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in Metal Oxide Surge Arrester

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Abstract: Metal oxide surge arresters (ZNO) are used widely in power system to protect

equipments from over voltages. Non uniform potential distribution leads to the depressed

service life and low safe reliability, so grading ring is applied on HV surge arrester order to

uniform the electric field distribution. One of the problems of arresters is leakage current in

power frequency that different parameters such as internal structure of varistors, heat sinks,

grading ring can be influence on leakage current. In this paper Maxwell and EMTP/ATP

software has been applied to calculate the electric field, voltage distribution and leakage

current in a high voltage surge arrester. First Maxwell is used to calculate the electric field

and voltage distribution of a 230 kV surge arrester with and without grading ring. Then

equivalent circuit of surge arrester has been achieved by applying Maxwell software for

230 kV surge arrester and extracting stray capacitances. The derived equivalent circuit has

been simulated in EMTP/ATP software for evaluation of leakage current. Also in this work,

the effect of grading ring dimensions and number of heat sinks on leakage current variation

has been investigated. Results show grading ring dimension and heat sinks number impact

on arrester leakage current.

Keywords: Grading Ring, Surge Arrester, Total Leakage Current, Resistive Leakage

Current, Voltage Distribution.

Metal oxide surge arresters are widely used as ZNO discs that allow the arresters project without gaps

protective device for protection of electrical device [1].

against switching and lightning overvoltage. The Metal oxide surge arresters are continuously stressed

physical construction of modern light surge arrester at the system voltage, this leads to small leakage current

consists of metal oxide discs stacked up inside a flowing through the arrester elements. This current is

porcelain or polymer insulator. The function as high the range several microampere to several tens of

impedances at normal operating voltage and becomes microamperes. Under steady state conditions the total

low impedances during surge condition. The electrical leakage current is composed of a large capacitive

characteristics are determined by the properties of the component and a small resistive component, which lead

metal oxide discs, which would degrade due to the to consider that the voltage distribution is mainly

power frequency operating voltage applied determined by the arrester capacitances [4].

continuously. The degradation of the arrester is In MOA, the ZNO discs placed near HV electrode,

determined by the potential distribution of arrester [1-3]. are highly stressed by excessive electric fields existed in

Several different types of arresters are available [e.g. vicinity the HV electrode. In the other words, the

gapped silicon carbide (sic), non-gapped metal oxide electric field distribution is non-uniform along the axis

(MO)]. The arresters installed today are almost MO of MOVs that causes to a faster aging of the varistors

arrester without gaps. This kind of arrester has been placed near the HV electrode. The grading ring is a well

used more and more, due to high energy absorption known means to uniform the voltage distribution along

the arresters, so in high voltage surge arresters installed

Iranian Journal of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, 2014. these rings near the HV electrodes for improving

Paper first received 18 May 2013 and in revised form 8 March 2014. voltage distribution but this ring may influence of total

* The Authors are with the Department of Electrical and Computer leakage current through surge arrester [5-10].

Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol, Iran.

E-mails: m.khodsoz@stu.nit.ac.ir and mirzaie@nit.ac.ir.

152 Iranian Journal of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, June 2014

In this paper through applying the Maxwell

software, electric field distribution and potential

distribution of 230 kV surge arrester (built in pars

arrester Co.) with and without grading ring is studied.

Such investigation has been done on insulators to study

voltage and electrical field distribution [11-12]. In [13]

several 230 kV insulator strings with different porcelain

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software, and their electric fields and voltage

distributions were calculated and compared together, to

investigate the effect of insulator types on these

quantities.

Also, in this paper the influence of spacer numbers Fig. 1 Geometry model of 230 kV arrester in Maxwell

and grading ring design parameters on voltage software.

distribution are also discussed. The 3-D Maxwell is 5

used to obtain the MOAs stray capacitances to utilize 8

x 10

in the equivalent circuit of the MOA. With the without grading ring

equivalent circuit, the influence of grading ring 7 with grading ring

parameters and spacers numbers on leakage current 6

variation is analyzed.

5

2 Technical Information of 230 kV ZNO Surge

4

Arrester

Table 1 represents the surge arrester technical 3

information consisting of 36 ZNO discs being divided to

9 equal sections so that one alumina spacer (heat sink) 2

geometry model of 230 kV arrester simulated in

Maxwell software for evaluation of voltage and field 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

distribution. Height (meter)

Fig. 2 Field distribution of 230 kV surge arrester with and

3 Maxwell Voltage and Electric Field Simulation without grading ring.

Results

5

Fig. 2 shows electric field along the surge arrester x 10

10

with and without grading ring respectively. Fig. 3 shows without grading ring

the electrical field along the line touching the shed edge with grading ring

of the 230 kV surge arrester. According to the figures 8

grading ring creates a great improvement in the electric

Electrical field (V/m)

grading ring on the upper flange can partially

compensate the influence of stray capacitors and modify

electric field distribution. 4

2

Table 1 Arrester technical information.

rated voltage 198 kV

0

Continuous operating voltage 158 kV 0 0.5 1 1.5

ZNO height 44 mm Height (meter)

ZNO diameter 58 mm Fig. 3 Electrical field at the edge shed of the surge arrester.

Total width of arrester 2205 mm

Internal diameter of insulator 140 mm Figs. 4 and 5 show voltage distribution, voltage drop

between every two spacers. It can be observed that

Max. diameter of insulator 343 mm

potential distribution without grading ring is too non-

Capacitive current 1.1 mA

uniform and maximum voltage drop in ZNO disc near

Resistive current 0.1 mA upper flange is 7.05%.

Khodsuz & Mirzaie: Analysis of Grading Ring Design Parameters and Heat Sink Numbers Effect on 153

200

without grading ring

Fig. 8 shows grading ring height (h) effect on

with grading ring voltage distribution between any two spacers. ring

installation height will affect voltage distribution and

150 the lower installation height (down to about 1724 mm)

causes more voltage distribution improvement. Fig. 9

Voltage (KV)

100 between any two adjacent spacers. It is clear that

Downloaded from ijeee.iust.ac.ir at 21:46 IRDT on Wednesday August 2nd 2017

improve. So given the above results, the effects of

50 grading ring parameters on voltage distribution are

evident. Therefore in Surge arrester design, the impact

of these parameters must be considered. Pars arrester co

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 for this kind of arrester chooses r = 32.5 mm, D = 425

Height (meter) mm and h = 1724 mm, which seems to be a good choice

Fig. 4 axial Voltage distribution of 230 kV surge arrester with according to the represented results and manufacturing

and without grading ring. constraints.

x 10

4

5 The Effect of Spacers Location on Voltage

4.5

w ithout grading ring Difference

4 w ith grading ring As it is known, the height of surge arrester housing

3.5 depends to the rated voltage of surge arrester and the

Voltage drop (Volt)

2.5 discs will be less than the height of housing, metal

2

spacers are employed to constitute the extra height. The

number and location of spacers on voltage distribution

1.5

may be effective, so the influence of these factors on

1

voltage difference would be investigated. Five different

0.5

locations for spacers are considered.

0

1-4 5-8 9-12 13-16 17-20 21-24 25-28 29-32 33-36

Case 1. One spacer between every three ZNO blocks

Zno number (totally 12 spacers) is considered.

Fig. 5 Voltage difference of 230 kV surge arrester with and Case 2. One spacer between every four ZNO blocks

without grading ring. (totally 9 spacers) is considered.

Case 3. One spacer between every five ZNO blocks

It is also noticeable that the maximum voltage drop (totally 8 spacers) is considered.

reduces to 3.46% when grading ring is used. So the Case 4. One spacer between every six ZNO blocks

existence of grading rings on the top flange can partially (totally 6 spacers) is considered.

compensate the influence of stray capacitors, improving Case 5. One spacer between every seven ZNO

the voltage distribution and thus reducing the voltage blocks (totally 6 spacers) is considered.

difference. Therefore results show positive effect of Table 2 shows spacer numbers affect on surge

grading ring on uniformity of voltage distribution. arrester maximum voltage difference. Because of the

influence of Spacers location on stray capacitances,

4 Effect of Grading Ring Design Parameters on maximum voltage distribution is changed by changing

Voltage Distribution the number of spacers. In comparison with other cases,

The installation height and structural size parameters when one spacer between every four ZNO blocks exists,

are shown in Fig. 6 in which r and D are inner and outer voltage difference is low.

radius of grading ring respectively and h is its relevant

height than to the down flange. According to the Pars Table 2 Effect of the number of spacers on surge arrester

leakage current.

Switch Co. information for this kind of arrester r, D and

Spacers Maximum Voltage

h are 32.5, 425 and 1724 mm, respectively. In this

Number Difference [V]

section the effect of these parameters on surge arrester

voltage distribution is investigated. Case 1 6565

Fig. 7 represents outer radius (D) effect on voltage Case 2 6492

difference between any two adjacent spacers. It is clear

that increasing outer radius causes voltage distribution Case 3 13060

to improve. It should be noted that excessive increasing 11400

Case 4

of outer radius is not economical and it must be chosen

within the acceptable range considering construction Case 5 11100

constraints.

154 Iranian Journal of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, June 2014

6 Studying Surge Arrester Leakage Current

As previously mentioned one of the problems of

ZNO surge arresters is leakage current under

continuously operating voltage. By considering of V-I

characteristic of ZNO block, this current consists of a

large capacitive component and a small resistive

component. The capacitance of each element can be

Downloaded from ijeee.iust.ac.ir at 21:46 IRDT on Wednesday August 2nd 2017

geometry and permittivity of each element. One of the

capabilities of Maxwell software is to calculate stray

capacitances. So the MOAs stray capacitances between

spacers and flanges, upper flange and down flange,

spacers and spacers , flanges and spacers and also ZNO

Fig. 6 the installation locations and structural size parameters blocks capacitances are extracted. Fig. 10 represents

of surge arrester. circuit model of surge arrester depicted in EMTP-ATP

4

software. Each ZNO block is modeled with a nonlinear

x 10

2.8 resistance in parallel with an extracted capacitance.

2.6

D=0.325

Nonlinear resistive characteristic of ZNO block is

D=0.425

adopted from IEC 60099 [14]. 36 ZNO discs were

Voltage difference(volt)

D=0.525

2.4

divided into 9 sections and between each section there is

2.2 one spacer. In this software total leakage current,

2 capacitive current and resistive current of the surge

arrester with and without grading ring was simulated

1.8

and studied.

1.6

flangeup-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-8 8-flange dow n

Spacer Number

without Grading Ring

Fig. 7 Radius effect on voltage difference between any two The purpose of this section is surge arrester leakage

adjacent spacers. current studying via EMTP-ATP circuit model. To

validate the accuracy of the circuit model, Fig. 11 shows

4

2.8

x 10 voltage distribution of circuit model in EMTP-ATP and

h=1.624 Maxwell software. It is obvious that voltage distribution

2.6 h=1.724

of the circuit model (derived via EMTP-ATP software)

Voltage difference (volt)

h=1.824

2.4 is the same as voltage distribution in Maxwell software,

2.2

indicating that proposed circuit model is an accurate and

suitable model for surge arrester.

2

Fig. 12 represents total leakage current, capacitive

1.8 and resistive components of surge arrester leakage

1.6

current without grading ring. According to this figure,

maximum amplitudes of total leakage current capacitive

1.4

flangeup-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-8 8-flangedow n and resistive components are 1.152, 1.14 and 0.109 mill

Spacer Number amperes respectively. This result is similar to pars

Fig. 8 Height effect on voltage difference between any two arrester co information (see Table 1).

adjacent spacers.

x 10

4 6.2 Effect of Grading Ring on Leakage Current of

3.5 Surge Arrester

r=0.0525

r=0.0125 The effect of grading ring on leakage current

Voltage difference(volt)

investigation of the circuit model accuracy, voltage

2.5 distribution obtained from EMTP-ATP and Maxwell

software is compared in Fig. 13. It is obvious that

2

voltage distribution of the circuit model (EMTP-ATP

software) is the same as Maxwell voltage distribution.

Fig. 14 represents total leakage current, capacitive and

1.5

flangeup-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-8 8-flangedow n resistive components of surge arrester with grading ring.

Spacer Number According to figure maximum amplitudes of total

Fig. 9 Inner radius effect on voltage difference between any leakage current, capacitive and resistive components are

two adjacent spacers. 2.378, 2.376 and 0.04049 mill amperes respectively.

Khodsuz & Mirzaie: Analysis of Grading Ring Design Parameters and Heat Sink Numbers Effect on 155

close to high voltage electrode is dropped when

compared to its value without the existence of grading

ring. It is clear from the results that resistive current has

reduced. Grading ring causes voltage regulation and

reduces voltage drop on ZNO disc (especially above

ZNO block). Thereby, according to the nonlinear

characteristic of ZNO block, resistive leakage current

Downloaded from ijeee.iust.ac.ir at 21:46 IRDT on Wednesday August 2nd 2017

reduces.

Current

Table 3 shows the influence of outer radius on surge

arrester leakage current variation. Results show

increasing outer radius not only improves potential

distribution but also decreases resistive leakage current

and increases total leakage current. The resistive current

increase causes varistor temperature to boast and thus

leads to degradation or damage of the arrester.

0.13

(a)

0.1

Ir (mA)

0

-0.1

-0.13

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06

t (sec)

1.5

(b)

Ic(mA)

0

CSij (i=1,2,,8 j=1,2,,8 CFF: Capacitance between

ij): capacitance between the upper and lower flange

two spacer -1.5

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06

CFUSi (i=1, 2 8): CFDSi (i=1, 2 8): t (sec)

Capacitance between the Capacitance between lower 1.5

(c)

upper flange and the spacers flange and the spacers

It (mA)

0

Fig. 10 Circuit model of surge arrester.

-1.5

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06

180000 t (sec)

maxw ell

160000 EMTP Fig. 12 Surge arrester leakage current without grading ring

140000

(a) Resistive current (b) Capacitive current (c) Total leakage

current.

Voltage (volt)

120000

100000 5

x 10

2

80000 EMTP

60000 MAXWELL

1.6

40000

Voltage (Volt)

20000

1.2

0

F-up Sp1 Sp2 Sp3 Sp4 Sp5 Sp6 Sp7 Sp8 F-dow n

0.8

Fig. 11 Voltage distribution of circuit model and Maxwell

software.

0.4

regulation increases capacitive current. Since the 0

F-up Sp1 Sp2 Sp3 Sp4 Sp5 Sp6 Sp7 Sp8 F-dow n

majority of the total leakage current is capacitive current

thus total leakage current increased. In presence of Fig. 13 Voltage distribution of circuit model and Maxwell

grading ring, voltage difference on above ZNO discs software.

156 Iranian Journal of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, June 2014

0.05

(a) comparison with other cases, when one spacer exists

between four ZNO blocks, total and resistive leakage

Ir (mA)

-0.05

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 Table 3 Radius effect on surge arrester leakage current.

t (sec)

Outer Radius [m] It [mA] Ir [mA]

2.5

(b)

Downloaded from ijeee.iust.ac.ir at 21:46 IRDT on Wednesday August 2nd 2017

Ic (mA)

0

0.425 2.3752 0.04049

-2.5 0.325 2.0691 0.042612

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06

t (sec)

2.5 Table 4 Installation height effect on surge arrester leakage

(C)

current.

It (mA)

0

Installation Height [m] It [mA] Ir [mA]

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06

t (sec) 0.674 2.3752 0.04049

Fig. 14 Surge arrester leakage current with grading ring 0.574 2.4544 0.03739

(a) Resistive current (b)Capacitive current (c) Total leakage

current. Table 5 Installation height effect on surge arrester leakage

current.

Table 4 represents mounting height affect on surge Inner Radius [m] It [mA] Ir [mA]

arrester leakage current. It is obvious that high

installation height increases resistive leakage current 0.0525 2.604 0.037627

and decreases total leakage current. So the low 0.0325 2.3752 0.04049

installation height is effective, because it can improve

voltage distribution and decreases resistive leakage 0.0125 2.1484 0.04462

current. Lower leakage current is desirable and causes

lower accession of surge arrester temperature. Table 6 Effect of spacer numbers on surge arrester leakage

Table 5 shows the influence of inner radius on surge current.

arrester leakage current variation. Results show that Spacers Number It (mA) Ir (mA)

increasing inner radius not only improves potential

distribution but also decreases resistive leakage current Case 1 2.4412 0.040611

and also increases total leakage current. High resistive Case 2 2.3752 0.04049

current increases power losses and varistors temperature

so it leads to degradation or damage of the arrester. So Case 3 2.4125 0.040937

larger radius is better, Note that increasing radius must

Case 4 2.4185 0.0403

be within the acceptable range of engineering.

Case 5 2.4221 0.0521

6.4 The Effect of Spacers Number on Surge Arrester

Leakage Current Variation

For investigating spacers influence on surge arrester 7 Conclusion

leakage current five different locations are considered: In this paper the grading ring influence on voltage

Case 1. One spacer between every three ZNO blocks distribution and electric field in 230 kV surge arrester

(totally 12 spacers) is considered. was studied. Results show significant effect of this ring

Case 2. One spacer between every four ZNO blocks on potential and field regulation so that grading ring

(totally 9 spacers) is considered. maximum voltage drop changes from 22.4% to 13.7%.

Case 3. One spacer between every five ZNO blocks In order to study grading ring effect on leakage

(totally 8 spacers) is considered. current, stray capacitances of the metal oxide arrester

Case 4. One spacer between every six ZNO blocks applying Maxwell software, which would be used to

(totally 6 spacers) is considered. simulate the equivalent circuit of the metal oxide

Case 5. One spacer between every seven ZNO arrester in EMTP-ATP software, were extracted.

blocks (totally 6 spacers) is considered. Results show that variation of grading ring design

Table 6 shows spacer numbers affect on surge parameters changes total leakage current and its

arrester leakage current. Results show that the leakage components. The presence of ring increases total

current changes as the numbers of spacer vary. In leakage current and capacitive component but decreases

resistive current. This reduction in resistive amplitude is

Khodsuz & Mirzaie: Analysis of Grading Ring Design Parameters and Heat Sink Numbers Effect on 157

due to decreases in voltage drop in ZNO disc near the [10] N. Alame and G. Melik, Axial voltage and

upper flange. Because lower voltage at ZNO disc causes gradient distribution of metal oxide surge

that this nonlinear disc works in the region with low arresters, Proceedings of the 3rd Int. Conf. on

resistive current. Properties and Applications of Dielectric

As it is known, to cool and fill ZNO column space, Materials, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 1149-1151, July.

some spacers between ZNO blocks are used. The 1991.

numbers of spacers can be effective on the leakage [11] E. Akbari, M. Mirzaie, M. B. Asadpoor A.

Downloaded from ijeee.iust.ac.ir at 21:46 IRDT on Wednesday August 2nd 2017

current, so the influence of number and location of Rahimnejad, Effects of Disc Insulator Type and

spacers on leakage current was investigated. Corona Ring on Electric Field and Voltage

Furthermore, five different locations for spacers were Distribution over 230-kV Insulator String by

considered. Results are reasonable and good, applying Numerical Method, Iranian Journal of

one spacer between every four ZNO block (case 1). Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 9,

No. 1, pp. 44-57, 2013.

References [12] J. Du, Z. Peng, J. Li, S. Zhang, N. Li and Ch. Fan,

[1] A. D. Carlos and A. R. Rafael, Surge arresters, Electric field calculation and grading ring

IEEE, Potentials. 1996. optimization for 1000 kV AC post porcelain

[2] C. A. Christodoulou, M. V. Avgerinos, L. insulator IEEE Int. Conf. on Solid Dielectrics

Ekonomou, I. F. Gonos and I. A. Stathopulos, (ICSD), pp. 198-201, 2013.

Measurement of the resistive leakage current in [13] D. Huang, Zh. Zheng, Zh. Huang, W., J. Ruan

surge arresters under artificial rain test and and P. Li, Calculation model simplification

impulse voltage subjection, IET Journals, study for porcelain insulator string potential and

Science, Measurement & Technology, Vol. 3, No. grading ring surface electric field distribution of

3, pp. 256-262, 2009. UHV AC transmission line IEEE Conf. on

[3] R. J. Hollman, D. V. Heirman and J. Gorman, Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena

Overvoltage protection and insulation (CEIDP), pp. 634-637, 2013.

coordination in power systems, IEEE standard [14] IEC 60099 Standard, second edition.

1313-1999, IEEE Guide for the Application of

Insulation Coordination.

[4] B. H. Lee and S. M. Kang, A new on-line Masume khodsuz was born in Sari,

leakage current monitoring system of ZnO surge Mazandaran, Iran, in 1985. She received

arresters Original Research, Article Materials the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degree in power

Science and Engineering. Vol. 119, No. 1, pp. 13- engineering both from Mazandaran

University of Technology in 2007 and

18, May. 2005. 2010, respectively. She is currently

[5] K. Feser, W. Kohler, D. Qiu and K. Chrzan, pursuing the Ph.D. degree in high

Behavior of zinc oxide surge arresters under voltage engineering in Babol University.

pollution, IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Her research interests are electric field

Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 688-695, April 1991. and magnetic field analysis, high-voltage engineering and also

[6] L. Xie, J. Zheng, Z. Li, W. Dong, K. P. Zha and power quality in power systems.

G. Tang, Optimization of grading ring design for

a new UHV equipotential shielding capacitor

voltage transformer, IEEE Conf. Electrical Mohammad Mirzaie was born in

Ghaem-Shahr, Iran in 1975. Obtained

Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, pp. 748- B.Sc. and M.Sc. Degrees in Electrical

751, 2011. Engineering from University of Shahid

[7] J. He, J. Hu, S. Gu, B. Zhang and R. Zeng, Chamran, Ahvaz, Iran and Iran

Analysis and Improvement of Potential University of Science and Technology,

Distribution of 1000-kV Ultra-High-Voltage Tehran, Iran in 1997 and 2000

MetalOxide Arrester, IEEE Trans. Power respectively and Ph.D. Degree in

Delivery, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 1225-1233, 2009. Electrical Engineering from the Iran

[8] J. He, R. Zeng, Sh. Chen and Z. Guan, Potential University of Science and Technology in 2007. He worked as

distribution analysis of suspended-type Metal- an Assistant Professor in the electrical and computer

engineering department of Babol University of technology

oxide surge arresters, IEEE Trans. Power from 2007. His research interests include life management of

Delivery, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 1214-1220, October high voltage equipments, high voltage engineering,

2003. intelligence networks for internal faults assessment in

[9] U. Kumar and V. Mogaveera, Voltage equipment and studying of insulation systems in transformers,

distribution studies on Zno arresters, IEEE cables, generators, breakers, insulators, electrical motors.

Proc.- Generation. Transmission. Distribution,

Vol. 149, No. 4, pp. 457-462, July. 2002.

158 Iranian Journal of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, June 2014

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