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MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 1

CHAPTER 1/BAB 1 :

THE STRUCTURE OF
ATOM/
STRUKTUR ATOM
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 2
SECTION A

A drop of red food A drop of red food


colouring colouring
Setitis pewarna Setitis pewarna
merah makanan merah makanan

Water at room temperature water at 80 o C


Air pada suhu bilik Air pada suhu 80 o C
3 minutes X minutes
3 minit X minit

Experiment A Experiment B

Diagram 1.1
1. A group of students plan to investigate the movement of particles in a solution. Diagram
1.1 shows two beakers containing water at 80 oC and water at room temperature.

Sekumpulan murid merancang untuk mengkaji pergerakan zarah-zarah dalam larutan.


Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan dua bikar yang mengandungi air pada suhu 80 oC dan air pada
suhu bilik.

(i) State the name of the process involved in this experiment


Nyatakan nama proses yang terlibat dalam eksperiment ini.

......................................................................................................................................
[1 Mark]

(ii) State the type of particles present in the red food colouring.
Nyatakan jenis zarah yang terdapat dalam pewarna merah makanan.

.......................................................................................................................................
[1 Mark]

(ii) Predict the time taken in experiment B.


Ramalkan masa yang diambil dalam eksperiment B

.......................................................................................................................................
[1 Mark]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 3
(iii) Explain the observation based on the kinetic theory of matter.
Terangkan pemerhatian berdasarkan teori kinetik jirim.

.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................
[3 Marks]

(b) Methanol, one type of alcohol is an organic compound with melting point of 97 oC
and boiling point of 65 oC .
Metanol iaitu sejenis alkohol ialah satu sebatian organik dengan takat lebur 97 oC
dan takat didih 65 oC.

(i) What is the physical state of methanol at room temperature?


Apakah keadaan fizik bagi metanol pada suhu bilik?

.....................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(ii) Draw the arrangement of particles of methanol at 100 oC.


Lukiskan susunan zarah metanol pada 100 oC.

[1 mark]

(iii) State how the movement of methanol particles changes when heated from
room temperature to 100 oC.
Nyatakan bagaimana pergerakan zarah-zarah metanol berubah apabila
dipanaskan dari suhu bilik ke 100 oC.

............................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 4
(iv) Sketch the graph of temperature against time when methanol is heated from
room temperature to 100 oC.
Lakarkan graf suhu melawan masa apabila metanol dipanaskan daripada
suhu bilik ke 100 oC.

Suhu/ oC
Temperature/ oC

Masa/ min
Time/ min

[1 mark]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 5
ESSAY QUESTION

Scientist A discovered the existence of neutron


Saintis A menjumpai kewujudan neutron

Nucleus of an atom contains neutral particles called neutron.


Nukleus mengandungi zarah-zarah neutral dipanggil neutron

An atom of element Y contain 6 p, 6 n


Atom Y mengandungi 6 p dan 6 n

The mass of a neutron and proton is almost the same.


Jisim neutron dan proton adalah hampir sama

Diagram 1.2

1. (a) Name scientist A according to the information in the Diagram 1.2.


Draw the model of the atom based on the information in Diagram 1.2
Write the symbol for the element in the form of ZAY ,where Y is the symbol of the
element ,
Namakan saintis A berdasarkan maklumat dalam rajah 1.2.
Lukis model atom berdasarkan maklumat dalam rajah 1.2 .Tuliskan symbol bagi
unsur itu di dalam bentuk ZAY , di mana symbol bagi unsur itu ialah Y.
[6 marks]

(b) Describe the atomic structure of atom of element Y


Huraikan struktur atom bagi unsur Y.

[4 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 6
(c) Graph in Diagram 1.3 shows the heating curve for material Z.
Graf dalam rajah 1.3 menunjukkan lengkung pemanasan bagi bahan Z.
Temperature/OC
Suhu/OC

Freezing point
Takat beku

Time/minute
Masa/minit

Diagram 1.3

Interpret the graph in Diagram 1.3 in the aspects of state of matter, particle
arrangement and the strength of attractive force between particles in substance Z.
Tafsirkan graf dalam rajah 1.3 dari aspek keadaan jirim, susunan zarah dan daya
tarikan antara zarah-zarah dalam bahan Z.
[10 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 7

CHAPTER 2:/ BAB 2

FORMULAE AND
CHEMICAL EQUATION/
FORMULA DAN
PERSAMAAN KIMIA
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 8
SECTION A

1. Kamal was asked to identify compound Y. He was given the following information:
Kamal diminta untuk mengenalpasti sebatian Y. Beliau telah diberi maklumat berikut:

Composition of elements in substance X (%)


Komposisi unsure dalam bahan X (%)
Carbon, C Hydrogen, H Oxygen,O
Karbon, C Hidrogen, H Hidrogen, H
48.65 8.11 43.24

Table 3.1

The physical properties of compound Y investigated by Kamal were as follows:


Sifat- sifat fizik bagi sebatian Y yang telah dikaji oleh Kamal adalah seperti berikut:

The condition of a substance at room temperature : Liquid


Keadaan bahan pada suhu bilik : Cecair
Colour : Colourless
Warna :Tiada warna
Solubility in water: Soluble
Keterlarutan dalam air :Larut

Based on the information given.


Berdasarkan maklumat yang diberikan.

(a) Calculate the simplest ratio of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
[Relative atomic mass: H = 1; C = 12; O = 16]
Kira nisbah teringkas unsur-unsur karbon, hydrogen dan oksigen.
[Jisim atom relative:H = 1; C = 12; O = 16]

[3 marks]
(b) Name of the compound Y.
Namakan sebatian Y.

...
[1 mark]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 9
(c) 23 g of compound Y reacts with sodium hydroxide to form salt and water.
23 g sebatianY bertindak balas dengan natrium hidroksida menghasilkan garam dan
air.
(i) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction.
Tulis persamaan kimia yang seimbang bagi tindak balas itu.


[2 marks]

(ii) Calculate the mass of salt produced in the reaction.


[Relative atomic mass: H = 1; C = 12; O = 16; Na = 23]
Hitung jisim garam yang dihasilkan untuk tindak balas itu.
[Jisim atom relative: H = 1; C = 12; O = 16; Na = 23]

[3 marks]

(d) Predict what will happen if Kamal pours 25 cm3 of compound Y into latex.
Ramalkan apakah yang akan berlaku jika Kamal menuangkan 25 cm3sebatian Y
ke dalam lateks.

..
[1 mark]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 10
ESSAY QUESTION

2. (a) Diagram 3.1 shows the photosynthesis process and the equation for the formation of
glucose in green plants.

Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan proses fotosintesis dan persamaan kimia untuk penghasilan
glukosa dalam tumbuhan hijau.

Diagram 3.1

Based on the information in diagram 3.1.


Berdasarkan maklumat yang diberikan dalam rajah 3.1.

(i) Balance the chemical equation and calculate the volume of oxygen gas
produced at STP if 18 g of water is absorbed by the plant.

Seimbangkan persamaan kimia dan hitungkan isipadu gas oksigen pada STP
yang dihasilkan jika 18 g air diserap oleh tumbuhan.
[Relative atomic mass / Jisim atom relatif : H = 1, O = 16 ]
[Molar volume of gas at STP / Isipadu molar gas padaSTP = 22.4 dm3]
[4 marks]

(ii) State three information that you can obtain from the above equation.
Nyatakan tiga malumat yang anda dapat tafsirkan daripada persamaan di atas.
[4 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 11
(b) (i) Write the empirical formula of glucose. Compare and contrast between empirical
formula and molecular formula.of glucose in terms of type of particle, number of
atoms for each element and its relative molecular mass.
[Relative atomic mass : C = 12 ; H = 1; O = 16]

Tuliskan formula empirik bagi glukosa. Bandingbezakan formula empirik dan


formula molekul glukosa dari segi jenis zarah, bilangan atom setiap unsur dan
jisim molekul relative masing-masing.
[Jisim atom relatif : C = 12 ; H = 1; O =16]
[6 marks]

(c) Diagram 3.2 shows two girls holding two similar balloons filled with 120 cm3 carbon
dioxide gas and 120cm3 hydrogen gas at room temperature and pressure.

Rajah 3.2 menunjukkan dua budak perempuan memegang dua belon yang diisi
dengan 120 cm3 gas karbon dioksida dan 120 cm3 gas hydrogen pada suhu dan
tekanan bilik.

CO2

CO2
H2

Diagram 3.2

Explain why the balloons are filled with hydrogen will fly higher when released
although both balloons are filled with the same volume of gas.
[Relative molecular mass: H2 = 2, CO2 = 44, molar volume of gas = 24 dm3mol-1
at room temperature and pressure]

Terangkan mengapa belon yang diisi dengan hydrogen boleh terbang lebih tinggi bila
dilepaskan walaupun kedua-dua belon mempunyai isipadu yang sama.
[Jisim molekul relatif : H2 = 2, CO2 = 44, isipadu molar gas = 24 dm3mol-1 pada suhu
dan tekanan bilik]
[6 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 12
3. (a) Table 3.1 shows the data obtained from an experiment to determine the empirical
formula of an organic acid X.
Jadual 3.1 menunjukkan data yang diperolehi daripada ekperimen untuk menentukan
Formula empirik asid organik X.

Element Mass
Unsur Jisim
Carbon 40
Karbon
Hydrogen 7
Hidrogen
Oxygen 53
Oksigen

Table 3.1

Based on Table 3.1, determine the empirical formula and molecular formula for
organic acid X. If the relative molecular mass of the organic acid X is 60 gmol-1.
[Relative atomic mass: C=12; H=1; O=16]
Berdasarkan jadual 3.1, tentukan formula empirik dan formula molekul bagi asid
organik X. Jika jisim molekul relatif asid organik X ialah 60 gmol-1.
[Jisim atom relatif: C=12; H=1; O=16]
[5 marks]

(b) Using suitable examples, explain the difference between empirical formula and
molecular formula.
Dengan menggunakan contoh yang sesuai, terangkan perbezaan di antara formula
empirik dan formula molekul.
[5 marks]

(c) Siti was asked to determine the empirical formula for oxide of metal Z. She is
supplied with powdered metal Z and the oxide of metal Z. When the metal oxide is
heated under a stream of hydrogen, no change is observed.

Describe how Siti can derive the empirical formula of the metal oxide.
Your answer should include the following aspects:
(i) Procedure of the experiment
(ii) Tabulation of data

Siti diminta untuk menentukan formula empiric bagi oksida logam Z. Dia dibekalkan
dengan serbuk logam Z dan oksida logam Z. Apabila oksida logam dipanaskan
dibawah aliran gas hidrogen,tiada perubahan diperhatikan.
Huraikan bagaimana Siti menentukan formula empiric bagi oksida logam.
Jawapan anda perlu mengandungi perkara-perkara berikut:
(i) Prosedur eksperimen
(ii) Penjadualan data
[10 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 13

CHAPTER 3:/ BAB 3

PERIODIC TABLE OF
ELEMENTS/
JADUAL BERKALA
UNSUR
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 14
SECTION A

1. Farah has balloons filled with three different gases. The symbols for the gases are
written on each balloon. She lets go of the balloons. Diagram 3.1 shows what
happens.
Farah mempunyai belon berisi tiga jenis gas berlainan. Simbol untuk gas ditulis
pada setiap belon.Farah melepaskan belon. Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan apa yang
berlaku.

Diagram/ Rajah 3

Diagram 3.1

(a) In which group of the Periodic Table do the gases balloons?


Dalam kumpulan manakah dalam Jadual Berkala gas-gas ini ditempatkan?

..
[1 mark]
(b) (i) Predict what would happen to a balloon filled with krypton.
Ramalkan apa yang berlaku kepada belon berisi krypton.

...
[1 mark]
(ii) Explain the reasons for your answer in (b)(i).
Terangkan jawapan anda dalam (b)(i).

..

..
[2 marks]
(c) (i) Draw the electron structure of neon.
Lukis struktur elektron untuk neon.

[1 mark]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 15
(ii) Explain how the electron structure is related to the chemical properties of
neon.
Terangkan bagaiman struktur elektron berkaitan dengan sifat kimia neon.

..

..
[2 marks]

(d)(i) Helium is often used to fill balloons. Give two reasons why this is a good
choice.
Helium kerap diguna untuk mengisi belon. Beri dua sebab mengapa helium
pilihan yang baik untuk mengisi belon.

..

..
[2 marks]

(ii) Neon, argon and krypton are used to fill light bulbs. Give a reason for this.
Neon, argon dan kripton diguna untuk mengisi mentol lampu. Terangkan
mengapa.

..

..
[1 mark]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 16

ESSAY QUESTIONS

2. (a) Aminah was asked to identify oxide of X, oxide of Y and oxide of Z of elements
in Period 3. She was given the following information.

Aminah diminta untuk mengenalpasti X oksida , Y oksida dan Z oksida unsur Kala 3.
Beliau telah diberi maklumat berikut:

Oxide Added to sodium hydroxide Add to hydrochloric acid


Oksida Di tambah kepada natrium Ditambah kepada asid
hidroksida hidroklorik asid
Oxide of X Reaction occur Reaction occur
Oxida bagi X Tindak balas berlaku Tindak balas berlaku
Oxide of Y No reaction Reaction occur
Oksida bagi Y Tiada tindak balas Tindak balas berlaku
Oxide of Z Reaction occur No reaction
Oxida bagi Z Tindak balas berlaku Tiada tindak balas

Table 3.2

Based on the information given, state the oxide of X, oxide of Y and oxide of Z.
Arrange X, Y and Z in decending order of their atomic size. Then write the chemical
equation for the reaction between oxide of Y and hydrochloric acid.

Berdasarkan Jadual 7,nyatakan oksida bagi X, oksida Y dan oksida bagi Z. Susun X,
Y and Z dalam tertib menurun saiz atom. Kemudian tulis persamaan kimia bagi
tindak balas antara oksida bagi Y dan asid hidroklorik.
[6 marks]

(b) Diagram 3.2 shows the properties of element P.


Diagram 3.2 menunjukkan sifat-sifat bagi unsur P.

Cannot conduct heat and electricity


Tidak boleh mengkonduksikan haba dan elektrik

The colour is greenish yellow


Bewarna kuning kehijauan

Bleach
Bersifat peluntur

Soluble in water
Larut dalam air

Exists as gas at room temperature


Wujud sebagai gas pada suhu bilik

Diagram 3.2
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 17
Based on the information given in diagram 3.2, write the chemical equation of
reaction of element P with hot iron to produce chloride of P. Calculate the mass of
the product formed when 0.1 mol of element P reacted completely.
[Molar mass of chloride of P = 162.5 gmol-1]
Berdasarkan maklumat dalam rajah 3.2, tulis persamaan kimia dan hitung jisim bagi
klorida bagi P yang terbentuk apabila 0.1 mol element P bertindakbalas dengan
lengkap.
[Jisim molar bagi klorida bagi p = 162.5 gmol-1]
[4 marks]

(c) The chemical properties of element Q investigated by Ali were as follows:


Sifat sifat kimia bagi unsur Q yang telah dikaji oleh Ali adalah seperti berikut:

Reacts with water


Bertindak balas dengan air

Reacts with Oxygen


Bertindak balas dengan oksigen

Reacts with Chlorine


Bertindak balas dengan klorin

By using one chemical property above, describe an experiment to verify the above
statement. In your answer include:
Dengan menggunakan satu sifat kimia di atas, huraikan satu experimen untuk
menentusahkan pernyataan di atas. Jawapan anda mestila mengandungi:

Procedure
Prosedur

Observation and chemical test to verify the product formed


Pemerhatian

Chemical Equation
Persamaan kimia

[10 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 18
2. (a) Amir was asked to identify element X and element Y. Element X is a greenish yellow
gas at room temperature. He was given the following information in diagram 2.1
Amir diminta untuk mengenal pasti unsur Xdan unsur Y. Warna unsurX ialah hijau
kekuningan Amir telah diberi maklumat seperti dalam rajah 2.1

Element X Element Y

Element X Element Y

Diagram 2.1

(i) Write the electron arrangement of element X and Y, then determine the position of
both elements in the Periodic Table of Elements.
Tuliskan susunan electron bagi unsur X dan Y, kemudian tentukan kedudukan unsur
X dan Y di dalam Jadual Berkala Unsur.
[6 marks]

(ii) Explain why element X exists as a diatomic gas at room temperature, but element Y
exist as monoatoms.
Huraikan mengapakah unsur X wujud dalam bentuk dwiatom dalam suhu bilik, tetapi
unsur Y wujud dalam bentuk monoatom.
[6 maks]

(b) Describe briefly the change in the following physical properties of elements in the
same group as X when going down the group.
Huraikan dengan ringkas perubahan sifat fizik unsur unsur dalam kumpulan yang
sama seperti X apabila menuruni kumpulan:

(i) Atomic radius


Jejari atom
(ii) Melting point and boiling point
Takat lebur dan takat didih
(iii) Physical state
Keadaan fizik
(iv) Colour
Warna
(v) Density
Ketumpatan

[5 marks]

(c) Explain why the reactivity of elements which are in the same group as X decreases
when going down the group.
Jelaskan mengapa kereaktifan unsur-unsur di dalam kumpulan yang sama dengan X
berkurang apabila menuruni kumpulan.

[5 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 19

CHAPTER 4:/BAB 4

CHEMICAL BONDING/
IKATAN KIMIA
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 20
SECTION A

1. Table 4.1 shows the electron arrangement of particles W, X, Y and Z.


Jadual 4.1 menunjukkan susunan elektron bagi zarah W, X, Y dan Z.
Particles
W X Y Z
Zarah

Diagram of electron
arrangement + 2-
Rajah susunan
elektron

Table 4.1

Based on the information in Table 4.1, answer the following questions:


Berdasarkan maklumat dalam Jadual 4.1, jawab soalan-soalan berikut:

(a) State the type of particle present in element W.


Nyatakan jenis zarah yang terdapat dalam unsur W.

...
[1 mark]

(b) Y is a negatively-charged ion. Explain why.


Y merupakan suatu ion bercas negatif.Terangkan mengapa.


[1 mark]
(c) Write the electron arrangement of the ion of atom Z.
Tulis susunan elektron bagi ion bagi atom Z.

..
[1 mark]

(d) (i)Write the formula of the compound formed when element X react with element Y.
Tuliskan formula sebatian yang terbentuk apabila unsur X bertindak balas
dengan unsur Y.

.............
[1 mark]

(ii) Draw the electron arrangement for the compound formed in (d)(i).
Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi sebatian yang terbentuk dalam(d)(i).

.......................................................................................................................
[2 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 21
(iii) Name the force that exists between these ions in the compound.
Namakan daya yang wujud antara kedua-dua ion dalam sebatian itu.


[1 mark]

(e) (i) Element W reacts with element Z to form a compound.


Draw the electron arrangement for the compound formed.
Unsur W bertindak balas dengan unsur Z menghasilkan satu sebatian.
Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi sebatian yang terbentuk.

[2 marks]

(ii) State one property of the compound formed in (e) (i).


Nyatakan satu sifat fizik bagi sebatian yang terbentuk di (e) (i).


[1 mark]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 22
ESSAY QUESTION

2. Table 4.2 shows the melting point and electrical conductivity of substance P, Q and R.
Jadual 4.2 menunjukkan takat lebur dan kekonduksian elektrik bahan P, Q dan R.
Electrical conductivity in the state of
0
Property Melting point/ C Kekonduksian elektrik dalam keadaan
Sifat Takatlebur/0C
Solid Molten Aqueous
Substance Pepejal Leburan Akueus
Bahan
P < -100 No / Tidak No / Tidak No / Tidak
Q 80-90 No / Tidak No / Tidak No / Tidak
R > 800 No / Tidak Yes / Ya Yes / Ya

Table 4.2
(a) Based on the information in Table 4.2
Berdasarkan maklumat dalam jadual 4.2

State the type of particle and bonding of substance P.


Nyatakan jenis zarah dan ikatan bagi bahan P.

Compare Q and R. Explain the differences in the following properties :


Bandingkan Q dan R. Terangkan perbezaan mengikut sifat-sifat berikut :
(i) Melting point
Takat lebur
(ii) Conducting of electricity
Kekonduksian elektrik
[10 marks]

(b) Diagram 4 shows the standard representation for the atoms of three element X, Y
and Z.
Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan perwakilan piawai bagi atom tiga unsur X, Y dan Z.

7 12 35

3 X 6 Y 17
17
X
Diagram 4.1
By using the given information describe the formation of two compounds with
different types of bonding
Dengan menggunakan maklumat yang diberikan, huraikan pembentukan dua
sebatian dengan jenis ikatan berbeza.
(i) Ionic compound
Sebatian ion
[5 marks]
(ii) Covalent compound
Sebatian kovalen
[5 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 23

CHAPTER 5:/BAB

ELECTROCHEMISTRY/
ELEKTROKIMIA
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 24
SECTION A

1. A battery is widely used nowadays in many fields. The most popular battery is the dry
cell, shown in Diagram 5.2. Dry cells are commonly used in torchlight, remote control
car and children toys.
Bateri digunakan secara meluas dalam pelbagai bidang. Jenis bateri yang paling popular
adalah sel kering, sebagaimana gambarajah di 5.1. Sel kering banyak digunakan dalam
lampu suluh, kereta kawalan jauh dan permainan kanak-kanak.

DRY CELL

DRY CELL

Diagram 5.2

(a) (i) State the conversion of energy when the above battery is used.
Nyatakan perubahan tenaga yang berlaku dalam bateri di atas.

......................
[1 mark]

(ii) State which part of the battery acts as negative terminal and as positive terminal?
Nyatakan bahagian yang bertindak terminal 24egative dan terminal positif dalam sel
di atas?

Negative terminal l Terminal negatif:...........................

Positive terminal / Terminal positif :.......................


[2 marks]

(b) A student want to produce a simple voltaic cell by using metal X, metal Y and
hydrochloric acid as an electrolyte. The electricity produced is used to light up a bulb.
Seorang pelajar berhasrat menghasilkan suatu sel kimia ringkas bagi menghidupkan
sebuah mentol. Pelajar ini disediakan dengan dua jenis logam, X dan Y serta asid
hidroklorik.

(i) Suggest metal X, metal Y and solution Z.


Cadangkan logam X, logam Y dan larutan Z.

Logam X / metal X :.....

Metal Y / Logam Y:......


[2 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 25

(ii) Write the half equation for the reaction that occurred at positive terminal.
Tuliskan setengah persamaan yang berlaku di terminal positif.

.
[2 marks]

(iii) Predict the product at positive terminal when hydrochloric acid is replaced with
lemon juice. Explain why.
Ramalkan hasil di terminal positif jika pelajar menggunakan jus limau sebagai
elektrolit. Terangkan kenapa.

.....

.....
[2 marks]

(iv) Suggest a method for this student to make sure the bulb light up more brightly.
Cadangkan satu cara bagaimana pelajar ini dapat menjadikan mentol dapat
menyala dengan lebih terang.


[1 mark]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 26
ESSAY QUESTION

2. Diagram 5.2 shows the type of salt that commonly used in our kitchen for cooking.
Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan sejenis garam yang biasa digunakan untuk masakan di rumah
kita.

Diagram 5.2

(a) A student carries out a study to investigate the content of salt in the diagram above.
11.7 g of this salt is dissolved in 200 cm3 of water and then the electrolysis process is
carried out by using carbon electrodes.
Seorang pelajar menjalankan satu kajian untuk mengkaji kandungan yang terdapat
dalam garam ini. 11.7 g garam ini dilarutkan dalam 200 cm3 air dan kemudian
elektrolisis dijalankan menggunakan elektrod karbon.

(i) Calculate the concentration of the salt solution produced.


Kirakan kepekatan larutan garam yang terhasil.
[Molar mass for this salt = 58.5 gmol-1 / jisim molar garam ini = 58.5 gmol-1]
[2 marks]

(ii) Write the half equation at cathode and anode. Name the product that
produced in each electrode and explain why.
Tulis persamaan setengah di katod dan anod. Namakan hasil yang diperolehi
di setiap elektrod dan jelaskan kenapa.
[8 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 27

Diagram 5.3

(b) Diagram 5.3 shows a silver bracelet. A student wants to make this silver bracelet look
like new. Suggest the process involved and describe briefly this process. Your
description should include:
Gambarajah 5.3 menunjukkan gambar seutas gelang perak. Seorang pelajar
dikehendaki menjadikan gelang perak ini nampak seperti baru semula. Cadangkan
satu proses yang sesuai dan huraian anda mestilah mengandungi perkara-perkara
berikut:

Material and apparatus


Bahan dan radas

Labelled diagram
Gambarajah berlabel

Procedures
Prosedur

Half equation
Persamaan setengah
[10 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 28

CHAPTER 6:/BAB 6

ACID AND BASES/


ASID DAN ALKALI
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 29
SECTION A

1.
A road tanker carrying an acid was involved in an accident and its contents spilled on
the road. At the side of the road, iron drain covers began melting and fizzing as the
acid ran over them. A specialist was called to see if the acid actually leaked into the
nearby river.
Sebuah lori tangki yang mengangkut suatu asid terlibat dalam kemalangan jalan raya
dan kandungan tangkinya tertumpah ke jalan raya. Di tepi jalan raya, penutup
longkang yang diperbuat besi mula melebur dan membuak apabila asid mengalir ke
atasnya. Seorang pakar telah dipanggil untuk menentukan sama ada asid telah
meresap ke dalam sungai yang berdekatan.

(a) Describe how the specialist could carry out a simple test to see if the
river water contains some acid or not.
Terangkan bagaimana pakar itu boleh menjalankan ujian ringkas untuk
menentukan sama air sungai itu mengandungi sedikit asid atau tidak.

..................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

(b)(i) The word melting is incorrectly used in the report. Suggest a more
accurate word that should have been used.
Perkataan melebur dalam laporan itu tidak digunakan dengan betul.
Cadangkan perkataan yang lebih sesuai digunakan.

............................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(ii) Write the ionic equation for the reaction that occurred between the
acid and iron drain covers.
Tulis persamaan ion untuk tindak balas yang berlaku dia antara asid dan
penutup besi.

............................................................................................................................
[1 mark
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 30
(c) Explain why drain covers began fizzing as the acid ran over them.
Terangkan mengapa penutup longkang mula membuak apabila asid mengalir
ke atasnya.

..................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

(d) In an accident at a factory, some nitric acid was spilt.


Name a substance, when added in excess, that would neutralise the acid without
leaving an alkaline solution. Explain why.
Sedikit asid nitrik tertumpah dalam satu kemalangan di kilang. Namakan bahan
yang apabila ditambah secara berlebihan, akan meneutralkan asid itu tanpa
meninggalkan larutan yang beralkali. Terangkan mengapa.
...............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
[3 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 31
ESSAY QUESTION

Reaction P
Limestone Tindak balas P Calcium oxide
Batu kapur Kalsium oksida

+Q

Cement Calcium hydroxide


Simen Kalsium hidroksida

+R

Concrete Calcium carbonate


Konkrit Kalsium karbonat

Diagram 6.1

1 . Kinta Valley is known for its many limestone hills and caves. Limestone is mainly
calcium carbonate. Limestone is used as a building material. Limestone is also used to
make calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide.

Lembah Kinta terkenal dengan bukit dan gua batu kapurnya. Batu kapur terdiri daripada
kalsium karbonat kebanyakannya. Batu kapur digunakan sebagai bahan pembinaan.
Batu kapur juga digunakan untuk menghasilkan kalsium oksida dan kalsium hidroksida.

(a) Based on Diagram 6.1,


Berdasarkan Rajah 6.1,

(i)
State the name of reaction P.
Nyatakan jenis tindak balas P.

Identify Q and R.
Kenal pasti Q dan R.

Suggest a use for calcium hydroxide in agriculture. Explain your answer.


Cadangkan satu kegunaan untuk kalsium hidroksida dalam bidang pertanian.
Terangkan jawapan anda.
[4 marks]

(ii) Roasting powdered limestone with powdered clay produces cement.


A mixture of wet cement, sand and stones produces concrete. How can concrete
be reinforced? State an advantage of reinforced concrete.
Memanggang serbuk batu kapur dengan serbuk tanah liat menghasilkan simen.
Campuran simen basah, pasir dan batu kerikir menghasilkan konkrit.
Bagaimanakah konkrit diperkukuh dihasilkan? Nyatakan satu kelebihan konkrit
diperkukuh.
[2 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 32
(b) Buildings made from limestone are affected by the products from burning
fossil fuels containing sulphur. Explain why.
Bangunan yang terdiri daripada batuk kapur dipengaruhi oleh hasil daripada
pembakaran bahan api fosil yng mengandungi sulphur. Terangkan mengapa.

[3 marks]

(c) A student intends to investigate the reaction of calcium carbonate with acids.
The set-up of apparatus and observation is shown in Diagram 6.2.
Seorang pelajar ingin mengkaji tindak balas di antara kalsium karbonat dan asid.
Susunan radas dan pemerhatian seperti dalam Rajah 6.2.

Calcium carbonate
Kalsium karbonat

Hydrochloric acid
Asid hidroklorik

Sebelum bercampur Selepas bercampur


Diagram 6.2

When excess calcium carbonate is added to 50 cm3 0.1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid,
the balloon inflates.
Apabila kalsium karbonat berlebihan dicampurkan kepada 50 cm3 asid hidroklorik
0.1 mol dm-3, belon itu mengembang.

Explain the reason for this observation.


Terangkan pemerhatian yang diperoleh

Write the chemical equation for the reaction of calcium carbonate with
hydrochloric acid.
Tulis persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas antara kalsium kabonat dan asid
hidroklorik.

Calculate the maximum volume of the gas in the balloon.


[1 mol of any gas accupies 24 dm3 at roo conditions]
Hitung isipadu maksimum untuk gas dalam belon.
[1 mol gas sebarang gas menempati 24 dm3 pada keadaan bilik]

What is observed if hydrochloric acid is replaced with vinegar? Explain.


Apakah yang diperhatikan jika asid hidroklorik diganti dengan cuka? Terangkan.

[10 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 33

CHAPTER 7:/ BAB 7

SALTS/
GARAM
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 34
SECTION A
1. Diagram 7.1 shows several types of shells found in our daily life. These shells consist of
salt as the major component.
Rajah 7.1 menunjukkan beberapa jenis cengkerang yang biasa didapati dalam
kehidupan seharian. Cengkerang ini terdiri daripada sejenis garam sebagai komponen
utamanya.

Diagram 7.1

(a) State the name of salt that is the major component of these shells.
Namakan garam yang menjadi komponen utama bagi cengkerang ini.


[1 mark]

(b) A student smashed a shell into small pieces. Then, the pieces of shells are added to
the sulfuric acid.
Seorang pelajar memecahkan cengkerang ini kepada kepingan-kepingan yang kecil.
Kemudian kepingan cengkerang ini ditambahkan kepada asid sulfuric.

(i) State the observation when the pieces of shells are added to sulfuric acid.
Nyatakan pemerhatian apabila kepingan cengkerang ini ditambah kepada
asid sulphuric.


[1 mark]
(ii) Write a chemical equation for this reaction.
Tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas yang terlibat.


[2 marks]
(iii) Describe a test to confirm the anion present in this shell.
Huraikan ujian untuk mengesahkan kehadiran anion yang terdapat dalam
cengkerang ini.


[2 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 35
(c) Table 7.1 shows two types of salt.
Jadual 7.1 menunjukkan dua jenis garam.

Jenis Garam Cara penyediaan


Copper(II) carbonate Copper(II) nitrate + substance X
Kuprum(II) karbonat Kuprum(II) nitrat + bahan X

Copper(II) sulphate Copper(II) oxide + substance Y


Kuprum(II) sulfat Kuprum(II) oksida + bahan Y

Table 7.1

(i) State the difference between copper(II) carbonate and copper(II) sulphate.
Nyatakan perbezaan antara kuprum(II) karbonat dan kuprum(II) sulfat.


[2 marks]
(ii) Suggest one substance for substance X and substance Y.
Cadangkan satu bahan untuk bahan X dan bahan Y.

Substance X / Bahan X :

Substance Y / Bahan Y :
[2 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 36

ESSAY QUESTION
1. Table 7.2 shows several tests carried out on salt A and salt B.
Jadual 7.2 menunjukkan beberapa ujian yang telah dilakukan ke atas garam A dan
garam B.

Salt Test Observation


Garam Ujian Pemerhatian
Add nitric acid followed by barium White precipitate formed
nitrate solution
A mendakan putih terhasil
Tambahkan asid nitric diikuti oleh
larutan barium nitrat
Add potassium iodide solution. Yellow precipitate formed

Tambahkan larutan kalium iodida,. mendakan kuning terhasil


Heated strongly Released brown gas, P and
black residue, Q
B Dipanaskan dengan kuat
Membebaskan gas bewarna
perang, P dan pepejal hitam, Q
Add sodium hydroxide solution, Blue precipitate formed.

Tambahkan larutan natrium Mendakan biru terhasil


hidroksida,
Colourless gas released that
Chemical test I turns lime water chalky
CaCO3 Ujian Kimia I
Gas terbebas mengeruhkan air
kapur

Table 7.2

(a) (i) According to the observation from table 7.2, identify the cation and anion in
salt A. Name brown gas, P and black residue, Q. Then, identify salt B and
write a balanced chemical equation for the heating of salt B

Berdasarkan pemerhatian dalam jadual di atas, kenalpasti cation dan anion


yang terdapat dalam garam A. Namakan gas perang, P dan pepejal hitam Q.
Tulis persamaan kimia seimbang bagi pemanasan garam B
[7 marks]

(iii) Describe the test I for calcium carbonate that produced the observation as
shown in table 7.2. Write also the chemical equation involved.

Huraikan ujian I bagi garam kalsium karbonat yang menghasilkan


pemerhatian seperti dalam rajah 7.2. Tuliskan juga persamaan kimia yang
terlibat.
[3 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 37

(b) A student wants to prepare salt A in the laboratory. Describe an experiment to


prepare salt A in the laboratory. Write also the chemical equation involved.

Seorang pelajar ingin menyediakan garam A di dalam makmal. Huraikan satu


eksperimen bagi penyediaan garam A dalam makmal. Sertakan juga dalam
penerangan anda persamaan kimia yang terlibat.
[10 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 38

CHAPTER 8:/BAB 8

MANUFACTURE OF
SUBSTANCE
IN INDUSTRY/
BAHAN BUATAN DALAM
INDUSTRI
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 39
SECTION A

1. Diagram 8.1 shows the body of a bullet train which is made of alloy X and railway
track which is made of alloy Y.
Rajah 8.1 menunjukkan badan kereta api laju yang diperbuat daripada aloi X dan
landasan keretapi yang diperbuat daripada aloi Y.

Alloy X
Aloi X Alloy Y
Aloi Y

Diagram 8.1

(a) What is the meaning of alloy?


Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan aloi


[1 mark]

(b) (i) Name alloy X


Namakan aloi X


[1 mark]

(ii) Give the specific properties of alloy X that make it suitable to be used in
making a bullet train
Berikan sifat khusus bagi aloi X yang menjadikan ia sesuai digunakan
sebagai kereta api laju


[2 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 40
(c) The railway track is made from alloy Y. Iron is the main element in this alloy.
Landasan kereta api diperbuat daripada aloi Y. Besi adalah unsur utama di dalam
aloi Y
(i) Name another element that is added to make alloy Y.
Namakan unsur yang ditambah untuk menjadikan aloi Y

..........
[1 mark]

(ii) Draw a diagram to show the arrangement of atoms in alloy Y.


Lukis sebuah rajah untuk menunjukkan susunan atom dalam aloi Y.

[2 marks]

(iv) In terms of arrangement of atoms, explain why alloy Y is harder than its
pure metal.
Daripada aspek susunan atom, terangkan mengapa aloi Y adalah lebih keras
daripada logam tulennya.

.....

............

........

............................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

(d) Amalgam is an alloy used in dental filling material to fill cavities caused by tooth
decay. Name two main elements added to make amalgam.Why is amalgam
suitable for this purpose?
Amalgam adalah suatu aloi yang digunakan sebagai bahan tampalan
gigi.Namakan dua unsur utama yang ditambah untuk menghasilkan amalgam.
Mengapakan amalgam sesuai digunakan bagi tujuan ini?

..

[4 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 41
2. Diagram 8.2 shows an industrial preparation of compound X from sulphuric acid and
ammonia.
Rajah 8.2 menunjukkan penyediaan sebatian X daripada asid sulfurik dan ammonia
dalam industri.

Contact Process Suphuric acid


Proses Sentuh Asid Sulfurik

Compound X
Reaction A Sebatian X
Tindak balas A

Haber Process Ammonia


Proses Haber Ammonia

Diagram 8.2

(a) Sulphuric acid is manufactured by the Contact Process. This process involves three
stages.

Asid sulfurik dihasilkan melalui Proses Sentuh. Proses ini terdiri daripada tiga
peringkat.

(i) Sulphur dioxide is produced at stage I of the Contact Process. Name two
reactants for the formation of sulphur dioxide.
Sulfur dioksida dihasilkan pada peringkat I dalam Proses Sentuh.
Namakan dua bahan tindak balas untuk penghasilan sulfur dioksida.

...............
[2 marks]

(ii) At stage III of the Contact Process, oleum is produced.


Write the chemical formula of oleum.
Pada Peringkat III dalam Proses Sentuh, oleum terhasil.
Tuliskan formula kimia bagi oleum.

............................
[1 mark]

(iii) Sulphur trioxide is not directly dissolved in water to produce sulphuric acid but
it is absorbed by concentrated sulphuric acid first. Explain why.
Sulfur trioksida tidak dilarutkan secara langsung ke dalam air untuk
menghasilkan asid sulfurik tetapi ianya diserap oleh asid sulfurik pekat
terlebih dahulu. Terangkan mengapa.

...........
[1 mark]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 42
(b) Haber Process is a process to manufacture ammonia in industry.
Proses Haber adalah satu proses penghasilan ammonia di dalam industri.

(i) State two conditions that are required in this process.


Nyatakan dua keadaan yang diperlukan dalam proses ini.

...............................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

(ii) State how nitrogen and hydrogen are obtained as reactants


Nyatakan bagaimana nitrogen dan hidrogen diperolehi sebagai bahan tindak
balas.

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

(iii) Ammonia is stored below 25OC. It is kept in a tightly closed container in a cool,
dry and ventilated area. Explain why ammonia is stored in these conditions.
Ammonia disimpan di bawah suhu 25OC. Ia disimpan dalam bekas tertutup di
kawasan yang sejuk, kering dan mempunyai pengudaraan yang baik.
Mengapakah ammonia disimpan dalam keadaan ini?

...............................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

2NH3 + CO2 CO(NH2)2 + H2O

(iv) The chemical equation above shows the use of ammonia in the manufacture
of urea, CO(NH2)2 as a fertiliser.
Calculate the percentage of nitrogen by mass in urea.
[Relative atomic mass : C=12; O=16; N=14; H=1]
Persamaan kimia di atas menunjukkan kegunaan ammonia dalam pembuatan
urea, CO(NH2)2 sebagai baja.
Kira peratus nitrogen mengikut jisim yang terdapat dalam urea.
[Jisim atom relatif : C=12; O=16; N=14; H=1]

[2 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 43
3. The research and development in chemistry has led to the production of useful
manufactured substances to improve our quality of life. Table 8.1 shows some examples
of these substances.

Penyelidikan dan perkembangan dalam kimia telah menghasilkan bahan buatan dalam
industri yang berguna untuk meningkatkan taraf hidup kita. Jadual 8.1 menyenaraikan
beberapa contoh bahan tersebut.

Types of substance/ Jenis bahan Examples/ Contoh


Polymer / Polimer Polyvinyl chloride / Polivinil klorida
Reinforced concrete/ Konkrit yang
Composite/ Komposit
diperkukuhkan
Glass/ Kaca Soda-lime glass/ Kaca soda kapur

Table 8.1

(a) Reinforced concrete is the composite material used in the construction of a network
of highways, bridges and high-rise buildings.
Konkrit yang diperkukuhkan ialah bahan komposit yang digunakan dalam pembinaan
rangkaian jalan raya, jambatan dan bangunan tinggi.

(i) What substance is added to concrete to make reinforced concrete?


Apakah bahan yang dicampur kepada konkrit untuk membuat konkrit yang
diperkukuhkan?

.................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(ii) What is the advantage of using reinforced concrete compared to concrete?


Apakah kelebihan penggunaan konkrit yang diperkukuhkan dibanding
dengan konkrit?

....................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(b) Preserved food is usually stored in glass containers.


Makanan yang diawetkan biasanya disimpan dalam bekas kaca.

(i) Why are glass containers more suitable for storing preserved food than metal
containers?
Mengapa bekas kaca lebih sesuai digunakan untuk menyimpan makanan
yang diawetkan daripada bekas logam?

.................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 44
(ii) Soda lime glass cannot withstand high temperature.
Name another type of glass that is more heat-resistant.
Kaca soda kapur tidak tahan haba yang tinggi.
Namakan sejenis kaca lain yang lebih tahan haba.

.................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(c ) Diagram 8.3 shows the part of a car that is made of manufactured substances in
industry and the structural formula of PVC. The car seat is covered with polyvinyl
chloride, PVC, a synthetic polymer.
Rajah 8.3 menunjukkan bahagian sebuah kereta yang diperbuat daripada bahan
buatan dalam industry dan formula struktur PVC. Kerusi kereta di atas dibaluti
dengan polivil klorida, PVC sejenis polimer sintetik.

PVC seat cover


Alas kerusi PVC

Diagram 8.3

(i) Name the monomer of polyvinyl chloride.


Namakan monomer bagi polivinil klorida.

.........
[1 mark]
(ii) Draw the structural formula for the monomer of polyvinyl chloride.
Lukiskan formula struktur monomer bagi polivinil klorida.

[1 mark]

(iii) Explain why open burning of polyvinyl chloride, PVC can affect our health.
State one method to overcome this problem.
Terangkan bagaimana pembakaran terbuka polivinil klorida, PVC boleh memberi
kesan terhadap kesihatan kita. Nyatakan satu kaedah bagi mengatasi masalah
ini.

.....

......
[2 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 45
ESSAY QUESTIONS

4. Diagram 8.4 shows the industrial preparation of sulphuric acid by the Contact process.
Rajah 8.4 menunjukkan penyediaan asid sulfurik melalui proses Sentuh.

Stage I Stage II Stage III Stage IV


Peringkat I Peringkat II Peringkat Peringkat IV
S SO2 SO3 III X H2SO4
Oxygen Oxygen Concentrated Water
Oksigen Oksigen sulphuric acid
Asid sulfurik pekat Air
Diagram 8.4

(a) Write the chemical equation of the reaction at stage II. Calculate the maximum
volume of sulphur trioxide gas produced if 48 g of oxygen is burnt completely in
sulphur dioxide gas.
[Given that the relative atomic mass of O = 16 and the molar volume of any gas is 24
dm3 mol-1 at room temperature and pressure]

Tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas di peringkat II. Hitungkan isi padu
maksimum gas sulfur trioksida yang terhasil jika 48g gas oksigen terbakar dengan
lengkap dalam gas sulfur dioksida.
[Diberikan jisim atom relatif O=16 dan isi padu molar sebarang gas ialah 24 dm3mol-1
pada suhu dan tekanan bilik.]
[4 marks]

(b) Sulphur dioxide, SO2, is one of the by-products of the Contact process.
It can cause environmental pollution like acid rain. State three effects of acid rain to
the environment. Suggest three ways to overcome this problem

Sulfur dioksida, SO2, ialah satu daripada hasil sampingan proses Sentuh.
Ia dapat menyebabkan pencemaran alam sekitar seperti membentuk hujan asid.
Nyatakan tiga kesan hujan asid terhadap alam sekitar.Cadangkan tiga cara untuk
mengatasi masalah ini.
[6 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 46
(c) Diagram 8.5 shows a toy bicycle and a medal.
Copper wire can be easily bent to make the toy bicycle. The medal made of an alloy
of copper with tin cannot be bent easily.

Rajah 8.5 menunjukkan basikal mainan dan pingat. Dawai kuprum mudah
dibengkokkan untuk membuat basikal mainan. Pingat yang diperbuat daripada aloi
yang terdiri daripada kuprum dan stanum tidak boleh dibengkokkan dengan mudah.

Diagram 8.5

Rajah 8.5
Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the hardness of bronze and its pure
metal.
In your answer, include the procedure, result and conclusion

Huraikan satu eksperimen untuk membandingkan kekerasan gangsa dan logam


tulennya. Dalam jawapan anda sertakan prosedur, pemerhatian dan kesimpulan

[10 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 47

CHAPTER 9:/BAB 9

RATE OF REACTION/
KADAR TINDAK BALAS
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 48
SECTION A
1. Two Young Inventor Teams took part in the Young Scientist Competition during
Science Week at their school. They carried out an experiment to investigate the rate of
reaction between cockle shell powder and 40 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid.
The cockle shell contains a high percentage of calcium carbonate. In this competition,
both teams try to modify their experiment based on suitable factors that affect rate of
reaction. The team that collected the maximum volume first was the winner.

Dua pasukan Perekacipta Muda mengambil bahagian dalam Pertandingan Saintis


Muda semasa Minggu Sains di sekolah mereka. Mereka menjalankan satu
eksperimen untuk mengkaji kadar tindak balas antara serbuk kulit kerang dengan asid
hidroklorik. Kulit kerang mengandungi peratusan kalsium karbonat yang tinggi. Dalam
pertandingan ini, kedua-dua pasukan ini cuba mengubahsuai eksperimen ini
berdasarkan factor-faktor yang bersesuaian yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas.
Pasukan mana yang terlebih dahulu dapat mengumpul isi padu maksimum dikira
pemenang

Table 9.1 shows the results for the volume of carbon dioxide gas collected at every 30
second by both team.

Jadual 9.1 menunjukkan keputusan ekperimen pada isi padu gas karbon dioksida yang
dikumpulkan pada setiap 30 saat oleh ke dua-dua pasukan.

TEAM I :

Time / s 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270


Masa /s
Total volume of
carbon dioxide 0.00 7.00 13.50 19.50 24.50 30.00 34.50 39.00 42.00 42.00
gas collected
Jumlah isi padu
gas karbon
dioksida yang
dikumpul (cm3)

TEAM II :
Time / s 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270
Masa /s
Total volume of
carbon dioxide 0.00 11.00 19.50 27.00 33.50 38.50 42.00 42.00 42.00 42.00
gas collected
Total volume of
carbon dioxide
gas collected
Jumlah isi padu
gas karbon
dioksida yang
dikumpul (cm3)

Table 9.1
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 49
Based on result in Table 9.1
Berdasarkan keputusan dalam Jadual 9.1.

(a) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between calcium carbonate and
hydrochloric acid .
Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas di antara kalsium karbonat dan asid
hidroklorik.

.......................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

(b) Draw a graph of total volume of carbon dioxide gas collected against time for Team I
and Team II on the same axes.
Lukiskan graf jumlah isi padu gas karbon dioksida yang dikumpul melawan masa
bagi Pasukan I dan Pasukan II pada paksi yang sama.
[3 marks]

(c) By using the graph you have drawn in (a)(ii), determine the rate of reaction at 60
seconds for Team I and Team II
Dengan menggunakan graf yang telah diplotkan di (b), tentukan kadar tindak balas
pada saat ke-60 bagi Pasukan I dan Pasukan II

Team I/ Pasukan I: Team I/ Pasukan II:

[4 marks]

(c) Other than size of reactant, what other possible method was used by the winning team to
increase the rate of reaction? Explain your answer based on the Collision Theory.
Selain daripada saiz, apakah kemungkinan yang dilakukan oleh pasukan yang menang
dalam meningkatkan kadar tindak balas? Jelaskan jawapan anda berdasarkan Teori
Pelanggaran.

..........................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................
[4 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 50
ESSAY QUESTION

2. Diagram 9.3 shows the industrial manufacture of ammonia.


Rajah 9.3 menunjukkan penghasilan ammonia dalam industri

Diagram 9.3

(a) Write a chemical equation to represent the formation of ammonia gas in Haber
Process.
Calculate the mass of ammonia produced when 1000 kg of hydrogen gas is passed
through the reactor
Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi pembentukan gas ammonia dalam Proses Haber.
Hitungkan jisim ammonia yang terhasil apabila 1000 kg gas hidrogen dialirkan ke
dalam reaktor.
[5 marks]

(b) Explain how the effective collision between particles can produce ammonia
molecules.
Terangkan bagaimana perlanggaran berkesan dapat menghasilkan molekul
ammonia
[4 marks]

(c) The knowledge of factors affecting the rate of reaction is applied in the Haber
Process.
Pengetahuan tentang faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas diaplikasikan
dalam Proses Haber.

(i) Draw an energy profile diagram for these two reactions, with and without the
presence of iron as a catalyst. On the energy profile diagram show the
activation energy without catalyst (Ea) and activation energy with catalyst
(Ea)
Lukiskan gambar rajah profil tenaga bagi dua tindak balas dengan dan tanpa
kehadiran besi sebagai mangkin. Pada gambar rajah aras tenaga tunjukkan
tenaga pengaktifan tanpa mangkin (Ea) dan tenaga pengaktifan dengan
mangkin. (Ea)

[6 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 51
(ii) Other than the use of catalyst, state one condition that can increase the rate
of reaction to produce ammonia gas. Explain your answer based on the
Collision Theory.
Selain dari mangkin, nyatakan bagaimana satu keadaan untuk
meningkatkan kadar tindak balas bagi penghasilan gas ammonia. Jelaskan
jawapan anda berdasarkan Teori Pelanggaran

[5 marks]

3. Pupils in Form 5 Beta carry were carried out two experiments to investigate a few
factors that affecting on the rate of reaction between magnesium and monoprotic
strong acid. Graph in Diagram 9.3 shows the results of Experiment I and Experiment II.

Murid-murid Tingkatan 5 Beta menjalankan dua eksperimen untuk mengkaji beberapa


faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas antara magnesium dengan suatu asid
monoprotik kuat. Graf dalam Rajah 9.3 menunjukkan keputusan Eksperimen I dan
Eksperimen II.

Volume of gas (cm3 )


Isipadu gas (cm3 )
Experiment II : Acid and magnesium
Eksperimen II : Asid dan magnesium
20

15

10 Experiment I : Acid and magnesium


Eksperimen I : Asid dan magnesium

Time (s)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Masa (s)

Diagram 9.3

(a) Using a suitable example of the acid, write the chemical equation for the reaction
between this acid and magnesium.
Then, calculate the average rate of reaction for Experiment I and Experiment II.

Menggunakan satu contoh asid yang sesuai, tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak
balas antara asid ini dengan magnesium.
Kemudian, hitung kadar tindak balas purata untuk Eksperimen I dan Eksperimen II
[4 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 52
(b) Describe briefly how to carry out the experiment to obtain the two curves labeled as
Experiment I and Experiment II.
Then, compare the rate of reaction between Experiment I and Experiment II.
Explain why there is a difference in the rate of reaction based on the Collision
Theory.
Huraikan secara ringkas bagaimana eksperimen dijalankan untuk mendapatkan
dua lengkung berlabel Eksperimen I dan Eksperimen II
Kemudian, bandingkan kadar tindak balas antara Eksperimen I and Eksperimen II.
Terangkan mengapa terdapat perbezaan dalam kadar tindak balas berdasarkan
teori perlanggaran.
[6 marks]

(c) Based on the statement below, describe an experiment to investigate the effect of
temperature or concentration on the rate of reaction between sodium
thiosulphate, Na2S2O3 solution and sulphuric acid, H2SO4.

Berdasarkan pernyataan di atas, huraikan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan


suhu atau kepekatan terhadap kadar tindak balas di antara larutan natrium
tiosulfat, Na2S2O3 dengan asid sulfurik, H2SO4.

When sodium thiosulphate, Na2S2O3 solution reacts with sulphuric acid, H2SO4,
sodium sulphate solution, sulphur dioxide gas, sulphur precipitate and water
molecules is formed.
Apabila larutan natrium tiosulfat, Na2S2O3 bertindak balas dengan asid sulfurik,
H2SO4, maka natrium sulfat, gas sulfur dioksida, mendakan sulfur dan molekul air
akan terbentuk.

Your answer must include the following:


Jawapan anda perlu mengandungi perkara berikut:

A list of material and apparatus


Senarai bahan dan radas

Procedure of the Experiment


Prosedur eksperimen

Conclusion
Kesimpulan

[10 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 53

CHAPTER 10:/ BAB 10

CARBON
COMPOUNDS/
SEBATIAN KARBON
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 54
SECTION A

1.

Diagram 10.1

Diagram 10.1 shows a bottle of perfume that Sarah received for her birthday. The
perfume has the fragrance of strawberries.
Rajah 10.1 menunjukkan sebotol minyak wangi yang Sarah telah menerima pada hari
jadinya. Minyak wangi itu mempunyai bau harum seperti buah strawberi.

(a) State the homologous series for the fragrant substance in the perfume.
Nyatakan siri homolog bahan yang memberi bau wangi dalam minyak wangi
tersebut.

....................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(b)(i) The perfume was found to contain a substance known as ethyl butanoate.
Name the alcohol and carboxylic acid involved in producing this substance.
Minyak wangi tersebut didapati mengandungi sejenis bahan, iaitu etil
butanoat.
Namakan alkohol dan asid karboksilik yang terlibat dalam penghasilan bahan ini.

Alcohol / alkohol : ..................................................................................................

Carboxylic acid / Asid karboksilik:: .

[2 marks]

(ii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction that produces ethyl butanoate.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas menghasilkan etil butanoat.

...............................................................................................................................
[2 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 55

(iii) Draw the structural formula of ethyl butanoate.


Lukis formula struktur etil butanoat.

[1 mark]

(c) Vegetable oils are in the same homologous series as the fragrant substance in the
perfume. Vegetable oils containing long unsaturated carbon chain can be
converted to margarine.
Minyak sayuran tergolong dalam siri homolog yang sama seperti bahan yang
memberi bau wangi dalam minyak wangi. Minyak sayuran yang mempunyai
rantai karbon tak tepu yang panjang boleh ditukar kepada marjerin.

(i) Name the process and the catalyst used in making margarine.
Namakan proses dan mangkin yang digunakan dalam pembuatan marjerin.

Process / Proses: ........................................................................................

Catalyst / Mangkin:: ...........................................................................................


[2 marks]

(ii) A student says that converting vegetable oil would make vegetable oil
healthier.
Can this students hypothesis be accepted? Explain your answer.
Seorang murid menyatakan bahawa adalah lebih sihat menukarkan minyak
sayuran kepada marjerin.
Bolehkah hipotesis murid ini diterima? Terangkan jawapan anda.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
[3 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 56

ESSAY QUESTION

1. Ethanol can be produced from fermentation.


Etanol boleh dihasilkan melalui proses penapaian.

2 days later
2 hari kemudian

Diagram 10.2

(a) Based on Diagram 10.2,


Berdasarkan Rajah 10.2,
Name the substances added into the bottle to produce ethanol.
Namakan bahan-bahan yang masukkan ke dalam botol untuk menghasilkan
etanol.

Write a chemical equation for the reaction in the bottle.


Tulis persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas dalam botol.

Suggest how the gas in the balloon can be identified.


Cadangkan kaedah untuk mengenal pasti gas di dalam belon.

[7 marks]

(b) Most of the ethanol used in industry is not produced from fermentation. It is
produced in a reaction using a hydrocarbon.
State the substances used, necessary conditions and type of reaction.

Kebanyakan etanol yang digunakan dalam industri tidak dihasilkan melalui


penapaian. Ia dihasilkan dalam tindak balas yang melibatkan satu
hidrokarbon.
Nyatakan bahan-bahan tindak balas, keadaan-keadaan yang perlu dan jenis
tindak balas.
[6 marks]

2. Ethanol can be used as a fuel.


Etanol boleh digunakan sebagai bahan api

Write a chemical equation for the complete combustion of ethanol.


MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 57
Tulis persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas pembakaran lengkap etanol

State two advantages of replacing petrol with ethanol, as a motor car fuel.
Nyatakan dua kelebihan menggantikan petrol dengan etanol sebagai bahan api
untuk kereta.
[4 marks]

3. Drivers suspected of drink-driving are asked to blow into a device (alcometer)


containing crystals of a chemical compound. If the crystals turn from orange to green,
it means that the drivers blood alcohol concentration is over the legal limit.

Pemandu kereta yang disyaki memandu dalam keadaan mabuk akan diminta
menghembus ke dalam satu alat (alcometer) yang mengandungi hablur-hablur suatu
sebatian kimia. Sekiranya hablur-hablur itu bertukar warna daripada jingga ke hijau,
ini bermakna kepekatan alkohol dalam darah pemandu kereta itu melebihi tahap
undang-undang.

Name the chemical compound in the alcometer.


Namakan sebatian kimia dalam alcometer

Explain the colour change.


Terangkan perubahan warna yang diperhatikan

[3 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 58

CHAPTER 11:/BAB 11

OXIDATION AND
REDUCTION/
PENGOKSIDAAN DAN
PENURUNAN
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 59
SECTION A

1. Diagram 11.1 shows the apparatus set-up to investigate the transfer of electrons at a
distance between iron(II) sulphate solution and bromine water.
Rajah 11.1 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji pemindahan elektron pada
suatu jarak antara larutan ferum(II)sulfat dan air bromin.

Carbon
Karbon

Bromine water
Iron (II) sulphate solution
Air Bromin
Larutan ferum(II) sulfat

Dilute sulphuric acid


Asid sulfurik cair

Diagram 11.1
(a) State the colour change of iron (II) sulphate solution after 30 minutes.
Nyatakan perubahan warna larutan ferum(II) sulfat selepas 30 minit.

..............................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(b) State the function of dilute sulphuric acid.
Nyatakan fungsi asid sulfurik cair

..............................................................................................................................
[ 1 mark ]

(c)(i) Write a half equation for the reaction at electrode R.


Tulis persamaan setengah bagi tindak balas pada elektrod R.

..............................................................................................................................
[ 1 mark ]

(ii) Write a half equation for the reaction at electrode S.


Tulis persamaan setengah bagi tindak balas pada elektrod S.

..............................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 60
(d) State the change in oxidation number of iron and name the process that occurs
at electrode R.
Nyatakan perubahan nombor pengoksidaan bagi ferum dan namakan proses
yang berlaku di R.

Change in oxidation number :


Perubahan nombor pengoksidaan

..............................................................

Name of process :
Nama proses

..............................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

(e) Describe briefly a chemical test to identify the cation formed at electrode R
Huraikan secara ringkas ujian kimia untuk mengenal pasti kation yang
terbentuk di elektrod R.

..............................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................
[2 marks]
(f) Suggest one substance to replace bromine water
Cadangkan satu bahan untuk menggantikan air bromin

.
[1 mark]

(g) On diagram 11.1, draw the arrows to show the direction of electron flow
Pada rajah 11.1, lukiskan anak panah untuk menunjukkan arah aliran
elektron.
[1 mark]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 61
2. Diagram 11.2 shows the set up of the apparatus to investigate the reactivity of metals
P, Q and R. The different metals are heated consecutively.
Rajah 11.2 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji kereaktifan logam P, Q dan
R. Logam-logam yang berbeza dipanaskan dengan kuat.

Metal powder Glass wool


Serbuk logam Kapas kaca

Potassium manganate(VII)
crystals

Hablu rkalium manganat(VII)

Heat strongly Heat


Panaskan dengan panaskan
kuat
Diagram 11.2

Table 11.1 shows the observation of the experiment.


Jadual 11.1 menunjukkan pemerhatian bagi tindak balas.
Colour of residue
Metal Observations Warna baki
Logam Pemerhatian Hot Cold
Burns brightly Yellow White
X
Menyala dengan terang Kuning Putih
Glows dimly Black Black
Y
Berbara dengan malap Hitam Hitam
Burns with a very bright flame White White
Z
Menyala dengan nyalaan yang terang Putih Putih
Table 11.1
(a)(i) What is the function of potassium manganate(VII) crystal?
Apakah fungsi hablur kalium manganat (VII)?

...........................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(ii) What is the function of glass wool?


Apakah fungsi kapas kaca?

...........................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(b) Based on the observation in Table 2, arrange the metals X, Yand Z in an


ascending order of the their reactivity?
Berdasarkan pemerhatian dalam Jadual 2, susun logam-logam X, Y dan Z
dalam susunan menaik mengikut kereaktifannya.

...........................................................................................................................
[ 1 mark ]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 62
(c) State the name of metals X and Y
Namakan logam X dan Y


[2 marks]

(d) Write a chemical equation for the reaction between metal X and oxygen
Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas antara logam X dan oksigen


[2 marks]

(e) A mixture of metal X and oxide of metal Z is heated strongly.


Predict an observation. Give your reason.
Campuran logam X dan oksida logam Z dipanaskan dengan kuat.
Ramalkan pemerhatian.Berikan alasan anda.

............................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

(f) State the name of another substance that can be used to replaced potassium
manganate (VII) crystal.
Nyatakan nama bahan lain yang boleh digunakan untuk menggantikan hablur
kalium manganat(VII).

............................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 63
3. Diagram 11.3 shows the apparatus set up used in two sets of experiments to investigate
the redox reaction.
Rajah 11.3 menunjukkan susunan radas yang digunakan dalam dua set eksperimen
untuk mengkaji tindak balas redoks.

Set 1 Set 2

Chlorine water Iron (II)


Air Klorin chloride
solution
Zink plate Larutan ferum
Iron (II) chloride solution Kepingan zink (II) klorida
Larutan ferum (II) klorida

Diagram 11.3

(a) What is meant by redox reaction?


Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan tindak balas redoks?

......................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(b) Based on Set 1/ Berdasarkan Set 1;

(i) State the colour change of iron(II) chloride solution.


Nyatakan perubahan warna larutan ferum(II) klorida.

.................
[1 mark]

(ii) State the type of reaction that occured to iron (II) chloride.
Nyatakan tindakbalas yang berlakukepada ferum(II) klorida

......................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(iii) Write half equation for the reaction in (b)(ii).


Tuliskan persamaan setengah bagi tindak balas di(b)(ii).

......................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(iv) State the oxidation number of chlorine in chlorine water.


Nyatakannomborpengoksidaanklorindalam air klorin.

......................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 64
(c) Based on Set 2/ Berdasarkan Set 2:

(i) Which substance undergoes oxidation?


Bahan yang manakah mengalami pengoksidaan?

......................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(ii) Write the ionic equation for the reaction occur.


Tuliskan persamaan ion bagi tindak balas yang berlaku.

......................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(iii) State the change in oxidation number of iron.
Nyatakan perubahan dalam nombor pengoksidaan bagi ferum.

......................................................................................................................
[ 1 mark]

(d) Diagram 11.4 shows the picture of iron nails.


Rajah 11.4 menunjukkan gambar paku besi.

After 1 year
Selepas 1 tahun

Brown solid is formed on


the surface of iron nails
Pepejal perang terbentuk
The iron nails look shiny pada permukaan paku
Paku besi kelihatan bersinar
besi

Diagram 11.4

Draw a labelled diagram to show the conditions for the process in Diagram 11.4 to
occur, involving the ionisation of iron and the flow of electron.
Lukiskan satu gambar rajah berlabel untuk menunjukkan bagaimana syarat untuk
proses di Rajah 11.4 berlaku, melibatkan pengionan besi dan pengaliran elektron.

[3 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 65
ESSAY QUESTIONS

1. (a) Diagram 11.5 shows apparatus and observations for two different reactions
Rajah 11.5 menunjukkan rajah dan pemerhatian bagi dua tindak balas:

Reaction Chemical Equation


Tindak Persamaan Kimia
balas

Zink powder
Serbuk zink

I Colourless solution
Larutan tidak
berwarna
Copper(II) nitrate
Brown solid is
solution
formed
Larutan kuprum(II)
Pepejal perang
nitrat
terbentuk

Sodium
chloride Colourless solution
solution Larutan tidak
II Larutan natrium berwarna
klorida

Silver nitrate solution White precipitate


Larutan argentum nitrat Mendakan putih

Diagram 11.5

(i) Write the chemical equation for reaction I and II.


Tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas I dan tindak balas II.
[2 marks]

(ii) Determine whether each of the reactions is a redox reaction or not a redox
reaction.Explain your answer in terms of change of oxidation number.
Tentukan sama ada setiap tindak balas tersebut merupakan tindak balas
redoks atau bukan tindak balas redoks. Terangkan jawapan anda dari segi
perubahan nombor pengoksidaan.
[4 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 66
(b) Table 11.2 shows the formulae for two oxides of lead.
Jadual 11.2 menunjukkan formula bagi dua sebatian oksida plumbum.

Compound Formula
Sebatian Formula
P PbO
Q PbO2
Table 11.2

State the oxidation number of lead in both compounds. Name both of the
compounds based on the IUPAC nomenclature system.
Nyatakan nombor pengoksidaan bagi plumbum dalam kedua-dua sebatian
tersebut.Namakan kedua-dua sebatian tersebut berdasarkan system tatanama
IUPAC.
[4 marks]

(c) Diagram 11.6 shows the extraction process of iron in a blast furnace.
Rajah 11.6 menunjukkan proses pengekstrakan besi dalam relau bagas.

Iron ore + limestone +carbon


Bijih besi+batu kapur + karbon

Slag Molten iron


Sanga Leburan
besi
Diagram 11.6

(i) Give two reasons why carbon is usually used for the extraction purpose.
Berikan dua sebab mengapa karbon biasanya digunakan bagi tujuan
pengekstrakan.
[2 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 67

(ii) Write a chemical equation for the reaction that occured.


Tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas yang berlaku.

(iii) Based on the equation, determine


Berdasarkan persamaan, tentukan:

The substance that is oxidised


Bahan yang dioksidakan

The substance that is reduced


Bahan yang diturunkan

The oxidizing agent


Age npengoksidaan
the reducing agent
Agen penurunan

[6 marks]

(iv) The process in Diagram 11.6 is carried out to extract aluminium from its ore,
which is bauxite. Is aluminium successfully extracted? Give your reason.

Proses pada Rajah 11.6 dijalankan bagi mengekstrak aluminium daripada


bijihnya, iaitu bauksit. Adakah aluminium berjaya diektrak? Berikan alasan
anda.
[2 marks]

2. (a) Diagram 11.7 shows the apparatus set-up to investigate the redox reaction between
metal P and lead (II) oxide powder

Rajah 11.7 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji tindak balas redoks antara
logam P dan sebuk plumbum (II) oksida.

Mixture of metal P powder +


lead(II) oxide powder
Campuran serbuk logam P +
Serbuk plumbum(II) oksida.

Diagram 11.7

Suggest metal P.
Based on your answer, explain why the reaction in Diagram 11.7 is a redox reaction
in terms of the change in oxidation number.

Cadangkan logam P .
Berdasarkan jawapan anda , terangkan mengapa tindak balas dalam Rajah 11.7
merupakan tindak balas redoks dari segi perubahan nombor pengoksidaan.
[4 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 68
(b) Table 11.3 shows the results of two experiments to study the effects of metal R
dan S on the rusting of iron.
Jadual 11.3 menunjukkan keputusan bagi dua eksperimen untuk mengkaji
kesan logam R dan S terhadap pengaratan besi.

Set Experiment/ Eksperimen Observation


Pemerhatian
Hot agar solution containing
potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)
and phenolphthalein Blue spots is
Agar panas mengandungi kalium formed
I heksasianoferat(III) dan Tompokan biru
fenolftalein terbentuk
Iron nail / paku besi
Metal R / logam R

Hot agar solution


containing kalium
hexacyanoferrate(III) and
phenolphthalein Pink spot is
II Agar panas mengandungi formed
kalium heksasianoferat(III) Tompokan
dan fenolftalein merah jambu
terbentuk
Iron nail/ paku besi
Metal S/ logam S

Table 11.3

Based on the observation,


Berdasarkan pemerhatian,

(i) Suggest metal R and metal S


Cadangkan logam R dan logam S

(ii) In each set of experiment, explain the observation in Table 11.3.


Dalam setiap set experiment terangkan pemerhatian dalam jadual 11.3.
[ 6 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 69

(c) Bromine water is an oxidising agent


Air Bromin adalah agen pengoksidaan

You are given the following apparatus :


U-tube, galvanometer, connecting wires, stopper, carbon electrodes and retort stand
and clamp.
Suggest a suitable chemical and describe an experiment to verify the above
statement using the given apparatus.

Anda diberi radas berikut:


Tiub-U, galvanometer, wayar penyambung, penutup, penitis, elektrod karbon dan
kaki retort dengan penyepit.
Cadangkan bahan kimia yang sesuai dan huraikan satu eksperimen untuk
mengesahkan pernyataan di atas dengan menggunakan radas yang diberi.

[10 marks ]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 70

CHAPTER 12: BAB 12

THERMOCHEMISTRY/
TERMOKIMIA
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 71
SECTION A

1. Diagram 12.1 shows the apparatus set up used in an experiment to determine heat of
displacement of silver by magnesium.
Rajah 12.1 menunjukkan susunan radas yang digunakan dalam eksperimen untuk
menentukan haba penyesaran argentum oleh magnesium.

Thermometer
Termometer

50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3


silver nitrate solution Polystyrene cup
3
50 cm larutan argentum Cawan polisterena
nitrat 1.0 mol dm-3
Excess of
magnesium powder
Serbuk magnesium
berlebihan
Beginning of experiment End of experiment
Awal eksperimen Akhir eksperimen

Diagram 12.1
Table 12.1 shows the results of this experiment.
Jadual 12.1 menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen ini.

Description/Penerangan Temperature (oC)/Suhu(oC)


Initial temperature of silver nitrate solution
29 .0
Suhu awal larutan argentum nitrat
Highest temperature of mixture
35.0
Suhu tertinggi campuran

Table 12.1

(a) Based on the experiment, state the meaning of heat of displacement?


Berdasarkan eksperimen, nyatakan maksud haba penyesaran?

......

........................
[1 mark]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 72
(b) Calculate
Hitungkan
(i) The heat released during the reaction
[Specific heat capacity of solution, c = 4.2 J g-1o C-1 ; Density of solution=1 g
cm-3 ]
Haba yang dibebaskan semasa tindak balas.
[Muatan haba tentu larutan ,c = 4.2 J g-1o C-1 ; Ketumpatan larutan = 1 g cm-3]

[1 mark]
(ii) The number of moles of silver nitrate solution.
Bilangan mol larutan argentum nitrat

[1 mark]
(iii) The heat of displacement of silver by magnesium
Haba penyesaran argentums oleh magnesium

[1 mark]
(c) Draw an energy level diagram for this reaction.
Lukis gambar rajah aras tenaga bagi tindak balas ini.

[3 marks]

(d) (i) Predict the value of heat of displacement of silver if magnesium is replaced by
zinc.
Ramalkan nilai haba penyesaran argentum jika magnesium digantikan dengan
zink

.........................................
[1mark]
(ii) Explain your answer in (e)(i).
Terangkan jawapan anda(e)(i).

.................................

.....
[2 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 73
2. Diagram 12.2 shows the apparatus set up to determine the heat of precipitation of lead(II)
sulphate.
Rajah 12.2 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk menentukan haba pemendakan plumbum
(II) sulfat.

50 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate


3 -3
50 cm of 0.5 mol dm solution
Sodium sulphate 50 cm3larutan plumbum(II) nitrat
solution 0.5mol dm-3
50 cm3 larutan natrium
sulfat 0.5 mol dm-3
Polystyrene cup
Cawan polistirena
Diagram 12.2

Table 12.2 shows the result of the experiment.


Jadual 12.2 menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen ini.

Description Temperature (0C)


Penerangan Suhu (0C)
Initial temperature of sodium sulphate
solution 27.0
Suhu awal larutan natrium sulfat
Initial temperature of lead(II) nitrate solution
27.0
Suhu awal larutan plumbum(II) nitrat
Highest temperature of the mixture
30.5
Suhu maksimum campuran

Table 12.2

(a) State the meaning of heat of precipitation.


Nyatakan maksud haba pemendakan.

...

...
[1 mark]

(b) Predict the temperature change if polystyrene cup is replaced with copper can in
this experiment.
Ramalkan perubahan suhuj ika cawan polisterina digantikan dengan tin kuprum
dalam eksperimen ini.

..
[1 mark]

(c) Write the ionic equation for the reaction.


Tuliskan persamaan ion bagi tindak balas ini.

...
[1 mark]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 74
(d) Calculate :
Hitung :

(i) The heat released during the reaction.


[Specific heat capacity of solution, c = 4.2 J g-10C-1 ;Density of solution = 1
gcm-3]
Haba yang dibebaskan semasa tindak balas.
[Muatan haba tentu bagi larutan, c = 4.2 J g-10C-1 ;Ketumpatan larutan = 1
gcm-3]

[1 mark]

(ii) The number of moles of plumbum(II) ion, Pb2+ in lead(II) nitrate and sulphate
ions, SO42- in sodium sulphate solution
Bilangan mol ion plumbum(II) , Pb2+dalam larutan plumbum(II) nitrat dan ion
sulfat , SO42- dalam larutan natrium sulfat

[2 marks]

(iii) The number of moles of lead(II) sulphate, PbSO4formed in this experiment


Bilangan mol plumbum(II) sulfat ,PbSO4 yang terbentuk dalam eksperimen ini.

[1 mark]
(iv) The heat of precipitation.
Haba pemendakan
.

[2 marks]

(e) (i) Write a thermochemical equation for the reaction


Tulis persamaan termokimia untuk tindak balasitu.

.
[1 mark]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 75
3. The combustion of an ethanol in air is represented by the equation below:
Pembakaran suatu sebatian alkohol dalam udara diwakili oleh persamaan berikut:

C2H5OH + 3 O22CO2 + 3 H2O H = - 1376 kJ mol-1

(a) Draw a labeled diagram showing the apparatus set up to determine heat of
combustion of the ethanol in the laboratory
Lukis gambar rajah berlabel menunjukkan susunan radas bagi menentukan haba
pembakaran etanol tersebut dalam makmal

[2 marks]

(b) 500 g of water is heated by the combustion of 0.23 g of ethanol.


500 g air dipanaskan oleh pembakaran 0.23 g etanol

(i) Calculate the heat released by the ethanol in the reaction.


[Relative Atomic Mass: H=1; C=12 and O=16]
Kirakan haba yang dibebaskan oleh etanol itu dalam tindak balas.
[Jisim atom relatif: H=1; C=12 and O=16]

[2 marks]
(ii) Calculate the temperature change of water in the experiment.
[Specific heat capacity of water: 4.2 J g-1oC-1]
Kirakan perubahan suhu air yang dijangkakan dalam eksperimen itu.
[Muatan haba tentu air: 4.2 J g-1oC-1]

[2 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 76

(b) Why the value of heat of combustion obtained is always less than the actual value?
Mengapa nilai haba pembakaran yang didapati biasanya lebih rendah daripada
nilai sebenar?

...
[1 mark]

RON 95 RON 97

RON 95 contain 95% octane and 5% pentane


RON 95 mengandungi 95% oktana dan 5% pentana

RON 97 contain 97% octane and 3% pentane


RON 97 mengandungi 97% oktana dan 3% pentana

Diagram 12.1

(d) (i) Based on the information in Diagram 12.1, compare the value of heat of
combustion of RON 95 and RON 97?
Berdasarkan maklumat dalam rajah 12.1, bandingkan nilai haba pembakaran
bagi RON 95 dan RON 97?

.....
[1 mark ]

(ii) Explain value of heat of combustion of RON 95 is different from RON 97.
Terangkanmengapaterdapatperbezaannilaihabapembakaran RON 95 dan
RON 97.

....


[ 3 marks ]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 77
ESSAY QUESTION

4. Table 12.3 shows thermochemical equations of Experiment 1 and Experiment 2.


Jadual 12.3 menunjukkan persamaan termokimia bagi Eksperimen 1 dan Eksperimen 2.

Experiment Thermochemical Equation


Eksperimen Persamaan Termokimia
1 NaOH + X NaX + H2O H = -57.3 kJmol-1

2 NaOH + Y NaY + H2O H = -51.5 kJmol-1


Table 12.3

(a) Based on Table 12.3,


Berdasarkan Jadual 12.3,

Suggest acid X and acid Y.


Compare and explain the difference in the value of heat of neutralisation in
experiment 1 and experiment 2.
Cadangkan asid X dan asid Y
Banding dan terangkan perbezaan nilai haba peneutralan dalam eksperimen 1
dan eksperimen 2.
[6 marks ]

(b) In Experiment 1, 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is reacted with
50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3acid X.
Di dalam Eksperimen 1, 50 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida 1.0 mol dm-3
ditindak balaskan dengan 50 cm3 asid X 1.0 moldm-3.

(i) Calculate the heat released in the reaction.


Hitung haba yang dibebakan dalam tindak balas itu.
[2 marks]

(ii) What is the temperature change of the reaction mixture?


Apakah perubahan suhu bagi campuran tindak balas?
[Specific heat capacity = 4.2 J g-1 0C-1, density of solution = 1 g cm-3]
[Muatan haba tentu larutan = 4.2 J g-1 0C-1, ketumpatan larutan = 1 g cm-3]
[3 marks]

(iii) Experiment I is repeated by adding 100 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide
solution to 100 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 acid X. The temperature change is still
the same.Explain why.
Eksperimen I diulang dengan menambahkan 100 cm3 larutan natrium
hidroksida 1.0 mol dm-3 kepada 100 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 acid X,
perubahan suhu masih kekal. Terangkan mengapa.
[3 marks]

(c) Draw the energy level diagram for the neutralization in experiment 1.
State three statements to interpret the energy level diagram.
Lukis gambarajah aras tenaga untuk peneutralan dalam eksperimen 1.
Nyatakan tiga pernyataan untuk mentafsirkan gambarajah aras tenaga.
[6 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 78
5. The thermochemical equation for the displacement of metal M from M sulphate
solution by zinc as follows:
Persamaan termokimia bagi penyesaran logam M daripada larutan M sulfat oleh zink
adalah seperti berikut :

Zn + MSO4 ZnSO4 + M H = - 152 kJmol-1

(a) Based on the thermochemical equation above, suggest metal M.


Calculate the change in temperature when excess zinc powder is added to 50 cm3
of 1.0 moldm-3 M sulphate solution.
Berdasarkan persamaan termokimia di atas, cadangkan logam M.
Hitung perubahan suhu apabila serbuk zink berlebihan dicampurkan kepada
50 cm3 larutan M sulfat 1.0 moldm-3
[ 4 marks ]

(b) Table 12.4 shows the molecular formula and the heat of combustion for ethane and
propane.
Jadual 12.4 menunjukkan formula molekul dan haba pembakaran bagi etana dan
propana.

Alcohol Molecular Formula Heat of combustion/ kJ mol-1


Alkohol Formula molekul HabaPembakaran/ kJ mol-1
X C2H6 -1602

C3H8 -2202
Y
Table 12.4
Based on the information in Table 12.4, name alcohol X and alcohol Y.
Compare and explain the difference in the values of the heat of combustion
between alcohol X and alcohol Y.
Berdasarkan maklumat dalam Jadual 12.4, namakan alkohol X dan alkohol Y.
Banding dan terangkan perbezaan nilai haba pembakaran bagi alkohol X dan
alcohol Y.
[6 marks]

(c) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of combustion of a named


alcohol with a number of carbon atom per molecule less than four. In your
description, include a labeled diagram and the steps involved in the calculation.
[Relative atomic mass: C =12, O =16, H = 1]
[Specific heat capacity of solution = 4.2 J g-1OC-1 ; Density of solution = 1 g cm-3 ]

Terangkan eksperimen makmal untuk menentukan haba pembakaran bagi alkohol


yang dinamakan dengan bilangan atom karbon per molekul kurang daripada empat.
Dalam penerangan anda sertakan gambar rajah berlabel dan langkah pengiraan
yang terlibat.
[Jisim atom relatif: C =12, O =16, H = 1]
[Muatan haba tentu larutan = 4.2 J g-1OC-1;Ketumpatan larutan = 1 g cm-3 ]
[10 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 79

CHAPTER 13:/ BAB 13

CHEMICAL FOR
CONSUMERS/ BAHAN
KIMIA UNTUK
PENGGUNA
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 80
SECTION A

1. Diagram 13.1 shows three examples of modern medicine.


Rajah 13.1 menunjukkan tiga contoh ubat moden..

Type/ Jenis Example/ Contoh Function / Fungsi

Relieve and reduce pain

Antibiotic

Psychotic ..

Diagram 13.1

(a) Complete the table in Diagram 13.1 by identifying the type and function of named
medicine.
Lengkapkan jadual di dalam Rajah 13.1 dengan mengenal pasti jenis dan fungsi
ubat yang dinamakan.
[3 marks
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 81
(b) Puan Salmah found that both of her daughters, ages 6 and 18, were having a body
temperature of 38.5 0C.

Puan Salmah mendapati suhu badan kedua-dua perempuannya yang berumur 6 dan
18 tahun ialah 38.5 0C

(i) Based on Diagram 13.1, which medicine should be taken by her 18-year-old
daughter?
Berdasarkan Rajah 13.1, ubat manakah yang perlu diambil oleh anak
perempuannya yang berumur 18 tahun?


[1 mark]

(ii) Explain why the medicine in (b)(i)cannot be taken by her 6-year-old daughter?
Terangkan mengapa ubat di (b)(i) ini tidak boleh diambil oleh anaknya yang
berumur 6 tahun?

.
[1 mark]

(c) What advice should be given by the doctor to a patient taking antibiotic?
Explain your answer.
Apakah nasihat penting yang perlu diberi oleh doktor kepada pesakit yang
mengambil antibiotik?
Terangkan jawapan anda.


[2 marks]
(d) Table 13.1 shows a few examples of traditional medicine.
Jadual 13.1 menunjukkan contoh beberapa jenis ubat tradisonal

Garlic Aloe vera


Lemon Grass Tongkat Ali

Bawang putih Lidah buaya


Serai Tongkat Ali

Table 13.1

(i) What are two differences between traditional medicine and modern medicine?
Apakah dua perbezaan antara ubat tradisonal dan ubat moden?


[2 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 82
(ii) Using any example of traditional medicine in Table 1, state what illness can be cured
and how the traditional medicine is used to treat this ilness.
Dengan menggunakan mana-mana contoh ubat tradisonal dalam Jadual 1, nyatakan
apakah penyakit yang boleh diubati dan bagaimanakah cara menggunakan ubat ini.


[2 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 83

ESSAY QUESTIONS

2. (a) Diagram 13.2 shows canned food found in most households.


Rajah 13. 2 menunjukkan makanan dalam tin yang biasa dijumpai di rumah.

Diagram 13.2

Preservatives and antioxidant are added into the tin of sardine.For each type of food
additive, name an example and function for each type of food additive.

Pengawet dan antioksida ditambah ke dalam tin sardin. Bagi setiap jenis bahan
tambah makanan, namakan contoh dan dan fungsi untuk setiap jenis bahan tambah
makanan.
[4 marks]

(b) Diagram 13.3 shows Kuih Puteri Ayu which is a traditional food.
Rajah 13.3 menunjukkan Kuih Puteri Ayu iaitu sejenis makanan tradisional.

Diagram 13.3

(i) State two natural food additives added into this food and its function.
State one method how each natural food additive can be used.
Nyatakan satu bahan tambah makanan semulajadi yang ditambah dalam
makanan ini dan fungsinya. Nyatakan satu cara bagaimana setiap bahan
tambah makanan ini boleh digunakan.
[6 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 84
(i) Explain why one of the ingredients in the food is not suitable for a diabetic
patient. Suggest another food additive and explain your answer.

Terangkan mengapa satu bahan makanan dalam makanan ini tidak sesuai bagi
pesakit diabetik. Cadangkan satu contoh bahan tambah makanan lain dan
terangkan jawapan anda
[4 marks]

(c) Describe two advantages and two disadvantages of using food additives in daily life.
Give two suggestions to overcome the two disadvantages that you mentioned.

Terangkan dua kebaikan dan dua kelemahan penggunaan bahan tambah makanan
dalam kehidupan seharian. Berikan dua cadangan untuk mengatasi dua kelemahan
yang dinyatakan
[6 marks]

3. (a) Diagram 13.4 shows the structural formula of a soap anion, stearate ion.
Rajah 13.4 menunjukkan formula struktur anion bagi sabun, iaitu ion stearat.

CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 C

CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 O-

X Y

Diagram 13.4

State the solubility of part X and part Y during cleansing action.


Write an ionic equation to show the reaction of anion of soap in hard water.

Nyatakan keterlarutan bahagian X dan bahagian Y dalam tindakan pembersihan.


Tuliskan persamaan ionik untuk menunjukkan tindak balas anion sabun dalam air
liat.
[4 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 85
(c) Diagram 13.5 shows the conversation between two students in Form 5 Alfa about
the cleansing action of soap and detergent.

Rajah 13.5 menunjukkan perbualan antara dua orang murid dalam Tingkatan 5
Alfa tentang keberkesanan pencucian sabun dan detergent.

My sports shirt has a grease stain. How can I remove the


stain?
Baju sukan saya terkena tompokan gris. Bagaimanakah
cara untuk menghilangkan kotoran ini?

Use soap or detergent. The stain will definitely be


removed.
Gunakan sabun atau detergent, kotoran berminyak
itu pasti dapat disingkirkan

Diagram 13.5

(b) Based on the above conversation, describe the mechanism of the cleansing action of
soap or detergent .
Berdasarkan perbualan di atas, huraikan mekanisma pencucian sabun atau
detergen.
[6 marks]

(c) Two groups of pupils in Form 5 Alfa conducted a project to investigate the cleansing
action on oily stains using soap and detergent in two water samples, namely
seawater and rainwater. Describe a laboratory activity to investigate the effectiveness
of the cleansing action of soap and detergent in both of these water samples. In your
answer, include the procedure, observation and conclusion

Dua kumpulan dari Tingkatan 5 Alfa telah menjalankan satu projek untuk mengkaji
keberkesanan pencucian sabun dan detergen ke atas kotoran berminyak
menggunakan dua sampel air yang diambil iaitu air laut dan air hujan
Huraikan satu eksperimen yang dijalankan oleh mereka menyiasat keberkesanan
pencucian sabun dan detergen pada pakaian yang dikotori minyak dengan
menggunakan ke dua-dua sampel air tersebut. Dalam jawapan anda sertakan
prosedur, pemerhatian dan kesimpulan

[10 marks]
MODUL CEMERLANG KIMIA 2015 86

MARK
SCHEME :
(PERATURAN
PEMARKAHAN)

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