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UNIT II

SPACE SEGMENT AND SATELLITE LINK DESIGN


Spacecraft Technology
Structure
Primary power
Attitude and Orbit control
Thermal control and Propulsion
communication Payload
supporting subsystems
Telemetry, Tracking and command
Satellite uplink Analysis and Design
Satellite downlink Analysis and Design
Link budget
E/N calculation
performance impairments
system noise
inter modulation and interference
Propagation Characteristics
Frequency considerations
System reliability
Design lifetime
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 1
UNIT II
SPACE SEGMENT AND SATELLITE LINK DESIGN
Spacecraft Technology
Structure
Primary power
Attitude and Orbit control
Thermal control and Propulsion
communication Payload
supporting subsystems
Telemetry, Tracking and command
Satellite uplink Analysis and Design
Satellite downlink Analysis and Design
Link budget
E/N calculation
performance impairments
system noise
inter modulation and interference
Propagation Characteristics
Frequency considerations
System reliability
Design lifetime
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Spacecraft Technology
Structure

A satellite communications system can be broadly


divided into two segments
ground segment
space segment
The space segment include the satellites, it also
includes the ground facilities needed to keep the
satellites operation
These being referred to as the tracking, telemetry,
and command ( TT&C) facilities. In many
networks it is common practice to employ a
ground station solely for the purpose of TT&C.
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Drag panel
1st tray
-S band antenna
-GPS antenna
-inter satelite separation mechanism
-Lv separation mechanism
-Altitude and orbit control system
2nd tray
Battery
Uhf antenna
Miniature far Infrared Radiometer
-Main on board control system
-Power control system
3rd tray
Communication components
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The equipment carried aboard the satellite also
can be classified according to function.
The payload refers to the equipment used to pro-
vide the service for which the satellite has been
launched.
In a communications satellite, the equipment
which provides the connecting link between the
satellites transmit and receive antennas is referred
to as the transponder.
The transponder forms one of the main sections of
the payload, the other being the antenna
subsystems.
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UNIT II
SPACE SEGMENT AND SATELLITE LINK DESIGN
Spacecraft Technology
Structure
Primary power
Attitude and Orbit control
Thermal control and Propulsion
communication Payload
supporting subsystems
Telemetry, Tracking and command
Satellite uplink Analysis and Design
Satellite downlink Analysis and Design
Link budget
E/N calculation
performance impairments
system noise
inter modulation and interference
Propagation Characteristics
Frequency considerations
System reliability
Design lifetime
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Power Supply:
The primary electrical power for operating the
electronic equipment is obtained from solar cells.
Individual cells can generate only small amounts
of power, and therefore, arrays of cells in series-
parallel connection are required.
Figure shows the solar cell panels for the HS 376
satellite manufactured by Hughes Space and
Communications Company.

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In geostationary orbit the telescoped panel is fully
extended so that both are exposed to sun-light.
At the beginning of life, the panels produce 940 W
dc power, which may drop to 760 W at the end of
10 years.
During eclipse, power is provided by two nickel-
cadmium (Ni-Cd) longlife batteries, which will
deliver 830 W.
At the end of life, battery recharge time is less than
16 h.
capacity of cylindrical and solar-sail satellites
Cross over point is estimated to be about 2 kW
solar-sail type is more economical than the
cylindrical type (Hyndman, 1991).
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UNIT II
SPACE SEGMENT AND SATELLITE LINK DESIGN
Spacecraft Technology
Structure
Primary power
Attitude and Orbit control
Thermal control and Propulsion
communication Payload
supporting subsystems
Telemetry, Tracking and command
Satellite uplink Analysis and Design
Satellite downlink Analysis and Design
Link budget
E/N calculation
performance impairments
system noise
inter modulation and interference
Propagation Characteristics
Frequency considerations
System reliability
Design lifetime
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Attitude Control & Orbit Control:
The attitude of a satellite refers to its orientation in
space.
Attitude control is necessary to ensure
purpose of controlling its attitude
directional antennas point in the proper directions.
In environmental satellites, the earth-sensing
instruments must cover the required regions of the
earth, which also requires attitude control.
A number of forces/disturbance torques can alter
the attitude
gravitational fields of the earth and the moon
solar radiation
meteorite impacts
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Attitude control is the measure of a satellites
orientation in space and of any tendency for this to
shift.
In one method, infrared sensors, referred to as
horizon detectors, are used to detect the rim of the
earth against the background of space.
With the use of four such sensors, one for each
quadrant, the center of the earth can be readily
established as a reference point.
Usually, the attitude-control process takes place
aboard the satellite, but it is also possible for
control signals to be transmitted from earth, based
on attitude data obtained from the satellite.
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When a shift in attitude is desired, an attitude
maneuver is executed.
The control signals needed to achieve this maneuver
may be transmitted from an earth station.
Controlling torques generated in a number of ways.
Passive attitude control -use of mechanisms which
stabilize the satellite without putting a drain on the
satellites energy supplies, infrequent use is made of
these supplies
For example, when thruster jets are impulsed to
provide corrective torque.
spin stabilization
gravity gradient stabilization
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The other form of attitude control is active control.
there is no overall stabilizing torque present to
resist the disturbance torques.
Instead, corrective torques are applied as required
in response to disturbance torques.
Methods used to generate active control torques
include
momentum wheels,
electromagnetic coils,
mass expulsion devices(gas jets and ion thrusters)

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The three axes which define a satellites attitude
are its roll, pitch, and yaw (RPY) axes.
All three axes pass through the center of gravity of
the satellite.
For an equatorial orbit,
movement of the satellite about the roll axis moves
the antenna footprint north and south
movement about the pitch axis moves the
footprint east and west
movement about the yaw axis rotates the antenna
footprint.
The yaw axis is directed toward the earths center,
The pitch axis is normal to the orbital plane,
The roll axisPREPARED
is perpendicular
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Spin-Stabilisation
it is a simple and effective method of keeping a
satellite's attitude achieved with cylindrical satellites.
the orientation in space of its spin axis, pointed in a
certain direction.
A spacecraft spinning on its axis resists perturbing
forces in the same way that a spinning gyroscope or a
top does so that its attitude (but not its position)
remains fixed in space.
According to Hughes' engineers, spin-stabilisation is
"the method that nature prefers".
The satellite is constructed to mechanically balanced
about one particular axis and is then set spinning
around this axis.
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For geostationary satellites, the spin axis is adjusted to be
parallel to the N-S axis of the earth
Spin rate is typically in the range of 50 to 100 rev/min.
Spin is initiated during the launch phase by means of
small gas jets.
In the absence of disturbance torques, the spinning
satellite would maintain its correct attitude relative to
the earth.
Disturbance torques are generated in a number of ways,
both external and internal to the satellite.

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Disturbance torques-external
Solar radiation,
gravitational gradients, and
meteorite impacts
Disturbance torques-internal
Motor bearing friction and the
movement of satellite elements (antennas)
overall effect
spin rate will decrease,
direction of the angular spin axis will change.
Impulse-type thrusters, or jets, can be used to
increase the spin rate again and to shift the axis
back to its correct N-S orientation.
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Nutation, which is a form of wobbling(move or
cause to move unsteadily from side to side)
occur as a result of the disturbance torques and/or
from misalignment or unbalance of the control
jets.
This nutation must be damped out(decreased) by
means of energy absorbers known as nutation
dampers.

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The antenna feeds can therefore be connected
directly to the transponders without the need for
radiofrequency rotary joints, while the complete
platform is despun.
control signals and power must be transferred to
the despun section, and a mechanical bearing
must be provided.
The complete assembly for this is known as the
bearing and power transfer assembly (BAPTA).

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Momentum wheel stabilization
Certain dual-spin spacecraft obtain spin
stabilization from a spinning flywheel rather than
by spinning the satellite itself.
These flywheels are termed momentum wheels,
and their average momentum is referred to as
momentum bias
this approach is used in satellites with cube-like
bodies
These are known as body-stabilized satellites.
QUANTITY OF MOTION OF A MOVING
BODY, MEASURED AS A PRODUCT OF ITS
MASS AND VELOCITY-momentum
P=MV
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The complete unit, termed a momentum wheel,
consists of a
flywheel,
the bearing assembly,
the casing, and
an electric drive motor
electronic control circuitry.

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The flywheel is attached to the rotor, which
consists of a permanent magnet providing the
magnetic field for motor action.
The stator of the motor is attached to the body of
the satellite.
Thus the motor provides the coupling between
the flywheel and the satellite structure.
Speed and torque control of the motor is exercised
through the currents fed to the stator.

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Alternative momentum wheel stabilization systems: (a)
one-wheel, (b) two- wheel, (c) three-wheel.

momentum wheel stabilization systems: (a) one-wheel


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momentum wheel stabilization systems
(b) two- wheel,PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE (c) three-wheel. 42
Reaction wheels
When a momentum wheel is operated with zero
momentum bias, it is generally referred to as a
reaction wheel.
Reaction wheels are used in three axis stabilized
systems.
each axis is stabilized by a reaction wheel
Reaction wheels can also be combined with a
momentum wheel to provide the control needed
(Chetty, 1991).
Random and cyclic disturbance torques tends to
produce zero momentum on average.

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there will always be some disturbance torques that
causes a cumulative increase in wheel momentum,
and eventually at some point the wheel saturates.
In effect, it reaches its maximum allowable angular
velocity and can no longer take in any more
momentum.
MASS EXPULSION DEVICES are then used to
unload the wheel, that is, remove momentum
from it (in the same way a brake removes energy
from a moving vehicle).
But the operation of the mass expulsion devices
consumes part of the satellites fuel supply.
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UNIT II
SPACE SEGMENT AND SATELLITE LINK DESIGN
Spacecraft Technology
Structure
Primary power
Attitude and Orbit control
Thermal control and Propulsion
communication Payload
supporting subsystems
Telemetry, Tracking and command
Satellite uplink Analysis and Design
Satellite downlink Analysis and Design
Link budget
E/N calculation
performance impairments
system noise
inter modulation and interference
Propagation Characteristics
Frequency considerations
System reliability
Design lifetime
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Satellites are large thermal gradients,
receiving the suns radiation on one side
thermal radiation from the earth on other side
earths albedo [fraction of the radiation falling on
earth which is reflected]
-significant for LEO [low altitude]
-negligible for GEO
Heat generated by Equipment in the satellite
-to be removed.

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The most important consideration
satellites equipment should operate in stable
temperature environment.
Various steps are taken to achieve this.
Thermal blankets -used to provide insulation
Thermal shields -used to provide insulation.
Radiation mirrors - remove heat from payload
These mirrored drums surround the
communications equipment shelves in each case
provide good radiation paths ,escapes generated
heat into the surrounding space.

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ADVANTAGE OF SPINNING SATELLITES
COMPARED WITH BODY STABILIZED
spinning body provides an averaging of the
temperature extremes [from solar flux and cold
space]
to maintain constant temperature conditions,
heaters may be switched on command from
ground
heat reduction which occurs when transponders
are switched off.
The INTELSAT VI satellite used heaters to
maintain propulsion thrusters and line
temperatures (Pilcher, 1982).
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UNIT II
SPACE SEGMENT AND SATELLITE LINK DESIGN
Spacecraft Technology
Structure
Primary power
Attitude and Orbit control
Thermal control and Propulsion
communication Payload
supporting subsystems
Telemetry, Tracking and command
Satellite uplink Analysis and Design
Satellite downlink Analysis and Design
Link budget
E/N calculation
performance impairments
system noise
inter modulation and interference
Propagation Characteristics
Frequency considerations
System reliability
Design lifetime
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The physical principle of establishing
communication connections between remote
communication devices
1800s when scientists were beginning to
electromagnetism and discovered that
electromagnetic (EM) radiation (also called EM
waves )
EM waves generated by one device can be detected
by another located at some distance away.
By controlling certain aspect s of the radiation
through a process called modulation
useful information can be embedded in the EM
waves and transmitted from one device to another.
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The second major module is the communication
payload, which is made up of transponders.
A transponder is capable of :
Receiving uplinked radio signals from earth
satellite transmission stations (antennas).
Amplifying received radio signals
Sorting the input signals and
directing the output signals through input/output
signal multiplexers to the for
retransmission to earth satellite receiving stations
through proper downlink antennas

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UNIT II
SPACE SEGMENT AND SATELLITE LINK DESIGN
Spacecraft Technology
Structure
Primary power
Attitude and Orbit control
Thermal control and Propulsion
communication Payload
supporting subsystems
Telemetry, Tracking and command
Satellite uplink Analysis and Design
Satellite downlink Analysis and Design
Link budget
E/N calculation
performance impairments
system noise
inter modulation and interference
Propagation Characteristics
Frequency considerations
System reliability
Design lifetime
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The TT&C subsystem performs several routine functions
aboard the spacecraft.
The telemetry, or telemetering, function as measurement
at a distance.
overall operation of generating an electrical signal
proportional to the quantity being measured
encoding and transmitting to one of the earth stations.
Data transmitted as telemetry signals include attitude
information obtained from sun and earth sensors
environmental information -magnetic field intensity and
direction, the frequency of meteorite impact
spacecraft information -temperatures, power supply
voltages, and stored-fuel pressure.
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Telemetry and command may be thought of as
complementary functions.
The telemetry subsystem transmits information
about the satellite to the earth station
the command subsystem receives command
signals from the earth station, often in response to
telemetered information.
The command subsystem demodulates and, if
necessary, decodes the command signals
routes the SIGNAL to the appropriate equipment
needed to execute the necessary action

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Thus attitude changes results:
communication transponders switched in and out
of circuits,
antennas redirected, and
station-keeping maneuvers carried out on
command.
command signals are often encrypted to prevent
unauthorized commands from being received and
decoded
Encrypt is the process of concealing the
command signals in a secure code.
differs from the normal process encoding -
converts characters into a code suitable for TX
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Tracking of the satellite is accomplished by
transmit beacon signals which are received at the
TT&C earth stations.
Tracking is obviously important during the
transfer and drift orbital phases of the satellite
launch.
satellite position will tend to be shifted due to
various disturbing forces
Therefore, it is necessary to track the satellites
movement and send correction signals as required.

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UNIT II
SPACE SEGMENT AND SATELLITE LINK DESIGN
Spacecraft Technology
Structure
Primary power
Attitude and Orbit control
Thermal control and Propulsion
communication Payload
supporting subsystems
Telemetry, Tracking and command
Satellite uplink Analysis and Design
Satellite downlink Analysis and Design
Link budget
E/N calculation
performance impairments
system noise
inter modulation and interference
Propagation Characteristics
Frequency considerations
System reliability
Design lifetime
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TRANSPONDERS:
A transponder is the series of interconnected units
which forms a single communications channel
between the receiver and transmitter antennas in a
communications satellite.
transponder in a given channel may be common
to a number of transponders. Thus, it is called as
an equipment channel

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FREQUENCY ARRANGEMENT OF C-BAND
COMMUNICATION SATELLITE
The bandwidth allocated for C-band service is 500 MHz
this is divided into subbands, one transponder.
A typical transponder bandwidth is 36 MHz,
Allowing 4-MHz guardband between transponders,
12 such transponders can be accommodated in 500-MHz
bandwidth.
By making use of polarization isolation, this number can be
doubled.
Polarization isolation (polarisation reuse) refers to the
carriers which may be on the same frequency but with
opposite senses of polarization
It can be isolated from one another by receiving antennas
matched to the incoming polarization.
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FREQUENCY REUSE
linear polarization
vertically and horizontally polarized carriers can be
separated
circular polarization
left-hand circular and right-hand circular
polarizations can be separated
Because the carriers with opposite senses of
polarization may overlap in frequency
This technique is referred to as frequency reuse.
Frequency reuse achieved with spot-beam antennas
Frequency reuse combined with polarization reuse to
provide an effective bandwidth of 2000 MHz from the
actual bandwidth of 500 MHz.
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WIDEBAND RECEIVER
A duplicate receiver is provided so that if one fails, the
other is switched in.
The combination is referred to as a redundant receiver
although two are provided, only one is in use at a given
time.
LOW-NOISE AMPLIFIER
The first stage in the receiver is a low-noise amplifier
(LNA)-adds little noise to the carrier and provides
sufficient amplification for the carrier ,over ride the
higher noise level present in mixer stage.
total receiver noise at LNA input =equivalent noise
temperature[few hundred kelvins ]
The overall noise temperature =noise added from the
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MIXER
The LNA feeds into a mixer stage
Mixer gets LO input and LNA input and mixes
local oscillator (LO) in the mixer Produces signal for
the frequency conversion process.
AMPLIFIER
The amplifier following the mixer amplifies-offer
equal or better performance bands
bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) at 4 GHz
field-effect transistor (FET) at 12 GHz,
FET used in both bands.

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INPUT DEMULTIPLEXER
The input demux provides greater frequency
separation between adjacent channels in a group,
reduces adjacent channel interference.
separates the broadband input
covers the frequency range 3.7 to 4.2 GHz into the
transponder frequency channels.
The output from the receiver is fed to a power splitter
power splitter -feeds the two separate chains of
circulators

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The full broadband signal is transmitted along each
chain
channelizing is achieved by means of channel filters
connected to each circulator
Each filter has a bandwidth of 36 MHz
tuned to the appropriate center frequency
there are considerable losses in the demultiplexer
these are easily made up in the overall gain for the
transponder channels.

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POWER AMPLIFIER
The fixed attenuation is needed to balance out
variations in the input attenuation
each transponder channel has the same nominal
attenuation
adjustments being made during assembly.
The variable attenuation is needed to set the level as
required for different types
Because this variable attenuator adjustment is an
operational requirement, it must be under the control
of the ground TT&C station

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Traveling-wave tube amplifiers (TWTAs) are widely
used in transponders to provide the final output power
required to the transmit antenna.
In the TWT, an electron-beam gun assembly
consisting of a
heater,
cathode,
focusing electrodes
used to form an electron beam.
A magnetic field is required to confine the beam to
travel along the inside of a wire helix.
magnetic field can be provided by means of a solenoid
and dc power supply.
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large size and high power consumption of solenoids
unsuitable for use aboard satellites
low-power TWTs are used in permanent magnet
focusing.
The wave actually will travel around the helical path at
close to the speed of light
but it is the axial component of wave velocity which
interacts with the electron beam.
This component is less than the velocity of light
approximately in the ratio of helix pitch to
circumference.
Because of this effective reduction in phase velocity,
the helix is referred to as a slow wave structure.

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ADVANTAGE OF THE TWT over other types of tube
amplifiers
it can provide amplification over a very wide
bandwidth.
Input levels to the TWT must be carefully controlled,
to minimize the effects of certain forms of distortion.

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Power transfer characteristics of a TWT

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At low-input powers
-output-input power relationship is linear
At high-input powers
-output power saturates
point of maximum power output is known as the
saturation point- convenient reference point where
input and output quantities are usually referred
The linear region of the TWT is defined as the region
bound by the thermal noise limit at the low end and
compression point at the upper end.
compression point -where the actual transfer curve
drops

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UNIT II
SPACE SEGMENT AND SATELLITE LINK DESIGN
Spacecraft Technology
Structure
Primary power
Attitude and Orbit control
Thermal control and Propulsion
communication Payload
supporting subsystems
Telemetry, Tracking and command
Satellite uplink - downlink analysis and Design
Link budget
E/N calculation
performance impairments
system noise
inter modulation and interference
Propagation Characteristics
Frequency considerations
System reliability
Design lifetime

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Satellite uplink and downlink Analysis and Design
Introduction
link-power budget calculations are made relating two
quantities
transmit power
receive power
Link-budget calculations are usually made using
decibel [db]or decilog quantities.
Boltzmanns constant= 228.6 dB or 228.6 deci log
Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power[EIRP]
Maximum power flux density at some distance r from a
transmitting antenna of gain G

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An isotropic radiator with an input power equal to GPs
would produce the same flux density.

[EIRP] = [GPs]
[EIRP] = [PS] [G] dBW (in watts)

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TRANSMISSION LOSSES
The [EIRP] is the power input to one end of the transmission
link and to find the power received at the other end.
Losses will occur along the way[ some are constant]
Other losses
losses which fluctuate with time
estimated from statistical data[do not vary significantly with
time]
Atmospheric attenuation loss [AAL]
Losses which are weather-related
dependent on weather conditions[rainfall]
- to determine the losses for clear- weather or clear-sky
conditions
- calculations take into account statistical basis
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FADE MARGINS introduced into the
transmission equation.

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Free-space transmission loss [FSL]
power loss resulting from the spreading of the signal in
space

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Aeff effective antenna aperture
FSL free space loss
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Feeder losses [RFL]
receiver feeder losses [RFL]dB
Losses will occur in several components between the
receiving antenna and the receiver device
Such losses will occur in connecting waveguides,
filters, and couplers.

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Antenna misalignment losses [AML]
When a satellite link is established, earth station and
satellite antennas aligned for maximum gain
There are two possible sources of off-axis loss, one at
the satellite and one at the earth station
off-axis loss at the earth station
is referred to as the antenna pointing loss[few decibels]
Polarization misalignment losses [PML] at the antenna
from misalignment of the polarization direction
(polarization losses)is very small
Antenna misalignment losses [AML] include both
pointing and polarization losses

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UNIT II
SPACE SEGMENT AND SATELLITE LINK DESIGN
Spacecraft Technology
Structure
Primary power
Attitude and Orbit control
Thermal control and Propulsion
communication Payload
supporting subsystems
Telemetry, Tracking and command
Satellite uplink - downlink analysis and Design
Link budget
E/N calculation
performance impairments
system noise
inter modulation and interference
Propagation Characteristics
Frequency considerations
System reliability
Design lifetime

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Link-Power Budget Equation
Now that the losses for the link have been identified
power at the receiver=power output of the link [EIRP]
[LOSSES]
[GR] is the receiver antenna gain.
The major source of loss in any earth-satellite link
free-space spreading loss [FSL],
The basic link power budget equation taking into
account this loss only.
However, the other losses are simply added to [FSL].

PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 99
EQUATION FOR THE LOSSES
The losses for clear-sky conditions are
[LOSSES] = [FSL] +[RFL] +[AML] +[AA] - [PL]
[EIRP] equivalent isotropic radiated power, dBW
[FSL] free-space spreading loss, dB
[RFL] receiver feeder loss, dB
[AML] antenna misalignment loss, dB
[AA] atmospheric absorption loss, dB
[PL] polarization mismatch loss, Db
EQUATION FOR THE RECEIVED POWER
[PR]=[EIRP]+[GR]-[LOSSES]
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 100
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 101
UNIT II
SPACE SEGMENT AND SATELLITE LINK DESIGN
Spacecraft Technology
Structure
Primary power
Attitude and Orbit control
Thermal control and Propulsion
communication Payload
supporting subsystems
Telemetry, Tracking and command
Satellite uplink Analysis and Design
Satellite downlink Analysis and Design
Link budget
E/N calculation
performance impairments
system noise
inter modulation and interference
Propagation Characteristics
Frequency considerations
System reliability
Design lifetime
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 102
SYSTEM NOISE
receiver power in a satellite link is very small[picowatts]
However, electrical noise is always present at the input
Signal > Noise
This cause no problem ,because amplification will bring
the signal strength up to an acceptable level.
Signal < Noise
amplification will amplify both signal and noise to the
same extent.
the situation will be worsened by the noise added by the
amplifier.

PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 103


Thermal noise
The major source of electrical noise in equipment is random
thermal motion of electrons in various resistive and active
devices in the receiver.
Thermal noise is also generated in the lossy components of
antennas, and thermal-like noise is picked up by the
antennas as radiation.
The available noise power from a thermal noise source is
given by PN=kTNBN
K-boltzmann constant
TN -equivalent noise temperature
BN equivalent noise bandwidth

PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 104


The main characteristic of thermal noise is that it has a
flat frequency spectrum
-noise Power spectral density = constant
noise Power spectral density
-noise power per unit bandwidth

The noise temperatures of various sources can be added


directly to give the total noise.
total antenna noise temperature= Antenna losses + noise
received (as radiation)= equivalent noise temperatures of
all these sources= total noise

PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 105


Antenna noise
It is the Noise introduced by the satellite antenna and
the ground station receive antenna.
Antennas operating in the receiving mode introduce
noise into the satellite circuit.
physical origins of the noise in either case are similar
magnitudes of the effects differ
The antenna noise can be broadly classified into two
groups:
Noise originating from antenna losses
sky noise
Sky noise - microwave radiation which is present
throughout the universe appears to originate from
matter in any form at finite temperatures.
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 106
Amplifier noise temperature
The input noise energy coming from the antenna is
No,ant = k Tant
Output noise energy is
No,out = Gk ( Tant + Te )
The total noise referred to the input is simply No,out /G, or
No,in = k ( Tant + Te )
Amplifiers in cascade
The overall gain for cascade connection is
G =G1G2
generalized to any number of stages in cascade giving

This result shows that the noise temp of the second stage is
divided by the power gain of the first stage .Therefore the
overall system noise is low
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 107
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 108
Noise factor
An alternative way of representing amplifier noise is by
means of its noise factor F.
In defining the noise factor of an amplifier, the source
is taken to be at room temperature, denoted by T,
usually taken as 290K.
The input noise from such a source is kT0, and the
output noise from the amplifier is

The noise figure F is expressed in decibels:

PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 109


Noise temperature of absorptive networks
absorptive network is one which contains resistive
elements.
These introduce losses by absorbing energy from the
signal and converting it to heat.
Resistive attenuators, transmission lines, and
waveguides are all examples of absorptive networks,
and even rainfall, which absorbs energy from radio
signals passing through it, can be considered a form of
absorptive network.
Because an absorptive network contains resistance it
generates thermal noise.

PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 110


PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 111
Overall system noise
temperature
Applying the results of the previous sections yields, for
the system noise temperature referred to the input

PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 112


UNIT II
SPACE SEGMENT AND SATELLITE LINK DESIGN
Spacecraft Technology
Structure
Primary power
Attitude and Orbit control
Thermal control and Propulsion
communication Payload
supporting subsystems
Telemetry, Tracking and command
Satellite uplink Analysis and Design
Satellite downlink Analysis and Design
Link budget
E/N calculation
performance impairments
system noise
inter modulation and interference
Propagation Characteristics
Frequency considerations
System reliability
Design lifetime
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 113
PERFORMANCE IMPAIRMENTS
A signal traveling between an earth station and a
satellite must pass through the earths atmosphere,
including the ionosphere
This can introduce certain impairments

PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 114


PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 115
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 116
UNIT II
SPACE SEGMENT AND SATELLITE LINK DESIGN
Spacecraft Technology
Structure
Primary power
Attitude and Orbit control
Thermal control and Propulsion
communication Payload
supporting subsystems
Telemetry, Tracking and command
Satellite uplink Analysis and Design
Satellite downlink Analysis and Design
Link budget
C/N calculation
performance impairments
system noise
inter modulation and interference
Propagation Characteristics
Frequency considerations
System reliability
Design lifetime
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 117
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 118
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 119
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 120
UNIT II
SPACE SEGMENT AND SATELLITE LINK DESIGN
Spacecraft Technology
Structure
Primary power
Attitude and Orbit control
Thermal control and Propulsion
communication Payload
supporting subsystems
Telemetry, Tracking and command
Satellite uplink Analysis and Design
Satellite downlink Analysis and Design
Link budget
C/N calculation
performance impairments
system noise
inter modulation and interference
Propagation Characteristics
Frequency considerations
System reliability
Design lifetime
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 121
INTER MODULATION INTERFERENCE
undesired combining of several signals in a nonlinear
device
producing new unwanted frequencies
cause interference in adjacent receivers located at
repeater sites
Not all interference is a result of inter modulation
distortion.

PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 122


It can come from
co-channel interference,
atmospheric conditions
man-made noise generated by medical, welding and
heating equipment.
transmitter's nonlinear power amplifier ( PA).
mixing point in the front end of a receiver.
rusty or corroded tower joints, guy wires, turnbuckles,
anchor rods or any nearby metallic object
All the above act as a nonlinear "mixer/rectifier"
device.

PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 123


UNIT II
SPACE SEGMENT AND SATELLITE LINK DESIGN
Spacecraft Technology
Structure
Primary power
Attitude and Orbit control
Thermal control and Propulsion
communication Payload
supporting subsystems
Telemetry, Tracking and command
Satellite uplink Analysis and Design
Satellite downlink Analysis and Design
Link budget
C/N calculation
performance impairments
system noise
inter modulation and interference
Propagation Characteristics
Frequency considerations
System reliability
Design lifetime
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 124
A number of factors resulting from changes in the
atmosphere have to be taken into account
when designing a satellite communications system in
order to avoid impairment of the wanted signal.
Generally, a margin in the required carrier-to-noise
ratio is incorporated to accommodate such effects.

PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 125


UNIT II
SPACE SEGMENT AND SATELLITE LINK DESIGN
Spacecraft Technology
Structure
Primary power
Attitude and Orbit control
Thermal control and Propulsion
communication Payload
supporting subsystems
Telemetry, Tracking and command
Satellite uplink Analysis and Design
Satellite downlink Analysis and Design
Link budget
C/N calculation
performance impairments
system noise
inter modulation and interference
Propagation Characteristics
Frequency considerations
System reliability
Design lifetime
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 126
In satellite communications noise is a limiting factor
for the receiving system
it is inappropriate to use receiving systems with noise
temperatures
From about 30 MHz to about 1 GHz cosmic noise
predominates over atmospheric noise [except during
local thunderstorms]
but will generally be exceeded by man-made noise in
populated areas.

PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 127


PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 128
UNIT II
SPACE SEGMENT AND SATELLITE LINK DESIGN
Spacecraft Technology
Structure
Primary power
Attitude and Orbit control
Thermal control and Propulsion
communication Payload
supporting subsystems
Telemetry, Tracking and command
Satellite uplink Analysis and Design
Satellite downlink Analysis and Design
Link budget
C/N calculation
performance impairments
system noise
inter modulation and interference
Propagation Characteristics
Frequency considerations
System reliability
Design lifetime
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 129
Satellites are designed to operate dependably
throughout their operational life
This is achieved through quality control and testing of
parts and subsystems before they are used in the
construction of the satellite.
Redundancy of key components are built in so that if a
particular part or subassembly fails, another can
perform its functions.
In addition, hardware and software on the satellite are
often designed so that ground controllers can
reconfigure the satellite to work around a part that has
failed.

PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 130


UNIT II
SPACE SEGMENT AND SATELLITE LINK DESIGN
Spacecraft Technology
Structure
Primary power
Attitude and Orbit control
Thermal control and Propulsion
communication Payload
supporting subsystems
Telemetry, Tracking and command
Satellite uplink Analysis and Design
Satellite downlink Analysis and Design
Link budget
C/N calculation
performance impairments
system noise
inter modulation and interference
Propagation Characteristics
Frequency considerations
System reliability
Design lifetime
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 131
The five-satellite Milstar (Military Strategic and
Tactical Relay )constellation (group of artificial
satellites used for military communications) has
surpassed 63 years of combined successful operations,
and provides a protected global communication
network
It can transmit voice, data, and image, and offers video
teleconferencing capabilities.
The system is the principal survivable, endurable
communications structure that U.S. Strategic
Command use to maintain positive command and
control of the nation's strategic forces.

PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 132


The next-generation Lockheed Martin-built Advanced
EHF (extremely high frequency) satellites, joining the
Milstar constellation provides
five times faster data rates
twice as many connections
permitting transmission of strategic and tactical
military communications
real-time video
battle field maps
targeting data
Advanced EHF satellites are designed to be fully
interoperable and backward compatible with Milstar.
PREPARED BY RATHNA.A/AP/ECE 133