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L-4 In the Earliest Cities

1. Bronze. The alloy of tin and copper is called bronze.
2. Crafts-Persons. Men and women who made all kinds of things-either in their
own homes or in special workshops were the crafts-persons.
3. Raw materials. Substances that are either found naturally or produced by farmer,
herders are called raw materials. Raw materials are used to manufacture other
4. Rulers. People who planned the construction of special buildings in the city were
the rulers.
5. Scribes. People who knew how to write were the scribes.

Text Bk. Q/Ans.:

Q.1.How do archaeologists know that cloth was used in the Harappan civilization?
Ans.: Actual pieces of cloth have been found in Mohenjodaro, attached to the lid
of a silver vase and some copper objects. Spindle whorls have also been
discovered which were used to spin thread. This indicates cloth was used in the
Harappan civilisation.
Q.2. Match the columns To be done in the T.Bk. only.
Ans: Copper Rajasthan
Gold Karnataka
Tin Afghanistan
Precious stones Gujarat, Afghanistan.
Q.3.Why were metals, writing, the wheel and the plough important for the
Metals were used for:
1. Copper and bronze: Making tools, weapons, ornaments, vessels.
2. Gold and silver: Ornaments, vessels.
3. Writing has always been a very important means of communication. It was
important for the Harappans also.
4. The wheel was used in carts and pottery.
5. The plough was used to dig the earth for turning the soil and for planting seeds.
Q.4. Make a list of all the terracotta toys shown in the lesson.
Ans. Animals like lion, cheetah etc.
Q.5. Make a list of what the Harappans ate, and put a tick mark against the thing
you eat today.
Ans. Food items eaten by Harappans
They supplemented this diet by rearing animals.

Extra Questions:-
1. Name and describe the two parts of the cities of Harappa.
Many of the Harappan cities were divided into two or more parts:
i. Citadel: Usually it was the part to the west. It was smaller but higher
ii. Lower Town: Generally it was the part to the east end. It was larger, but lower.
Very often walls of baked bricks were built around each part. The bricks were laid in
an interlocking pattern and that made the walls strong.
2. What was unique about the city of Dholavira?
A. Unlike some of the other Harappan cities which were divided into two parts,
Dholavira was divided into three parts, and each part was surrounded with massive
stone walls, with entrances through the gateways.
B. There was also a large open area in the settlement, where the public ceremonies
could be held.
3. Where was Lothal located? List evidences which suggest that Lothal was
important for trading.
Ans.The city of Lothal stood beside a tributary of the Sabarmati, in Gujarat, close to
the gulf of Khambhat
a) It was situated near areas where raw materials (precious stones) were easily
b)It was an important centre for making objects out of stone, shell and metal.
c) There was also a store house in the city. Many seals were found in this store
d)A huge tank which may have been a dockyard was found in Lothal. Goods were
probably loaded and unloaded here.
4. List the reasons which could have caused the decline of the Harappan
a) Some scholars suggest that the rivers dried up.
b) Others have to suggest that there could have been deforestation.
c) In some areas, there were floods.
d) It also appeared that the rulers may have lost control
e) Sites in Sind and West Punjab were abandoned, while many people moved
into newer, smaller settlements to the east and to the south.

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