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PEMP

ACD2501

Aircraft Performance,
Performance Stability and Control

Session delivered by:


Mr Ramjan Pathan
Mr.

M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 1


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ACD2501

Session Objectives

Aircraft Performance:
BBasics
i off performance
f ( t d state
(steady t t andd accelerated)
l t d)
Performance characteristics of aircraft for (Civil
passenger, cargo, Military
Military- fighter, bomber)
Range, Endurance, Rate of climb, maximum Mach number
Stabilityy and Control
Basics of stability : CG location , AC, limits
Longitudinal, Lateral control

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ACD2501

Performance Basics

Speeds : Maximum and Stall, Range,


and Rate of Climb

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ACD2501

Performance

Performance: A measure of how well a device does


its job
Airplane Performance Examples
Speed ->
> how
ho fast/slow
fast/slo can it go?
Rate of Climb -> how fast can it go up?
Ceiling ->
> how high can it go?
Range -> how far can it go?
Endurance -> for how long can it fly?
Takeoff/Landing -> how much runway does it need?
Turning -> what is the minimum turn radius?

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ACD2501

Performance

Helicopter Performance Examples


Hover Capability
H C bilit -> how
h muchh weight i ht can it lift vertically?
ti ll ?
Speed -> how fast can it go?
Rate of Climb -> how fast can it go up?
Ceiling -> how high can it go?
Range
g -> how far can it ggo?
Endurance -> for how long can it fly?

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ACD2501

Performance

Aircraft performance is determined by following


Mathematical
h i l Modeling
d li
Computational Fluid Dynamics
Classical
Cl i l aero/propulsive/mass
/ li / analyses
l
Ground Testing
Wind tunnel testing
Static engine testing
Flight Testing

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ACD2501

Steady level Flight

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ACD2501

Performance

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ACD2501

Performance

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ACD2501

Performance

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ACD2501

Performance

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ACD2501

Performance

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Stall Speed

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Stall Speed

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Stall Speed : Example

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Vmax : Maximum Speed

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Vmax : Maximum Speed

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ACD2501

Vmax : Maximum Speed

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ACD2501

Vmax : Maximum Speed

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ACD2501

Vmax : Maximum Speed

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ACD2501

Vmax : Maximum Speed

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Rate of Climb (ROC)

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ROC

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ROC

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ROC

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Typical ROC numbers

Ref : Performance Stability Dynamics and Control by Bandu Pamadi


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Turn Performance

Airplanes turn by tilting the Lift vector, to give :


HHorizontal
i t l component, t L * Sin
Si ( ),
)
bank
b k angle
l
Sharper the turn, larger the needed Lift Vector

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Turn Performance

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Turn Performance

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Range : How Far

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Range

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Range

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Range

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ACD2501

Range

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Range

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ACD2501

Range

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ACD2501

Range

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Stability

Longitudinal: Static, Dynamic


Lateral

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Stability Analysis

Elevator, Aileron & Rudder Fixed These are at a fixed angle during the motion
Elevator, Aileron & Rudder Free They are free to adjust as the motion goes on

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ACD2501

Otto Lilienthal
Determined of prop of cambered wings.
Recorded materials, construction tech, handling char, aerodynamics
from over 2000 models
His models were statically stable but with negligible control

Octave Chanute
Biplane and multiplane wings
Wing controls and vertical tail

Samuel Pierpont Langley


Concluded that heavier than air flight was possible
Analysed
Anal sed existing
e isting data and developed
de eloped his own
o n from his own
o n
experiments
Developed and perfected unpiloted powered models
All these people had influence on the Wright Brothers design
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The Wright Brothers finally succeeded where others


failed because of their dedicated scientific and engg
efforts. Some of their major accomplishments are;
They designed and built a wind tunnel and balance system
to conduct aerodynamic tests. They developed a systematic
airfoil aerodynamic
y database
They developed a flight control system with adequate
control capability
They designed a lightweight engine and efficient propeller
They designed an airplane with sufficient strength-to-
weight ratio,
ratio capable of sustained powered flight

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Equilibrium, Stability and Control

Equilibrium : When all forces (Lift, Weight, Drag,


Thrust ) and moments about the cc.g g cancel out
Stability : An airplane is said to be statically stable if,
following a disturbance
disturbance, forces and moments are
produced by the airplane which tend to reduce the
disturbance byy itself.
Control : Forces and moments produced by pilot
inputs
p to bringg the airplane
p back to equilibrium
q after
disturbance.

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ACD2501

Equilibrium, Stability and Control

Stability and controllability are different


St
Stability
bilit : If a system
t isi in
i equilibrium,
ilib i ability
bilit to
t maintain
i t i
that state
Controllability : the ability to change the equilibrium state
Very stable airplane will resist changes in its attitude
and hence,, will be difficult to control.
Military airplanes, for which maneuverability is one
of the requirements, have lower levels of stability
than civil airplanes.
Stability is desirable but not necessary in piloted
planes
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Stability
An airplane may be stable under some conditions of
flight and unstable under other conditions.
For instance, an airplane which is stable during straight
and level flight
g mayy be unstable when inverted,, and
vice versa.
This stability is sometimes called inherent stability.
Modern combat aircraft are deliberately made to be
inherently unstable, as this increases their
manoeuvrability (Eg TEJAS)
This requires a sophisticated automatic artificial
stabilisation
bili i system, whichhi h has
h to be
b totally
ll reliable.
li bl
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Static Stability 1 DOF


Statically stable. If the forces and
moments on the body caused by a
disturbance tend initially to return
the body toward its equilibrium
position, the body is statically
stable.
Statically unstable. If the forces
and moments are such that the
body y continues to move awayy from
its equilibrium position after being
disturbed, the body is statically
unstable.

Neutrally stable. If the body is


disturbed but the moments remain
zero, the body stays in equilibrium
and is neutrally stable
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ACD2501

Dynamic Stability
1. Dynamic stability deals with the time history of the vehicles motion after it
initially responds to its static stability.
2. Consider an airplane flying at an angle of attack (AOA) such that the
moments about the center of gravity (cg) are zero.
3. The aircraft is therefore in equilibrium at e and is said to be trimmed, and e
is called the trim angle of attack.
4 Now imagine that a wind gust disturbs the airplane and changes its angle of
4.
attack to some new value . Hence, the plane was pitched through a
displacement ( - e )
5. Three responses are possible

Aperiodic Damped Damped Oscillatory U d


Un-damped
d Divergent
Di t

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Stability

For a successful flight :


Ai
Airplane
l mustt be
b able
bl to
t achieve
hi equilibrium
ilib i flight
fli ht
It must be manoeuvrable for wide range of velocities and
altitudes
For these, aircraft must possess aerodynamic and
propulsive
p p controls
Stability and control characteristics of an airplane are
referred to as handling characteristics

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Longitudinal Stability and Control

Wing Contribution Elevator Effectiveness


Aft Tail Contribution Elevator Trim
Canard Configuration Hinge Moment
Fuselage Contribution
Power Effects

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PitchingMomentVsCL

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DegreeofLongitudinalStability

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EffectofCGmovement

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Directional Stability and Control

Following components contribute to instability


Wing
Wi Contribution
C t ib ti
Fuselage Contribution
Nacells
Following components contribute to instability
Vertical Tail Contribution
Rudder

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Roll Stability and Control

Wing Dihedral Ailerons


Wing Sweep Spoiler
Position of Wings on
Fuselage
g
Vertical Tail

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FLIGHT CONTROLS

Flight controls and instrument panels vary,


vary but have the same basic
functions.
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FLIGHT CONTROLS

Turning Left Turning Right

Movingg the yyoke LEFT or RIGHT moves the ailerons on the wings
g in
opposite directions. One moves UP as the other goes DOWN.
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FLIGHT CONTROLS

Pulling back on the yoke moves the elevator on the tail UP, moving
the
h airplane
i l nose UP to climb.
li b

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FLIGHT CONTROLS

Pushing forward moves the elevator DOWN,


DOWN moves the nose DOWN to
descend.
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FLIGHT CONTROLS

Brakes are
located at the
top or toe
of the pedal

Pilots use rudder pedals on the floor to move the rudder LEFT or
RIGHT to helpp the airplane
p turn.

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Stick Force

Force exerted by pilot to move the control


surface
f
Stick Force Gradients
Trim Tabs

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Stability and Control

Inherently stable airplane


returns to its original condition
after being disturbed. Requires
less effort to control

Center
C t off Gravity
G it concerns:
Unable to compensate with
elevator in pitch axis
Weight and Balance becomes
critical taught in a coming
lecture

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Control Surfaces and their Function

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Control Surfaces and their Function

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Subjects involved in Flight Dynamics

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Inverted Flight

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Aerodynamic Surfaces

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Aerodynamic Surfaces

B727 Spoilers
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Stability & Control


The 3 axes of motion: roll, Pitch
pitch, yaw
Yaw

Roll

yaw

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Roll Control

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Phugoid Motion
Phugoid mode is a lightly damped long period oscillation.
The incidence is almost constant and the aircraft varies altitude
at constant energy, trading potential for kinetic and back again

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Trim and Stability

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Stability and Moment coefficient variation


How the moment coefficient CM varies with angle-of-attack
determines the stability of the aircraft

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Effect of C. G. Position on Stability


If the c.g. is forward of the aerodynamic centre, dMcg/d will
be negative and the aircraft will therefore be statically stable.
If the
th c.g. isi aft
ft off the
th aerodynamic
d i centre,
t dMcg/d
dM /d will ill be
b
positive and the aircraft will therefore be statically unstable.
If the c.g.
g is at the aerodynamic
y centre,, dMcg/d
g will be zero
and the aircraft will therefore be neutrally stable.

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Forces and Locations Conventional A/c

Assuming T, D and ZT and ZD are small

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Forces and Locations Conventional A/c


L is bigger than D and T so it is a fair to drop the last 2 terms
giving.

Using non-dimensional coefficients and defining tail volume


ratio as

Typical
yp values for Tail volume ratio

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Typical Values for Tail Volume Ratio

Note : For Trim,


LHS should be zero

This equation can answer the questions


What is the lift required at the tailplane for trim. or
Calculate
C l l the h elevator
l angle
l required
i d for
f trim.
i

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Longitudinal Stability

lift
down lifft

ght
weig
Static stability (tendency to return after control input)
up elevator increases downward lift, angle of attack increases;
lift increases, drag increases, aircraft slows;
less
l downward
d d lift,
lift angle
l off attack
tt k decreases
d (nose
( drops).
d )

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Aside: CG and Center of Pressure Location

lift
down lifft

Aft CG increases speed:


the tail creates less lift (less drag);
the tail creates less down force (wings need to create less lift).
This
Thi also
l decreases
d stall
t ll speedd (lower
(l angle
l off attack
tt k reqd).
d)

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Longitudinal Modes

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Lateral Stability
Lateral static stability : refers to the ability of the aircraft to generate a yawing
moment to cancel disturbances in sideslip V
Question : Which direction should the yawing moment act to align the aircraft with
th l it vector
the velocity t ?
Original Flight Direction

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Typical Experimental results

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Lateral Stability

It is the ability of the aircraft to recover from a roll


without pilots intervention
intervention.

If the wing is tilted upwards


Dihedral is good for from root to tip, it has a
lateral stability. dihedral.

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Anhedral

If the wing dips down from root


Anhedral is bad for to tip, it has an anhedral.
lateral stability.

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Not all of Dihedral !!

Note the large


g anhedral on IL76 IAF Gajaraj;
j j;
this is common on high wing planes
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What happens when the aircraft undergo a ACD2501

roll?

Lift
Lift

A portion of the lift


is pointed sideways.
The vehicle moves
laterally.
This is called sideslip.

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During sideslip, a relative wind flows from ACD2501

right to left

This wind has


a component normal
to the wing on
the right, viewing
A downwash occurs from the front.
on the left wing, This is an upwash.
reducing lift. The upwash increases
lift on the right wing.

As a result, the aircraft rights itself,


and recovers from the roll.

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Effect of Dihedral

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Effect of Side force

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Dutch Roll

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Effect of Vertical Fin on Rolling


Vertical Fin is used to stabilize the aircrafts direction
This is often referred to as weather
weather cock
cock behaviour
This force however induces a rolling movement as
acts Ff over the c.gg location

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Load Factors due to Banking

Figure reveals an important fact about turns that the load factor increases at
a terrific rate after a bank has reached 45 or 50.
If the load factor at 60 bank is 2 Gs, then at 80 bank it is more than 5Gs.
The wing must produce lift equal to these load factors if altitude is to be
maintained.
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V-g Diagram
Aircrafts operational envelope is presented as V-g diagram

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The price paid for a large static stability


margin

The aircraft may become sluggish, hard to maneuver.


The tail will resist the pilots attempt to change the
aircraft angle of attack.
A large tail adds to aircraft weight, and cost.
A smaller tail will require
q a longg fuselage(
g ( a longg
enough crowbar!) to generate enough of a pitching
moment to bring the nose up or down.
Tail generates drag, including wave drag!

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Horizontal Tail in Steady Level Flight needs ACD2501

to produce a download to balance all


moments.

Tail Lift
Aircraft c.g.

The wing produces a counterclockwise moment about the c.g.


The tail will have to produce a clockwise moment about the c.g.
These two moments (i.e. force times distance) must roughly balance.
The wing has to generate enough lift to overcome the weight + Tail lift
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Relaxed Static Stability

For improved maneuverability, some fighter aircraft


sacrifice
ifi the
h static
i stability
bili margin.
i
Some fighter aircraft are statically unstable.
Their nose will continue to pitch up, the lift will
continue to go up when a upward gust is encountered.
Result: A/C will stall,
stall flip over.
over
These aircraft must be actively controlled by the pilot,
or an onboard computer
computer.
Redundant computer systems are present in case a
computer based flight control fails.
fails
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Directional Stability
Freestream comes from pilots
right side, due to cross wind. The force on the tail
I causes nose to rotate to left
It l f causes the aircraft
viewed from the top. to rotate back to
original direction.

A cross wind may cause the nose to rotate about the vertical axis,
changing the flight direction.
direction
The vertical tail behaves like a wing at an angle of attack,
producing a side force, rotates the aircraft to its original direction.
All of this occurs without pilot action or intervention.
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Why twin tail?

Some fighter aircraft have twin tails.


Eachh off the
h tails
il may beb small,
ll reducing
d i radar
d cross
section.
Alternatively,
Alt ti l twice
t i th surface
the f means twice
t i th
the
amount of side force that can be generated, giving
good directional control.
control
Disadvantage: Cost of manufacturing, weight go up.

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Twin Fins for Directional Stability

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Directional Control

Adverse aileron yaw


The aileron that moves downward creates lift and
induced drag.
Induced dragg ppulls the nose of the airplane
p around in the
direction opposite the way the airplane should turn.

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Directional Control
Rudder
Rotates the airplane about its vertical axis (Yawing)
Also provides
pro ides a form of roll control because
beca se the application of
rudder causes yaw which will induce a roll.

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Lateral Stability

If one wing is lowered (e.g. by turbulence), the


airplane sideslips.
sideslips
The lower wing has a greater angle of attack (more lift).
This raises the lower wing.
g

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Directional Stability

As the airplane turns to the left (e.g. in turbulence),


the vertical stabilizer creates lift toward the left.
left
The airplane turns to the right.

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Session Objectives

Following Topics were covered in this lecture


Aircraft
Ai f Performance:
f
Basics of performance (steady state and accelerated)
Performance
P f characteristics
h t i ti off aircraft
i ft for
f (Ci il
(Civil
passenger, cargo, Military- fighter, bomber)
Range,
g , Endurance,, Rate of climb,, maximum Mach number
Stability and Control
Basics of stabilityy : CG location , AC, limits
Longitudinal, Lateral control

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Thank you !

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