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2526 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 57, NO.

9, SEPTEMBER 2009

Multiband Handset Antenna Combining a PIFA,


Slots, and Ground Plane Modes
Arnau Cabedo, Jaume Anguera, Senior Member, IEEE, Cristina Picher, Miquel Rib, Member, IEEE, and
Carles Puente, Member, IEEE

AbstractA multiband handset antenna combining a PIFA and space to fit the antenna. Therefore new techniques are needed
multiple slots on a ground plane is presented. It is shown by means in order to achieve a maximum bandwidth with an antenna that
of simulations that the slots on the ground plane have a double occupies the smallest space possible.
function: to tune the ground plane resonance at low frequencies
(f 900 MHz) and to act as parasitic radiators at high frequen-
To enhance the bandwidth of a handset antenna, [5] and [6]
cies (f 1800 MHz). A prototype is designed and built featuring propose the insertion of a slot on the ground plane of a mono-
a behavior suitable for low frequencies (GSM850 and GSM900) band PIFA. Such a slot tunes the PCB to resonate at a frequency
and for high frequencies spanning from DCS1800 to Bluetooth, and similar to that of the PIFA, in order to finally obtain a broad-
including, for instance, PCS1900, UMTS2000, and other possible band behavior, covering the GSM850900 band. In addition,
systems. Reflection coefficient, efficiency, and radiation patterns
are measured and compared with a design without slots to prove [5] proposes an electrical model that gives a very good physical
the advantages of the slotted ground plane. The component effect is insight into the behavior of this phenomenon. In [8], the same
investigated to determine critical areas where the placement is not technique is used to design a modified ground plane to achieve
recommended. Besides, the effect of the slot of the ground plane a dual-band PIFA with a low profile. A possible drawback of
on SAR is investigated, by discussing the effect of the ground plane the design is the fact that the PCB is full of slots, which may
and slot modes for two phone positions. The total antenna volume
of the proposed design is 40 15 6 mm3 . interfere with the placement of electronic components such as
the battery, the display, RF chips, etc. Another example of an
Index TermsComponent interaction, multiband handset an-
tennas, PCB resonance, PIFA, SAR.
antenna design that uses a slotted ground plane is found in [10],
where it is used to improve a conventional design for a dual-band
operation antenna (GSM900-DCS1800) to a quad-band design
I. INTRODUCTION (GSM850-GSM900-DCS1800-DCS1900). In this case, the slot
HE future generations of mobile phones will need to op- on the ground plane has a double function. On one hand it tunes
T erate over as much frequency bands as possible, such as
GSM850, GSM900, DCS1800, PCS1900, UMTS, WIMAX and
the PCB to resonate at low frequencies1 (around 900 MHz), im-
proving the bandwidth; on the other hand, since the slot is com-
Bluetooth, among others. In general, the PIFA determine the parable to at high frequencies, with enough coupling to the
number of frequencies bands, while, in the absence of slots, PIFA, the bandwidth at high frequencies is improved. The slot
the ground plane (also referred as PCB: Printed Circuit Board) is placed underneath the PIFA to create enough coupling with
dimensions determine bandwidth, particularly at the lower fre- it at high frequencies and to facilitate component integration
quencies [1], [2]. Most of the work has been done on antenna [13][15].
design [3], but the ground plane (both its dimensions and its Slots on the ground plane have been used as antennas with
modification [4][12]) offers another design variable. sufficient bandwidth to cover a specific frequency band [16].
The antenna design is mainly determined by the PCB dimen- Characteristic modes [21][23] have been used to gain un-
sions, which are fixed by the size of the handset or wireless derstanding of how the ground plane can be used to enhance the
device. An important limitation is the antenna height, which behavior of a handset antenna. In [11], [24] they are used to an-
should be small for the new generation of ultra-slim phones alyze a handset antenna in order to finally tune a PCB at low
that are now appearing into the market. Moreover, the new frequencies (900 MHz) using a slot.
mobile phones incorporate all kinds of extra services, such as In [9], a handset antenna with a ground plane is modified to
photo-video cameras, big displays to watch television and sev- incorporate a parasitic patch. This patch increases the bandwidth
eral speakers for high-fidelity audio which reduce the available at high frequencies.
The work presented in this paper continues the research done
Manuscript received November 30, 2007; revised November 11, 2008. First in [10] in the sense that a slotted PCB is used to accomplish
published July 07, 2009; current version published September 02, 2009. two main functions: to modify the fundamental resonant mode
A. Cabedo and M. Rib are with the Electronics and Telecommunica-
tions Department, Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona 8022, Spain (e-mail: in order to obtain a bandwidth enhancement at low frequen-
acabedo@salle.url.edu). cies (GSM850900) and, at the same time, to act as a para-
J. Anguera is with the Electronics and Telecommunications Department, sitic element of the antenna. Thus, a bandwidth enhancement is
Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona 8022, Spain and also with the Technology
and Intellectual Property Rights Department, Fractus, 08174 Barcelona, Spain achieved at high frequencies (DCS18001900). In this paper, a
(e-mail: jaume.anguera@fractus.com). new slot is added to the ground plane to enhance even more the
C. Picher and C. Puente are with the Technology and Intellectual Property
Rights Department, Fractus, 08174 Barcelona, Spain. 1Hereafter, low frequencies refer to GSM850 (824890 MHz) and GSM900
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online (880960 MHz) and high frequencies include DCS1800 (17101880 MHz),
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. PCS (18501990 MHz), UMTS (19202170 MHz) up to Bluetooth (2.42.48
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TAP.2009.2027039 GHz)

0018-926X/$26.00 2009 IEEE


CABEDO et al.: MULTIBAND HANDSET ANTENNA COMBINING A PIFA, SLOTS, AND GROUND PLANE MODES 2527

This slot is tuned at high frequencies in order to resonate around


the UMTS frequencies. In order to make the design suitable for
a real handset design, this second slot is situated under the PIFA,
in an area away from that where the battery and other internal
components of the handset are placed, i.e., displays, RF-mod-
ules, speakers, etc. Slot #3, placed between the feed and the
short-circuit to the ground plane, is used for input impedance
fine-tuning purposes.

III. ELECTRICAL MODEL


An electrical model, based on resonant RLC circuits is pro-
posed to give a physical insight into the behavior of the antenna
presented in this paper. The proposed electrical model is useful
to perform a parametric analysis. For example, using the model
it is possible to see what influence the PCB has into the band-
width of the antenna at low frequencies or, how it affects the
bandwidth at high frequencies if the coupling between the PIFA
Fig. 1. Antenna design: (a) Front PCB view, (b) front antenna view, and (c) 3D and the slot is increased (or decreased).
2
antenna view. PCB is 100 mm 40 mm. PIFA height is 6 mm. All dimensions The electrical model helps to explain how the proposed an-
are in mm. tenna structure works. It takes into account the fact that:
1) Due to its dimensions and modifications, the PCB res-
bandwidth at high frequencies, reaching the UMTS and Blue- onates at a frequency which is very close to the lower res-
tooth bands. onant frequency of the PIFA, enhancing the bandwidth at
This paper is organized as follows: Section II shows the new the lower band.
antenna structure, and Section III presents an equivalent cir- 2) Additional slots can contribute with their resonance to en-
cuit model for its input impedance. Section IV exposes a de- hance the bandwidth of the structure at the higher band.
tailed study of the physical behavior of the proposed antenna. The proposed electrical model is depicted in Fig. 2. It is based
Section V discusses the measured experimental results for its on the circuit model for patch antennas presented in [26], which
input impedance bandwidth, efficiency, and radiation patterns. was extended for a dual-band microstrip antenna in [27] (elec-
Component interaction is analyzed in Section VI. Its influence trical circuit labeled as Multiband in Fig. 2). In [5], a similar
on SAR is investigated in Section VII. Finally, the conclusions model for single-band operation is presented. The use of an elec-
are detailed in Section VIII. trical model is useful to understand the behavior of this kind of
antennas based on parasitic elements [26][30].
II. ANTENNA STRUCTURE In the proposed model, the dual series-parallel RLC circuits
Beginning from a reference antenna design proposed in [10] take into account the single PIFA without the slots on the ground
operating at the GSM850, GSM900, DCS1800 and PCS1900 plane. To model the tuned PCB a new resonator has to be added
bands, a deeper study has been performed to achieve an antenna to the first RLC circuit using a capacitive coupling. Similarly, a
capable to operate at the UMTS and Bluetooth bands too. new resonator modeling the slot (the parallel resonator , ,
The geometry of the proposed PIFA with a slotted ground ) is coupled to the second resonance of the PIFA, modeled by
plane is shown in Fig. 1. The radiating element consists of two , , .
branches: the narrower and inner one, which is tuned to operate The PIFA without considering the PCB effect, that is, a PIFA
around 900 MHz, and the wider and outer one, which is tuned on an infinite ground plane (labeled as Reference in Fig. 2)
to operate at frequencies around 1900 MHz. The PCB layer has is modeled as follows: RLC values of the first ( , , )
a FR-4 composite (fiberglass substrate, ), and its size is and second ( , , ) resonator are calculated to match
100 mm 40 mm to emulate the PCB of a typical mobile phone. the resonant frequency as well as the antenna quality factor ( ).
The antenna support is made of ABS (acrylonitrite butadrene For the model taking into account the PCB (the Multiband
styrene, ). model in Fig. 2), the PIFA RLC values of the first ( , ,
The PCB is tuned utilizing slots [10], [12], [25]. In compar- ) and the second ( , , ) resonator maintain the
ison with the reference antenna design of [10], the antenna pre- same resonant frequency and but in this case and
sented here has two new slots in its PCB, namely slots #2 and are larger than and since the parasitic resonators force
#3. The original slot (slot #1) has two main objectives: to tune the input impedance to decrease [26]. At low frequencies the
the PCB in order to force it to resonate at GSM850900 fre- effect of the PCB is taken into account using a resonator with a
quencies, improving the bandwidth of the whole structure at lower than the one of the PIFA but having the same resonant
those frequencies, and to provide an additional resonator frequency. At high frequencies the effect of the slot is taken
at the DCS1800-1900 band, enhancing the antenna bandwidth into account: this new resonator has almost the same resonant
at high frequencies. The main improvement of the proposed de- frequency as that of the PIFA ( , , ) and the same
sign over the design presented in [10] is the addition of slot #2. since both antennas are practically linear resonators, and
2528 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 57, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2009

Fig. 3. (a) Computed current distribution on the PCB at 925 MHz and normal-
ized E field distribution on the top of the PCB at (b) 925 MHz, (c) 1825 MHz,
(d) 1990 MHz, and (e) 2170 MHz.

Similar conclusions can be obtained with the model pro-


posed in [5].
The size of the loop in the Smith Chart depends on the value
of the coupling capacitors ( and ). These values
Fig. 2. Circuit models, and associated reflection coefficient, for the handset an-
tenna proposed in this paper (solid line, Multiband) and for the PIFA without model the coupling between the PIFA and the ground plane
considering the effect of the PCB and slots (dashed line, Reference). For the and slot, which can be controlled by the distance between
Smith chart data: the PIFA without taking into account the PCB and slot, has a the PIFA and the ground plane edge, and by the distance
parallel RLC response. When the PCB and the slot are taken into account, two
impedance loops appears increasing the bandwidth (the loop at 900 MHz and between the PIFA and the slot. If the coupling increases, the
1900 MHz approximately are due to the PCB and slot resonators, respectively. input impedance loop increases and vice versa. Depending
on the SWR specification, the loop size can be adjusted by
adjusting the coupling.
therefore they may be approximated as behaving similarly in
terms of . IV. SIMULATION RESULTS
The proposed values for the resonator components are: Based on the conclusions extracted from the electrical model,
, , ( ; a PIFA handset antenna on a slotted ground plane has been de-
), , , signed. The introduction of a slot on the PCB structure causes
( ; ) for the PIFA when no coupling to the an alteration of the surface current distribution. Slot #1 is de-
PCB and the slot is considered. Taking into account the PCB and signed and placed to force a longer electrical path at low fre-
the coupling slot, the values are: , , quencies; thus, the resonant frequency of the fundamental mode
( ; ), , of the PCB can be decreased. This positively affects the final fre-
, , ( ; quency behavior because it results in a bandwidth enhancement
), , , [12][15] due to the resonance of the PCB itself at the GSM900
( ; ), , , band. The slot length is tuned to make the PCB resonate at a fre-
, ( ; ). quency similar to that of the PIFA. This fact can be observed in
These values are illustrative since the objective of the electrical the input impedance behavior on the Smith chart: a loop appears
model is to analyze the trends when a PCB and the slots have which improves the bandwidth in comparison with the original
similar frequencies than the PIFA antenna. PIFA without slot #1. The coupling loops are similar to those
From the proposed electrical model several conclusions can obtained in [26][30].
be obtained. Besides, the geometries of slot #1 and #2 are designed to be
If the resonant frequency of the resonant circuit which resonators at high frequencies, coupling their radiation to the
models the PIFA and that of the coupled resonator which PIFA: one slot radiates around 1.9 GHz and the other around 2.3
models the PCB are the same, an input impedance loop GHz. Thus, the antenna takes advantage of the slots as radiators
appears in the Smith chart (Fig. 2). The same effect is ob- that couple with the PIFA in order to enhance the bandwidth.
served for the slot resonator. If the resonant frequencies are IE3D software, based on the Method of Moments (MoM),
different, the loop moves to the inductive ( ) has been used to simulate those physical behaviors difficult to
or capacitive zone ( ) of the Smith chart [26]. observe in practice, for instance, the current distribution, which
CABEDO et al.: MULTIBAND HANDSET ANTENNA COMBINING A PIFA, SLOTS, AND GROUND PLANE MODES 2529

Fig. 4. Simulated reflection coefficient of the proposed multiband antenna in


comparison with those presented in [10] (Quad-band and Dual-band PIFA).

gives a physical insight into the radiation process. To emulate a


real environment, the PCB is simulated over a thin layer of FR-4
which is the substrate commonly used in most of the commer-
cial mobile phones. Two plastic layers are also considered to
simulate the antenna carrier and the back cover of the handset.
The current distribution on the slotted PCB, computed at 925 Fig. 5. Manufactured antenna prototypes: (a) Dual-band PIFA and rear view of
MHz, is shown in Fig. 3(a). For the low frequencies it can be the (b) Quad-band PIFA and (c) the Multiband PIFA. In a) the carrier to attach
the metal and the plastic cover are also shown.
seen that slot #1 forces the current to bend emulating a larger
electrical path. However, a different behavior can be observed
at high frequencies: the slot continues to force a longer path,
but its main effect is as a radiator, as shown in Fig. 3(b)-(e),
where the E-field on the slot aperture is depicted. It can be seen
how at high frequencies (DCS1800 to UMTS bands) the main
slot #1 radiates much more efficiently than at low frequencies
(GSM850-900 bands), at which it is in cut off.
Fig. 4 shows the simulated reflection coefficient of the de-
signed antenna after performing a tuning optimization, in com-
parison with the response of the antennas studied in [10], that
is, the PIFA without slots and a PIFA having only one slot (slot
#1). As can be seen, the proposed antenna is theoretically ca-
pable to operate at least at the GSM850, GSM900, DCS1800,
PCS1900, UMTS2000, and Bluetooth bands. Section V shows
the measured results for the proposed design. Fig. 6. Measured reflection coefficient for the three studied prototypes. It
can be seen how the proposed multiband design can operate at least over the
V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS GSM850, GSM900, DCS, PCS, UMTS and Bluetooth bands.

Prototypes of three PIFA antennas, namely, a dual-band PIFA


without slots, a quad-band PIFA with one slot, and the pro- Table I summarizes the measured total efficiency ( ) in com-
posed PIFA with multiple slots on the ground plane have been parison with the simulated one. Total efficiency has been mea-
constructed and studied (Fig. 5). The simulation software IE3D sured using pattern integration employing the Satimo-Stargate
was used for optimizing the design parameters. In the following 32 anechoic chamber at Fractus-Lab. The frequencies are repre-
results, the antenna geometry described in Section II is used. sentative of the bands covered by the multiband PIFA. The mea-
Minor changes have been made for fine tuning purposes. sured total efficiency takes into account the reflection losses, that
Fig. 6 shows the measured reflection coefficient for the three is to say, , where is the radiation effi-
built prototypes shown in Fig. 5. It can be clearly seen that ciency. As can be seen, the results are good enough to make the
the multiband design achieves enough bandwidth over different antenna interesting for the upcoming generation of multiband
bands thanks to the resonance of slot #2 at the frequency range mobile phones.
2.12.5 GHz. That is, the original PIFA without slots is matched Table II compares of the proposed design with that of
at the GSM900 and PCS1900 bands, the second design using the design without slots, that is, for an antenna that operates at
one slot (slot #1) improves the matching to the GSM850900, 890960 MHz and 18401970 MHz (its reflection coefficient is
DCS1800 and PCS1900 bands [12], and the final design pro- shown in Fig. 6). It is clearly observed that the new design can
posed here enhances the former quad-band behavior including expand the number of bands while preserving the same antenna
the bands from UMTS to Bluetooth, approximately. volume.
2530 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 57, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2009

TABLE I
SIMULATED-MEASURED TOTAL EFFICIENCY RESULTS

TABLE II
DUAL-BAND (NO-SLOTS) AND MULTI-BAND MEASURED TOTAL EFFICIENCY
RESULTS

In Fig. 7, it can be seen how, at 920 MHz, the antenna presents


an omni-directional radiation pattern and a gain of 0 dBi at the
plane. A null at the vertical axis appears at the
plane which can be explained by the fact that the behavior of
the antenna is similar to that of a dipole. In other words, at
this frequency, the radiation comes from the PCB rather than the
PIFA-slot radiators [5]. At high frequencies the radiation pattern
presents more differences between maxima and minima.

VI. COMPONENT INTERACTION Fig. 7. Measured radiation patterns of the proposed antenna design.

A handset antenna shares space with other components such


as speakers, displays, battery, vibrator, camera, etc. Therefore,
component interaction is an issue to take into account [31][33].
This section deals with the effect of a critical component, the
speaker.
This element is sometimes placed on the same side of the PCB
where the antenna is located; in other situations, it is placed on
the other side. For PIFA designs, the first case is critical if the
speaker is close to the antenna as it may cause poor bandwidth
and low radiation efficiency. When it is placed on the other side,
the ground plane acts as a shielding, reducing the interaction Fig. 8. Speaker placed at the other side of the PIFA volume.
between the speaker and the PIFA.
For the present study, 3 cases have been considered, as shown
in Fig. 8. For each case, the total efficiency has been measured, a) At low frequencies ( ), there is almost no
and the results have been compared with the no-component change. This confirms the previous analysis: slot #1 is
case. The speaker has a metallic part that faces the PCB. How- weakly excited at the GSM band; the slot is only forcing
ever, for the present experiment there has been no connection the current to flow along a longer path.
between the speaker and the PCB; what matters is the presence b) At high frequencies ( ) the speaker can de-
of the speaker over slot #1. grade the total efficiency as well as radiation efficiency.
Tables III and IV summarize the data obtained at selected Since slot #1 works as an antenna at these frequencies,
frequencies ( is the difference between efficiencies for the significant changes (about 3 dB for the total efficiency)
no-speaker and speaker cases), revealing interesting results. are observed when the conductor of the speaker is over
CABEDO et al.: MULTIBAND HANDSET ANTENNA COMBINING A PIFA, SLOTS, AND GROUND PLANE MODES 2531

TABLE III
MEASURED TOTAL EFFICIENCY FOR NO-SPEAKER, AND SPEAKER AT LEFT,
CENTER, AND RIGHT POSITIONS

TABLE IV
MEASURED RADIATION EFFICIENCY FOR NO-SPEAKER, AND SPEAKER AT LEFT,
CENTER, AND RIGHT POSITIONS

the open edge of the slot, where the electric field is max-
imal. Half of the losses come from detuning and the other
half from reduction of the radiation efficiency, approxi-
mately.
c) At high frequencies, when the speaker is on the right, there
are no changes, as expected. Therefore, it can share the
antenna area when placed in this position.
As seen, to cover the slot area is critical. The advantage
of the present solution compared with other ones that use
wide slots as antennas [19] is that it facilitates component
integration without degradation of the antenna behavior.
Obviously, there is a tradeoff between antenna volume and
component integration capabilities.

VII. SAR MEASUREMENTS


The specific absorption rate (SAR) in passive mode has been
tested using Dasy-4 at Fractus-Lab. At the GSM850-900 band Fig. 9. Measured SAR with Dasy-4 when the handset antenna is attached above
the phantom ear (left column) and for a 180 rotation (right column). The inner
the maximum transmitted power is 33 dBm; however, a user rectangular box is the PCB footprint. The external rectangle is the tested SAR
channel uses only 1/8 of a time slot. This results in a power of area. The bottom right part does not appear since it can not be measured because
24 dBm, which is the power of the continuous wave used to test the angle of inclination for the SAR probe is out of the limits.
SAR. A similar computation is performed at high frequencies;
in this case, the maximum transmitted power is 30 dBm. Thus,
SAR is tested using 21 dBm. The SAR passive test is only a pre- area is attached to the phantom ear (top position), and the other
liminary measurement since SAR is finally tested with an active one, in which the handset is rotated 180 (bottom position, see
device which may result in a different SAR value due to extra Fig. 9). SAR distribution as well as maximum SAR values both
device elements and/or other issues. However, it is interesting for 1 g. and 10 g. tissue volumes are shown in Fig. 9.
to test SAR in a passive way to analyze if the antenna may pose It is interesting to remark that at low frequencies (830900
a SAR problem. MHz) and for the top case, two hot-spots are observed: one is
The ground plane has a foam spacer of 3 mm thickness whose due to the slot and the other to the ground plane mode. For the
surface is attached to the right phantom cheek; this represents bottom case the hot-spot due to the slot disappears since, for this
the typical separation between the PCB and the cheek. SAR is situation, it is away from the check surface. Although for the top
tested using two orientations: the first one, in which the antenna case the slot creates a hot-spot, the hot-spot of the ground plane
2532 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 57, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2009

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SAR at low frequencies is dominated by the ground plane the coupled chassis-antenna modes in mobile handsets, presented at
mode: the slot is mainly acting as a current path enlarger to ex- the IEEE Antennas Propag. Society Int. Symp., Monterey, Jun. 2004.
[23] M. Cabedo, E. Antonino, A. Valero, and M. Ferrando, The theory of
cite the ground plane mode in an effective way as the electrical characteristic modes revisited: A contribution to the design of antennas
length is larger than without slots. At high frequencies, however, for modern applications, IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., vol. 49, no. 5,
the slots have a big influence on the hot-spot location. An effec- pp. 5268, Oct. 2007.
[24] E. Antonino, C. A. Surez, M. Cabedo, and M. Ferrando, Wideband
tive way of reducing SAR is to locate the antenna at the bottom antenna for mobile terminals based on the handset PCB Resonance,
edge of the PCB. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 48, no. 7, Jul. 2006.
[25] J. Anguera, A. Cabedo, C. Picher, I. Sanz, M. Rib, and C. Puente,
Multiband handset antennas by means of groundplane modification,
REFERENCES presented at the IEEE Antennas Propag. Society Int. Symp., Honolulu,
[1] T. Y. Wu and K. L. Wong, On the impedance bandwidth of a planar HI, Jun. 2007.
inverted-F antenna for mobile handsets, Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett., vol. [26] J. Anguera, C. Puente, and C. Borja, A procedure to design stacked
32, pp. 249251, Feb. 2002. microstrip patch antenna based on a simple network model, Microw.
[2] M. C. Huynh and W. Stutzman, Ground plane effects on planar in- Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 149151, Aug. 2001.
verted-F antenna (PIFA) performance, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Microw. [27] J. Anguera, E. Martnez, C. Puente, C. Borja, and J. Soler, Broad-
Antennas Propag., vol. 150, no. 4, Aug. 2003. band dual-frequency microstrip patch antenna with modified Sierpinski
[3] K. L. Wong, Planar Antennas for Wireless Communications. New fractal geometry, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 52, pp. 6673,
York: Wiley Inter-Science, 2003. Jan. 2004.
[4] K. L. Wong, J. S. Kuo, and T. W. Chiou, Compact microstrip antennas [28] J. Anguera, L. Boada, C. Puente, C. Borja, and J. Soler, Stacked
with slots loaded in the ground plane, presented at the 11th Int. Conf. H-shaped microstrip patch antenna, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.,
on Antennas Propag., Apr. 2001, No. 480. vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 983993, Apr. 2004.
CABEDO et al.: MULTIBAND HANDSET ANTENNA COMBINING A PIFA, SLOTS, AND GROUND PLANE MODES 2533

[29] J. Anguera, E. Martnez, C. Puente, C. Borja, and J. Soler, Broad-band Finalist of the Best Doctoral Thesis (Fractal and Broadband Techniques on
triple-frequency microstrip patch radiator combining a dual-band mod- Miniature, Multifrequency, and High-Directivity Microstrip Patch Antennas)
ified Sierpinski fractal and a monoband antenna, IEEE Trans. An- on UMTS. (The prize has been promoted by Technology plan of UMTS
tennas Propag., vol. 54, pp. 33673373, Nov. 2006. promotion given by Telefnica Mviles Espaa). He received the New faces
[30] J. Anguera, C. Puente, C. Borja, and J. Soler, Dual frequency broad- of Engineering 2004 (promoted by the IEEE and IEEE Foundation). In the
band stacked microstrip antenna using a reactive loading and a fractal- same year, he received the Best Doctoral Thesis in Network and Broadband
shaped radiating edge, IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., vol. 6, Services (XXIV Prize Edition Ingenieros de Telecomunicacin) organized
pp. 309312, 2007. by Colegio Oficial de Ingenieros de Telecomunicacin (COIT) and the Com-
[31] C. M. Su, K. L. Wong, C. L. Tang, and S. H. Yeh, EMC internal patch pany ONO. He is a reviewer for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS AND ANTENNAS
antenna for UMTS operation in a mobile device, IEEE Trans. An- AND PROPAGATION, IET Electronics Letters, and ETRI Journal (Electronics
tennas Propag., vol. 53, pp. 38363839, Nov. 2005. and Telecommunications Research Institute, South Korea). His biography is
[32] K. L. Wong and C. H. Chang, Surface-mountable EMC monopole chip listed in Whos Who in the World, Whos Who in Science and Engineering,
antenna for WLAN operation, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 54, Whos Who in Emerging Leaders and in the International Biographical Center,
pp. 11001104, Apr. 2006. Cambridge-England (IBC).
[33] J. Anguera, I. Sanz, J. Mumbr, and C. Puente, Multiband handset
antenna behaviour by combining PIFA and a slot radiators, presented
at the IEEE Antennas Propag. Society Int. Symp., Honolulu, HI, Jun.
2007.
Cristina Picher was born in Sabadell, Barcelona,
Arnau Cabedo was born in Barcelona, Spain. Spain. She received the Technical Engineer Degree
He received the B.S. (Hons) and the M.S. (Hons) in telecommunication systems from Ramon Llull
degrees in telecommunication engineering from University (URL), Barcelona, where she is currently
the Ramon Llull University (La Salle Universtity), working toward the M.Eng. degree.
Barcelona, Spain, in 2004 and 2006, respectively. In 2005, she began her investigation in miniature
From 2003 to 2006, he was with the Communi- and multiband antennas when she started her final de-
cations and Signal Theory Department, Ramon Llull gree project in the Electronic and Telecommunication
University (La Salle Universtity). His research inter- Department, URL, in collaboration with the Depart-
ests there were miniature, wideband and multiband ment of Technology and IPR in Fractus, Barcelona.
printed antennas. He also collaborated with the R&D She is the author/coauthor of four papers in scientific
Department, Fractus, Barcelona, Spain, studying new journals, international, and national conferences.
techniques to miniaturize and enhance the bandwidth of PIFA antennas. Ms. Picher was awarded 3rd Place in 2008 by the Ministry of Science and
Mr. Cabedo received the 2008 Best Degree Project award given by the Innovation Spain: VII Edition Arqumedes Introduction to Scientific Research
Colegio Oficial de Ingenieros de Telecomunicacin (COIT) for his degree program for her research in miniature and multiband techniques combining
project Multiband Antennas for 2G, 3G, WiFi, WLAN and Bluetooth Appli- handset antenna and groundplane design.
cations on New Generation Handsets.

Miquel Rib (S95M00) was born in La Seu


Jaume Anguera (S99M03SM09) was born in dUrgell, Catalonia, Spain, in 1970. He received
Vinars, Spain, in 1972. He received the Technical the Telecommunication Engineering degree from
Ingeniero degree in electronic systems and the the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC),
Ingeniero degree in electronic engineering, both Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, in 1994 and the Ph.D.
from the Ramon Llull University (URL), Barcelona, degree in electronic engineering from Enginyeria
Spain, in 1994 and 1997, respectively, and the i Arquitectura La Salle, Ramon Llull University
Ingeniero and Ph.D. degrees in telecommunication (URL), Barcelona, in 2001.
engineering, both from the Polytechnic University In 1997, he joined the Communications and Elec-
of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona, Spain, in 1998 and tromagnetics Research Group (GRECO), Enginyeria
2003, respectively. i Arquitectura La Salle (URL), where he currently
From 1998 to 2000, he was with the Electromag- teaches microwaves and electromagnetic theory, and works as a Project Man-
netic and Photonic Engineering Group (EEF), Signal Theory and Communica- ager. His research interests include the multimodal analysis of coplanar and
tions Department, UPC, as a Researcher in microstrip fractal-shaped antennas. microstrip transitions, and of EMC problems such as interference generation,
In 1999, he was a Senior Researcher at Sistemas Radiantes, Madrid, Spain, propagation and mitigation.
where he was involved in the design of a dual-frequency dual-polarized fractal- Dr. Rib is currently Vice Chairman of the Spanish EMC IEEE Society
shaped microstrip patch array for mobile communications. In the same year, he Chapter, and was Vice Chairman of the EMC Europe 2006 International
became an Assistant Professor at the Department of Signal Theory and Com- Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Barcelona.
munications, Universitat Ramon Llull-Barcelona, where he is currently teaching
antenna theory. Since 2000, he has been with Fractus, Barcelona, Spain, where
he holds the position of R&D Manager. At Fractus he leads projects on antennas
for base station systems, antennas for automotion, handset and wireless an- Carles Puente (S91M93) received the M.Sc.
tennas. His research interest are multiband and small antennas, microstrip patch degree from the University of Illinois at Ur-
arrays, feeding network architectures, broadband matching networks, array pat- banaChampaign, in 1994 and the Ph.D. degree
tern synthesis with genetic algorithms, diversity antenna systems, electromag- from the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC),
netic dosimetry, and handset antennas. He is Leading Engineer for the Innova- Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, in 1997.
tion Antenna Group. From September 2003 to May 2004, he was with Fractus- He started researching fractal-shaped antennas
Korea (Republic South of Korea) where he was managing projects for minia- while a student at the Universidad Politcnica de
ture and multiband antennas for handset and wireless applications. Since 2005, Catalunya (UPC) in the late 1980s. From 1994 to
he has been leading research projects in the antenna field for handset and wire- 1999, he worked with the faculty of Electromagnetic
less applications in a frame of industry-university collaboration: Fractus com- and Photonic Engineering at UPC on pioneering de-
pany and the Department of Communications and Signal Theory of Universitat velopments of fractal technology applied to antennas
Ramon Llull-Barcelona, Spain. He holds more than 26 patents on fractal an other and microwave devices. He is a cofounder of Fractus, Barcelona, Spain,
related antennas. He is author/coauthor of more than 110 journal, international, where he leads the Technology Development Team, with responsibility for IP
and national conference papers and he has directed more than 50 bachelor and portfolio development and antenna development. He has authored more than
master theses. 30 invention patents and 50 scientific publications related to fractal antenna
Dr. Anguera was a member of the Fractal team that in received the 1998 technology.
European Information Technology Grand Prize from the European Council Dr. Puente was awarded with the Best Doctoral Thesis in Mobile Communi-
for the Applied Science an Engineering and the European Commission for cations 1997, and in 1998 he and his team received the European Information
the fractal-shaped antenna application to cellular telephony. He was the 2003 Society Technology Grand Prize from the European Commission for their work.