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Expt.

No :
Date :

PERFORMANCE TEST ON SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC PANEL

Aim

To conduct performance test on the solar panel and to determine its efficiency
at two different angles 20o and 30o.

Apparatus required

Photo voltaic panel, Pyranometer, Multimeters and a Measuring scale.

Description

Photovoltaic generation of power is produced by radiation on semiconductor


device that separate positive and negative charge carries in absorbing material. In presence of
electric field, these charges can produce a current for use in an electric circuit. Such fields
exist permanently at junction or into magnetic in materials as built in electric fields.

Semi-conductor Junction devices are usually known as Photo voltaic cell or Solar cells
although the term is a misnomer in the sense that it is the current that is produced by radiation
on photon and not the voltage. A majority of photo voltaic cells are silicon semiconductor
junction devices. Thus in order to study the photo voltaic cells, one should have an
understanding of the basics of semiconductors. A solar cell constitutes basic unit of PV
generator, which is in the main component of power generation.

Formulae

Power
Efficiency, = x 100
Area Solar flux

Power, P = voltage (V) current (A)


Area, A = L B = 0.94 0.46 m2

pyranameter reading (mV ) 1000


Solar flux, I = W/m2
12.56

Procedure
1. The dimensions of solar photovoltaic panel is determined using measuring scale.
2. The PV panel is kept facing either North-South or South-North direction.
3. Using trigonometry the panel is kept at an angle 200 and 30o from horizontal.
4. The voltage and current readings from the two PV panels are measured using a
Multimeter.
5. This procedure is repeated for every 5-10 min interval.
6. Using the correlation, the efficiency of panel is found at the respective positions.

5
Observations

Table 1 Performance comparison of PV at 20 and 30 tilt angle.

Sl. Time Current Voltage Power Solar Flux, I Efficiency


Angle
No. (T) (A) (V) (W) (mv) (W/m2) , %

1. 20o

30o

2. 20o

30o

3. 20o

30o

4. 20o

30o

5. 20o

30o

6. 20o

30o

P
I 20
I

20
30
30

Time Time

Fig.1 Model graph for PV performance

6
Model calculations Reading ____
pyranameter reading (mV ) 1000
Solar flux, I = W/m2
12.56

L = Effective length of the solar PV panel =


B = Effective length of the solar PV panel =
Area =LB m2
=
For 20o
Power = V A (Voltage & Current at 20o)
=
Power
Efficiency, = x 100
Area Solar flux
=

For 30o
Power = V A (Voltage & Current at 30o)
=
Power
Efficiency, = 100
Area Solar flux
=

Graph
Plot graphs at 20o and 300 angles respectively for
1) Local time Vs Power
2) Local time Vs Insolation
3) Local time Vs Efficiency

Results and discussions