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HT ee Cg | ST euite ecentea eet tes This CodeMaster provides fe steps to guide the engineerin structurally cesigning ‘ypical wood framing members (columns, beams, js, raters, et. n acoorganoe | withthe 2009 Intemational Busing Code (IBC), ASCE 7-05 Minimum Design ‘Loads for Budings and Other Structures (ASCE 7), andthe 2005 National Design ‘Spectication® for Wood Construction (NDS*). The NDS includes a valuable commentary and an NDS Supplement which provides secton properties and [reference design values. Allowable Stress Design (ASD) is emphasized; however, Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) is also incuded, This Codetaster ‘adresses the design of rectangular sawn lumber and structural glued laminated timbers (GLB). Wood structural panos, wod piss, structural compesite lumber {UWL PSL, LS, OSL, et) and decking ae not addressed Wood has @ wide aay of diferent material properties in separate orthogonal rectors that ae influenced by many factors. Recognizing woods unique properties and proper application of adjustment factors i at the heat of timber | design. Calculated stresses are denoted by lowercase lters (such a8 fy for caleuated bending stess) and reterence design values by upper case eters (such as F). The NDS denotes the adjusted design valves witha “pime" marking (Fo! Fi Fo Fe, Fes, E, Emu tc), and itis these adjusted values that are the basis for design Wood stuctral members such as beams and columns ar subject o many pes ofcads, ining gravity fads, dead, ve, snow, and ri) an ltr ods (09. wind, earthquake, and sol). Gravy loads are determined by computing the scl’ slight nation tive and snow cas deerined in czrdance wh IBC Secions 1607, 1608, and ASCE 7 Chapter. Wins ods ae deteines | in accordance with IBC Secton 1608 and ASCE 7 Chepe 6. Earthquae loads axe eiemined in accoréance wth IBC Secon 1613 and ASCE 7 Chapters 1 through 23, excluding Chale 14. See the 2000 BC Wind Overiw Godelier and 200 IBC Seismic Design Codetaso for more infomation. Once the loads have been deterined, the load pat tough the stucue is anlzed to determines eecs such as bending moment, hear forces, compression ces, ‘and tension forces on indvidual faming mambers. The load elects are then combined in accordance wit the load combinations of BC Secon 1605. | SEORETS OF THE CODEMASTER: The seweight of wood framing may be assume io be 35 bf for most structural ber typi equileriam moisture | Contens. NOS Supplement Table 1B provides unt weigh er conmon member Sizes. However, publshed dead loads assumed fr cen appcatons (eg, | escent) ofen aeady nude see of sawn kmber rang ments SECRETS OF THE CODEMASTER: Designers have 2 choie of using ASD or LLRFD load combinations. Whie ASD is mare conventonal, designs using LRFD loads are easily adaplable with simple conversion factors and with most adjustments remaining unchanged, STEP 2 Determine Axia, SHEAR. ano Be Fi Using unit loads irom STEP 1 in conjuncon with tacing he load path, member tending, shear, compression, and tension forces are delemines. Computing ‘member tibulary are i ertcal to load path analysis and is aso necessary in | ceteriing any applicable ive load eéuctons, Tributary aee ve led reducions ‘are delemined in accordance with IBC Section 1607.8 (Foor ive) and Section '1607-11.2 (oot Sve). Where aplied beam loads occur near the member's | S990 the dein shear force may be redved per NDS Seaton 243.1 TT Woon Design EUG Er peaks HEB = Trouay on idee | SECRETS OF THE CODEMASTER: For sloping bending members such as root ‘afters, ro! ive loads and snow lads are defined as horizona-pojeced plane loads, and itis offen acceplable to simpy use horizontal span lengths for the ‘bending member anaiysis. Whi this smpfiction ignores the increased length of the rater relative to @ horizontal projection, it also ignores the editona bending ‘and compression load capacity provided by the rot sheathing and the reduced loads using a sloped rafter Ing versus th horizontal projection. ie tes foe Selecion of sawn lumber member size and weod species group i largely ven by regional avaliabity. Fora given locain, only a fow species groups wil generally be avaabe. Most common are te falling sofwood species groups: | Douglas frareh Souther pine Hem Spruce-pine-e | Most ypicallyspectid are cessed sizes which are ‘cinch o*/-nch smal than specified nominal sizes. The range of cressed sizes and their secon properties ‘are in NDS Supplement Tale 18. Dimensional size terminology defines Wekness (breadth) as the narrow dimension and wid (depth) asthe largest mension, | Godan evetge |S |__ Stuctures a. Codes insttute Tet: (847) 991.2700 || Astalmy of SK. Grom Assos ne Fox (047 oe 2702 ‘eo akgetbntecites com Skghoen@ooicom I ISBN 978-1-996038-06-7 Copyright © 2011 by SKGA ‘American Wood Coun ~ wwnawe org Inematonl Code Coun -wrwiceste.rg Woods ~ wwwoodwors org Detemirngamenbers crostsetonal ze fofen not done Srey butinsead can ite sres of tons. Cacid steses a cou © beam a | clependent on member size an, 2 wl be seen in Sep 7, austd design values | tan temselves aso be dependent on member se. Tetlre, beginning win a preiinay tal member se checking ts adequacy. andthe ering he size | uteri tn necessary. This tia-nd-or process canbe inmizadby making | | oot ral selection of « mente se | |For bending members, tis oen best to tart wth he roqued stiles because detection imtatons can fen cota! design in addon, requredsthass cn be “computes drecty witout ia! ander, Beam sf isa functon of span L, cross-sectional moment of inertia I, and aused modulus of easy E. The | uragusted mad feast E may initay be used: however, ajstng Eto E | by rearing to Step 7 wil be mare benef Western Species Wit lve, se, Sn, 81, ar, 10K" Southern Ping Width: 35,8, Bet, 1012" Beam design formulas with shear and moment dagrams for some commen | loading conditions are avaiable one from the American Wood Couns Design| ‘id #8 (wuw.awe orhpbicatons;DAindex hi) | TBC Table 1604.3 places limits on defections under a vary of loading conitons ‘and shoud be used to determine the minimum member stiffness requrements ‘These are minimum reqemens fr servieablly unde the IBC, bt the designer may elect to further imit member defection woere foorvbratons could cause | ccupan discomfort, where senstve equpmentissupportes, where unique bile | finishes, glazing, or cladding could be damaged, or where water could pond ‘excessively on a fat oF. Roo hopes less than inch per foct need to have ther slifness checked for ponding istabilty per IBC Secon 1611.2. ae selected eliher by stress ‘dass or iny-up combinations in [NDS Supplement Tables 5A-5 ‘and are largely ten by regions ‘valet. Customary design ‘wins and depths are in NDS ‘Supplement Tables 1C and 10. fine {ives laminsie timber matenls | Peet Sues i NOS Supolement abe stor refsrence design values for sbergh and sthess (FoF Fr Fess Fo E 284 Ey) aozoting to 1) sawn lumber spedes group, 2) grade Sassiicaion and 3) size Gassicaon. Witin the sawn lumber epecee group seleced, there are several grade casslcaions wih vayng propertes rom which to chaos. Grade clssicatons {Select Sucre No.1, No.2 et.) ae asgned by a visu inspectn for growth haradlerstes that afectstenghh and siiess. Individual pices of lumber are visual inspected orcs, pits, checks, gn charetrss, and oe factors that reduce srengh and sess compared wih clear lumber. Atematvel, a certain atenlage of lumber is machine graded based on mle sifness. This she of | gradings limited o dimension kenberand is more cen usedin secondary manulactured | menters (eq, }ostand tusse) an thsi not win he scope ofthis Coder. | Sze cassifcation can be described as a system to idenly the end use of sawn lumber. For sie cssicatonpupeses, aun umbels vided ino he folowing fou | categoris: 1) “dmensiona?’ lumber used sight framing, si, and planks, 2) fmbers used as bears and stingers, 3) bers usd as post and timbers, and 4) locking. Tho floning tale ites several ales inthe NDS Supplement that | provide reference dein values for agen sz classiicaton. Fa bldg = Greenhouses = via “cnr ana ban argh Lea ee gh “stb ie arn pe rea et | ‘nmontaty ating on nn, # pce elie dia Reference Design Values UBD ection wots mst canes 16% attain ad se ny re xs (Visaly Graded Saun Lumber” ‘he er etecs nats nen cmp me sd sores ae wh ahs Size Cassiication | Nominal Sizes | NOS Supplement | meena ad Bae, See eae a) BxB and ger and | Timbers ~— more than 2" wider than] Table 4D | Beams and Stingers clio | ‘xB and leer, and ot Timbers | | mote than2"widerthen| ‘Table 4D | Posts and Timbers | }] Wy, a0 4x, VE | Decking"* and goove or grooved toes | : for sine on naw face By determining required moment of ier I, a preliminary member size is ‘Das ves wadive gdb ier rd DS Sipe Tae "“Uumbe ested an dag lil te spe 8 Ceaser (Gued laminated timber efrence design values are asocited wit he selected | stress lasso lay-up combination and are found in NDS Supplement Tables 6A-6D. | selete using section properties iste in NDS Tables 18, 1C, and 1D. With his | | Preiminary member sze which sates sUthess requirements, the appicable | reference design value for bending wil be checked in Stops 6 and 7, and member size adjusted upward i necessary. Determining a preliminary ta sz or 2 lesion manber cn be simply gone by comping the requited css-Sectona area using equation in Sip 6 wih be reference design value fr terion n Stop 7. Oy wth dimension lumber ses (2,3, ithe aust design vl for tension cependent on member size, thus regutng a takand-rer process. The relationship Agua * Tension | rormaly provides conservabve resus under nomal serie condos. A | preliminary member seis sled using Secten properties ists in NDS Tables, |B, 1C, and 1. ‘Compression Members: Due to sensitivity of compression members (eg. cokumns, post, sts) to bucking, drecty saving for a member size isnot possible. Member size is | ‘dependent onthe reference design value for compression which s adjusted forthe column slendemess rato. However, the column slendemess rato isin tum fependent on member size. Because ofthis inteependency, a ra-and-eror process is necessary ftom the beginning. Selecing good frs-rial member size [volves some sil and experience. ‘The NDS provides aditonal desion requirements fr the following special column situatons: 1) columns made up of mule spaced members (NOS Secton 36.22), 2) columns made up of mutile built-up members (NDS Secton 36.2.3), and 3} columns utizing a tapered leng (NDS 37.2) ‘ter selecting @ peiminary member size and evaluating bending members for sliness raqitements, there are up to fve stress properties hat need to be ‘evaluated depending on loading conditions: 1) ending svess, 2) shear sess | parle to grain, 3) tension stress paral o grain, 4) compression stress paral {o grain, and 5) compression stess perpendicular to gran. These are computed sing cross-sectional properties b, d, A, and $ fom the tabualed dressed size for sawn lumber or the net size for glued laminated timber (NDS Supplement Tables 18, 1€ and 10). Shear stresses inthe vii of notches and ‘connectors are evaluated per NDS Sections 3432 and 3433. Paral to grain Pera to grain Perpencicuaro rain ‘Ataer angles to gran, see NOS Section 3.10.3 For bending moment M, shear force V, tension fore T, and compression force P; acing on secon modulus S, area A, width b and depth 6. ‘SECRETS OF THE CODEMASTER: Wood is very weak in tension applied perpendicular o grin and should be avoided Reference design valves obtained in STEP 4 need to be adjusted for various | ‘condions that may be applicable. The folowing table provides a mat of those | adjustments thal are applicable to various reference design vales for sawn lumber and glued laminated timbers. Following he table are descriptions of the various adjustment factors: Tels/8) [lel 52 Flelele|, if voor |E42'8\8le|_ lel /s ESI lEla ls STEUER Paper rea Bz |e /d/a/s EIS {EES E628 ‘SECRETS OF THE CODEMASTER: Roo! lve load is typicaly fr mainenance | operations and may be classed as @ constuction fad for the purposes of determining the load duration factor, Cp, i eae ete eet Ae} CUO ca stad teh Net 1. te eae stesees for ben, shee, compessn paraleo-rin conpesson ppenseartogan and tent porn al on the coresponcing adjusted desn vas, te menber dest is scamplate for members wih cnbied tenn ands sespes, proceed e STEP 9 for an ana check 2, I the caeulated stesses are more than the coresponding adjusted design values, te design needs to be revised wih anew tal size. Relum o STEP 8. Sis ieee eee embers subject to a combination of bending and aval loads need to be ‘nvesigates for combined svesses. Tension stesses and compression stresses can each combine with bending stesses to create & citcl design condition. The folowing equatons om NOS Section 3.9 need tobe checked fed ‘Bending wt Asal Tension: $1.0 value muti bya appleabie |adusmat ars except, | Flees beng ei | value multiplied by all applicable adjustment factors except Cy rem Toko Bending wit Axial Compression t f f sl + A] + s1 tf i) a ian {tor eter una agence | for uniaxial aise beng or ix ending ‘y= eal edgewse bending sess (Sec load apied to narow face of] member) | = actual fawise bending sess (bending oad apple owe ace of meter) = wie face dimension (se Fig 12) = naw face dimension (ee Fue 12) 1 and iste in Fgue 7 the combined sess equations above are sats in adion to STEP 8, the ‘member design is accepabe Sua sae Glued laminated timber beams may be fabicated wth intentional upward ‘curvature or “camber” to oppose the atipaed inal defection and subsequont long-term creep deflection under gravy. A property cambered beam wil defen to 3 neatly fat profie after many years, providing @ more visualy appeaing appearence and mitigating the iketood of ponding water on alow-slope rot. The fotowing equations provide reasonable aporoxmation for speciying camber here dp isthe inital defection under unfactored dead loads and any pon of the lve load considered to be sustained over long period of time |For give laminated for beams under dry.use condlons: Camber = 1.0 doy For glue laminated root beams under dye condiions: Camber = 15 Ap. For glued laminated root beams under wotuse conditions: Camber 20 do, Camber is species as either “inches of camber’ as calculated above or as radius | of curvature that is to be used inthe manufacturing process, Lumber distributors may also cary “stock beams that have slandard cambers incuded. These ‘cambers are specified in tems of a curvature radius (3,500 feet and fate) and |can be easly coworted using tables by AITC and APA. Designers should use caution when speciying camber in foor systems. Well and partons may be dificult to constut on a foor where long-term creep deflection has not eliminated | he upward croun of camber. In addon, when dead loads are overestimated, the | permanent upward crown in a for system may be undesirable SECRETS OF THE CODEMASTER: Camber is not @ code requremen! but instead is an option forthe designer. Designers may specify camber simpy as a ‘umber of inches upward from level al midspan. I i equally imporiant to special state i no camber s desis, ‘The authors ofthis document donot make any waranty, expressed or mpied. or assume any legal ably or responsibly forthe use, appicaton of andl referance ‘o the information included in this pubicaton. Consut your local juris or 2 design professional to assure compliance with code, constuction, and perfomance requirements I 12 ‘See Size Factor, for Sx and larger (Iatvise use) A i H i i aeea E cll 035, TNE BEE fe Ne a Ds a eae ee Le Pee ee aa pee ee ERS SEES Se ers? i [Over izxwiger [os [ue oe jomixe | owe | we [Ai ier sas Figuro 9. llustration of the Cy Dimensions bd, and 7 Li ft) fs measured between points of zero moment or ‘ends of beam Pe {hand J,= distances between on rene than 3 eee Les