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GATE Exam Short Answers on Transformer

1. =

Power transferred conductively = 1-k
when they are equal
k = 1-k k=0.5
where, k=

2. Tertiary winding in 3 phase transformer is used to


(a) Connect capacitor for power factor improvement. (b) Connect
instruments for measuring purpose.(c) Suppress the third
harmonics components.

3. The desirable qualities of transformer oil are


(a) Dielectric strength> 40kv
(b) Fire point>200

4. A high leakage impedance transformer is used for application such


as arc- wielding.

5. Leakage impedance in a transformer may be minimized by


sectionizaing and interleaving the primary and secondary winding.
6. Most essential condition for parallel operation of transformer is
that they must operate in same frequency.

7. Two windings of a transformer are designated as H.V. & L.V.


windings.
8. Wt and flux density are inversely proportional.

9. In a power transformer core is made up of Silicon steel.

10. Core made of Soft-ferrite is used in pulse transformer.

11. For a transformer stepped core are used to reduce the


conductor material and thereby I2R loss.

12. For core type transformer, both primary and secondary have
circular coil section because, this section has the strongest
mechanical shape.

13. In an ideal transformer, if k is a constant and the supply


voltage is V then, V= jkImf.

14. Impedance can be transformed from one side to other side in


directly proportional to square of turns ratio.

15. Distribution transformer are designed to have Pc<Ph.


16. A transformer has sometimes two or more ratings depend
upon the cooling technique.

17. CRGO laminations are used to minimize both eddy current


and hysteresis loss.
18. In power transformer, no load current is 2-6% of rated
current.

19. If a transformer primary is energized from a square wave


voltage source, then it output will be pulse wave.

20. In a transformer,

=

21. Load at maximum efficiency x2=

22. If frequency increases both magnetizing and core loss current


decreases provided that supply voltage remain constant.

23. The voltage applied to a transformer primary winding


increase keeping constant, with this the core- loss will increase
and Im will remain constant.

24. As the load on a transformer is increases , the core losses


may increase or decrease depending upon the nature of load.
25. Thickness of lamination depends on the Rc value. Smaller
thickness lamination has smaller value of Rc

26. In a transformer low voltage winding is placed near the core


to-
(a) Reduce the insulation requirement. (b) Reduce the risk of
voltage shock in case of insulation breakdown.
(c) Reduce the total conductor material.

27. Keeping applied voltage constant if frequency increased, then


both magnetizing current and core loss decreases and vice- versa.

28. A transformer secondary is connected to purely resistive load


and its p.f. at the primary side is about near to 0.95 lag.

29. As compare to power transformer distribution transformer


has low percentage impedance and high I2R loss to core loss.

30. Conservator is used to avoid sludge formation in transformer.

31. Slugging means the slow formation of hydrocarbons due to


heating and oxidation.

32. The dielectric strength of transformer is expected to be 33kv.


33. The permissible flux density in case of CRGO(Cold Rolled
Grained Steel) is 1.7wb/m2.

34. In a transformer following low voltage winding has got more


cross- sectional area.

35. A transformer transforms- power not voltage, current or


frequency.

36. In a transformer routine efficiency depends upon load


currents & power factor of load.

37. Natural oil cooling is used for transformer upto a rating of


3000KVA.

38. Transformer breath in when load on it decreases.

39. No load current of a transformer has small magnitude and


low p.f.

40. Spaces are provided between adjacent coils to provide free


passage to the cooling oil.

41. Greater the secondary leakage fluxes less will be the


secondary induced e.m.f.
42. The purpose of providing iron core in a step- up transformer
is to decrease the magnitude of magnetizing current.

43. The power transformer is a constant main flux device.

44. Two transformer operated in parallel share the load


depending upon their per unit impedance.

45. A transformer oil must be free from moisture.

46. / transformer work satisfactory when the load is in


balanced condition.

47. / transformer works satisfactory in case of balanced and


unbalanced loads.

48. The leakage flux in a transformer depends only on load


current.

49. Noise level test in a transformer is a type test.

50. Helical coils can be used on low voltage side of high KVA
transformers.
51. The core used in high frequency transformer is usually core
type.

52. High voltage winding has got less cross-sectional area and
Low voltage winding has got large cross-sectional area.

53. In a transformer core flux density and frequency are


inversely proportional.

54. If the supply frequency to the transformer is increased its


iron loss will not change.

55. Negative voltage regulation is inductive that the load is


capacitive.

56. Sandwich type core is used in 3- shell type transformer.

57. The size of transformer core will depend on frequency and


area of the core.

58. In a power or distribution transformer about 10% end turns


are heavily insulated to withstand the high voltage drop due to line
surge produced by the shunting capacitance of the end turns.

59. A good voltage regulation of a transformer means output


voltage fluctuation from no load to full load.
60. Buchholz relay protection, normally not provided in small
distribution transformer.
61. If a transformer is continuously operated in the maximum
temperature rise will occur in winding.

62. The maximum load that a power transformer can carry is limited
by its voltage ratio.

63. If a transformer is switched on to a voltage more than the rated


voltage then its performance will deteriorate.

64. Auto transformer makes effective saving on copper and copper


losses, when its transformative ratio is approximately equal to one.

65. In case of transformer using CRGO the area of yoke is taken as


equal to that of core.

66. Helical coils are very well suited for low voltage winding of
large rating transformers.

67. For minimum weight of a transformer the weight of iron should


be equal to the weight of copper.

68. The iron losses of transformer can be calculated by knowing the


weight of core and yokes.
69. If a transformer is made of copper and coils are made up of steel
wire, then copper current losses will be more.
70. Oil impregnated paper condemner bushing is generally used on a
transformer operating at 132kv.

71. The colour of fresh dielectric oil for a transformer is Pale yellow.

72. The KVA rating ratio of transformer operating in parallel , as a


general rule should be within 1.3:1.

73. For a transformer upto a capacity of 10000KVA Air blast


cooling method is used.

74. As the supply frequency increases the rating of transformer also


increases.

75. The nominal short ckt. Voltage of the transformer is defined as


percentage of ratio of primary voltages.

76. In high frequency application ferrite core are used as it has high
resistance.

77. Cross over winding is used in high voltage winding of small


rating transformer.
78. In core type transformer the concentric winding are used with
low voltage winding placed next to core.
79. The yoke section of transformer using hot-rolled laminations
made 15% greater than that of core so as to reduce the iron loss in
yoke and magnetizing current.

80. The type of load for which the voltage regulation is negative is-
Capacitive load.

81. Increase in secondary current of a transformer brings about


increase in primary current. This is only possible when primary &
secondary is inductively coupled.

82. An auto- transformer is preferred to a conventional two winding


transformer where ratio of transformer is low.

83. In a transformer operating at constant voltage, if supply


frequency increases the core loss decreases and vice-versa.

84. At 50Hz operation, Ph= 200w & Pe= 100w


Find its core loss at 60Hz operation.
& =

= = = 240 =

= = =144w Ptotal= Ph2+Pe2=(

240+144)w = 384w.
85. The p.f. of a transformer on No load will be about 0.35
86. If in a transformer core, a material having high reluctance path
but having hysteresis loop is employed, then Im will increase.

87. Inductive reactance of a transformer depends on leakage flux.

88. Magnetizing current, for sinusoidal applied voltage will always


be non-sinusoidal.

89. If leakage impedance drop is negligible then mutual flux applied


voltage and also proportional to the winding current (corresponding
winding).

90. A transformer is supplying pure resistive(unity p.f.) load. The


p.f. on primary side will be about 0.95 lagging.

91. In a transformer supplying inductive load:- (a) The secondary


current results in equivalent primary in phase opposition.
(b)The secondary terminal voltage is less then the secondary
induced e.m.f.(c) The p.f. on primary side will be lower on that of
load.

92. The voltage regulation indicates either inductive or capacitive


load.
93. Power factor of transformer depends upon the p.f. of load at
which it is operated.
94. In a power transformer, if in place of sinusoidal wave, a peaked
wave voltage is fed to the primary iron loss will be less.

95. The nominal short circuit voltage of a transformer is defined as


the percentage of the rated primary voltage.

96. The short circuit voltage of a transformer mainly depends upon


its magnitude of leakage flux.

97. The efficiency of power transformer can be calculated from the


data of Open circuit & Short circuit test.

98. The permissible flux density in CRGO Steel is 1.1Tesla.

99. The magnetic properties of silicon steel crystal are best along the
cube edges.

100. The magnetic properties of CRGO are excellent along the


directional of rolling.

101. For a given applied voltage to a transformer; if its magnetic core


is replaced by an air-core then Im will increase and magnetic flux will
decrease.
102. Transformer core are coated with an enamel layer in order to
insulate laminations from each other.
103. For transformers employing CRGOS the area of yoke is taken
115% to 125% of that core.

104. The yoke sections of transformers employing hot rolled


laminations is made 15% more than that of core in order to reduce the
magnetizing current and iron loss in yoke.

105. The joins in the transformer core laminations are staggered so as


to- (a)Avoid continuous gap causing increases in magnetizing
current.(b)Increase the strength of assembled core.(c)Avoid undue
humming noise. (d)Facilitate assembly of core after putting performed
coils on the core.

106. For minimum weight of transformer, the iron los should be equal
to the weight of copper.

107. The primary and secondary windings are interlaced to reduce


leakage current.

108. In a large capacity transformer 5% of the turns at the end of


windings are provided with extra insulation so as to provide protection
due to surge occurring during switching operation.

109. Major insulation in a transformer is the insulation between the


winding and core and L.V. winding & H.V. winding.
110. The insulating material used in power transformer are- (a) Press
board (b) Type of glass (c) Synthetic resin bonded paper.

111. Multistep core is used in a transformer to decrease the cost of


copper.

112. The transformer from the construction point of view may be- (a)
Core type (b) Shell type or (c) Berry type.

113. A shell type transformer has reduced magnetic leakage.

114. Spiral core transformer in which core is made of steel strip has
the advantage of- (a) Minimum losses (b)Lighter construction (c)
Lesser weight.

115. A distribution transformer is required to supply variable load


between No load to Full load.

116. The most common method of cooling employed in power


transformer is- Oil cooling

117. Upto 10MVA natural oil cooling is used. Upto 5-10KVA Natural
Air cooling is used.
118. Addition of tubes to the transformer tank improves heat
dissipation capacity because of additional cooling surface.
119. Delta primary and star secondary gives the highest secondary
voltage.

120. Star-Star 3 connection create interference communication line.

121. In a transformer fed from a fundamental frequency voltage


source, the source of a harmonics is the saturation of core material.

122. In which transformer tertiary winding used is Star Star


formation.

123. The magnetizing current in a transformer in- 3rd harmonics.

124. In Scott connection transformation ratio will be 1.15 times the


main transformer.

125. Max short circuit current flow when the secondary open and
primary wave through zero value.

126. Two transformer operates in Parallel if they are Star-Star to


Delta-Delta connected.
127. The KVA rating of isolation transformer increases when used as
an auto-transformer because of the establishment of conductive link
between the primary and secondary.
128. Constant current transformer is of Shell type. Its secondary
winding is slightly greater in weight than primary. The main objective
of using constant current transformer is that its p.f. decreases as
distance between cols increases.

129. Gaseous discharge lamps use of high leakage reactance


transformer. High leakage transformer is of small volt-ampere rating.

130. Booster transformer should never be left short circuited.

131. The maximum load that a power transformer can carry is limited by
its voltage ratio.

132. If a transformer is switched on to a voltage more than the rated


voltage then its performance will deteriorate.

133. Auto transformer makes effective saving on copper and copper


losses, when its transformative ratio is approximately equal to one.

134. In case of transformer using CRGO the area of yoke is taken as equal
to that of core.

135. Helical coils are very well suited for low voltage winding of large
rating transformers.
136. For minimum weight of a transformer the weight of iron should be
equal to the weight of copper.
137. The iron losses of transformer can be calculated by knowing the
weight of core and yokes.

138. If a transformer is made of copper and coils are made up of steel


wire, then copper current losses will be more.

139. Oil impregnated paper condemner bushing is generally used on a


transformer operating at 132kv.

140. The colour of fresh dielectric oil for a transformer is Pale yellow.

141. The KVA rating ratio of transformer operating in parallel , as a


general rule should be within 1.3:1

142. For a transformer upto a capacity of 10000KVA Air blast cooling


method is used.

143. As the supply frequency increases the rating of transformer also


increases.

144. The nominal short ckt. Voltage of the transformer is defined as


percentage of ratio of primary voltages.

145. In high frequency application ferrite core are used as it has high
resistance.
146. Cross over winding is used in high voltage winding of small rating
transformer.
147. In core type transformer the concentric winding are used with low
voltage winding placed next to core.

148. The yoke section of transformer using hot-rolled laminations made


15% greater than that of core so as to reduce the iron loss in yoke and
magnetizing current.

149. The type of load for which the voltage regulation is negative is-
Capacitive load.

150. Increase in secondary current of a transformer brings about increase


in primary current. This is only possible when primary & secondary is
inductively coupled.

151. An auto- transformer is preferred to a conventional two winding


transformer where ratio of transformer is low.

152. In a transformer operating at constant voltage, if supply frequency


increases the core loss decreases and vice-versa.

153. At 50Hz operation, Ph= 200w & Pe= 100w


Find its core loss at 60Hz operation.
& =

= = = 240 =

= = =144w Ptotal= Ph2+Pe2=( 240+144)w =

384w

154. The p.f. of a transformer on No load will be about 0.35

155. If in a transformer core, a material having high reluctance path but


having hysteresis loop is employed, then Im will increase.

156. Inductive reactance of a transformer depends on leakage flux.

157. Magnetizing current, for sinusoidal applied voltage will always be


non-sinusoidal.

158. If leakage impedance drop is negligible then mutual flux applied


voltage and also proportional to the winding current (corresponding
winding).

159. A transformer is supplying pure resistive(unity p.f.) load. The p.f. on


primary side will be about 0.95 lagging.

160. In a transformer supplying inductive load:-


161. (a) The secondary current results in equivalent primary in phase
opposition. (b)The secondary terminal voltage is less then the secondary
induced e.m.f.(c) The p.f. on primary side will be lower on that of load.

162. The voltage regulation indicates either inductive or capacitive load.

163. Power factor of transformer depends upon the p.f. of load at which it
is operated.
164. In a power transformer, if in place of sinusoidal wave, a peaked wave
voltage is fed to the primary iron loss will be less.

165. The nominal short circuit voltage of a transformer is defined as the


percentage of the rated primary voltage.

166. The short circuit voltage of a transformer mainly depends upon its
magnitude of leakage flux.

167. The efficiency of power transformer can be calculated from the data
of Open circuit & Short circuit test.

168. The permissible flux density in CRGO Steel is 1.1Tesla.

169. The magnetic properties of silicon steel crystal are best along the
cube edges.

170. The magnetic properties of CRGO are excellent along the directional
of rolling.

171. For a given applied voltage to a transformer; if its magnetic core is


replaced by an air-core then Im will increase and magnetic flux will
decrease.

172. Transformer core are coated with an enamel layer in order to insulate
laminations from each other.
173. For transformers employing CRGOS the area of yoke is taken 115%
to 125% of that core.

174. The yoke sections of transformers employing hot rolled laminations


is made 15% more than that of core in order to reduce the magnetizing
current and iron loss in yoke.

175. The joins in the transformer core laminations are staggered so as to-
(a)Avoid continuous gap causing increases in magnetizing current.
(b)Increase the strength of assembled core.(c)Avoid undue humming
noise.(d)Facilitate assembly of core after putting performed coils on the
core.

176. For minimum weight of transformer, the iron los should be equal to
the weight of copper.

177. The primary and secondary windings are interlaced to reduce leakage
current.

178. In a large capacity transformer 5% of the turns at the end of windings


are provided with extra insulation so as to provide protection due to surge
occurring during switching operation.

179. Major insulation in a transformer is the insulation between the


winding and core and L.V. winding & H.V. winding.
180. The insulating material used in power transformer are- (a) Press
board (b) Type of glass (c) Synthetic resin bonded paper.
181. Multistep core is used in a transformer to decrease the cost of copper.

182. The transformer from the construction point of view may be- (a)
Core type (b) Shell type or (c) Berry type.

183. A shell type transformer has reduced magnetic leakage.

184. Spiral core transformer in which core is made of steel strip has the
advantage of- (a) Minimum losses (b) Lighter construction (c) Lesser
weight.

185. A distribution transformer is required to supply variable load


between No load to Full load.

186. The most common method of cooling employed in power


transformer is- Oil cooling.

187. Upto 10MVA natural oil cooling is used. Upto 5-10KVA Natural Air
cooling is used.

188. Addition of tubes to the transformer tank improves heat dissipation


capacity because of additional cooling surface.

189. Delta primary and star secondary gives the highest secondary
voltage.
190. Star-Star 3 connection creates interference communication line.
191. In a transformer fed from a fundamental frequency voltage source,
the source of a harmonics is the saturation of core material.

192. In which transformer tertiary winding used is Star Star formation.

193. The magnetizing current in a transformer in- 3rd harmonics.

194. In Scott connection transformation ratio will be 1.15 times the main
transformer.

195. Max short circuit current flow when the secondary open and primary
wave through zero value.

196. Two transformers operate in Parallel if they are Star-Star to Delta-


Delta connected.

197. The KVA rating of isolation transformer increases when used as an


auto-transformer because of the establishment of conductive link between
the primary and secondary.

198. Constant current transformer is of Shell type. Its secondary winding


is slightly greater in weight than primary. The main objective of using
constant current transformer is that its p.f. decreases as distance between
cols increases.

199. Gaseous discharge lamps use of high leakage reactance transformer.


High leakage transformer is of small volt-ampere rating.
200. Booster transformer should never be left short circuited.