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MATERI HIDROLISIS GARAM

KIMIA KELAS XI SEMESTER GENAP


PRELIMINARY
You must have heard the food flavoring. Food flavoring
which is often used is vitsin. This flavoring contains
monosodium glutamate (MSG). Monosodium glutamate is
alkaline salts and water soluble. There are salt
hydrolyzed in water and there is not hydrolyzed. Hydrolysis of salt you will learn now. Let's
learning
A. SALT HYDROLYSIS DEFINITIONS
hydrolysis of salt is "unraveling of salt in the water that produce acids or bases."
How Hydrolysis can happen?
Salt hydrolysis occurs only IF one or both components of the salt form and a weak
acid or weak base. If the salt component in the form of a strong acid and a strong base, then
the ion component of a strong acid or a strong base that will not be hydrolysed. Based on the
preceding, the cations and anions can undergo hydrolysis reaction is a salt cations and anions
including weak electrolytes. While the salt cations and anions including strong electrolyte is
not hydrolyzed.
The reaction of salt to the water, where the salt component (cation or anion)
derived from a weak acid or weak base reacts with water to form H3O + ion (= H +) or
OH- ions.
If hydrolysis produces H3O + then the solution is acidic, but if hydrolysis produces
OH- ions then the solution is alkaline.

B. ACID-BASE PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS


Mixing an acid solution with an alkaline solution will produce a salt and water. The
reaction of acid with a base to form a salt called neutralization reactions. However, the salt
can be acidic, alkaline or neutral. The nature of the salt depends on the type of acid and
alkaline components. Salts can be formed from a strong acid with a strong base, weak acid
with a strong base, strong acid with a weak base or a weak acid with a weak base. Thus, the
acid-base properties of a salt can be determined from the strength of acids and bases
constituent. The nature of the salt acidity or alkalinity is caused by a partially soluble salt
reacts with water. The process of partial dissolution of the salt reacts with water is called
hydrolysis (hydro meaning water and lysis meaning decomposition).
Table 1.Beberapa example of a strong acid solution

Table 2. strong alkaline solution

C. TYPES OF SALT WHICH CAN hydrolyzed


Salt consists of four types, which are divided by the component of acid-base
constituent
1. Salts of Strong Acid with Strong Base
Strong acids and strong bases react to form a salt and
water. Salt cations and anions derived from strong electrolytes
are not hydrolyzed, so this solution is neutral, the pH is equal
to 7.

Example: Salt NaCl


In the water, NaCl perfect ionised to form ions Na + and Cl
NaCl (aq) Na + (aq) + Cl- (aq)
Na + ions derived from a strong acid and Cl-ions derived from a strong base so that they do
not react with water.
Na + (aq) + H2O (l) (No reaction)
Cl (aq) + H2O (l) (No reaction)
Therefore, the solution remains neutral (pH = 7).

2. Salts of Strong Acid by Weakly


Salt formed from a strong acid with a weak base hydrolysis partially (partial) in water.
This salt contains cations acid hydrolysis. The salt solution is acidic, pH <7.
Example
Calculating the salt solution pH is acid
Examples of the acidic salt solution is NH4Cl, NH4Br, Al2 (SO4) 3.
Consider the following hydrolysis reaction!
NH4 + (aq) + H2O (l) NH4OH (aq) + H + (aq)
The hydrolysis reaction is an equilibrium reaction. Although only a little of the salt undergo
hydrolysis reaction, but sufficient to change the pH of the solution. The equilibrium constant
of the hydrolysis reaction called hydrolysis constant and denoted by Kh.
Kh = [NH4OH] [H +] / [NH4 +]
H2O H2O is ignored because it is constant. NH4OH always the same as the [H +] so
Kh = KW / Kb
So for salt acidic hydrolysis effect relationship:

3. Salts of Weak Acid with Strong Base


Salt formed from a weak acid with a strong base undergo partial hydrolysis in water.
This salt-containing anion alkaline hydrolysis. The salt solution is alkaline (pH> 7).
Ionized salt in the water to produce ions. Comes from a strong base cations and anions
derived from weak acids. Example: CH3COONa, NaF, CH3COOK, HCOOK
Example: salt CH3COOBa
Calculating the salt solution is pH Bases
Note the hydrolysis reaction of salt CH3COOBa CH3COO- below!
CH3COO- + H2O CH3COOH + OH-
The equilibrium constant of the hydrolysis reaction called hydrolysis constants are denoted
by Kh

Therefore [CH3COOH] always the same as [OH], then

[OH] 2 = Kh x CH3COO-
CH3COO- = Cg

Furthermore, Kh hydrolysis constants can be associated with a weak acid ionization


constants Ka and equilibrium constant of water Kw

4. Salts of Weak
Acid by Weakly
A weak acid with a weak base to form salts of hydrolyzed total (perfect) in water.
Both cations and anions can be hydrolyzed in water. This salt solution can be acidic, alkaline,
or neutral. It relies on the comparative strength of the cation to the anion in the reaction with
water.
Example
A weak acid is mixed with a weak base HCN, NH 3 is formed salt NH 4 CN. HCN partially
ionized in water to form H + and CN - while NH 3 in a partially ionized water to form NH4 +
and OH-. Alkaline anion CN - and NH 4 + acid cation can be hydrolyzed in water.
NH 4 CN (aq) NH 4 + (aq) + CN - (aq)
NH 4 + (aq) + H 2 O NH 3 (aq) + H 3 O (aq) +
CN - (aq) + H 2 O (e) HCN (aq) + OH - (aq)
The nature of the solution depends on the relative strengths of acids and bases constituent (Ka
and Kb)
- If Ka <Kb (acid weaker than the base) then anion hydrolyzed more and the solution is
alkaline.
- if Ka> Kb (acid stronger than the base) then it will be hydrolysed more cations in the
solution is acidic.
- If Ka = Kb (as weak acid with a base) then the solution is neutral.
EXERCISES
AND
COMPLETION

Here are some examples along with the settlement of matters relating to the hydrolysis of the
salt that we have just pelajarai together:
1. What is the pH of a solution of 100 mL of 0.01 M solution of sodium cyanide? (Ka HCN
= 10-10)
completion:
A solution of sodium cyanide is formed from a mixture of strong base (NaOH) with a weak
acid (HCN). Thus, the saline solution undergo partial hydrolysis and alkaline.
NaCN (aq) Na + (aq) + CN- (aq)
Hydrolyzed ion is CN- ions. CN- ion concentration is 0.01 M. Thus, the pH of the salt
solution can be obtained through the following equation:
[OH] = {(Kw / Ka) ([ion hydrolyzed])} 1/2
[OH] = {(10-14 / 10-10) (0.01)} 1/2
[OH-] = 10-3 M
Thus, pOH of the solution is 3. So, the pH of the salt solution is 11.

2. What is the pH of the solution of barium acetate 200 mL of 0.1 M? (Ka CH3COOH =
2.10-5)
completion:
Barium acetate solution formed from a mixture of strong base (Ba (OH) 2) with a weak acid
(CH3COOH). Thus, the saline solution undergo partial hydrolysis and alkaline.
Ba (CH3COO) 2 (aq) Ba + 2 (aq) + 2 CH3COO- (aq)
Hydrolyzed ion is ion CH3COO-. CH3COO- ion concentration is 0.2 M. Thus, the pH of the
salt solution can be obtained through the following equation:
[OH] = {(Kw / Ka) ([ion hydrolyzed])} 1/2
[OH] = {(10-14 / 2.10-5) (0.2)} 1/2
[OH-] = 10-5 M
Thus, pOH of the solution is 5. Thus, the pH of the salt solution is 9.

3. Calculate the pH of 0.42 M NH 4 Cl solution! (Kb NH4OH = 1,8.10-5)


completion:
Ammonium chloride solution is formed from a mixture of a weak base (NH4OH) with a
strong acid (HCl). Thus, the saline solution undergo partial hydrolysis and acidic.
NH4Cl (aq) NH4 + (aq) + Cl- (aq)
Hydrolyzed ion is NH4 + ion. NH4 + ion concentration was 0.42 M. Thus, the pH of the salt
solution can be obtained through the following equation:
[H +] = {(Kw / Kb) ([ion hydrolyzed])} 1/2
[H +] = {(10-14 / 1,8.10-5) (0.42) 1/2}
[H +] = 1,53.10-5 M
Thus, the pH of the salt solution is 4.82.
4. Calculate the pH of a solution of 2.00 M NH4CN! (Ka and Kb HCN = 4,9.10-10
NH4OH = 1,8.10-5)
completion:
Ammonium cyanide formed from a mixture of a weak base (NH4OH) with a weak acid
(HCN). Thus, the salt solution is hydrolysed total.
NH4Cl (aq) NH4 + (aq) + CN- (aq)
Hydrolyzed ion is ion ion NH4 + and CN-. Thus, the pH of the salt solution can be obtained
through the following equation:
[H +] = {Kw (Ka / Kb)} 1/2
[H +] = {10-14 (4,9.10-10 / 1,8.10-5)} 1/2
[H +] = 5,22.10-10 M
Thus, the pH of the salt solution is 9.28.

5. What mass of NaCN salt which must be dissolved to form a 250 mL solution with a pH
of 10? (Ka HCN = 10-10 and Mr NaCN = 49)
completion:
A solution of sodium cyanide is formed from a mixture of strong base (NaOH) with a weak
acid (HCN). Thus, the saline solution undergo partial hydrolysis and alkaline.
NaCN (aq) Na + (aq) + CN- (aq)
pH = 10, mean pOH = 4
Thus, [OH-] = 10-4 M
Calculation of saline solution pH can be obtained through the following equation:
[OH] = {(Kw / Ka) ([ion hydrolyzed])} 1/2
10-4 = {(10-14 / 10-10) [ion hydrolyzed]} 1/2
[Ion hydrolyzed] = 10-4 M
NaCN necessary salt concentration of 10-4 M. The volume of solution is 250 ml = 0.25 L.
Thus, moles of NaCN salt needed are:
Mol = Volume x Molar
Mol = 0.25 x 10-4 = 2.5 x 10-5 mol
Thus, the mass of NaCN salt is needed as much as 2.5 x 10-5 x 49 = 1.225 x 10-3 grams =
1.225 mg.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Purba, Michael. CHEMICAL 2007. 2 For High School Class XI. Jakarta: publisher

http://www.e-
dukasi.net/index.php?mod=script&cmd=Bahan%20Belajar/Materi%20Pokok/view&id=437

http://www.forumsains.com/kimia-smu/belajar-hidrolisis-garam/
http://www.chem-is-try.org/materi_kimia/kimia-kesehatan/larutan/hidrolisis-garam/

http://www.smapgii1.sch.id/images/K1/hidrolisis_parsial_asam.htm

http://sahri.ohlog.com/konsep-hidrolisis-garam.oh81642.html

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