweh; /x: Jehovah] [10x G-Mt;
7x G-Mk; 22x in G-Lk; 3x in G-Jn - 1:23; 12:38 (2x)]

It cannot be stress enough that (1) two words are not names, but titles or descriptives: E.g. God,
Christ (Mashiah); (2) the English word Lord (capitalized) is not necessarily used for God-
beings. This is especially problematic when the title is applied to Yeshua. Lord Yeshua He is,
not because he is God or a god. Mashiah > Christ [it is not his surname as commonly

*God; the God; god; god-being; gods

God: Problem with the English word 'God' what is meant by the word God/god? what God? Which
God and who? It is a descriptive word, a notion, or just a title a translation English word for Gk. theos,
not necessarily linked to the reality behind the word, that is, the true God, the Creator. IRENT has
replaced it with Elohim in most places.

English: God gods

Greek: theos theoi
Heb. elohim [capitalized in English] [cf. el] elohim
Arabic: allah alaliha
Ko: cf. , ; ;

German Gott
Latin Deus; French Dieu; Spanish Dios

The basic sense of the word theos/elohim mighty one is a god-being. The arthrous noun ho theos
('the god' rendered as the Elohim in IRENT) in the Biblical context refers to the true God, the
Creator (= YHWH Elohim in O.T.). In English, anyone or anything may be called 'god' in the sense of
mighty one. In written English, the word is capitalized as 'God' to distinguish from pagan gods. In
spoken language or reading aloud of the text it does not help differentiate between two.

The serious problem is that, whether within a religion or between religions, the same word God itself
is not used in the same sense with each one having a different God. God of someone or some religion
and God of others cannot be same all with different image, definition, identification, and
characterization. In the Bibles, this is one of the most common words. We should know that God is
simply a translation word used and is not even a title suitable for the Creator (YHWH Elohim).
Inevitably and necessarily it brings non-biblical ideas and meanings along with it, peculiar to the
indigenous socio-cultural setting (religious, philosophical, linguistic heritage. It is a generic word and as
such. Only the context tells what is referred; capitalization is does not help. Any statement or argument
about God cannot be proved to be false without agreed-upon precise definitions of the words and

Gk. theos (god God) is equivalent to the Hebrew word Elohim4. In IRENT translation the
arthrous Gk ho theos ('the God') is rendered as the Elohim5, not as God as in most Bible
translations. 6 This is one of a few features that makes IRENT distinguished from most other
English translations. This translation principle is solely grounded in linguistic and literary
approach and provides much clarity needed in the translation text. 7 The anarthrous theos on
the other hand is rendered as Elohim and sometimes as God-being or God, as the context
dictates. The uncapitalized words god gods are for god-beings unlinked to the Elohim, the
Creator E.g. "the god of this age" (2Co 4:4).

*divine nature

(2Pe 1:4 theia phuses a divine nature)

[Cf. divine essence, divinity; divine hood (vs. manhood). Cf. deity = god-being]
Divine nature is the nature in God himself, the nature that belongs to God, i.e. Gods nature.
It comes from God. God may bestow divine nature to man ( divine person son of
God). Divine person does not mean that the person with divine nature is God or God-
being, nor he is the God the Creator.

The notion of divine person is not same as of God or God-being. Cf. divine humanity as
a religion.
Yeshua as the Son of the Elohim (> the Son of God) at His immersion anointed with holy
spirit. (Mt 3:16 //Mk 1:11 //Lk 3:22)

It offers quite a number of advantages for the readers of the Bible:

(1) It dispels any image formed by the word which is usually used in the sense of generic
God8 without specific reference to the God of the Scripture;
(2) It removes any confusion over the word God when it is used in Christian religions by
putting on Jesus; 9
(3) It makes impossible to use the word as an expletive in our English speech; (4) It offers
a clean and uncomplicated solution to help distinguish the two for translation and
interpretation purpose, without being partial to different doctrinal and theological positions.

4 The Hebrew word elohim: Elohim vs. elohim; with singular vs. plural elohim; God being vs. human beings, etc. In a
few places in O.T. also used to refer to human persons, angels, etc., esp. as a plural noun. [ gods in Jn 10:35]
5 Simply as Elohim (without the definite article) when the arthrous Gk. is in vocative and when it is modified as in a

phrase (such as my/your/our Elohim, Elohim our Father, YHWH Elohim, Elohim the Most High, etc.) and, optionally,
in some of the genitive case (as of Elohim).
6 Rendering it as the God may be an option, however, this conflicts with an English convention and diction, and

actually fails to bring clearly out the sense of the word in the Greek text.
7 Along with use of the word YHWH (> Jehovah) as a translation word within the New Testament, this practice of

IRENT has nothing to do with the positions of the so-called Sacred Name Movement or Hebrew Roots Movement in
which translation of the Bible utilizes many Hebrew words - both in O.T. and N.T.
8 everyone and every religion believes God and believes in God, but nowhere clear-cut and self-evident as to what

such God is, which God over others, or who God is;
9 Examples of unbiblical statements common in Church language and doctrines: the name of God is Jesus; Jesus is

God; the Son of God becomes same as God the Son; the Son is God as the Father is; worshiping Jesus; Jesus =
Jehovah. The biblical historical person Yeshua is confused with God Jesus of the Church, before his birth and after
his death.
(5) There is no need for struggle to find what and whom the English word God signifies
in the translated text.

[Likewise, the anarthrous theos is rendered as Elohim rather than God except idiomatic phrases, Gods
way, Gods law, God-willing, God-fearing, God forbid, etc. Esp. the word carries in the generic sense of
God-being. E.g. Elohim of Yehudim is not also God for the Gentiles?

God as Father God is being called *Father (not in ontological sense), that is, God as Father in the
Scripture. The word Father capitalized in IRENT when it refers to God, the Elohim. Likewise
capitalized is *Son when it refers to Yeshua, as the Son of the Elohim.

Fatherhood of God - God portrayed as a Father - rare in O.T. (x 15)

Mt 6:11 (our Father!) //Lk 11 (Father!);
G-Jn (Father as of Yeshua)
Mk 14:36; Rm 8:15 //Gal 4:6 [Abba!]
Elohim the Father > God the Father [Gk. theos patr cannot have it as God Father
since the collocation brings an unwanted sense of god-father.]
Elohim our Father > God our Father
The Elohim, the Father of our Lord (Col 1:3)
The Elohim and Father of our Lord (1Pe 1:3);

Calling God Father Yeshua; our Father as taught by Yeshua.

(to) Our Elohim and Father t the kai patri hmn [to the Elohim and Father of-us]

Gal 1:3; 1Th 1:3; 3:13; Heb 1:3; Rev 1:6 (His Elohim and Father);

*Creator; *Creation

creation (ktisis) vs. founding (katabols)

since the founding of the world (apo katabols kosmou) (Heb 9:26; /since the foundation of the
world - most; /x: the creation of the world NIV; /(since) the world began NLT!; /from the
beginning of the world Aramic in Plain English, DRB;
[before founding of the world 1Pe 1:20]
from the beginning of the creation (apo archs ktises) Mk 10:6;

The creator - ho kristas the one who created (Mt 19:4, Act 4:24 etc.)

The Creator is YHWH Elohim; the Creation of Genesis (Gen 1:1; Jn 1:1).

Yeshua is the creator of the new creation the new creation in Yeshua the Mashiah

Col 1:16 created in the heavens and upon the earth, the visible and the invisible ; [in Him
[ through and for Him, the agent for Gods new creation.]; [Not the heavens and the
earth, but things in the heavens and on the earth for the new creation by the risen Son.]
Eph 1:4 founding of the world (Gk. kosmos) .]
Heb 1:3 he made the world-orders
Cf. Col 1:15, firstborn of all creation;
Cf. Col 1:18 firstborn from the dead ones = 1Co 15:23 firstfruit, Mashiah]

YHWH [Vocalization Yahueh (> Yahweh); />Yahuah; /x: Jehovah] [Masoretic tradition has it to
be vocalized as in Adonai.]; [YHWH = Hebrew Tetragrammaton for the name of the God.] [Yah is a
shortened form, e.g. in Halleluyah.] [IRENT renders anarthrous Gk. kurios (Lord) as YHWH where
the name itself should not remain hidden away. Otherwise as Adonai (e.g. Mt 21:9 where the
expression in the OT was put on the lips of the crowd).] /LORD ALT, NLT; /x: Lord KJV, most;;

I am [Greek phrase eg eimi I am Here I is of grammatical prominence (Cf. focus

emphatic)]; the verb be is a copula without any sense of exist by itself.

[Out of many spoken by Yeshua, in the following two examples the Trinitarians take this simple Greek
phrase equivalent to the Gods name. The context and the theme of the text are completely and intentionally
disregarded for their eisegesis.
Jn 8:58 I am = I am [who I am, the one sent from Elohim]
Jn 18:5 I am = I am he = Its me the one you are looking for.
They coined the phrase JESUS GREAT I AM, which represent their idea of Jesus God and God the
Son. Their proof text, which is misunderstood and misinterpreted, is Exo 3:14 I am who I am.]

*the Most High KJV. [Note: the archaic spelling Most High as in KJV is retained in IRENT for
the title of Elohim. Cf. in the Highest places.]

*Lord, lord, master

kurios master lord, applied to God and to a man. Anarthrous = the LORD (as in OT of KJV
which renders YHWH); Mk 12:36, etc. [Master (Yeshua in Gospels) > Lord e.g. Jn 20:18.]
Kurie Lord! Sir! (E.g. Jn 20:15 etc.)]

Phi 2:11 Yeshua the Mashiah is Lord . Not called God, or God the Son, but the Son of Elohim.
Rm 10:9 Yeshua is Lord; Rm 14:9 the Lord of both the living and the dead; 1Co 12:3] Lk 2:11
Mashiah, Lord (master); cf. Lk 2:26 Mashiah of YHWH (> the LORD).

*sacred secret (/x: *mystery) (Gk. musterion) it is not something mysterious, but truth which had been
kept until revealed. [Rm 16:25; 1Co 2:7; Eph 1:9; 3:3; 6:19; 1Ti 3:9]

Yeshua, the sacred secret (Eph 3:4; Col 2:2; 4:3; 1Ti 3:16)
*Mashiah /> Messiah; *Christ most;

[Heb. haMashia; /> the Messiah the anointed10]

[In N.T. Mashiah refers to the promised anointed one for Israel by YHWH Elohim, not the person
Yeshua, who was believed to be their Mashiah to have come. It is not Christ = Jesus.]
[Messianic expectation/fervor was then going on among Yehudim (> Judahites11 > Jewish people) for so
long time looking for a messianic figure of a coming one as a king.] 12
In a few, it should be translated in the original sense as anointed one of Elohim, not as
Christ/Messiah/Mashiah (which is usually taken as a title, esp. of Yeshua).

[Mashiah vs. Christ. They are not same in meaning and usage with different nuance, connotation and
referents. The two are often not interchangeable. The fact is, Mashiah of the Gospels is not same as
Christ of the Constantine Church tradition.

As the term used for the appellative of Yeshua. It is thoughtless to render it as Christ (in place of the
Anointed One or Mashiah) where it is not in reference to Yeshua. E.g. in the Jn 4: Mt 22:41 //Mk
12:35 //Lk 20:41 and Jn 4:29 (cf. 4:25), where the word Mashiah is the very promised Mashiah of
Elohim for Israel, not as one of the names or titles for Yeshua himself.]

[Gk. Messias (only in 2 places - Jn 1:14; 4:25) is translated by all correctly as Messiah (Messias
KJV). In IRENT, it is capitalized as MASHIAH in order to differentiate from Mashiah which IRENT
translates Gk. Christos.]

[Gk. Christos - Christ as a translation word is simply unfit, as the word is automatically associated
with Jesus with Christ almost as his surname. Note: IRENT renders as Mashiah throughout. e.g. Mk
12:36 /Messiah HSCB, NIV, ISV, NLT, GW; /xxx: Christ NET, KJV, NASB, ESV, most others.]

[This is not related with the term Christ of Christian religions and doctrines. It is now with different
connotation, significance, and usage e.g. Christ as God the Son, (a) God, or Cosmic Christ. As a
common English common, Christ is de facto none other than a surname for Jesus. Thus, the
expression Jesus is the Christ is a tautology.]

In IRENT the English word *anoint is used to translate only one Gk. word chri (Lk 4:18 etc.), not
such a word as aleiph (Lk 7:48; Jn 11:12; 12:3, etc. - put fragrant oil on someone to welcome and
honor, or on the dead body for burial-preparation).
Haim Cohn (1959; English trans. 1963), The Trial and Death of Jesus, p. 127
Not only the Messiah person but all Gods favorites are anointed, such as priests (Exo
28:41; Lev 8:12; 16:32; Num 3:3, et al.), kings (Jud 9:19; 1Sam 9:16; 10:1; 15:1; 16:12; 2Sam
2:4; 3:39; 2Kg 11:12; Psa 99:21, et al.) and prophets (1Kg 19:17; Isa 61:1; et al.). The
anointing may be a mark of divine distinction, but it is a distinction conferred on a human
being who is chose by God to serve Him, or inspired by God to prophecy, or to whom God
has revealed Himself, and it is a human being whom God would love as His son. That, in the
original tradition, Jesus was a son of God only in this figurative sense seems to be borne out
by his genealogy as recorded in the Gospels (Mt 1:2-16; Lk 3:23-38).
In the O.T., there were many messiahs, that is, those anointed for various roles and positions, but the
Scripture do speak of the special anointed one to serve as a king for Israel in the future utopia. (Ezk
37:24-28; Isa 11:1-10; Jer 33:14-17; etc.) The focus of OT is not on that person, but what the world will
look like when the Mashiah is here. https://youtu.be/jL4hUWzTO5Y
11 The words that trace their origins to the Hebrew word Yehudah referring to the tribe of Judah: Judahism with
its conceptual locus in the southern kingdom, focusing on Jerusalem; its follower Judahists or Judahites. From
the 2nd through 5th c. of the common era -- Judaism and the Jews [after p. 38: D.H. Arkenson (1998),
Surpassing Wonder Invention of the Bible and the Talmuds]
12 Ref: Sirley Lucass (2011), The Concept of the Messiah in the Scriptures of Judaism and Christianity.
Yeshua the Mashiah: [Gk. Isous Christos Jesus Christ] Mashiah (> Christ) is a title, not a name
(surname or another name). The phrase occurs 2x in Mt 1:1, 18, 1x in Mk 1:1, and 2x in Jn 1:17; 17:3;
none in G-Lk.]

[Most say Jesus was a Jew as his disciples were, however, the notion of Jesus and Jews is NOT in
the Scripture, and is the result of religious and linguistical metamorphosis from Yeshua and Yehudim.
So were his first disciples not Jews but Yehudim. In fact, his earliest followers (not Christians, but
Mashians) did not think of themselves as members of a new religion separate from Judaism. The
person Jesus Christ is someone worshiped as God by the Constantine Catholic Church tradition. On
the other hand, Yeshua the Mashiah is the Messiah of Israel, the anointed king of Davidic lineage (cf.
2Sam 7:1215 and Psa 89:34). Yet Yeshua and his disciples represented something new within

[Note: the word Mashiah particularize who/which Yeshua is, the definite article itself carries a subtle
nuance of particularizing the word Mashiah, e.g. the very Mashiah who is/was the promised Mashiah to
be coming (a chosen one to be anointed by Elohim to take on the task for King, Priest, and Prophet).].
[The traditional Christian translation Jesus Christ conveys an image (of a Cosmic Christ or a God-
man) recreated in the Christian mindset, not reflecting the real historical person of Yeshua who was
believed to have come as Mashiah.] Aside from definition, meaning, and sense when we choose a word,
something we should not ignore is linguistic perception in diverse usage of the word. For most of people
there is a gulp between Jesus Christ and Yeshua the Mashiah; the former being a Christian religious and
church jargon rather the biblical figure which is authentically reflected in the original name used 2000
years ago, Yeshua the Mashiah.

Cf. The Mashiah the definite article particularizes as the Mashiah promised to come for Israel or
the very Mashiah.
Cf. Yeshua the Mashiah (Jesus Christ) vs. Mashiah Yeshua (Christ Jesus) 13 two are about one and
same referent, but have different nuance. He appears in the text as Yeshua the Mashiah (Jesus Christ)
throughout N.T., except some in Pauline Epistles.
Yeshua the Mashiah the son-of-man Yeshua who was believed as the Gods promised
Mashiah by His disciples and Apostles
Mashiah Yeshua the person Paul encountered was the risen Lord Mashiah, who had before
come in the person of Yeshua different.

Cf. The Yeshua of history and the Jesus of the Church. [Cf. D.S. Russell (1990), Poles Apart the
Gospel in Creative Tension (Ch. 2 The Jesus of history and the Christ of faith, pp. 19-33)

*Yeshua (of Nazareth). [/x: Yahshuah] [A short form of the common theophoric Hebrew name
Yehoshua (Yah saves/helps) (e.g. in Exodus). Yah is a shortened form of YHWH];

[Gk. Isous; /Iesus KJV 1611, Geneva, Bishops, Latin; /Jesus English, French, etc.; [No one lived
there ever called Jesus. Yeshua of the Gospels is not same as Jesus of Christians.]
[Note: The letter J was used as a Gothic font for the capital letter I. J sound came into English from
French in mid-17th century]

[of Nazareth in GALLEE. b. 3 BC; d. 30 CE at age 33. From the Tribe of Yehudah; belonged to
YEHUDIM; not even a Jew of modern English usage.] 14

13 Compare: Lincoln President vs. President Lincoln vs. Lincoln the President for use in different senses.
14 Ref. Lincoln, A. (2014). How Babies Were Made in Jesus Time. Biblical Archaeology Review, 40 (6), 2436.
[One may say I believe Jesus I believe in Jesus. In what sense is the word believe is used? What
Jesus and which Jesus is, is the question to be answered. The same rhetoric is also with the word God
for same kind of questions.]

[In IRENT, his title kurios used by His talidim (disciples) is rendered in the Gospels as Master, not
as Lord, since the English word used with dual referents.] When we hear such westernized name
(often uttered as an expletive!) we have to ask always which and whose is Jesus, which Jesus
before further delving in who is Jesus. It is a westernized image they have re-constructed to believe
and worship as God, God the Son, a docetic God-Man (born as if by reincarnation), or even to
claim he and Jehovah of the Old Testament are same such Jesus is nowhere to be found in the
Scripture! Then we have to make sure which Jesus they are talking about Catholic one, Protestant one,
Mormon, Universalists, charismatic, of new age cosmic Christ, etc., aside from Jesus being talked about
by Muslims, Buddhism, atheisms, etc. If one finds which Jesus, all the doctrinal conflicts, contentions,
contradictions, and confusion will find not room exist, since everyone has their own Jesus (and God) in
their mind, which cannot be same as others Jesus (and God). [e.g. public prayer of mixed religious
groups they are praying to different Gods!

[Yeshua of the Gospels vs. Jesus of Church:

Yeshua of the Gospels was a man; a human being with human nature, and a human person, a son of
Yosef and Mariam. He was called the Son of the Elohim upon anointing of holy spirit taking up
divine nature at His immersion for Yohanan the immerser (> John the baptizer).

Jesus of the Constantine Church Tradition (Cf. almost all of so-called Christians now are from
this), who is regarded and worshipped as God Jesus, was a human being. But it insists that he was
not a human person, but, instead, a divine person (with both and divine human nature in him a
Catholic orthodox at the Council of Ephesus 431 CE and the Council of Chalcedon 451).]
When Mariam was his mother, but he has no biological father, that makes that he cannot by any
logic a human being.

*antichrist (Gk. antichristos) x3 [Gk anti- in the sense of instead of or in place of (as in the Catholic
Popes title Vicarius Christi https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk%3AVicar_of_Christ); as well as against]

1Jn 2:18 an antichrist /an anti-Mashiah; /an Anti-Messiah JNT; /> antichrist - most; mss {+the
- /the anti-messiah - ISR};
1Jn 2:18 antichrists
2Jn 7 an antichrist

Cf. false messiahs (Gk. pseudochristoi) (> false Christs) 2x Mt 24:24; //Mk 13:22
*Birth of Yeshua:

[As to His birth, Mt 1:18-25 <Origin of His Birth> is that which should come after Lk 1:26-38
<Annunciation to Mariam of Coming of Mashiah>. Both are not telling about the so-called Virgin Birth
(belief and myth) that she was still a virgin without a man involved when Yeshua was conceived and
born as in common pagan myth at that time. Instead, it is about divine intervention, in the power of
holy spirit (Cf. Job 31:15; 10:8-12; also Psa 139:13-16) to bring forth the promised Mashiah of Israel.]
[G-Lk adds a pericope on <His birth at Bethlehem of Judea> (Lk 2:1-7) and additional one <Shepherds
adoration> Lk 2:8-20. G-Mt narrates the events at some time after His birth with pericopes of <Visit of
Astrologer-magi> (Mt 2:1-12) and <Persecution by Herod> (2:13-21), the latter with an allusion to
Moses birth motive in Exodus.

[Pericopes on Yeshuas birth on

<the origin of birth< (Mt 1:18-25) and <Annunciation and Origin of His birth> (Lk
2:1-7) and <Birth of Yehudah> itself (Lk 2:1-7)
along with post-natal pericopes (Lk 2:1-7; 8-20) and a late post-natal pericope (Mt 2:1-12)]
Factual ( historical) vs. parabolic (of parable)
Literal statement vs. metaphoric/literary expression e.g. conceived from
holy spirit. Cf. historical narrative vs. Matthean midrash (which in turn became
subject to Church midrash, i.e. eisegesis) on the quoted texts from O.T.

Origin of birth of Yeshua:

Physically descended according to flesh: (Rm 1:3) Yeshua could not be the
Mashiah unless Yosef from the line of David was the biological father of Him.
Son of Abraham Mt 1:1, 2
See of Abraham Heb 2:16
Son of David to be the promised Mashiah of Israel Mt 1:1; Rm 1:3; 2Ti
2:8; Act 13:22-23.
From Yosef (> Joseph) in the line of David: Mt 1:6, 16; Lk 1:32; 3:23, 31
Son of Yosef Lk 3:2315; 4:12; Jn 1:45; Jn 6:42
brothers Yaakob, Yosef, Shimon, and Yudah; his sisters Mk 6:3;
brother of Yaakob, Yosi, Yudah, and Shimon; his sisters Mk 6:3;
He was like his own brothers Heb 2:17
According to spirit:
Conceived from [the power of] holy spirit (ek pneumatos hagiou Mt 1:18, 20;
Lk 1:35) for divine intervention in the power of Gods spirit. Not impregnated
by God; not impregnating a god as in pagan mythology.
Called the Son of Elohim, not because He was born without human father. [Cf.
Muslims problem that God cannot have a son is from mistaking it in the literal
sense, somewhat similar to the error of Catholic Virgin Birth doctrine.] [Cf.
Called Gods son Rm 1:4.]
Born of a woman: (Gal 4:4) does not say born of a virgin.
Mariam His mother (of the Gospels) -- Mt 1:16; 18-20; Lk 1:31. (not same as
Mary of Constantine Church tradition.)

as it was thought NIV; /> as was supposed most; /He was known as Berean Study Bible; /he

was considered Aramaic; /supposedly - NAS 77;

Mariam [in Aramaic and Greek; a common name of unclear origin. Mary in English; Maria in Latin]
[Miriam JNT; /> Mary most];
(1) Mother of Yeshua [Relative of Elisheba Lk 1:5 (> Elisabeth KJV; >> /Elizabeth - most) Lk
1:36 of Zekharyah the kohen (> Zachariah) from the Tribe of Levi-Aaron, not from the family line
of David Lk 1:5] [She married at usual age of marriage then early teen.];
(2) Mariam the Magdalene; and
(3) Sister of Martha (Jn 11:1 12:7) along with others of same name.

Note: Mariam, the mother of Yeshua, in the Scripture is NOT same as Mary of Constantine Catholic
Church tradition, who is variously called (1) Theotokos (God-bearer) in place of Christotokos
(Christ-bearer), and, in the Catholics, (2) the perpetual virgin, (3) the Co-redeemer, (4) the intercessor,
and (4) the Queen of Heaven (= goddess). She is venerated for Perpetual Virginity, Immaculate
Conception, and be made Mother of God, Queen of the Heaven (i.e. a goddess) worthy to be
worship as if to God (with prayer to her).

She is no longer Mariam of the Gospels but the Virgin Mary of the Church tradition, having no sexual
experience until she died. The expression Isnt this (Yeshua) the son of Mariam? (Mk 6:3) is taken as
one of the proof texts. The notation of such sexless conception for virgin birth is a biblical as well as
biological nonsense and is a Church product of mythological midrash of the Gospel narratives on His

Virgin [as to Mariam, mother of Yeshua Lk 1:27, 34 (virgin-maiden); Mt 1:23 (virgin-maiden)]: Gk.
parthenos in LXX and Hebrew word almah as in OT Isa 7:14 quoted in Mt 1:23 refers to a young
maiden of marriageable age with usual age about mid-teen; only the context may tell about her
virginity chastity. [That Mariam, mother of Yeshua, was a virgin (Heb. betulah) when she married
him, but she was almah when she conceived in her womb.]

Cf. Heb. naarah 5291; Deu 22:15

Cf. maiden, girl, bride,
Ref. www.bible.ca/marriage/ancient-jewish-three-stage-weddings-and-marriage-customs-ceremony-in-

John, Yohan, Yohanan John is an English form; Ianns in Gk, which is a transliterate of
Hebrew Yoanan. For the sake of distinguishing several people with this common name, IRENT
renders it as follows.

(1) John only in the title of the Gospel, the Epistles and the Revelation; prob. same one author.
[Not to be taken same as the Apostle.]
(2) Yohan only for the Apostle. This name of him appears the Synoptic Gospels, NOT in the text
of G-Jn, three Epistles of John, (and the Revelation)! [a talmid (disciple) (Apostle) of Yeshua;
Zebedees son and a brother of Yaakob (x: James).
(3) Yohanan for all others including Yohanan the Immerser and also within the Revelation.

Kefa /> Peter; [This nickname, Aramaic meaning stone rock, was given by Yeshua to Shimon
(his Hebrew name Mt 4:18 etc.) near the end of His ministry (Mt 16:18). Petros is a Greek translation
word by itself.]; [The Aramaic Kefa itself appears in the GNT once in Jn 1:42 and in several places in
Pauline letters (Gal 1:18 etc.); /x: Cephas KJV]; As he was called by the people associated with him
in the time of Yeshuas ministry by his Hebrew name Shimon, not called by this Greek word, IRENT
renders Petros (Greek) as Kefa (Aramaic) throughout in N.T., Mt 4:18; Mk 3:16; Lk 6:14; Jn 1:40, etc.

Eleazar [Only in G-Lk & G-Jn in N.T.] (in Heb. God has helped); [Cf. Gn 15:2 (a
servant to Abraham); 23]; /Larazus most; /Elazer ISR;
[Lk 16:20ff (in a parable) and Jn 11:1ff; 12:1ff (brother of Mariam and Marth). In G-Jn he is
most likely same as the unnamed one the disciple Yeshua loved (Jn 19:26; 20:2), the other
disciple with Kefa (Jn 18:15, 16; 20:3, 4, 8); the disciple (Jn 19:27; 21:23, 24), who is the
author of the Gospel (Jn 21:24)]

son [cf. Hebrew idiom son of ~] [cf. descendant, offspring, progeny; seed]

Son of Dawid as a title for the Mashiah figure, who was believed to come. [2Sam 7:16]

Son of Abraham [Cf. Yehudim as the intended audience of this Gospel.] [Cf. Gal 3:16]

the Son of Elohim (ho huios tou theou); /> the Son of God most

Cf. Son of Elohim, Elohims Son (Gods son) (Mt 4:3; 14:33; Lk 1:35; Mk 15:39; Rm 1:4);
cf. Elohims sons (sons of God) (Lk 20:36; Rm 8:14);
cf. Elohims children (children of God) (Jn 1:12 tekna theou).

(1) Adam [in the Genesis] as the son of Elohim Lk 3:38.

(2) title for Yeshua (Mt 26:63; Jn 1:34; 1Jn 4:15; 5:5, 10, 12, 13, 20; Eph 4:13; Heb 6:6; 2Co 1:19. etc.) [=
Son of the Most High (Lk 1:32).] [A title for Yeshua from his conception (Lk 1:32, 35), not from
eternity]] [used as self-designation by Yeshua in Jn 11:4]; [Elohim and Son of Elohim are equal what
they are and they do, but not identical as to who they are. Jn 5:18] [Not to be confused with the
unbiblical jargon God the Son of the second Person of the so-called Triune God.]

[Cf. Hebrew idiom of son of someone/something taking on characters or in special relation. Cf. in O.T.
usage the expression:

my son (as to the Elohim) (2Sam 7:14, Psa 2:7),

sons of the Elohim (Job 2:1)
sons of the Elohim (Gen 6:2ff) - does not refer to angels they are spirits; not flesh (human);
do not marry; do not copulate or breed. www.cogwriter.com/angels-marry-women.htm ]

[son (anthropomorphic term) is not in physical or biological sense but denotes a special relationship.
unrelated to grammatical gender.] [son of someone, a Hebrew idiom son as a relational, not a biological-
social term. Yeshuas unique relation to the Elohim as the only brought-forth Son, not one of many sons of God. Not
unbiblical God the Son.]

the Son-of-man [The Aramaic idiom son of man simply means a human being. The Gk. phrase
the son of the man (with arthrous words) is rendered usually as the Son of man or, by some, the
Son of Man. IRENT renders it as the Son-of-man when the phrase was used in N.T. as Yeshuas self-
designation. This is indeed his most characteristic form of self-reference; essentially functions as a
semantic equivalent for the first-person pronoun (Gk. eg "I") as a circumlocution of I, but avoiding to
draw too much attention to oneself. In other cases, it is as uncapitalized the son-of-man.] [Mt 8:20;
9:6; 11:19; 16:13; 18:11; 20:28; 24:27; Mk 8:38; Lk 18:8; Jn 1:51; 6:53; 12:23; 13:31.] [Cf. Only once
in Jn 5:27; a son of a man] [Cf. Acts 7:56 (from Stephen's mouth) it refers to the risen Yeshua.]

[Cf. Rev 1:13; 14:14 one like a son of man - //Dan 7:13]

Quirinius (Only in G-Lk once in Lk 2:2)

Pilate [Latin Pontius Pilatus] the fifth Prefect16 of Judea, a Roman province, from CE 26
36. The pivotal actor during the Passion Week, along with Kayafa (> Caiaphas) of Yehudim
authority who was Kohen haGadol (High Priest). [Ref. Craig Evans (2006), Fabricating Jesus (Ch.
8 Dubious Use of Josephus pp. 166-180 Josephus on Pontius Pilate).]

Governor capitalized when the current one in position is referred to. E.g. Pilate the Governor.

Tribune; Centurion Centurion - the commander of a Roman Centuria (troop of about 100 men);
military Tribune - commander of a cohort (about 1000 men).

16 The gospel writers simply say him as the governor and do not use the title. His title 'Prefect' for Roman
governor of Judea was attested by the inscription on the Pilate Stone which was discovered at the archaeological
site of Caesarea Maritima in 1961. The title Procurator was used later from 44 CE on.
the Twelve [the chosen twelve disciples by Yeshua] the apostles of Yeshua. Cf. the Twelve of
the Lamb

*apostles Greek word apostoloi those sent out on mission (from the authority). Cf. related
words- missionary, ambassador, envoy, messenger. The term the Apostles (capitalized) in the New
Testament refers to the Twelve Apostles and Paul. The commonly used word apostles in Christian
religions must not be used in synonymous sense with the first century Apostles of Yeshua the Mashiah.

In the Gospels those sent out on a mission by Yeshua. [In the Gospels 6x - Lk 6:13; 9:10;
11:49; 17:5; 22:14; 24:10. Also Mt 10:2; Mk 6:30 and 3:14 v.l.] [Rev 21:14 the Twelve
Apostles of the Lamb] IRENT renders it as those sent out (on his mission). Most translates as
apostles, which is now a religious technical term and is unsuitable for a translation word
since it gives wrong connotation in the Gospels.

*prophets The Old Testament prophets of Judaism have nothing to do with those in Christian or
other religions. Those people whose authority cannot be questioned or who receive new doctrinal
revelations simply do not exist today. Hebrew words, navi (e.g. Deu 18:18) prophet- spokesman.
The plural Hebrew word nevi'im is used as a translation word in IRENT for the Prophets
when it refers to the Books of the Prophets.

*brothers; brethren The plural for brother siblings. Cf. step-brothers; half-brothers. The
archaic word brethren (as in KJV) is now used as fellow members of a society or group, religious not
biological sense. In this sense, it is kept in IRENT common in Acts and Epistles. Note: brother(s) is
often in figurative sense: i.e. spiritual brother fellowship brother. Cf. enates (related on the mothers
side) vs. agnates (related on the father side)

Cf. suggens relative (e.g. Lk 1:3 Elisheba, the mother of Yohannan the Immerser (> John the
baptizer) and Mariam, the mother of Yeshua).
Cf. anepsios (cousin. ? nephew) (e.g. Col 4:10. Marcus, the cousin of BarNabbas)

Brothers of Yeshua: They are siblings real brothers of him. Not step-brothers, half-brothers, or
cousins after Constantine Catholic Doctrine of the Perpetual Virginity of Mary which undergirds the
the Trinitarian belief of God Jesus.

Six siblings of Yeshua are mentioned in N.T. these include his brothers Yaakob (> James), Yosef (>
Joseph), Shimon (> Simon) and Yehudah (> Judas) as well as two sisters. Those siblings were natural
children of Yeshuas mother Mariam and her husband, Yosef. (Mt 1:25) The Bible calls Yeshua the
firstborn of Mariam, which implies that she had other children (Lk 2:7).
Mk 6:3 Yaakob, Yosi, Yehudah, and Shimon
Mt 13:55 Yaakob, Yosef, Yehudah, and Shimon
[Not to be confused with persons of same name in Mt 27:26
Mariam the mother of Yaakob [the younger] and of Yosef,
the mother [ Salome Mk 15:40] of the Zebedees sons [i.e. Yaakob and Yohan Mt 4:2l; //Mk

As the Bible shows that Yeshua inherited the legal right to the kingship promised to David. (2Sa 7:12,
13; Lk 1:32).
If Yosef had been father to sons older than Yeshua, the eldest of these would have been
Yosefs legal heir.
If Yosef is not Yeshuas real father, Yeshua cannot be the promised Mashiah of Elohim
for Israel, the one who is to be of the seed of David (Act 13:22-23; Rm 1:3. Cf. Act
2:30; Cf. Jer 22:30; 1Ch 17:7, 11 to his sons; 1Ch 28:5 to Solomon), Mashiah to be
the Son of David (Mk 12:35 //Mt 22:42 //Lk 20:41. Mt 1:1; 15:22; 20:30; Lk 3:23-
38), and the seed of Abraham (Gal 3:16). The seed of a woman (e.g. Gen 3:15)
cannot be the Mashiah.
[*seed (Gk. spermatos; Heb. zera) -- descendant or offspring in figurative sense. e.g.
seed of Abraham; of David (Rm 1:3; Act 13:23; 1Ch 17:11); of Sarai (Gen 16:10),
of Rebekah (Gen 24:60). The seed of the woman ( named Hawwah > Eve Gen
3:20) (children of) Israel the Mashiah (Gen 3:15 4:25; cf. Rm 16:20;
Rev 12:1, 5, 17):]

List of the women those at the scene of the Crucifixion:

o Mariam the mother of Yeshua
o Mariam the Magdalene, Mk 15:40
o Mariam the mother of Yaakob the younger and of his brother Yosi, Mk 15:40
= Mariam the mother of Yaakob and Yosef, Mt 27:54]
o Salome Mk 15:40;
= the mother of the Zebedees sons in //Mt 27:56 ( sons: Yaakob and Yohan Mk 1:19)]

*Christian; Christians though etymologically from Gk. Christos (Christ), the meaning of these
words in majority of context we employ the term is not being of Christ or being related to Christ.
Often, a definition is given not clearly with a definitional statement (on identity), but, instead, mixed up
with the secondary descriptive ideas of what and how they should be (on characteristics).

(noun) = a person belonging to Christian religions or Churches. Etymologically traced to

the Gk. word in N.T. christianos17 [Act _11:26 (pl.); Act_26:28; 1Pe_4:16], which denotes
the Gentile (other than Yehudim > Jews) who joined Yeshua movement, which was still within
the world of Yehudism (Judaism) before it became absorbed into the Roman Constantine
Catholic Church from 2nd 3rd century C.E. institutionalized Christianity ascended in power,
in collusion with Roman Imperial power, displacing almost all original followers of the
teaching of Yeshua the Mashiah (Mashianity) 18 . Such epithet might be put on them in
derisive tone (Act 26:28), just as the word Christian is used in the same way by some people
outside the Christian church. That it is a person who has received Christian baptism or is a
believer in Jesus Christ and his teachings is rather secondary and non-definitional, because
baptism and confession of believing in Him may act as surface markers.

17 It is neither a Messianic, nor Messianite (ISR). It is not related to the word Mashiah of Hebrew thought. It is
not related to Christians as used in English; they are not same; they dont belong to the same sematic field.
18 Mashianity > Messianity - Instead of the term Christianity, which is institutionalized form of a religion with

power structure, the teaching of Yeshua the Mashiah would be well be called Mashianity
(adj.) = pertaining to Christian religions or Churches or their systems and members.19
The sense of being related to Christ, of Christ, Christ following, belonging to Christ, or
professing Christianity or its teachings is only secondary. Having or showing qualities associated
with Christians, especially those of decency, kindness, and fairness is also secondary descriptive,
not definitional.

Just as Yehudah (> Judah) out of whom Yehudim (Jews) came was not a Jew, Yeshua was not
a Christian, just as His followers were not Christians. The term Christian used in the writings for
IRENT means related to Christian religion or church as in the expressions, such as Christian
practice, doctrines, teaching, writings, statements, debates, arguments, etc.

The word Christian is commonly defined as (1): 1. (Adjective) of, relating to, or professing
Christianity or its teachings. 2. Origin: Late Middle English: from Greek Christianos.

Mashian a neologism.
(adj.) = pertaining to Mashiah, of Mashiah, Mashiah following or belonging to Mashiah.
(noun) = a person belonging to Mashiah without any connotation of religion doctrine or
church. In N.T. he is the promised Mashiah of Elohim to come in the person of Yeshua with His
life teaching, suffering and death His love, not His doctrines.

Nazarenes (Natzaratim). The original followers of the Way (the teaching of Yeshua) (Acts 9:2,
22:4) were a sect of Judaism known as Nazarenes (Acts 24:5).20

Messianic (adj.) pertaining to Messiah; (noun) believers in Messiah. It is a non-biblical term, just as
Christian is, with its distinct connotation (as in the term Messianic Jews). The Jewish New
Testament (1989, translated by David Stern) has the word Messianic(s) in all three places of
Christian(s). The term Messianic Judaism was invented in the late 60s.

talmidim [Heb.] [Sing. talmid] [Etym. related to Talmud) /disciples; [life-committed learners to a
teacher-master-rabbi those who are determined and disciplined to be like their master. Cf. much
different than knowledge- or skill-based relationship between a teacher and learner, pupils, or students).
[See Mt 28:19a make learners life-committed to the Yeshuas name.] [In the Gospels, IRENT retains
disciple when used in generic sense of the common word.]

the Twelve [The phrase the Twelve designating the twelve of the talmidim of Yeshua; only
appears in G-Jn, G-Mk, and G-Lk. Cf. his twelve talmidim (disciples) and the twelve apostles in G-
Mt.] [In New Covenant, it is counterpart to the Twelve Tribes of Yisrael in the Old Covenant] [The
word apostle(s) is not used in G-John which has is no name list of the Twelve as in Mt 10:2ff; //Mk
3:14ff; /Lk 6:13ff].

apostles [those to be sent out on a task or mission. Emissary.]. IRENT renders it as apostles
outside the Gospels, where it renders as those sent out (on a mission).

As a religious technical term, the use of the word Apostle (capitalized) is associated with the original
11 disciples of Yeshua (the Eleven, with Judas excluded) in the Gospels, along with Matthias (Act
1:26) + Paulos (Rm 1:1; 1Co 1:2; 9:1; 15:9; etc.). In Act 14:4 and 14:14 both Paulos and BarNabas
it corresponds to the modern term missionaries.]

ambassador [> Gk. presbeu to be older; to be or act as an ambassador to represent the desires of
his king in a foreign land] Eph 6:20; 2Co 5:20

19 Three places in the N.T. [Act 11:26; 26:28; 1Pe 4:16] it is the word used to call Gentle believers in Mashiah.
IRENT transliterates it as Christianos, since thematically and historically it is not directly related to the common
English word Christian(s) of the present day Christian Churches.
20 www.nazarenemedia.net/uploads/8/1/0/5/8105580/nazarene_vs_messianic.pdf
Gods consecrated ones > saints [the English word carries different sense]
*Israel; *Hebrews

Israel (1) the God-given name to Yaakob (x: Jacob; Gen 32:24-32; 35:10); (2) the
descendants of Yaakob (3) the northern kingdom of Israel (vs. the southern kingdom of
Yudah); (3) By inter-testamental period the name "Israel" was used as ethnic, racial, national
and religious designation of the Hebrew peoples; (4) Elohims people of Israel (- also
figuratively used in N.T.);

Cf. Hebrews Hebraios [Hebrew people 2Co 11:22; Phi 3:5] [Hebrew-speaking Yehudim vs.
Greek speaking Yehudim Act 6:1]
Cf. Israelites (Act 2:22, 29; 3:12; 13:16; 7:26; 21:28; Rm 9:6; 10:1, 16) (in O.T. context - Act
7:37; 2Co 3:7, 13; Heb 11:22; Rm 9:26)

*Yehudim (pl.) /> *Jews [Cf. Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, Zealots. [Cf. Israel, Israelite; Judean;
Judaic]; Yehudi (sing.) /> Jew;

Gk. hoi Ioudaios grammatically comparable to the Jewish in English, but carries quite a different
nuance. IRENT renders it as the Yehudim; most Bible translate it as the Jews. It is apposite of the
Gentiles (Gk. ta ethn21; Heb. goyim). It does not mean the whole Yehudim but used in synecdoche
(totum pro parte = the whole is used to describe a part. e.g. the Romans in Jn 11:48; Act 28:17) and,
depending on the context, it refers to different groups of them. E.g. Those who encountered Yeshua in
the Gospels, the prominent group was the Yehudim in authority in Yerusalem, esp. in G-John (e.g. Jn
1:19). Cf. diaspora Yehudim Act 13:43; 17:13.

[Note: Jews (Jewish people) - different sense, connotation, association, and usage. It may well be
limited to the people after the Fall of Jerusalem and cessation of Temple-based Yehudism which was
replaced by the rabbinic Judaism of the people in Diaspora. Problem of the word Jews colored with
anachronism and anti-Semitism is unfit for a translation word in the whole Bible. E.g. Jn 4:22 salvation
is of the Jews (/from the Jews is a preposterous. This also applies to the word Jewish ( of people or
religion), and Judaism (religion), which do not fit in the Bible text not only for translation but also
understanding and interpretation.

[On history of the word Jews, see https://biblicisminstitute.wordpress.com/2014/08/29/the-word-jew-


King of the Yehudim [An epithet used not by themselves but by others (Pilate, Roman soldiers; by
astrologer-magi Mt 2:2)]; [Cf. Mashiah as a king (Lk 23:2). Cf. King of Yisrael Mt 27:42; Jn 1:49;
12:13; King of Judea Lk 1:5] /x: King of the Jews anachronistic usage and anti-Semitic nuance.

Yehudim people groups vs. Yeshuas ministry

Yehudim of ruling authority > [most of Jews as translated in English Bibles in G-Jn]
Kohen, Kohanim > priest, priests; chief kohanim (leading, high ~, etc.)
Torah teachers, scribes
The Elders of the Yehudim people

ta ethn Used in various sense nations, pagans, people group, etc.


*angel Gk. aggelos messenger
(1) of God angel.
Cf. notion of guardian angels - (Mt 18:10). Cf. archangel (1Th 4:16). Cf. named
angels Gabriel (Lk Ch. 1), archangel Michael (Jud 1:9; Rev 12:7). Cf. the holy
angel Lk 9:26; a holy angel Act 10:22 = an angel of Elohim Act 10:3. Cf. an angel
of Adonai (aggelos kuriou) Lk 1:11; Mt 1:24; Act 12:7.
(2) of man messenger.
1Tm 5:21 (elect messengers, not elect angels)
Rev Ch. 2 & 3 (messengers to the Congregation in the cities).
2Pe 2:1 ~~ 2:4: false prophets and teachers ~~ the messengers that sinned
Jud 1:5-7 the messengers who did not keep their position of authority ~~ kept them
in darkness, bound with eternal chains for judgment of the great Day. Likewise,
Sodom and Gomorrah and
(4) of Satan agent of Satan /> messenger of Satan most; [2Co 12:7]
[Cf. Satan disguised as an angel of light. 2Co 11:14.
[Note: Those Bible texts cited by most to be used on the notion of fallen angels (along with
the question on whether angels can sin) are actually all about devil demons
(evil/unclean) spirits or agents of Satan. E.g. 'spirits' (Eph 6:12); the dragon and its
'agents' (Rev 12:7-9); devil (Jn 8:44; 1Pe 5:8); a spirit (Job 4:15); no trust in His
servants (Job 4:18); have no trust in His holy ones (Job 15:15-16).]
Can angels sin? The answer depends on what is meant by (or referred to) 'angel'. It is No for those
created beings of Elohim, who are messengers and guardians.
*Satan [what is it? Or what is he? a spirit (being), a spirit person?

devil (Devil); Beelzebub; demons; evil spirits; unclean spirits [Cf. Common wrong
rendering Lucifer (which is now used in different sense) for light-bearer in Ezk
= the Ancient Serpent the Devil the Satan, the (great) Dragon (Rev 12:9;) = the
Dragon; the Ancient Serpent, the Devil, the Satan (Rev 20:2)

Cf. the god of this age (2Co 4:4); "the ruler (x: prince KJV) of this world" (Jn 12:31;
14:30; 16:11); mammon (Mt 6:24);

serpent-became-satan/ - edited
[Heb. meaning adversary. In O.T. x 5 to describe a human military, political or legal opponent,
and x 4 with reference to a divine being. All the satan except x 1 (a) satan 1Ch 21:1]
Satan became as if the proper name of the devil, a supernatural power now seen to oppose God
as the leader of demons and the forces of evil - the idea occurring in texts two centuries before
the New Testament. The serpent in the Garden of Eden is not identified with Satan anywhere in
the Hebrew Bible or New Testament; it came to be identified with him later. Although the author
of Revelation describes Satan as the ancient serpent (Rev 12:9; 20:2), there is no clear link
anywhere in the Bible between Satan and Edens talking snake.

Presented as a challenger to put Yeshua to test (Mk 1:13; //Mt 4:1-11; //Lk 4:1-13),
Satan as Beelzebul, the prince of the demons (/x: of the devils KJV) opposing force
to God (Lk 11:1519; Mt 12:2427; Mk 3:2223, 26); Jesus ministry puts a temporary
end to Satans reign (falling from the heaven Lk 10:18) and to from the power of
the satan turn the Gentiles to Elohim (Act 26:18). Most famously, Satan endangers the
Christian communities but will fall in Christs final act of salvation, described in detail
in the book of Revelation.

What is its origin? proof texts and conflation.

It is not something God has created!

1Jn 3:8 "The devil sins from the beginning".

Rev 12:9 "That old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan"

Isaiah 14:12, 13-14 How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning!" [The
KJV word Lucifer became to be used as the name of Satan. Cf. this verse is often conflated
with Lk 10:18 Jesus said, "I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven". Cf. Rev 9:1 a star
falling from heaven.]

Cf. Ezk 28:11-17 Prophecy against the king of Tyre, not about Satan, Devil.

In the Gospels, x 36
[Red for unarthrous noun; @ IRENT keep uncapitalized for human being as a satan.]

satana x 15 satanas x 17 satanan x

vocative Nominative Accus

Satan! Satan satanas Satan

Mt 4:10
satan!@ Mk 3:23 Mk
Mt 16:23 //Mk 3:23
8:33 the Satan ho satanas
Genitive Mt 12:26 (x 2) Satan
Mark 3:26; 4:15
of Satan Luke 11:18; 13:16; 22:3, 31 Mt
2Co 12:7 Jn 13:27 12:26
Acts 5:3 Lk
of the Satan 1 Co 7:5 10:18
Mk 1:13 2 Co 11:14 Rm
Act 26:18 1Th 2:18 16:20
2Co 2:11 Rev 2:13; 12:9; 20:2, 7
2Th 2:9
1Ti 5:15
Rev 2:9, 13, 24;

to the Satan
1Co 5:5
1Ti 1:20
Time, Festivals; historical periods and timeline
Hour; day; dawn; evening; week; sabbath (shabbat); preparation day; feast day vs.
festival day; Pesach, Passover; Passover Week; Holy Week; the (days of /festival of) the
unleavened bread;

[Note: The use of the word, such as day and hour in the Bible is not same as with the
special term day and hour used as a unit of measurement for a period for time in the language
of modern physics.]

month In the Bible it is a lunar month (29 day or 30 days), not a solar month of Gregorian
calendar (28, 29, 30 or 31 days).

hour In the Bible, when the word is expressed as ordinal numbers (e.g. 1st, 2nd hour, etc.)
it is in the sense of hour-period as IRENT renders it. It refers to a period of time with a
daytime period divided by 12. It should not be read as if it refers to hour on the clock i.e.
oclock with cardinal numbers (e.g. one, two, three) in English.

In idioms without ordinal numbers IRENT renders simply as hour; e.g. at that hour, for an
hour, etc. 22

day day is that which begins at sunrise. It is often used in a figurative sense. Hebrew
word yom ( Gk. hmera) means a daylight period (Gen 1:5. Cf. Jn 11:9) 23.

A day as a calendar day24 in the Biblical luni-solar calendar system, which simply begins at
sunrise with morning breaking in, is from sunrise to next sunrise. In the universal Gregorian
calendar, it is reckoned to start at 12 A.M. 25 Much confusion in following otherwise
straightforward timeline of biblical narratives is due to a peculiar tradition of the rabbinic
Jewish calendar which reckons it to start26 at sunset.

The word hour is also used figuratively. It is in the sense similar to English use of time An interval,
especially a span of years, marked by similar events, conditions, or phenomena; an era. A suitable,
opportune, or appointed moment or season, and (2) hour customary, particular, special, or fixed
moment/period/time. In the Bible hour does not have sense as unit of measurement of time (of 60 min.
Note: Gen 1:5 reads Elohim called the light "day" and the darkness he called "night". And were the
evening and the morning day one. Here day is defined as a daylight period. The word day in the
phrase day one (not first day) does not mean a 24-hour day (as in our modern parlance), nor a period
from sunrise to sunset (which is the only way day means in the rest of scripture outside the Creation
Week). The word here is not in literal sense, but in literary use. It is appropriate here to call it creation day
as the sun itself has not be set in its place until 4th creation day (Gen 1:14-19).
a calendar day (a date on a calendar = day time + night time).
Cf. 12 A.M. is not same as midnight. Note that the numbering (1 to 12) in the hour-periods in the
early Julian calendar begins at sunrise (not from midnight) as shown on a sundial.
Cf. Notice that how the expression is reckoned to start (which is simply artificial) differs from
numbered days vs. named days of the week: Whenever we see the phrase on (the) first day
of the week in the Bible we should be immediately aware that it is of the lunar week. The
Bible readers should not bring into the biblical text the notion of the named days of the solar
week (as is with Gregorian, and also with Jewish Calendar).

The Day one of the week cannot and should not be translated as Sunday, as the day in the
Biblical lunar calendar may fall on any named day of the solar week. 27

Likewise, Day 7 of the week (which is the day of Sabbath in the Bible) is not same as
Saturday. this is one of the great blunders many commit. The result is simply and
unknowingly to misread what the Bible tells from its timelines and narratives. If we drop such
non-biblical vocabulary, the problems with the confusing and conflicting Passover Week
Chronology are half-gone by itself, allowing us to direct our attention to focus on something
the Bible teaches us, away from obsession to Church liturgical tradition.

dawn A short period when light beginning to show in the eastern sky, yielding to morning
of a new day at sunrise. It belongs to the night period and in the last waning part of a day.
Opposite is dusk in the early part of evening after sunset. [It is important to keep it mind that,
when the sunrise brings in a new day, the date remains same in the Jewish or Roman calendar,
but it is a day later in the biblical lunar calendar.]

evening (Gk. opsios) [Comparable to an uncommon Hebrew idiom between [two]

twilights in O.T. (as for time of Pesach sacrifice). The word evening in OT translation is
actually (late) afternoon.]
[Some mistranslate the time of the burial of Yeshua by entombment (e.g. in Mt 27:57 and parallel) as
late afternoon from their confused understanding of the timeline in the last part of the Passion Week.]

week The word week in the Scripture is a lunar week with the seven numbered days,
not seven consecutive days. These numbered days of the lunar week (day one = first day; day
seven = seventh day, etc.) in the Bible do not correspond to the named days of the solar week
(Sunday, Monday, etc.) as in the Roman Gregorian28 calendar system, which corresponds to
the Jewish calendar 7 numbered days of the week in the Jewish calendar.

[The day of Yeshuas Resurrection, 16th of the month Abib was day one of the lunar week,
which is the third week of the lunar month (Day 16 to 22). In CE 30 it is found to fall on
Sunday in a proleptic Gregorian calendar, with the Pesach feast day of Abib 14 (the date of the
Crucifixion) falling on Thursday29.]

IRENT renders t mia tn sabbatn as on the day one instead of the usual on the first day.
Early Julian Roman Calendar had 8-day weeks, labelled A to H.
Less likely is Wednesday; the discrepancy from different observers local conjunction time and the
sunrise time in that day. [See WB #5 for details.]
It is an uttermost importance to discard any preconception or presumption which comes from the rabbinic
Judaic tradition in order that follow timeline and chronology of biblical narratives.
shabbat (> sabbath) 30. The word is from shabbat rest (Exo 31:37, Heb 4:9)31 and it is
most commonly used metonymically as shabbat day. 32

[Many languages including European and Arabic have their word for Saturday which is
etymologically from Sabbath.]

The biblical Shabbat is on Day 7 of the lunar week. It is not on Saturday of the solar
week, as in Sabbatarian and Jewish sabbath, which is from sunset of Friday to sunset of
The days of Shabbat are only in full 7-day weeks (4 times on 8th, 15th, 22nd and 29th
day of the month, every month of the lunar calendar); not continuously on every 7 days
as in the solar calendar.
Shabbat rest which is for a daytime period only. It is meant resting from daily labor. The
expression keeping Shabbat is to have Shabbat rest for the daytime period on the
Shabbat day. Shabbat rest for the night time is conceptually and linguistically
contradictory. It is on the 7th day;
IRENT use the term shabbat as the translation word in N.T. Note: outside N.T. usage it
is also helpful to distinguish two expressions: shabbat as of a lunar shabbat and
sabbath specifically as solar sabbath in Sabbatarian and Jewish custom.

Our common words Friday, Saturday, Sunday to Thursday of the named days of the solar
Gregorian week do not belong to the biblical vocabulary. To use such non-biblical terms to
follow and examine the biblical narratives is anachronistic and causes misunderstanding of the
timelines in the biblical narratives.

[As to sabbath keeping it is said without sabbath, no Judaism. However, the concept of
sabbath predates Judaism all the way up to Adams and Noahs time. Keeping of sabbath on
Saturday of the solar week in Judaism (on 7th day on their calendar) is not based on the
Scripture. The picture we find in the biblical narratives and histories is not same as in
Sabbatarian practices and traditions of Saturday Sabbath-day keeping, as handed down in

[Cf. to profane Shabbat Mt 12:5. [Cf. keep sabbath (regulation) esp. more on
somethings not to be done.] [Sabbath violation accused by Yehudim for Yeshuas healing
ministry could have avoided simply by having waited sundown.]

In addition to six work days in the Biblical calendar there is a third category which is called
the New Moon day, signifying the first day of the lunar month. [It is not a Shabbat day, nor
work day. The word in the N.T. appears only once in Col 2:16.]

preparation [day] is the day of preparing the seventh day of the lunar week (for Shabbat); it
is not related to Friday of our Gregorian calendar, though it may coincide. [Likewise, Day One
(rather than first day) does not correspond to Sunday, which is polemically referred as the

[Cf. Plural shabbats as an idiom for (1) a week, or (2) one of shabbat days.]
[God-given shabbat rest (Heb 4:9) is the very shalom which Yeshua gives (Mt 11:29). It is in Yeshua
Himself, not in keeping a certain day of the week.] [The word shabbat (sabbath) by itself is not related to
worshiping God which involves sacrifice offering in O.T. Judaic tradition.]
It is found to be very important to discard any preconception or presumption which comes from the
rabbinic Judaic tradition in order that follow the timeline and chronology of biblical narratives correctly.
eighth day which is beyond the seven days of Creation.] During the Passover-Passion Week,
the term always refers to the preparation day of shabbat of the Festival.

*Festival vs. Feast

English words feast and festival have different meanings, in both religious/biblical and
secular usage. E.g. marriage feast, not marriage festival. KJV uses only the word feast.
The word festival in English is from 14th century. The English word feast (which is from
12nd century) as used now is often something to do with festive meals. [Some modern ones
show confusion NWT, HCSB, NIV, etc.]

Though two seem synonymous they have different meanings, in religious or secular occasions.

As a biblical term, a festival (Heb. chag; LXX heort) is for a week-long celebration such as
the Festival of the Matzah (Exo 23:15; Mt 26:17; Mk 14:1, 12; Lk 22:17) (= Festival of the
Pesach. Lk 22:1; 14:1) and the Festival of Sukkot (Lev 23:34).

In contrast, a feast (Heb. moed pl. moadim; LXX kairos) is for a single day occasion e.g.
(1) the Feast of Pesach (Exo 34:25) for commemoration (on the day before the 1st day of the
Festival of Pesach (= Festival of the Matzah), and (2) the Feast of Shavuot as a festival
gathering of celebration.

[Note: Confusingly, the phrase Festival of Passover in most translation is still rendered in a
few places wrongly as Passover feast in Jn 2:23 (ESV, NET); Jn 13:1 (NET, ESV, KJV,
[Note: Pentecost as an English word now refers to a Christian ecclesial holiday; it is not
suitable for a translation word to be used in the Biblical text. E.g. in Act 2:1.]

[Three pilgrimage festivals of Judaism Pesach (Passover), Shavuot (Weeks), and Sukkot
(Tabernacles, Tents or Booths).] [Feast of the Pesach (e.g. Exo 34:25 as in KJV; /x: festival
of ~ - NWT, HCSB, NIV) is not to be confused with Festival of the Pesach in N.T. which is
syn. of the Festival of the Matzah.]

Many faces of the word Pesach It is imperative to see in what sense the word Pesach (>
Passover) is used (1) the Pesach event and Pesach vigil in the Exodus history; (2) Pesach
sacrifice (or lamb); (3) the Pesach [feast] day (with Pesach meal on Abib 14 evening).and (4) the
7-day Pesach festival (= the Matzah Festival from Abib 15 to 21). Also, as (5) Pesach meal in the
fixed phrase eat pesach. [See BW #6 for Passion Week Chronology]

IRENT renders Gk. pascha with the Hebrew word Pesach in order to restore its Judaic nature,
not Christian. Hebrew noun pesach is derived from the verb pasach (Exo 12:13 and 12:23),
which does not mean to pass (over), but to protect as the etymology suggests.
A related vocabulary: Pesach eve (Erev Pesach) = not same as shabbat-preparation day of the
Passover Festival. Thus, the expression preparation of the Passover33 is ambiguous and may
mislead in following narrative timeline.
[Note: the expression Christian Passover is an oxymoron, which some has come up from
reading the text of the Last Supper (e.g. Luke 22:1415), thinking that Jesus instituted the
symbols of the Christian Passover, the bread and wine symbolizing His body and blood for a
new religion of Him.]

The most important festival in Judaism. However, Passover, an English translation word, of
the church liturgy is chronologically and historically disconnected from Pesach from O.T. and
Judaic tradition 34. [Cf. Pascha as in some European languages, though derived from Hebrew
word, confusingly refers to Easter, not Pesach or Passover.] [Originally separate observances
(cf. Mk 14:1), Feast of Pesach (Abib 14) and Festival of the Unleavened Bread (Abib 15-21),
became combined after Babylonian exile of the Southern Kingdom of Yehudah. Lumped
together as one Pesach (festival season) with eating unleavened bread.

The biblical Passion Week (with numbered days of the lunar week) does not match with the
liturgical Holy Week (of a solar week) in Constantine Catholic Church tradition. The common
expression Passion Week does not stand conceptually alone without being tied to Passover
Week (Pesach Week), as the one died other than Abib 14, Pesach day, cannot be the
Mashiah, a person subject of religious study for scholars.

unleavened bread (Heb. matzah) (Gk. azumos adj. Always in plural.)

All in setting of Pesach season (7x) are the unleavened bread (arthrous, pl.) in the Synoptic
Gospels and Acts. Only in the sense of the festival, the Hebrew word Matzah is used to
translate in IRENT, to help the context clear.

[Bread home-baked of freshly made dough without having it ferment and rise. The sense of the
word unleavened is not risen. More than made with no yeast in it.

the Festival of the Matzah [Heb. Chag Matzoth. It is so rendered in IRENT with the
Hebrew word used in the name of the festival.] A festival of eating unleavened bread for
seven days (Abib 15-21) after the Pesach day. Only unleavened bread is allowed. The term
with this full expression is Lk 22:1, where it says it is [synonymously] called Pesach
Festival as a festival season, but the term Pesach is not to be confused with and cannot be
used as interchangeable with it. Variously translated as the Festival of the Unleavened Bread

[One instance needs a scrutiny: What is usually translated as the preparation of the Passover in Jn
19:14 is not the sabbath-preparation of the Passover [festival] (= the Matzah Festival), but eve of
Pesach [day of sacrifice and meal] this verse has been the source of much confusion because
apparent contradiction between the Synoptics and G-John could not be reconciled for conflicting
time/date of the Crucifixion/death (Mk 15:25 and Mt 26:45) and the time/date of Pilate sentencing here
in G-Jn.]
There is a heated issue over the date of Passover keeping: Should it be Nisan 14 or Nisan 15 in the
parlance of the rabbinic Jewish calendar. This will not resolve until after the true biblical calendar is
understood in place of the rabbinic Jewish calendar from 4th century CE. Cf. The so-called Passover
Controversy is a religious issue, not biblical, on Should Christians keep Passover? Note: Some
Christian sects may keep Passover, but the expression Christian Passover is an oxymoron as Jewish
Easter would be. [Cf. Quartodeciman Controversy with observance of Passover vs. Easter.]
NWT-4, NIV; the Feast of Unleavened Bread ESV; the feast of unleavened bread
KJV. [Note: the expression the first day of the unleavened bread (KVJ) in Mt 26:17; //Mk
14:12 is for Abib 14, not the first day of the Matzah Festival. IRENT renders it as the
beginning day for the unleavened bread] [Pesach Week = the week of 7-day Festival of
the Matzah = Festival of the Pesach. Cf. A day of Pesach feast.]

[Note: - Seder the ritual meal in rabbinic Judaism is in evening when Nisan 15 comes in their

the Festival of Shavuot Cf. Jewish Pentecost oxymoronic; /Cf. Pentecost (Christian
ecclesial holiday) is the term now with much different and unbiblical (denominational)

Prayer; immersion, immersion rite, to immerse, baptize, baptism; speaking in

languages; foretell; anoint; proclaim, announce, preach; circumcision-rite; preach;


Love; the Scripture; Gospel; Kingdom reign of Elohim; Mashian community (vs.
Church); sin vs. sins; evil, bad, wicked, defiled, unclean, sinful; righteous,
righteousness; salvation; be saved; the holy Spirit; satan, devil, demons;
GeHinnom, hell; execution stake vs. Cross; doctrines, creeds, beliefs, traditions,
practices; peaking in languages; Life eternal; memorial-tomb, tomb, grave; law vs.
Torah; circumcision-rite; blood; preach; grace; covenant

GeHinnom [Once in G-Lk; none in G-Jn.] [Gk. Geenna /gehenna Vulgate.] [from Heb.
GeHinnom valley of sons of Hinnom a valley running South of Yerusalem.]; [The word is
derived from the name of a valley hugging S.W. of Yerusalem, which was well known in O.T.
The word, however, is used only in figurative sense in N.T. with its basic sense comparable to
garbage burning place for worthlessness and destruction, not a place for hellish torment or
torture which is everlasting and unending and which is a place to go after death in unbiblical
soul immortality and hell-fire doctrine.] [It is not an infernal place where the dead go -- Cf.
inferno (Latin as in Dantes Divine Comedy)].

/x: hell [traditional translation as in KJV and others brings non-biblical sense and yields
non-biblical Church doctrine of hell and hell-preaching.]

[The expression the maggot does not die and the fire is not quenched is only in G-Mk (see
Mk 9:48).] [That in the Gospels it is a place of punishment in the next life (e.g. in the Greek-
English lexicon, BDAG, p. 191) is a very common unbiblical misreading of the Gospel texts.]
[Note: as a common English word, hell is used with different sense and taste. A useful hell
doctrine may be constructed with having much to do with the Biblical message. E.g. hell is
the present condition of certain people from their choices made in their life.] [Not to be
confused with sheol (in Hebrew), hades (in Gk)];

Law, Torah; law, rule; commandment, command, order Law [legal and regulatory
aspect]; torah Gods teaching and instruction. Cf. as the Five Books of Moses.

Torah is not Law; Law is not Torah

The Hebrew word "Torah" is usually translated into the English word "Law".
Because of this translation there is a great misunderstanding of what "Torah"
truly is. "TORAH IS NOT LAW". When we use the word "law" we assume a
certain meaning and concept of the word that is not present in the Hebrew

Defined is the term 'Torah' as 'the comprehensive name for the dive revelation,
written and oral, in which the Judaic people (> Jews) possessed the sole
standard and norm of their region'.

The word signifies 'instruction' or 'teaching', and indicates the revelation given
by God to Israel through his servant Moses.

The word is often translated 'Law', but this can be misleading for its meaning is
near to 'revelation' than it is to 'legislation'.

But since this 'revelation' finds written expression in the Pentateuch, the name
'Torah' is commonly applied to the 'five books of Moses'. ... the name could be
applied not only to the written record of this revelation but also the unwritten
tradition which sought to make explicit teaching which mas implicit in the
written Torah.
The *Word; the *Logos Jn 1:1 Gk. ho logos = the word, specifically the Word of
Elohim. It is personified in the rest of the prologue, but not a Person, eternal, pre-existing
Son of God, God the Son, Christ (in LB), Cosmic Christ, or even Jesus.]

The Logos is not same as the God (i.e. YHWH Elohim) of Jn 1:1b. It is not a god (NWT
Jn 1:1c), nor just divine (Moffatt), but what God is (Jn 1:1c) as the agent of Gods creation
(Jn 1:3). It does not refer to the Son and has nothing to do with the notion of the pre-exiting
and eternal Son God the Son, Christ, or Cosmic Christ. Yeshua as the embodiment (=
incarnate) of the Word of Elohim (Jn 1:14) as the revealer of God the Father (Jn 1:18), not
to become God, but the image of Elohim, the invisible, the first-born of all creation, (Col
2:15-20) as the agent of Gods new creation.

Only in Rev 19:13 the expression the Word of the Elohim is used as a title for the risen and
exulted Yeshua. Jesus is not this Word of God in Jn 1:1. Cf. the Word of Life 1Jn 1:1;
the Word 1Jn 5:7b v.l. in the triad of the Father, the Word, and the holy Spirit in the

Jn 1:1 Word = The very Word of Elohim. [Gk. Logos expression from His will and
thoughts to utterances & actions = Word-event. Heb. dabar. (Psa 33:6. Cf. Heb. hokma
wisdom, personified as the agent of creation Pro 3:19; 8:22-31. Cf. 1Co 1:21; Eph 3:10)].

Languages Hebrew, Aramaic, Koine Greek, Latin

www.ancient-hebrew.org/alphabet_oldest.html New Discoveries Indicate Hebrew was

World's Oldest Alphabet

love To love God is to have Him in the sacred place of ones soul to be our joy and be
content with. To love the other is in sharing and expanding personal spaces.

[Opposite of love is not hate but self-love keeping ones space invulnerable.] It is self-
giving love, (not self-sacrificing love). Unrelated to the same word used in English language
in other than the way used in the Scripture, to describe inter-personal relation and act. [In
English vocabulary, it is something to do with affection, attraction, attachment, allure-arousal
totally unrelated to the word love in the Bible.]

To love is not something of having deep affection. To love God is to sanctify His name (= His
reality) [= Mt 6:6]; this the first line of our prayer. To sanctify His name is to sanctify
everything of us, with us, and in us to bring honor to His name to Him. God name is holy.
That includes our very existence (body and soul) and our relation (to others and to the
world). That we are to keep His name holy and hallow his Name is oxymoronic and

Word of God; Scripture; vs. Bible(s) Bible refers to translation work into vernacular
languages. The Scripture is a collective noun the Gr. plural word (= things written down) is
usually rendered as the Scriptures, which refers to the whole of the books of the Scriptures.
Gk. word in singular usually refers to a scripture passage.
the Scripture (capitalized). [The word New Testament Old Testament Bible does not
appear in the Bible. Technically these are Book of the Renewed Covent and Hebrew
Scripture] IRENT renders Gk. hai graphai (pl. the scriptures) as the TaNaKh Scripture.
Different from its use as a common religious jargon, the word does NOT refer the Bible, but
TaNaKh, the Hebrew Scripture (aka Old Testament). [Note: Gk. h graph (singular) the
scripture refers to a passage rendered in IRENT as the scripture passage [in TaNaKh].
(e.g. Mk 12:10; Lk 4:21).

[The word Bible refers to that which has been taken and translated to be used as the - canon
of their doctrinal beliefs, religious practices, and man-made traditions, hence non-biblical and
un-biblical words, phrases, idioms, and ideas have crept in, often with limited understanding
and wrong interpretation of the text. One may read in the Bible; but the Bible does not say
for us to hear.]
[The so-called New Testament, a technical term, is for the canonical book and is an
equivalent to a shortcut for the fuller name Book of the New Covenant.]

Covenant [binding agreement] [Cf. contract legal or business term] [cf. testament
archaic word for this sense.]

A covenant (berith in Hebrew) is a binding agreement between two parties bilateral. The
Scriptural focus is on covenants initiated by God unilateral, for which He provided visible
signs and for which He sometimes attached stipulations or conditions.

The English word testament is archaic for covenant. It is the Covenant in Yeshua for
Elohim and the humanity. It is the covenant new in Yeshua the New Covenant in Yeshua
the Mashiah is the renewed covenant of Elohim for humanity, not in replacement of the
Gods covenants in the history from Genesis-Adam-Noah to Israel. It is not something new
against Old Covenant as in Christianism against Judaism.]

Gospel 1. (a Gospel book): [This term, appearing in the title of the first four books of the
New Testament, refers to the individual Gospel book or its content. It is about the life history
and teaching of Yeshua the Mashiah (> Messiah). It is derived from Old English gdspel
(good news or story; glad tidings; joyful message).

2. (the content): As such it is Gospel of Gods Kingdom reign through and in the person of
Yeshua the Mashiah (> Messiah) to announce liberation from political and religious powers, to
the audience of the Yehudim (Judaic people) at first and then of the Gentiles of the nations;
not about personal salvation, a theological jargon.] [In the Gospels, the translation word
Gospel is only when in the sense of the book or as a title. Elsewhere as the Good News or
(a) good news)] [Cf. Gospel of Yeshua vs. Gospel about Yeshua the Mashiah.]

*Kingdom reign of Elohim (Gods reign) [G-Jn has only twice Jn 3:3, 5]; /> Kingdom of
God; (= Kingdom of the Heavens only in G-Mt.) [heavens Hebraism; metonymic for
Elohim (the God)] [Not a place but Gods reign realized in the person of Yeshua himself, the
reality to belong to.] [Mt 4:23; 5:3, 10b; 6:10, 33 Have Your kingdom come] [Gods
Kingdom is the basic message of the Gospel with Gods authority, reign and rule which is not
about position and power for control, but power for creation and care/serving.] [In N.T. it
refers to that which is inaugurated in the coming of Yeshua as the Mashiah, the Son of Elohim.
Cf. a single occurrence of the expression the kingdom of the Mashiah and Elohim in Eph 5:5
it is the reign of Elohim, kingdom reign inaugurated through the person of the Mashiah not
two different kingdoms; nor the Mashiah to be one and same as Elohim.] [Heaven and hell is
a useful expression, but it is not a biblical phrase to be found in the Gospel message. Cf.
heaven, Gods kingdom, paradise, and a place when some good persons are supposed to go
after death in line with a pagan and Greek idea of soul immortality.]

Rev 5:10; 11:15 (Kingdom of our Lord and of Gods Mashiah); 12:10 Kingdom (of our Elohim)
Rev 1:6; 1:9; a kingdom reign
Rev 11:15 (kingdom of the world); 6:10; 17:12; a kingdom
Rev 17:17 royal power

the Alpha and the Omega Rev 1:8*; 21:6*; 22:13. (1:11 v.l.); [ and first and last of Greek letters
the two in the middle of Gods name YHWH in Gk -- the first and last form , abbreviation of the name
Yeusha in Gk ]
the Beginning and the End Rev 21:6*; 22:13 [Cf. Rev 1:8 v.l. Beginning and End] Beginning [= The
First Principle - Cause of all things (that who has all begun), not that which was begun.] End [= The
Last Principle Goal of all things, not that which will end]
the First and the Last Rev 22:13. (1:11 v.l.); [In Isa 44:6; 48:12 it is self-designation by YHWH]

[Note: the same title applied to more than one person does not mean that they are same and identical. Cf.
Jesus is Jehovah identified as the same person Mormons (https://rsc.byu.edu/archived/jesus-christ-
son-god-savior/6-jesus-jehovah-yhwh-study-gospels); - Wayne Jackson
- Jehovah is Jesus - https://carm.org/jehovah-jesus ]

*throne In NT, used mostly as figuratively and as metonym for power, authority, royalty.

throne of a king e.g. of David (Lk 1:32);

thrones (Rev 4:4; 11:16)
the throne referring to the throne of the Elohim Mt 5:34; Heb 4:16; Rev 1:4; 3:21;
4:2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10; 5:1, 6, 7, 11, 13; 6:16; 7:9, 10, 11, 15, 17; 8:3, 14:3; 16:17; 19:4,
5; 20:12; 21:3, 5; 22:1
The throne of the Elohim - Rev 7:15; 12:9; 14:5;
The throne of the Majesty in the heavens - Heb 8:1
The throne of the Son-of-man - Mt 19:28; 25:31
The throne of the Son - Heb 1:8
To have seated at the right hand of the Elohim == the Elohim exalted the man, the
risen Lord, Yeshua the Mashiah, to a higher position of authority over even angels
(Phi 2:9-11).
sit at the right hand of the Elohim Mk 16:19; Heb 10:12
sit at my right hand Mk 12:36; Heb 1:13; Eph 1:20
sit at right hand of the Mighty One Mk 14:62
at right hand of the throne of the Elohim - Heb 12:2;
sat down with my Father on His throne Rev 3:21
My throne and my Fathers throne Rev 3:21
The throne of the Elohim of the Lamb Rev 22:2, 3
of the satan - Rev 2:12; of the Dragon - Rev 13:2; of the beast Rev 16:10.

Typical definitions of miracle:

An event which the forces of nature including the natural powers of man cannot of
themselves produce, and which must, therefore, be referred to a supernatural agency
George Fisher (1900), Manual of Christian Evidences, p. 9.

A surprising or welcome event that is not explicable by natural or scientific laws and is
therefore considered to be the work of a divine agent.

Such a notion is not present the N.T. and should not be used as a translation word for the

Several Greek words behind it are: http://christiananswers.net/dictionary/miracle.html

semeion, a sign, i.e., an evidence of a divine commission; an attestation of a divine

message (Mt 12:38, 39; 16:1, 4; Mk 8:11; Lk 11:16; 23:8; Jn 2:11, 18, 23; Act 6:8, etc.);
a token of the presence and working of God; the seal of a higher power.
terata, wonders; wonder-causing events; portents; producing astonishment in the
beholder (Act 2:19).
dunameis, might works; works of superhuman power (Act 2:22; Rm 15:19; 2Th 2:9);
of a new and higher power.
erga, works; the works of Him who is wonderful in working (Jn 5:20, 36).

*Church vs. Mashian community /> Messianic community JNT; /x: Church most

[Gk. ekklesia appearing once as a gathering or assembly of people (such as citizens). Act
19:32, 39, 40; 7:38; Heb 2:12. It is commonly in the sense of Mashian living body of
community the gathered-up people of those who are called into the name of Yeshua the
Mashiah (cf. Mt 28:19). In the Gospels only once in Mt 16:18 in which there is no notion of
Church used as a religious expression in Christian vocabulary. In Epistles and Revelation,
Mashian congregations. The word Messianic is of different connotation and usage, and
does not fit as a translation words in the New Testament.]

[Being a Mashiah-follower means being human in the way of the Mashiah; it is different from
being a Christian, the one who belongs a Christian religion having taken up ones own
cross daily Lk 9:23 to follow and to live in Yeshua the Mashiah Phi 1:21] [Church connotes
a religious power organization of various Christian religions (= Christianism). To use such a
word as a translation word to be in the N.T. is anachronistic.]

The term Church (as capitalized) is an institution and system of religious organization. It has
begun as Constantine Catholic Church when it ascended to power in collusion with the
political power of Roman Empire. All most all Churches in our time is derived from it,
whether they belong to it, or have broken off and divided out.
*flesh soft part of animal body; often in extended sense and transferred sense. It overlaps
with body and soul (human being). www.biblestudytools.com/dictionary/flesh/

Often used in contrast to spirit in Pauline Letters.

Metonym for human nature (cf. carnal - KJV);
Figuratively, symbolic. (eat my flesh and drink my blood Jn 6:5) [cf. bread of life Jn
Figuratively, husband and wife as one flesh (Eph 5:31)
Idiomatic phrases all flesh, flesh and blood, according to flesh (in human exitance).

*sin vs. sins

sin (singular, uncountable noun) in an abstract sense refers to the humanitys

alienated/estranged status from God and causing it.

Cf. sin is also used metonymic of sin nature sin power esp. in Pauline Epistle to the
Romans. sin guilt sin penalty sin problem; also as sin principle, or sin reality; also
metonymic for sin offering (2Co 5:21).

sin(s) (countable noun). In the practical sense, whatever provokes wrath of the Elohim in
ones acts, words, or thoughts belongs to sin. In the concrete sense in OT, a sin refers to what
is done against Gods will (as revealed in the teaching and guide from Elohim, that is, torah)
by people or by an individual. (Jn 8:46) Its lawlessness living out against and away from
Gods law (1Jn 3:4), in opposite of to do righteousness (1Jn 2:29).

[SINS are outer expression of SIN (as if symptoms of it). Yeshua did NOT die for the
SINS of the world. (Jn 1:29).] [We are not sinners because we sin; we sin because we are
sinners.] [With coming of the Mashiah (Jn 3:14-21), SIN is the failure to come to the Father
through His Mashiah, Yeshua! If this is not done with we remain in darkness, lawless (= living
away from Gods law) and prone to committing SINS! But don't those in the light commit sins
too? Yes, the whole world does! But the SYMPTOMS [i.e. guilt] OF SIN (sins) WERE AND

[original sin is a convenient non-biblical theological term (after St. Augustines doctrine of
original sin) out of the sin of Adam in his disobedience and to act with Elohim displaced
from his life the doctrine elaborates on the theme of evil and sin vis--vis humanity,
human nature, and human condition (such as total depravity of Calvinism).]

Note: Judaic concept of sin is not same as Christian one. Likewise, the idea of salvation is
on the personal level for the Christians; but in Judaism it about deliverance and restoration on
the corporative and national level. Expiation, propitiation, atonement

evil, bad, wicked, defiled, sinful Cf. sinful evil wicked unrighteous impure

holy, sacred; sanctified; purified, divine,

pious, sanctified, consecrated; purified, devout, religious, godly

righteous; righteousness Righteous before whom [before God vs. before men]; in what
sense [in right relation to be counted worthy for the names sake]; and how so to be
implicit/explicit in the context.] [Not simply right (in opposition to wrong). Note that
being righteous and does is not opposite of being sinful.]

salvation; be saved [related words atonement, redemption, expiation, propitiation,

mercy-seat; forgiveness] Esp. in the Gospels, the word be saved is not what has become a
Christian jargon (tagged along with another typical one, born again), which reflects
influence of Greek rather Hebrew mindset as it is in the Gospels. The context in the Gospels
and in the Second Temple Judaism and Hebraic mindset is far from the Christian religions and
Geek mindset. It is relevant not only for reading the text but also translating it. [E.g. The word
is often used to mean to be healed as of physical afflictions in the N.T.]

Without knowing from what one is saved and to what we are saved, these important concepts
will be obscured and altered (e.g. unbiblical universalism). Depends on the context it is
healed, rescued, etc. To a claim that someone is saved, the response to questions of so? and
so then? should be available.

*Prayer: cf. begging; Praying means breathing life, living in spirit, having been connected
to God in personal relation in a direct line for life-giving spirit. Not monologue. Being
connected, contacted, communicating and creating in spirit. Not same as petition
/supplication /meditation /chanting /invoking or conjuring up.

immersion; immersion rite; to immerse: As used in the IRENT translation. The English
vocabulary of baptism is a church jargon (e.g. baptize baptism baptists). It is
anachronistic and unsuitable as translation word in the Bible as it does not have same meaning,
sense, and usage.
That which was by Yohanan (> John) was in the token of repentance and forgiveness.
Thematically historically immersion rite by Yohanan is connected to Judaic mikveh; ritual
purification with full body immersion into water, the concept being of importance of Judaism
and Judaic life. In the N.T. immersion rite (baptism) signifies each ones participation
(outward expression) in the likeness/figure of Yeshuas death, burial, and resurrection, which
is only possible by immersion, not by sprinkling. The so-called infant baptism is an
unbiblical Catholic doctrine, which goes hand and hand with baptism by sprinkling. (cf. Col
2:11-12; Phi 3:3; Rm 2:28-29).

the holy Spirit = i.e. the Spirit (of Elohim).

[basic sense of spirit is breath/power/movement/act as of God.] The word Spirit is
capitalized to identify it as the Spirit of Elohim (as in personification) and not to suggest it is a
person as in God the Holy Spirit of a Trinitarian jargon]. [Cf. unarthrous holy spirit is un-
capitalized, e.g. holy spirit as a gift from Elohim. It may appear as the holy spirit (e.g. Act
4:31 v.l.; 2:28) in the sense of the very holy spirit the holy spirit promised as a gift. It
contrasts i.e. in Act 5:31 cheat the holy Spirit.]
It is not immaterial force, energy, it, nor a projected idea, or even power per se, but the very
power of Elohim in act. Thus the holy Spirit is what Elohim Himself is as spirit (Jn 4:24
not a spirit, not spirit being) in creative act with power. It is not a person or a Person,
whatever the word person may be defined or used for doctrinal or theological agenda (of a
tritheistic Trinitarian idea). [Note: it is very important not to confuse personhood (being a
person: /x: personality psychological makeup of a person) with literary and linguistic
figure of speech, anthropomorphism, and personification: e.g. personification of the Spirit
Act 11:12; 16:7, and of the holy Spirit - Act 13:2; 15:28; 16:6; 20:23, 28; 21:11; 28:25]

satan devil; [cf. demons translated as devils in KJV) = IRENT renders demonic spirits
(as a counter part of the word holy spirit) except a few places (- comparable to the biblical
term unclean spirits) to avoid a misleading picture of the word as they are not spirit
beings or spirit things, with an image of evil monsters, even worse as some sort of persons,
just as God is not a spirit (/x: Jn 4:24 - KJV), neither a person, nor a spirit person. There are
not some things or some beings, which are satanic two-horned devilish or demonic. [Cf.
God comes to us as a person, is as Father to us so that we can approach to His throne. It is
called the father of deception depravation, destruction, degradation, darkness, disguise
speaking not lies but truths (which is incomplete and diverted). [IRENT renders as the
satan, a satan -- by demoting them literarily so that any mental and word association with a
spirit being a ghostly being, etc. may be removed by keeping uncapitalized (same for
devil), except they are as dramatis personae in the text of Revelation.]

[Cf. Lucifer as the name for Satan originated from mistranslation and misinterpretation of
Isa 14:12 bright morning star (/x: Lucifer KJV, Vulg.) which refers to Nebuchadnezzar.
Many misinterpret it as Satan.] [Rev 22:16 the bring morning star refers to the Mashiah.]
[Cf. the morning star 2:28] [Cf. Num 24:17 a star shall come out of Yaakob (> Jacob) Cf.
star Mt 2:2, 9]

[unclean spirits Mt 10:1; 6:18; Act 8:7; Rev 16:13. the unclean spirits Mk 1:27; 3:11;
5:13; 6:7; Lk 4:36.]
[Hebrew word shedim (sing. shed) translated as demons (wrongly as devils in KJV)
appear in 2 places Deu 32:17; Psa 106:37.]

*cross: execution stake vs. the Cross In N.T. Gk. stauros is specifically a stake used
for execution of criminals in Roman style. Stipes (upright beam) vs. Patibulum (cross-beam)

In the Gospels, IRENT renders it not as cross, but as 'execution stake' (not 'torture stake' -
NWT) It includes one place outside the Gospels in Phi 2:8 (mechri thanatou staurou onto
death on a cross - anarthrous)

Outside Gospels, the arthrous word ho stauros (in Act-Epistles) is used metaphorically as a
symbolic word pointing thematically to the redemptive death of Yeshua. As such, IRENT
renders it as the Cross (capitalized) 35 as the English phrase execution stake itself is
difficult to carry symbolism and word picture.

Gal 5:11 the stumbling-block of the Cross

Gal 6:14 boast except in the Cross of our Lord Yeshua Mashiah,
Gal 6:12 persecuted for the Cross
Phi 3:18 enemies of the Cross of the Mashiah,
Col 1:20 the blood of the Cross of him;
Eph 2:16 reconcile to God through the Cross

It should not be mixed up with a Christian religion symbol itself, which is a typical church jargon
a cross with a longer descending arm (called Latin cross) representing the cross of Jesus'
crucifixion by most Christians (Cf. various shapes of the cross used as a common Christian church
icon.) Some denominations do not use any symbol of crucifixion. Cf. crucifix in Catholic,
Orthodox, and some Protestant traditions.
1Co 1:17 the Cross of the Mashiah
1Co 1:18 the message of the Cross is foolishness

Gk. kulon (tree; something made of wood) is used twice in the sense of a wooden stake in
crucifixion - Act 10:39; 1Pe 2:24.

Gk. verb stauro rendered as put on the stake or crucify for difference linguistic and
thematic nuance, depending on the context.

bear ones stake: Lk 9:23; 14:27; cf. //Mt 10:38 (pick up ~)

< the expression bearing ones cross or carrying ones cross on ones shoulders is also
found in talmudic literature (e.g. Pessikta Rabbati; Midrash Bereshit rabba; Midrash Seihel Tob
ad Genesis), and may, therefore, already have been a metaphor in common usage in the days of
Jesus.> [From Haim Cohn, The Trial and Death of Jesus, p. 205.]

*flogging; scourging [flaggellatio] [reason (ratio) of flogging of Yeshua by Pilate

trying to make Him renounce/recant His admission, not interrogation to extract further

speaking in languages (as in dialects); /x: speaking in tongues (- charismatics jargon).

[Acts 2:4; 10:46; 19:6 Cf. Mk 16:17; Mt 10:6] [The word tongue metaphoric for language,
not shamanic babbling or chanting.]

foretell [the word predict is not a biblical notion.] Cf. pre-determined in Gods will vs.
pre-destined to happen somehow in future.

*anoint Unlike in most English Bible translations, the word anoint is used as a
translation word only for Gk. chri (anoint by pouring oil on someones head for the task of
king, prophet, or priest). Not for such Gk. words e.g. aleiph (Mk 16:1). In IRENT text, it is
also not used to translate muriz (Mk 14:8) for preparing a body before entombment.

*proclaim (kruss) (something to people); e.g. proclaim the good news (Mk 16:15).
[the word preach, now a religious jargon, may fit only for the context of preaching against
something/someone to be called to repent, in which case simply rendering as tell suffices.
(e.g. Mk 6:12 /preach to repent most; /tell to repent NLT, IRENT.]
[cf. euaggeliz - announce/declare good news]

*life eternal (Gk. z ainios) [Note: KJV has a few places, but most renders as
*eternal life.] /xx: everlasting life KJV (this has become a religious jargon). Majority
occurs in G-John and 1John. The word eternal is not a temporal notion (of everlasting or
indefinite time period), but denotes its character from God, of God, and belonging to
God. Not something to be given and held, but to have, i.e. to live [in the Mashiah] with the
Cross-event, not just historical, but experiential to put oneself onto the execution stake.

the very *self = (h psuch) Almost all (except in idiomatic phrase) translate Gk. psuch as *life,
which is not what it actually means. The single example to render it consistently as *soul was NWT3,
but in NWT4 revision it is relegated to the footnote.] [Cf. in a phrase ex hols ths psuchs (Mk
12:30) with all your soul (out of your whole being IRENT with hands, heart, head of human
[The word life is what Gk. z means (as in z ainios life eternal > eternal life).] [e.g. Jn 12:25
(love ~ lose ones very self). [Cf. lose ones very self (Lk 9:24) deny oneself (Lk 9:23)]
memorial-tomb or tomb [Gk. mnmeion is rendered as memorial-tomb in IRENT.] It is
different from a grave in the ground (for common burial). Burial by entombment in a rock-
hewn tomb usually consisted of two separate and distinct burials. The first burial was the
simple placement of the body in the tomb; thee second burial occurred about a year later when
family members reentered the tomb, carefully took the bones of the deceased (the flesh had
completely decomposed), and placed them in a specially prepared, separate container
known as an ossuary. These chests were placed in small niches in the tomb for
permanent burial.

vine vineyard [a semantic shift in Jn 15:1]

brit-milah (covenant of circumcision ritual/rite/ceremony in Judaism; serves an ethnic


(shed) blood of Yeshua Symbolic for His death as the Pesach lamb (1Pe 1:18-20. Cf. Jn
1:29; Rev 5:6)

*doctrines, *creeds, *dogma; beliefs, traditions, practices; faiths, religions; *faith, trust,
to believe All of these are religious products of mens thoughts (for holding on the
power of religions). They are often not in harmony with the teachings in the Scripture. The
primary purpose is to serve power and pleasure (and pride) of religious people, based on their
doctrine of Biblical authority, the Bible which is nothing other than a product of their own
interpretation, in turn, to justify their position of power, self-claimed knowledge, and
revelation. The authority of the Scripture is from the Words of God in the Scripture; not in the
various translated interpreted written Bibles. [Church doctrines and dogmas are the life line of
the ecclesial power, which have evolved, accumulated, refined, changed, and sophisticated
from their beginnings with sophisticated interpretation, midrash, translation, formulation,
articulation, apologies, and theology developments.] Many of doctrines remind us of religious
literary productions of Greek philosophy mixed with elements of fantasy.

theology, doctrine, dogma of medieval catholic Church. [daunting doted dogma such as
Trinity doctrine - long beyond its' dotage]

Believe in God = believe who He is and put trust on Him. Putting faith in someone does
not have anything to do with religion rules, rituals, routines, etc.

The emphasis on particular verses for particular doctrines makes sense - Craig Keener.
Yeah, it is dangerous, not different from eisegesis or proof-texting.

*Christianity [religion vs. faith vs. teaching vs. tradition of Churches]

*religion [cf. www.revolutioninreligion.com/index.php?page=what-is-religion ]

religion a belief; a system of beliefs and practices.

religions (organized and institutionalized).
Spirituality. Wisdom. Philosophy
Cf. religious movement;
*belief all the beliefs are in our reality second-hand ones. A belief we have, whether lofty
or mundane, has not been discovered by each individual but has been passed on by those who
have gone before us. We ought to question any statement formulated and preached belief,
doctrine, or creed, and see how the Bible can reveal its human and church origin.

*devotion, veneration, reverence, piety, godliness (eusebeia 1Tim 3:16; 6:6, 11)

*temptation, trials, test [See Appendix on peirasmos]

Gk. peirasmos (e.g. Rev 3:10)

1. testing proving being tested [So called Temptations of Jesus is not about
2. trial (of hardship)
3. being tested by evil desires (Jam 1:13)
4. temptation (w/ enticement/seduction/allure)

Gk. peiraz (e.g. Rev 3:10)

1. basic sense is to prove/test; 2. to put to test; 3. to tempt is secondary.

*worship bow down, prostrate oneself before, etc.

Hebrew shachah; Septuagint Gk. in LXX proskune

Even in the Bible, this word is not confined to worship of YHWH. Anyone or anything has
been and can be worshiped but in much different sense depending on the object being
worshiped. It is not as much as what is worshiped, but how and why of worshiping is that
matters. That being worshiped does not necessarily connotes the one worship is God. [e.g.
Heb 1:6] A problem: can we read somewhere in the Bible translation Jesus is worshiped?
Worshiped when he was a child (Mt 2:2)? As a man rabbi, or as a risen Lord? That Jesus is
worshiped does not mean that Jesus is God.

The verb proskune: [S4352]:

The word worship is used in various sense. In IRENT translation (1) addressed to Elohim - in
the context of the special biblical sense, which in O.T. involved with rituals and sacrifices (Mt
4:10), and (2) to those standing in place or against God (rhetoric) (e.g. worship the Beast Rev
13:12; Cf. guard against idols = i.e. against idol worship metonymic 1Jn 5:21).

Alternative rendering: to pay homage to; to prostrate oneself before; do obeisance.

The verb latreuein also be further modified: to serve God with fastings and prayers night and
day (Lk 2:37), with a clear conscience (2Tm 1:3), with fear and reverence (Heb 12:8), in spirit
(Rm 1:9; Phil 3:3), etc.

The verb leitourgein is used only once in the cultic sense, of performing the OT liturgy (Heb.
10, II), once in the broader sense of "serving" the Lord with prayer and fasting (Acts l 3,2f),
and once in its more profane sense of "serving".
*covenant a binding agreement between two parties; berith in Hebrew; didakhe
in Gk.). The scriptural focus is on covenants initiated by God, for which He provided
visible signs and for which He sometimes attached stipulations or conditions. O.T.
With Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses; Aaron, David. Renewed Covenant; New
covenant in Yeshua.

*interpretation translation, exegesis, eisegesis, (theological) anachronism;

etymological fallacy, circular logic; alteration, deletion, interpolation, expansion,

Words, vocabulary, meaning, sense, notion, concept, word image/picture; definitions,

denotation, connotation; idiom, usage; contexts; figure of speech, metonym, allusion,
association, synonyms; referents;
JUDEA Mt 2:1ff = Judea proper. [Cf. JUDEA the Roman Province incorporated JUDEA proper,

[Judaea was not a Senatorial province, nor exactly an Imperial province, but instead was a "satellite of
Syria" governed by a prefect]
[H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish Peoples, page 247-248:
"Consequently, the province of Judea may be regarded as a satellite of Syria, though, in view of the
measure of independence left to its governor in domestic affairs, it would be wrong to say that in
the Julio-Claudian era Judea was legally part of the [Roman] province of Syria."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judea_%28Roman_province%29#cite_note-8 ]

SURIA (Cf. in KRV); /Syria most; [Spelt differently in IRENT to avoid automatic
connection to Modern Syria.] [a large province of Rome from 64 BC to 636 CE with Antioch as its
capital. Merged with Iudaea into Syria Palaestina in 135 CE.]

[Lk 2:2. Cf. Mt 4:24 all over Suria all the people in the Hebrew Gospel of Matthew (du Tillet
text). Cf. Lk 4:27 Naaman, the Surian; Cf. Mk 7:26 Suro-phoenician Gentile woman]

GALILEE After Judea became a Roman province in 6 C.E., Galilee briefly became a part of it,
then separated from it for two to three centuries.

Bethlehem of JUDEA Lk 2:4; Mt 2:1 [About 6 miles S. of Yerusalem. King Dawids hometown.
Cf. another Bethlehem in ZEBULUN (Galilee)]

KepharNahum (town of Nahum) /> Capernaum; [On the northwest coast of Sea of Galilee near
the eastern border of GALILEE; about 2.5 miles west of the River Jordan. 16 miles NE from Qanah (>
Cana Jn 2:1; 4:46), which is 9 miles N of Nazareth. One of few major cities/towns in Galilee (with
fishing trade). Here at its start Yeshua based His ministry of proclaiming the Kingdom reign of Elohim.]

Golgotha [Not named in G-Lk.] [Aramaic word; not skull, but head poll (as in a polling place
for census); top knoll = mount (as of Olive-grove): IRENT renders Gk. kraniou as of a hill-top.] [It
is outside beyond the City gate, and furthermore, outside from the encampment of the tents Heb
13:12] [i.e. in the Mount of Olive-grove, in a direct line of sight from the east.] Place of Head, not
Place of Skull.

Miqdash (Gk. hieros); Mishkan (naos) [Most Bibles do not differentiate between two and translate
both as Temple. The Jerusalem Temple was located in the City of David (Zion), which is at a
lower elevation further south from the modern so-called Temple Mount for Islamic Dome of the Rock,
which was the site for the Roman Fort Antonia, where the Praetorium (Mt 28:18; Mk 15:16; Jn
18:18ff; not in G-Lk) (encampment of the Roman troop) with the Pilates headquarter [confused by
some to be in the Herods Palace (e.g. Act 23:35)] was located. Most writings and maps blindly follow
the conjectured and unproven convention to put Fort Antonia as a small appendage at the northeast
corner of the Temple area, which may aptly called Tower of Antonia.

Upper room [Gk. angeon Mk 14:15; //Lk 22:12 and Gk. huperon Act 1:12 Both prob. the
same place.] A roof top room of a house as of the well-to-do.
Mount of Olive-grove [Mt 26:23, etc.] Usu. called Mount of Olive. Cf. Hill vs. Mount, vs.

City, town, village Gk. polis city (e.g. Jerusalem); town (e.g. Bethlehem); village (e.g. Nazareth);
Cf. Gk. argos hamlet (Lk 9:12);

Places - Maps

Miqdash (Temple) in the City of David ( Mount Zion).

Mishkan (Sanctuary; the Holy Place)

Cf. cubit = 17.6; 20.67 (royal cubit); about 18
www.recoveredscience.com/const308TempleLayout.htm Solomons Temple dimension = 500
x 500-cubit ( x 10000 850 260 m)

Artist rendition showing the relative position of the Temple and the Antonia Fortress.
The Miphkad bridge from Golgatha in the Mount of Olive-grove to the City of David
across the Kidron Valley.
Herods Temple and Fort Antonia - from Norma Robertson, Locating Solomons
Temple (updated 2015) http://templemountlocation.com/
The Roman Fort Antonia (where Pilates Praetorium was setup) in the map is where the
present Temple Mount built on. [Looking to the West from the Mount of Olive-grove.]

The so-called Temple Mount (Haram esh-Sharif in Arabic) about 36 acres. (The Dome of
the Rock, Islamic shrine, CE 691). In 1535, when Jerusalem was part of the Ottoman Empire,
Sultan Suleiman I ordered the ruined city walls to be rebuilt (associated with the Wailing
Western Wall of the Jewish tradition). The work took some four years, between 1537 and
1541. It was at the site of Fort Antonia where the Roman Praetorium of Pilate, the Roman
Prefector (governor) of Judea CE 2636, took up.
www.biblewalks.com/Sites/TempleMount.html The trapezoid area of the Temple Mount was
144,000 square meters - the size of about 20 football fields. Its wall lengths were 280m (south
wall), 460 (east wall), 315 (north wall) and 485 (west wall). The mount was 10 stories high -
its height above the street level was 30m with additional 20m underground, using heavy hewn
boulders measuring between 2-5 tons (small size) to 10 tons and more.

1. Tyre and Sidon (Mt 11:2022). (Mt 15:2128).

2. Mount of Transfiguration (Mt 17:113). (? Mount Hermon; Mount Tabor.)
3. Caesarea Philippi (Mt 16:1320).
4. Region of Galilee (Mt 4:2325) (Mt 57); (Mt 8:14); (Mk 3:1319). (Mt 28:1620).
5. Sea of Galilee, Sea of Tiberias (Lk 5:13) (Mt 4:1822; Lk 5:111). (Lk 8:2225), (Mt 13),
(Mt 14:2232), and (Jn 21).
6. Bethsaida (Jn 1:44). (Lk 9:1017; Jn 6:114). (Mark 8:2226).
7. Capernaum (Mt 8:5, 14). (Mt 9:17; Mark 2:112), (Mt 8:515), (Mt 9:9), (Mt 9:2733),
(Mt 12:913), (Jn 6:2265), (Mt 17:2427).
8. Magdala (Mark 16:9). (Mt 15:3239), (Mt 16:14).
9. Cana (Jn 2:111) (Jn 4:4654). (Jn 21:2).
10. Nazareth (Mt 1:1825; Lk 1:2638; 2:45). (Mt 2:1923; Lk 2:5152), (Lk 4:1432).
11. Jericho (Lk 18:3543). (Lk 19:110).
12. Bethabara (Jn 1:1928). (Jn 1:2834).
13. Wilderness of Judea (Mt 3:14), (Mt 4:111).
14. Emmaus (Lk 24:1332).
15. Bethphage (Mt 21:111).
16. Bethany (Jn 11:1). (Lk 10:3842); (Jn 11:144); (Mt 26:613; Jn 12:18).
17. Bethlehem (Lk 2:17); (Lk 2:820); (Mt 2:112); (Mt 2:1618).