Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

Task based approach

What is TBL?
If we can make language in the classroom meaningful therefore memorable, students can process language
which is being learned or recycled more naturally.
Task-based learning offers the student an opportunity to do exactly this. The primary focus of classroom
activity is the task and language is the instrument which the students use to complete it.
The task is an activity in which students use language to achieve a specific outcome.
The activity reflects real life and learners focus on meaning, they are free to use any language they want.
Playing a game, solving a problem or sharing information or experiences, can all be considered as relevant and
authentic tasks.
In TBL an activity in which students are given a list of words to use cannot be considered as a genuine task. Nor
can a normal role play if it does not contain a problem-solving element or where students are not given a goal to
reach. In many role plays students simply act out their restricted role. For instance, a role play where students
have to act out roles as company directors but must come to an agreement or find the right solution within the
given time limit can be considered a genuine task in TBL.
In the task-based lessons included below our aim is to create a need to learn and use language. The tasks will
generate their own language and create an opportunity for language acquisition (Krashen*).
If we can take the focus away from form and structures we can develop our students ability to do things in
English. That is not to say that there will be no attention paid to accuracy, work on language is included in each
task and feedback and language focus have their places in the lesson plans. We feel that teachers have a
responsibility to enrich their students language when they see it is necessary but students should be given the
opportunity to use English in the classroom as they use their own languages in everyday life.

Peter Skehans Task-Based Instruction states Task- Based approach believe that learning is controlled
by internal processes
it was not enough in language teaching to focus only on language
structure, but this needed to be accompanied by a concern to
develop the capacity to express meanings Skehan.

All in all TBL is language learning by doing Michael Lewis.

Task are activities where the target language is used by the learner for a communicative purpose (goal)
in order to achieve an outcome. Willis"

Communicative tasks are a part of classroom work and implicate that students comprehend, manipulate
and produce in the target language (English) while they are focus in the meaning rather than form.

According to Jean and Dave Willis, there are six types of tasks that are classified according to particular
cognitive processes. These types of tasks are : Matching, comparing, problem - solving, projects and
creative task, ordering and sorting and sharing personal experiences storytelling.

- Matching: These kind of tasks can be developed through listening and and reading. Thus, the teacher has
the responsibility to provide students with certain kind of activities in which the student is going to be
able to identify relevant information. In case of listening activities, the students are going to find by
themselves which picture or object is related to what they hear. Thereby, children are learning how to
matching sounds or words with objects.
On the other hand, through reading tasks, children are going to be
capable to matching what they read not only with pictures or objects
but also with other words, texts, definitions of words, descriptions of
people and places, establishing at the same time a relation between their previous knowledge, their
context or the topic that they are.

learning with the relevant information found in the text.

- Projects and creative tasks: These kind of tasks involve a sequence of tasks based around one
specific topic, each task with its own outcome or purpose ( Willis and Willis). These projects are
guided by the teacher and end in a specific time with a determined final product that is often shared with
others in different ways.
These projects are also, usually created by small groups or couples
but the teacher should give his students the possibility of working
Individually. Moreover, these projects are most of the time class-based projects but sometimes students
can be visited by experts or informants from outside the classroom or searching for information on
At the end of the project, the student will have learned new information about other people,
objects and contexts, as well as new strategies for create alternative proposals. Some of the student's
project products are class newspapers, posters, survey fantasy, blogs, radio programs, etc.

- Ordering a sorting: This task engage students to organize different items, words or objects according to
several types of purposes. Thus, they can for example organize these elements by sequence
(chronologically),by rank ordering (range of values) in which the student have to organize elements
depending of their degree of superiority in an specific topic and finally by classifying the information by

- Comparing: Students should find similarities and differences about a specific subject like a place or
events that are known by them and can have relation with their experiences. Comparison tasks can be
based in two similar materials that are provided by the teacher, for example text, pictures, news, or
different media sources.
This kind of task can be developed through listing similarities and differences, write a short summary
about these or make a list about the main similar or different aspects about the topic. Also students can
compare their own work with another pair or group.

- Problem - solving: this task has the objective that learners give advice and recommendations on a
general o specific problem through stimulating students discussion and writing activities that can help
them to think and work about the possible problems solutions.
For this task teacher has the responsibility to choose a introductory material that explaining the topic
and gives his/ her students instructions about the task: to discuss and find solutions to the problem. To
know the problem through students experiences and that they fell confidence to talk about the topic are
important factors to develop this kind of task.
According to Jean and Dave Willis some context or aspects that can be used for this task are: Global and
international issues, Classroom or institutional problems, teenage issues, environmental issues, social,
family, and work context.
Problem - solving task can be developed through other kind of activities like: 1. to list and make a
ranking of problems effects, 2. to compare and list personal experiences in relation with the problem 3.
To list and compare possible solutions for this, 4. To evaluate the criterial that solutions were appraised.
- Storytelling: This task is developed through activities where learners can talk about their personal
experiences that are important to give them the chance to speak in a prolonged way.
In this case teacher should give her / his students clear instruction and specific goals to realize this
activity. Besides, its important to created an enabling environment where learners can feel comfortable
to talk about their own experiences in a real social interaction.
Theory of
language Krashens acquisition theory affirms that the aim of TBA is not to
pre-select and teach language but to create conditions and situation in
which the acquisition of language can take place.

Objectives focuses on the use of authentic language

asking students to do meaningful tasks using the target language.
participants choose the linguistic resources needed to complete the
make language in the classroom truly communicative

The Task based Approach make emphasis in the process of learners rather than in a product. For this reason, the
TBL syllabus employs tasks as the unit of syllabus and these tasks show what the students need to do and
organise several tasks in which learners use different language forms, functions and skills in order to complete
those tasks and reach certain goals in terms of language.

The TBL syllabus could include several Tasks that should be relevant to the student use of language in the real
world. Tasks such as:
Pedagogical tasks: Are designed to produce language learning process and strategies. There are pieces of
classroom work which their attention is principally focused on meaning.
Real-world Tasks: these are designed to practice useful activities in the real world and learn about real-
context language.
Rehearsal Tasks: these are a classroom works in which learners rehearse inside the class an act or
activity that then they will be able to do in their real life.
Activation Tasks: These kind of tasks imply communicative interaction between learners in order to
activate the acquisition process.
Enabling skills: these are tasks that help learners to domain the language systems as grammar,
pronunciation, vocabulary, etc.
Communication activity: A classroom work focused on a specific linguistic characteristic and also in the
exchange of meaning.
Roles of - Learners are the center of the process
learner -They learn through active use of language.
- Student is an autonomous and active learner, who is responsible of his/ her own
process of learning.
Roles of - Is responsible to the selection of the tasks to be used.
teacher -Use the tasks to encourage the learners to use the language
- Teachers have to prepare learners for tasks
- Teacher is a guide in the student process of learning and language acquisition
- InTBL teacher do not design or control the learning process but teacher produces and
simplifies different tasks to give learner the opportunity to advance according to the
development during the task. Teacher helps the learner to correct, clarify, and deepen
perceptions in the language through experience consciousness.

Materials Task-Based Learning seeks to employ as resources or materials several elements that
are used in the real world and represent in the most of the cases the contexts of the
learners. Some of this resources are:
G Speeches, conversations, public announcements, cartoon strips, interviews,
telephone directories,diagrams, oral descriptions, photos, games, puzzles, songs,
illustrations, letters, poems, directions, between others.

Pre task
In the pre-task, the teacher will present what will be expected of the students in the task phase. Additionally, in
the "weak" form of TBLL, the teacher may prime the students with key vocabulary or grammatical constructs,
although this can mean that the activity is, in effect, more similar to the more traditional present-practice-
produce (PPP) paradigm. In "strong" task-based learning lessons, learners are responsible for selecting the
appropriate language for any given context themselves. The instructors may also present a model of the task by
either doing it themselves or by presenting picture, audio, or video demonstrating the task.

During the task phase, the students perform the task, typically in small groups, although this depends on the
type of activity. Unless the teacher plays a particular role in the task, the teacher's role is typically limited to one
of an observer or counselorthereby making it a more student-centered methodology

If learners have created tangible linguistic products, e.g. text, montage, presentation, audio or video recording,
learners can review each other's work and offer constructive feedback. If a task is set to extend over longer
periods of time, e.g. weeks, and includes iterative cycles of constructive activity followed by review, TBL can
be seen as analogous to Project-based learning

Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) + Krashens Natural approach

the course of this discussion the focus will be especially on the language aspect of learning in CLIL, but of
course other levels of learning (content, culture, cognition) also move into focus because borders are inevitably

Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has become the umbrella term describing both
learning another (content) subject such as physics or geography through the medium of a foreign
language and learning a foreign language by studying a content-based subject.
The basis of CLIL is that content subjects are taught and learnt in a language which is not the mother
tongue of the learners.

Learning is improved through increased motivation and the study of natural language seen in context.
When learners are interested in a topic they are motivated to acquire language to communicate

CLIL students have even been shown to overtake peer controls when tested in the L1 (but see the point
made above concerning selfselection) This, it has been claimed, may have to do with the fact that CLIL
work more persistently on tasks, showing higher tolerance of frustration, thus acquiring a higher degree
of procedural competence in the subject.

It is often observed that by way of CLIL students can reach significantly higher levels of L2 than by
conventional foreign language classes

Favourably affected Unaffected or Indefinite Unaffected or Indefinite

Receptive skills Syntax
Vocabulary Writing
Morphology Informal/non-technical language
Creativity, risk-taking, fluency,quantity Pronunciation
Emotive/affective outcomes Pragmatics

Some aspects of English morphology (personal observation, cf. Zydati 2006): particularly low-level processes
like the third person s or irregular past tenses but also the modals have been shown to gain a higher degree of
automatization and appropriacy of use. The greatest gain in terms of the language system, however, is
undoubtedly produced in the lexicon: through studying content subjects in the foreign language CLIL learners
possess larger vocabularies of technical and semi-technical terms and possibly also of general academic
language which gives them a clear advantage over their EFL-peers.

talk which perpires during CLIL lessons.5 This, as I have made clear above, is a crucial issue for the kind of
language learning which will take place, if we subscribe to a notion of learning which is founded on the idea
that individual cognition emerges from social interaction but teachers rather use recasts much the same as
caregivers do in first language acquisition.

My own observations during fieldwork furnish supportive evidence for her

perception and also show that for most CLIL classes language trouble and its correction
appears to be a low stakes issue. It is dealt with as it arises, without visible facethreatening
effects (see also Smit 2007

In list form the sources of spoken input are the following:

- teacher questions
- teacher feedback
- student answers
- student presentations
- reading aloud



One of the fundamental goals of a pedagogy of Multiliteracies is to create the conditions or learning
which support the growth of this kind of person, a person comfortable with themselves as well as flexible
enough to collaborate and negotiate with others who are different to themselves in order to forge a
common interest.
Students do something with the knowlenge , no receive the meaning in a passive way.
. Design in the sense of construction is something you do in the process of representing meanings, to
oneself in sense-making processes such as reading, listening or viewing, or to the world in
communicative processes such as writing, speaking or making pictures (how, through the act of
Designing, the world and the person are transformed). These processes have a cultural and situational
basis it is to design
learning experiences through which learners develop strategies for reading the new and unfamiliar in
whatever form they may manifest themselves.
En Diseo, el creador de significado promulga un nuevo diseo. Sin embargo, al poner Diseos para usar,
nunca son simplemente replicar diseos encontrados incluso si su La inspiracin se establece patrones de
creacin de significado. Lo que el creador de significado Crea es un nuevo diseo, una expresin de su
voz que se basa en la mezcla nica De significar hacer recursos, los cdigos y convenciones que han
encontrado En sus contextos y culturas. El momento del diseo es un momento de transformacin, De
rehacer el mundo representando de nuevo al mundo. Creatividad, innovacin, Dinamismo y divergencia
son estados semiticos normales. Esta es una visin prospectiva de
Modalities of the desing
Written Language: writing (representing meaning to another) and reading (representing meaning to oneself)
handwriting, the printed page, the screen.
Oral Language: live or recorded speech (representing meaning to another); listening (representing meaning to
Visual Representation: still or moving image, sculpture, craft (representing meaning to another); view, vista,
scene, perspective (representing meaning to oneself).
Audio Representation: music, ambient sounds, noises, alerts (representing meaning to another); hearing,
listening (representing meaning to oneself).
Tactile Representation: touch, smell and taste: the representation to oneself of bodily sensations and feelings
or representations to others which touch them bodily. Forms of tactile representation include kinaesthesia,
physical contact, 13 skin sensations (heat/cold, texture, pressure), grasp, manipulable objects, artefacts, cooking
and eating, aromas.
Gestural Representation: movements of the hands and arms, expressions of the face, eye movements and gaze,
demeanours of the body, gait, clothing and fashion, hair style, dance, action sequences (Scollon, 2001), timing,
frequency, ceremony and ritual. Here gesture is understood broadly and metaphorically as a physical act of
signing (as in a gesture to ...), rather than the narrower literal meaning of hand and arm movement.
Representation to oneself may take the form of feelings and emotions or rehearsing action sequences in ones
minds eye.
Spatial Representation: proximity, spacing, layout, interpersonal distance, territoriality, architecture/building,
streetscape, cityscape, landscape. We have also undertaken new work on the capacity of different modes to
express many of the same kinds of things; the representational potentials that are unique unto themselves. In
other words, between the various modes, there are inherently different or incommensurate affordances as well
the parallel or translatable aspects of the representational jobs they do.

Inportancia del context

it is related wiith their real live situation and issues, beside it ayuda a entender el conocimiento y a
trasformar la sociedad misma en la que vide, mantener su diferencia frente al fenomeno globalizadr. Y
pueda mantener una actitus critica frente a su mismo contexto y cambie, ademas este es importante
porque basada tanto en una visin realista El aprendiz percibe que vale la pena aprender, lo que
involucra las particularidades de su identidad) Permite formas alternativas de compromiso (las variadas
experiencias que Necesidad de ser llevada a cabo en el aprendizaje, las diferentes flexiones conceptuales
de los estudiantes, pueden aplicar o promulgar sus conocimientos en diferentes entornos

overt instruction: Overt Instruction is conscious awareness and control over what is being learned, because of
this the use of a metalanguage of design is required. Here too, like with Situated Practice, evaluation should be
used as a guide to inform further action.

Frame: conscious control and understanding (from Overt Instruction) in relation to the historical, social,
cultural, political, ideological, and value-centered relations of particular systems of knowledge and social


Aprender en las localidades
Se necesita un profesor de justicia socia: l SJTE busca reducir las inequidades que existen en la educacin
Experiencias y oportunidades ofrecidas a los estudiantes, Reconociendo los impactos que la pobreza, la raza, el
idioma, Geografa e inmigracin tienen en la distribucin asimtrica De los recursos y el acceso a los servicios.
los estudiantes con Mayor necesidad acadmica tienen menos posibilidades de tener acceso a Oportunidades
congruentes con sus experiencias de vida "
nuestro concepto de CBP fue informado Por la insistencia de Freire (1970/1988) de que el plan de estudios sea
local Generan e invitan a los alumnos a criticar y transformar sus Realidades y el llamado de Murrell (2001)
para el "Maestros comunitarios", educadores que "investigan activamente Conocimiento de las culturas
representadas entre los nios, Familias y comunidades a las que sirve. . . como un medio de Hacer conexiones
significativas para y con los nios y Sus familias "(pgina 51)
El trabajo de Murrell evoca y ampla Sobre el concepto de fondos de conocimiento, el Acumuladas y
desarrolladas culturalmente Y habilidades esenciales para el funcionamiento del hogar o del individuo Y el
bienestar "(Moll et al., 1992, pgina 133). Uso de las realidades locales de los estudiantes como plan de estudios
Puntos es congruente con teoras de aprendizaje sociocultural que Destacar la naturaleza contextualizada y
situada del aprendizaje (Hawkins, 2014) y la investigacin ha demostrado que el aprendizaje es Cuando los
maestros invitan y reconocen el conocimiento, Creencias y experiencias que los estudiantes traen consigo En el
aula (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2004). Como se seal anteriormente, los actuales esfuerzos de reforma
han Las pedagogas de los profesores.
De activos en una comunidad y ejemplos: ubicaciones fsicas (Parques, jardines comunitarios), instituciones
(bibliotecas,Iglesias, clnica de salud), asociaciones (sindicatos, Clubes), individuos (personas especficas como
lderes comunitarios, Ancianos conocidos), y la economa local (tiendas, tiendas, vendedores ambulantes).
Dividimos a los maestros en dos grupos y Los llev en un ejercicio de mapeo de mini-activos de 45 minutos,
Encontrar ejemplos para cada categora en el Fuera de los terrenos de la ALP. Los alentamos a Tomar fotos con
sus telfonos y mantener un dilogo en marcha Durante su experiencia. Cuando el gran grupo volvi a reunirse,
Pocos maestros se sorprendieron de haber completado con xito la tarea.
This Type of Project Allows One to Become Closer to the Students
Dise una unidad de encuesta de 7 semanas Medioambientales de los productos qumicos utilizados en
Pequeas empresas alrededor de la escuela. una que habl de la composicin qumica Del champ
utilizado en el saln de belleza de su casa y Otra que habl sobre los tratamientos qumicos usados en ella
mNegocio de los vaqueros de la familia.
Afectos causas y consecuencias de las migraciones del campo a la urbe
Strategies based instruction
Language learning styles and strategies are among the main factors that help determine how and how well
our students learn a second or foreign language. A second language is a language studied in a setting where that
language is the main vehicle of everyday
Estilos de aprendizaje: las distintas maneras en que un individuo puede aprender the focus that students use in
acquiring a new language or in learning any other subject
Learning strategies are defined as specificactions,behaviors,steps,or technique used by students to enhance their
own learning
Sensory preferences: refer to the physical, perceptual learning channels with which the student is the most
- Visual: students like to read and obtain a great deal from visual stimulation. oral directions without any
visual backup can be very confusing.
- Auditory: the contrary of the visual. however, have difficulty with written work.
- Kinesthetic and tactile students like lots of movement and enjoy working with tangible objects, collages,
and flashcards. They prefer to have frequent breaks and move around the room.
Personality Types which consists of four strands:
- extraverted vs. introverted; first, external world, love interact.
- intuitive-random vs. sensing-sequential: first: Intuitive-random students think in abstract, futuristic,
large-scale, and nonsequential ways. They like to create theories and new possibilities, often have
sudden insights, and prefer to guide their own learning.
- thinking vs. feeling; first: Thinking learners are oriented toward the stark (directo)truth, even if it hurts
some peoples feelings.

- closure-oriented/judging vs. open/perceiving: Closure-oriented students want to reach judgments or

completion quickly and want clarity as soon as possible. like to be given written information and enjoy
specific tasks

Desired Degree of Generality

Global and analytic
- This strand contrasts the learner who focuses on the main idea or big picture with the learner wh
concentrates on details. Global or holistic students like socially interactive, communicative events in
which they can emphasize the main idea and avoid analysis of grammatical minutiae
- Biorhythms: at morning or afternoon
- Sustenance refers to the need for food or drink while learning
L2 learners clearly need to make the most of their style preferences. However, occasionally they must also
extend themselves beyond their style preferences. By providing a