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Psych 108 1st LE - Notes

Session 1: The Need for Sikolohiyang Pilipino


What is psychology?
Scientific study of behaviour & mental processes of humans/human beings

The Relevance of Psychology


RA 10029: Philippine Psychology Act
The State recognizes that psychologists have an important role in nation-building and development.

Who is being studied in mainstream psychological research?


Research Samples are W.E.I.R.D (Henrich, Heine, & Norenzayan, 2010)
Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic
Student samples

What research methods do we use?


Halimbawa: Paggamit ng Experiments at Questionnaires
Lahat nga ba ng Pinoy kumportable sa pagsulat ng sagot nila sa papel?
Kapag nagtanong ka sa mga tao, maaasahan nga ba nating mag-isa (o independent) nilang sasagutan ang mga
tanong?

The limits of Western/North American/Mainstream Psychology


assumptions of our science:
psychological sciences are UNIVERSAL (i.e. can be applied)
any human being can serve as a representative for another i.e. SIMILARITY
OBJECTIVITY: not being biased

Virgilio G. Enriquez: Ama ng SP


pioneering research - what to study? how to conduct?
SP as a project with Dr. Virgilio Enriquez as our leader
SP can exist on its own because we have a history of it

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Sikolohiya sa Pilipinas i.e. Psychology in the Philippines
the general and overall form of psychology in the Philippine context
the sequence of events that have to do with the field of psychology in the country
Sikolohiyang bunga ng pagkakasunud-sunod ng mga pangyayaring may kinalaman sa sikolohiya sa ating bayan
kabuuang anyo ng sikolohiyang matatagpuan sa Pilipinas / overall appearance of psychology in the Philippines

Sikolohiya ng Mga Pilipino (SnP) i.e. Psychology of the Filipinos


theorising about the psychological nature of Filipinos, whether from a local or a foreign perspective i.e. anyone
can learn it
contributed by anyone interested
universal concepts, applied to Filipinos
pitfall: angat patong
we assume it works, but it doesnt
Enriquez (2007) considers such studies as the most common approach in investigating the Pinoy and their
supposed characteristics. However, he has observed, most of these studies engage in mindless angat-
patong in analyzing and explaining Filipino behaviors.

SINO ang pwedeng mag-aral / WHO can learn it Pilipino, dayuhan / Filipinos or foreigners

Anong METODO ang pwedeng gamitin / what Pwede ang banyagang metodo at oryentasyon
methods can be used

ANO/SINO ang mga kadalasaang inaaral (kadalasan) unibersal na konsepto (aplikasyon sa


mga Pilipino)

Sikolohiyang Pilipino (SP) i.e. Filipino Psychology


calls to indigenize the discipline to make it more culturally appropriate & sensitive brought about the birth of SP
(Katutubong) Sikolohiyang Bunga ng KARANASAN, KAISIPAN, AT ORENTASYONG (KKO) Pilipino

study LOCAL concepts by culture bearers e.g. Filipinos, as it is culture bears who can understand best
anchored on Filipino thought, ideas, orientation, and experience, as understood from a Filipino Perspective
researches which are interpreted within a local frame of reference, reflect local behaviors, and yield results that are
locally relevant

principal emphasis: identity and national consciousness, social awareness and involvement, psychology of
language and culture, and applications and bases of Filipino psychology in health practices
Why do we need Sikolohiyang Pilipino?
The universality assumption of psychology sometimes leads to an ill-fit of theory, content, and method
when applied to various areas in the country
(Isyu ng KAANGKUPAN ng mga teorya, balangakas, at metodo)
SP as a project: we need a psychology that aims to understand the Filipino based on our own context and
history.
ULTIMATE GOAL OF SP: Makabuo ng sikolohiyang bunga ng karansan, kaisipan, at oryentasyon ng mga
Pilipino > SIKOLOHIYANG PILIPINO

Tao sa bahay vs. taong-bahay

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actions are purposeful
conscious decision to develop the field
use of a more critical lens to evaluate the current state of the field

SINO ang pwedeng mag-aral / WHO can learn it Hindi inaasahang itoy lilinangin para sa mga
Pilipino ng mga sikolohistang dalaw lamang dito

Anong METODO ang pwedeng gamitin / what


methods can be used

ANO/SINO ang mga kadalasaang inaaral Malinaw at walang pag-aalinlangan dito ang
paninindigang sa mga Pilipino lamang
manggagaling ang Sikolohiyang Pilipino. (Enriquez,
1975)

Indigenization from Within vs Indigenisation from Without

research in SP includes all the studies that were categorized as either indigenization from within
(pagpapalitaw ng nasa loob) or indigenization from without (pagsasakatutubo mula sa labas)
Both count as general strategies to contribute to SP research

banyaga = dayuhan = foreign


katutubo = local

indigenization from without i.e. pagsasakatutubo mula sa labas


to consciously contextualize or localize Western frameworks, methods, and theories, making them more
meaningful to the local context / involves making something banyaga/foreign (e.g, framework, method, etc.)
more meaningful to the local context
aims to adapt foreign theories and methods
this strategy contributes to SPs development by translating methods, concepts, theories, and measures into
Filipino (e.g.,modifying the content and translating a psychological test into the local language so a Philippine-
type version is produced )
borrowing, adjusting, adapting, transforming
this seems to be the more popular between the two routes

PROSESO ng pagsasakuntektso upang maging mas angkop sa isang kultura


go beyond semantic equivalence and go to data equivalence
if you want to assess something as indigenized, you go through data equivalence
Bakit mahalaga ang Pagsasakatutubo (indigenization from without) para sa SP? / Why is it important?
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we are just borrowing and localise it
for accuracy of results
checks universality of an idea or concept - if it doesn't work then use something else
1. Makakagagdag sa kakulangan o kawalan ng lokal na teorya o metodo / we can use outside methods
2. Ipinapakitang bukas" ang SP sa Kanluraning sikolohiya / openness to multiple perspectives, not
necessarily anti-American but anti -angat patong
3. Maaring makatulong ang mga banyagang teorya sa paglutas ng mga isyung panlipunan / if we can
use foriegn issues to understand local issues then lets use it

indigenization from within i.e. pagpapalitaw ng nasa loob


uses the culture as a source in searching for concepts and methods believed to be more significant to the Filipino
and more appropriate in explaining Filipino behavior and experiences
develop local methods and theories
involves identification of key concepts, methods and theories; formalization into the discipline through
indigenous codification; systematization of implied theoretical frameworks (Enriquez, 1979)
Cultural revalidation of local concepts and methods is still necessary (Enriquez, 1992), subjecting them to
rigorous empirical tests in the search for katibayan (evidence), pagpapatibay (confirmation), and pagpapatotoo
(validation) that indeed they can account for behavior (Yacat, 1997).

PROSESO ng paggamit ng kultura bilang batis ng konsepto at metodo dahil sa paniniwalang:


mas malapit sa karanasan natin / closer to our experiences
mas angkop sa konteksto natin / apt/applicable/appropriate to our context
e.g. Sumpong, bahala na, hiya, kapwa, magandang-buhay
suggested process:
1. Pagtukoy at paglilinaw ng konsepto: Identify a concept
2. Pagtatakda ng kahulugan: conceptual definitions
3. Pag-test ng hypothesis:
4. Pagbuo ng teorya:
5. Paggamit ng konsepto: Apply theory and see if it works

THUS, Paano bubuuin ang SP? Goal is to form IP through


Banyaga; foreign
pagsasakatutubo mula sa labas; indigenization from without
Katutubo: local
pagpapalitaw ng nasa loob: indigenization from without

3 specifics aspects of indigenisation from within & without


1. Theoretical and Conceptual; localisation or development of indigenous concepts and frameworks
2. Methodological; development of instruments and methods that are CULTURALLY appropriate
3. Topical; the extent to which the topics under study are relevant to the concerns of the society and people ->
what is the topic or issue? aim: to solve local problems i.e. poverty, corruption,

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BENITEZ ET AL.
methodological - Developing and improving Mapa ng Loob
theoretical - mapa is local but constructs being measured is universal

HECHANOVA ET AL.
topical - disaster response/resilience
conceptual - katatagan
methodological - trying to develop a program

Batayan ng SP sa kultura at kasaysayan / What counts as psychological knowledge in Sikolohiyang


Pilipino?
1. Kinagisnang sikolohiya / leigh expectations and beliefs from way before
2. Batayan sa tao at ng kanyang diwa (academic- philosophical tradition)
Our psychological knowledge
mind-body dualism
some psychology developed in cebu
3. Panahon ng pagbabagong-isip
some knowledge of Filipino were systematised as a response to colonisation
treatises on how to behave
affirmation of how Filipinos are
we are good, we have virtue
Very biased for Filipinos
4. Panahong ng pagpapahalaga sa kilos at kakayahan ng tao (academic-scientific tradition)
behaviourist sense
behaviour + ability come from american behaviourist traditions
5. Panahon ng pagpapahalaga sa suliranin ng lipunan
martial law: reaffirmation of who Filipino is
hiya, utang loob
6. Wika, kultura, at pananaw ng Pilipino
kamayan - consciousness
diwa- intuition
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bait
loob - to reflect affect

Psychological knowledge in the Philippines can be traced from:


academic experiences of individuals
lay beliefs passed on from generations
reactions to national or localized experiences
FILIPINO CULTURE
Local psychological knowledge existed and developed alongside the development of psychology in the West.
Establishing the foundations of SP is an attempt to show that SP is different from Western/mainstream psyc

Session 2: SP is an indigenous psychology (IP)

Discover the origin stories of some indigenous psychologies


Difference of IP from cross cultural psychology
Characteristics of IP as they apply to SP

So far
Culture as resource of psychological concepts/knowledge
SP should reflect local experiences
SP should use local languages, literature, history, etc. in finding explanations for Filipinos behaviours and
mental processes
Implicitly, CULTURE (context/environment) as ANTECEDENT of behaviour and mental processes
person X situation > Behaviour and Mental Processes

Differences between SP, Sikolohiya sa pilipinas, and SnP?

Session 2: Tuesday, January 31, 2017

Similarities and Stark Differences among IPS?


Similarities
IP was a way to push back from post colonial history
Things are not applicable
They consider Western psychology unhealthy
Underlying goal
Mainstream to Western psychology
IP is criticised to be reactive ; trying to ward off negative insights
not just knowledge of knowledge for sake; they really want to make new things
each country had problems and they wanted to make psychology that will solve such problems

Differences
some countries did not want to wane away from Western psychology
focused more on religious philosophies e.g. China
Filipinos not anchoring theories on religion
more concepts from the Wika / language instead study of way on life
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Why did IPs develop?
zeitgeist; each era has a unique spirit, a nature or climate that sets it apart from all other epochs / the defining
spirit or mood of a particular period of history as shown by the ideas and beliefs of the time
response to anti-Western domination
issue of fit when it came to solving local problems
development of IPS were shaped by global and local events

Methodology
no clear cut suggestion on what to use
appropriateness- whatever is the most appropriate then that would be the method

Indigenous Psychology (Kim et al. 2006)


the scientific study of human behaviour or mind that is native, that is not transported from other regions,
and that is designed for its people

IP
emphasizes examining of psychological phenomena in context (true)
is exclusively about Native peoples, ethnic groups, or people living in Third World countries (myth)
each country can have their own IP
prescribes the use of a particular method (myth)
only insiders or culture-bearer have a full understanding of their own culture or context (myth)
you dont have to be an insider or culture-bearer to understand other people
another foreign can do SP so long as they have an understanding and appreciate of culture
is an attempt to translate episodic knowledge in analytic knowledge (truth)
episodic knowledge
lay understanding about the world i.e. episode in your life that you know of
events / own explanations of things
lay belief based on your own experiences
e.g. walang hiya
analytic knowledge
lay explanations to something more psychological and academic
you from a theory on why things happen e.g. why are people walang hiya
analytic definition of hiya:
starts and ends with a descriptive analysis of local/native/indigenous concepts (myth)
starts but does not end with this
the goal is to formulate a theory, not just an understanding of a concept
is predominantly based on philosophical and religious tests (myth)
a lot of IPS are based on philosophical and religious tests
has to be theoretically based
is part of the cultural sciences tradition (true)
advocates a multidisciplinary perspective (true)
is aligned with mainstream psychology in the search for universals (true)
kanyang kanya and then elevate to see what in common > IP

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Session 2: February 2, 2017

Overview from last class


indigenization
process of contextualising or localizing something (i.e. theories, concepts, methods)
e.g. adobo, which was a Spanish cuisine called adubado

Paano natin gagawing Pinoy ang mga to?


lakma sila sa panlasa natin
gamitin kung ano ang meron
prosesong pinagkaksunduan - a process everyone agrees on
Resulta? Parang sa American Idol lang: we have made them our very own.

Paano natin gagawing Pinoy ang mga to?


PROSESO
paghiram, pag-aangkop, pagbabago / process of borrowing, adjusting, transforming
RESULTA
nagsimula bilang banyaga subalit naiangkop na sa konteksto kaya mistulang Pinoy o atin na siya / It started
out as foreign however it fit into context, it became pinoy and became our own

Halimbawa Panukat Sikolohikal


pagsalin ng mga banyagang test / easiest way to indigenise something is to translate (pagsalin)

How do you assess the success of the indigenisation of a foreign scale?


semantic equivalence? one to one correspondence of the word
however simply translating a measure is NOT enough
but it should have DATA EQUIVALENCE - should be equivalent on the meaning of something i.e. assertiveness
should still be assertive if you translate
should be equivalent in the level of meaning, interpretation, accuracy

What do we know so far:


limits of Western psychology and the pitfalls of angat-patong
formal definition of SP
bases of psychological knowledge in SP > envisioned by Dr. E
characteristics of indigenous psychology
general and specific strategies

Tuesday, February 9, 2017 - Session 3: Culture as Psychological Variable

How do psychologists define culture?


How do we study culture as a psychological variable?

tampo - shared meaning, giving cues to other people

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May impluwensya ang KULTURA sa / Culture influences:
1. kilos
Ano ba ang tama o mali sa ibat ibang sitwasyon (e.g., roles during a date)
2. damdamin / feeling
Pakiramdam kung may violation (e.g., tampo)
3. pag-iisip
Decision-making (e.g., which goal to pursue)
K-D-P

CULTURE
teaches us the rules of what is right and wrong, as a way of life
a mechanism/source of variation and uniformity that underlie psychological processes
is amorphous (Brislin, 1993)
static or dynamic
external or internal

What can be used to operationalize culture?


values, norms, identity, language, & beliefs

O-S-M-W
Definition #1: Oyserman, 2002
external quality out there in the social world within which individuals live their lives and as a result of which
they internalise values, attitudes, and norms
culture is considered as a context
UP can have its own culture

Definition #2: Smith et al, 2013


comprises similar ways of responding to a context, similar ways of processing information, and shared
interpretations of the meanings of events occurring within the system
CULTURAL ORIENTATION: propensity to interpret surroundings in a particular and fairly consistent way
i.e. shared meaning system
we learn ways of interpreting things & shared meanings

Definition #3: Misra and Gergen, 1993


historically situated, collective product, constituted by the values, beliefs, perceptions, symbols, and other
humanity created artefacts which are transmitted across generations through language and the (media)
amorphous = values, beliefs, perceptions, symbols

Definition #4 Whiting, 1976


comprises an amalgam of bonded elements, which must be unpackaged if we are to understand their essence
i.e. can be broken down into elements
you can define based on structure, function, or process

Implications of SP

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Sabi nga ni Greenfield, 2000
The goal of indigenous psychology is to take informal folk theories of psychological functioning and formalize
them into psychological theories.
Indigenous psychology has, in turn, moved ethnopsychology from an object of empirical study to a source of
formal psychological models.
i.e. make something implicit > explicit

SESSION 4: COLONIAL MENTALITY - February 14, 2017 & February 21, 2017

TEMA #2: Naiimpluwensyahan ng karanasan ng mga Pilipino ang kanyang pagtingin (talking about CULTURE AS
CONTEXT; culture as a societal variable - this includes history)

What are the features/dimensions of CM?


Target: mga tao at/o bagay na pinahalagahan
Misyon: tanggalin ang kabuluhan at kahalagahan ng mga tao at/o bagay ng kulturang inferior at palitan ng
kulturang superior / strip everything of value so that it becomes inferior so you can finally impose a more
superior culture (ie you)

SPANISH
stripped us of our names
Spanish/Americans scared us
found a way to use gold sword etc

AMERICANS
benevolent, they were there to help us

Types of Colonisation
Precolonial Philippines
Spanish Colonisation
American Colonisation
Neocolonialization: when colonisers are not here/not physically present, but the colonial effects that they
imposed are still here

For both American colonisation and neocolonization: Historical and contemporary relationship with our colonisers
(more so with the US)

Phases of Colonization
1. Forced Entry
2. Cultural Imposition
imposition by force (war), by policies (like what the Spanish did), by religion
Who imposes what? The values of the dominant culture are what the inferior culture should follow
3. A series of sustained and justifies oppression and domination
Making it appear that the objectives are benevolent and saying that they are making us more human
Pretending to do a favor but they
4. Establishment of a race-based societal system

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e.g. indio can be abused, has to pay taxes

Colonization Experience
Oppression
process and condition wherein a group denies the rights, dignity, and worth of another group (David,
2011)
Cultural Domination
imposition, disintegration, recreation, and subversion
anything about the host culture will be ruined so that the foreign culture can be imposed
less powerful group will emulate the more powerful group

What is the possible consequence of this experience?


Oppression and cultural domination > internalised oppression > negative mental health outcomes
internalized oppression
proximal source of stress
source of stress is SELF (self is the target), hate is directed to the self and the hate is from the outside
inferiorizing identity

Psychological legacy of colonisation: Colonial Mentality


a form of internalised oppression (or self-flagellation, Mulder 1997)
you are hurting yourself
brought about by the experience of classic and contemporary forms of oppression and domination (*with the US)
involves an automatic and uncritical rejection of anything Filipino, and an automatic and uncritical preference for
anything American
can be subconscious/unconscious
basta lokal, low qual / pasta kano, hindi bano!
it is an individual difference variable; something related to the self with different levels (of CM)

Dimensions of Colonial Mentality (CM)


Covert Manifestations/CMCM: something you dont see; hidden; directed at the SELF; may kulang sa sarili ko
Denigration of the Filipino self / Internalized Inferiority
Denigration of Filipino culture / Cultural Shame & Embarrassment
Overt Manifestations/OMCM: not hidden; seen; directed at OTHERS; may kulang sa kanila
Negative attitudes of physical characteristics
Discrimination against less-Americanised Filipinos / Within-Group discriminations
BOTH Covert & Overt
Colonial Debt
buti na lang dumating ang America because we wouldnt have been able to study
everything that we are right now is because of our colonisers and because of this thinking, we
tolerate any forms of oppression
TOLERANCE OF OPPRESSION e.g. American bases - we feel they protect us

Cultural Model of Depression

Self-esteem: evaluation of the self

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High CM > lower personal self esteem > Higher depression

Collective self esteem: evaluation of group membership, patricianly being Filipino


High CM > low evaluation of being Filipino

Ethnic identity: identification as a Filipino


High CM > low identification to Filipino culture

Enculturation: associated or engagement to local culture


High CM > lower engagement to your own culture (i.e. you dont speak the language, you dont like the food)
-
Remote Acculturation
changes in behaviour, attitudes, and values as a consequence of indirect and intermittent contact with other
cultures
e.g. food, media, travelling/tourism

Vehicles of remote intercultural contact


1. Consumption of US goods/media/products
2. Communication w/U.S. individuals (including receipt of gifts)
3. Interaction w/ tourists

Consequence of remote acculturation Americanization


adherence to American culture more than ones own heritage culture
higher engagement with American culture and values, less engagement with your own culture
manifestation: speaking English/Taglish

Is acculturated bad? No
We become aware of egalitarian values & practices because of acculturation
In the case of Fil-Ams in the US, enculturation (adherence to own culture) can lead to socialisation of norms that
can be more harmful to self and others

Bicultural Mindsets
Integration: high endorsement and engagement with local culture while maintain a positive ethnic and global
identity

Future studies:
Who is more prone to CM?
What institutions socials individuals into a high CM-mindset/
Can we minimise CMs effects?

Alegre (193)
We were not colonised

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SESSION 5: SOCIAL CLASS - Social Structure

Social class (as context) answers the two following questions: Who am I? How should someone like me act?

social class so powerfully shapes important life outcomes (e.g., attaining a college degree)
How do we define social class?
3 ways of conceptualising social class
1. Objective, economic, and demographic index / measures of social class
Indicators of SES: income, educational attainment, occupation/occupational prestige, ownership of certain
assets
> Social class as socioeconomic Status (measure of current economic and social resources based on access to
materials and ability to acquire valued goods)

2. Subjective rank perception (i.e. subjective measure of social class)


Subjective social class
Self-definition or personal judgement of rank compared to others
Compare yourself to others
measured by a LADDER
perception of rank is highly correlated to objective measures

Subjective social class rank can be manipulated in the lab through PRIMING
PRIMING: Think of this ladder as representing where students stand in your university. Now, please compare
yourself to the students at the very bottom of the ladder.

3. Social class as a form of CULTURE (Cohen, 2000)


What is culture? Shared meaning systems, embodied in artefacts and practices, and transmitted across
generations e.g. a UP thing?
Why do we need to learn these meaning systems? They tell us how to act appropriately in specific contexts

STEPHENS ET AL. READING (2014)


Main argument: Life in different immersive environments bring about chronic experiences that shape the self
Divided groups into MIDDLE-CLASS and WORKING-CLASS (education that did not reach college)
Each class has a mindset that determines how the live life
Social class is an immersive environment
Chronic experiences: things that happen all the time in that context that shapes the kind of self you become
Model: Sociocultural Model of Social Class

important tenets of the sociocultural model of social class


1. social class develops the type of SELF one is likely to adopt
self: model of agency (how to be a person)
you have multiple selves
own volition to behave
multiple selves with a sense of continuity
schema or framework for interpreting events

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having different frameworks of how to behave as a human being
2. characterized by access to and availability of material and social resources
3. (social class operates/is embedded in) a larger national context
4. can either enable or hinder peoples aspirations / national ideal
5. life in different immersive environments bring about chronic experiences that shape the self
e.g. life in the Philippines

opposite of freedom is poverty

two types of self: hard interdependence and expressive independence


hard interdependence: depend on others
expressive independence: rely on yourself

you can have more than one type of self since there can be on type of self that is more salient to you

Who is more prosocial? HARD: fewer resources > more helpful


Who is more trusting? HARD
(EXPRESSIVE - everyone is good trust for them is only in their inner circle)
Who is more responsible for lifes outcomes? EXPRESSIVE: your outcomes are your own faults/successes

Cognition
Low income individuals: Contextual > when they attribute, the cause is external (because they connect more to
environment)
High income individuals: Dispositional > attributing the self

Emotion
Low: other-oriented > care more about others emotions and can detect more and have higher emotional
contagion
High: self-oriented

Behaviour
Low: engaged, prosocial > more nodding and listening when talking to others
High: disengaged, selfish >

Stephens, Cameron, and Townsend (2014)

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Poverty as a cutoff point
Contexts of poverty are characterised by reduced social connections, more problematic family relationships, and
less trust in others compared with working class contexts
compare: people in poverty vs people in working class
found that extremely poor people are not interdependent
since they have so little resources, everything is a competition and people become more selfish
its not automatic that if low income or low rank, you are not hard interdependence
others around you are unreliable, unsupportive

How are modes of being and becoming learned? (i.e. how do people learn how to become hard interdependent?)
Gateway contexts: institutions that form an individual
Home
Hard: Harsh parenting style
Expressive:
School
Hard: shy, not assertive because they are aware of social hierarchy
Expressive: asserting what you want, asking questions
Workplace
Hard:
Expressive:

These contexts PERPETUATE SOCIAL INEQUALITY (i.e. opportunity gap)


opportunity gap: differential access to valued resources

SOCIAL CLASS brings about a specific type of self through:


1. differential socialization afforded by the resources of a particular context (your social class affords you to
become a specific type of person i.e. more resources means more expressive while fewer resources afford you
to become more interdependent)
2. institutionalisation of a specific values/norms (e.g. how boss treats employees)
3. Who am I? I am.. hard interdependent/expressive independent
4. How should someone like me act?
reliant on others and quick to just to a situation or individual-focused and self-expressive
there are correct or more normative ways of behaving depending on where you are
there are class-specific shared meaning systems

SESSION 6: RELIGION AS CULTURE


How do psychologists define religion, religiosity, faith, and spirituality?

Religion has the power to influence sexual expression


Religion forms part of your social identity
Religion espouses a lot of behaviours
made to feel guilty and remorse and regret
subscribe to a shared meaning sytem > how does it affect how you behave?
religion as a meaning system
What can people do with religious texts, images or practices; what does it enable or prevent to do?
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How does religion participate to human meaning-making?

guilt: emotion felt when you think you did something bad
shame: emotion arising from the consciousness of something dishonourable, improper, ridiculous, etc.., done by
the SELF

Religion (Oser, Scarlett, & Bucher, 2006)


institutions and systems consisting of organisational structures, codes of behaviour, and symbol systems defining
assumptions and beliefs designed to create in people wonderful, comprehensive, and enduring world views and
attitudes

4 Components of Religion: each has a particular psychological function


1. Beliefs; allows us to find meaning and truth
2. Rituals/Emotions; to make it feel like youre connected to something bigger than you and feel a host of
positive emotions e.g. prayer
3. Moral Rules
4. Community/Group; identifying with a group and making you feel good about yourselves
b-r-m-c
religion > ways of becoming; more blatant; what is right

Religiousness/Religiosity
related to an individual difference variable
subjective modes of experiencing and interpreting the relationship to God through and by means of a religious
tradition
i.e. specific religious expressions (how do we measure ones religiosity? church attendance, how often you pray,
religious coping)

Spirituality
a highly individualised search for the sense of connectedness with a transcendent force
i.e. a search for the sacred
religion is pathway towards fulfilling spiritually

Religion and Spirituality hard to distinctly separate

Why is religion important in peoples lives? / Religious Motivations


We turn to religion for
comfort (EMOTIONS/RITUALS)
you do rituals to feel comfort
a sense of meaning (BELIEFS)
a sense of community and identity
discovery and relationship with what we consider scared (RITUALS/BELIEFS)
we want to search for something that is divine
self control and healthy lifestyles (MORAL RULES)
its hard to be self regulate so religion is there to tell you whats bad
controlling impulses that are labelled or tag as sinful
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How do religious beliefs influence peoples behaviours, beliefs, and emotions?
Religion/s or religious doctrines
Serve as template for what is true / what is true for you depends on what your religion dictates
Does God exist? Is there such as thing as sexual orientation?
evoke particular emotions (emotions are antecedent of behaviours)
guilt
shame
joy
disgust (e.g. a man/man kissing)
drive moral judgements
religon became the basis of mortality
what sexual practices can we do? what can we eat? what can we wear?
define group membership

Is it possible for religion to be harmful to people?


Dogmatism: unjustified uncertainty that you are correct, that your beliefs are correct, even in the face of
evidence that says its wrong
not open to disconfirming evidence
no critical thinking
the tendency to lay down principles as incontrovertibly true
the expression of an opinion or belief as if it were a fact
Fundamentalism: demand that your beliefs should be personally recognised and legally enforced
you become a fundamentalist when you say my faith is correct, you have to recognise it, follow it, and
legally reinforce it
not open to divergent views; no plurality
strict adherence to the basic principles of any subject or discipline.
Prejudice toward other groups
love the sinner hate the act
e.g. towards women, that women are not powerful
women should subjugate to men
Support for status quo
as religiosity goes up, your belief that people should be empowered is lower
i.e. high conformity, low power
i.e. no urge to change status quo
religiosity is positively correlated to conformity i.e. following tradition

Religion creeps into policies that shouldnt be touched by religion

What is the influence of religion in the day-to-day lives of Filipinos?


America: Education / Spain: Catholic religious beliefs
Canon laws: laws that are (decreed???) by hierarchy / The canon law of the Catholic Church (Latin: jus canonicum)
is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities of the Church to
regulate its external organization and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the
mission of the Church.

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Church vs State
Sometimes the State listens to the Church
Church: NO TO RH BILL
Gloria: No to RH bill also
Sometimes the state does not care
The State can also respect and recognise specific religious systems such as Filipino Muslim Laws

Canon law and laws of Spanish origin continue to dominate Philippine family, civil and pena
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, has increasingly substituted church dogma for state policy
she has rejected all modern contraceptive methods as forms of abortion, limited government support for family
planning to providing natural methods to married couples, and restricted access to emergency contraception
lasting norms about womens sexuality
conservative church interests continue to dominate state policy!
secular - non religious, non instituionally-backed
secularists are on the side of separation of church and state
State claims it is secular, however it manages to impose restrictions and controls over women's bodies

Austria, 2004
How do we balance secular and religious ideals in the service of women (and all Filipino)?
On one hand, religion is important because it provides us a frame of morality
On the other hand, secularism is important (i.e. non establishment of religion/separation of church and state,
that church policies should not be seeping into state policies
i.e. religious freedom vs non establishment of religion

Profile of young Filipino Muslims (Cruz, & Abellera, 2004)


Young Muslims marry young
Females are more likely to rate their parents as controlling than their male counterparts (although parents
generally seen as permissive)
Young females may be at a disadvantage (higher education yet no work and most likely to be married) > most
probably because they get married
Despite laws on what is considered haram (forbidden), young males seem to deviate from these teaching more
than young females, both for sexual and non-sexual risk behaviours
Young Filipino muslims tend to be more conservative than Young Filipino Christians

Higher drop out rate of men and more women study more
they didnt live with their parents

How much of the young Filipino Muslims risky (both sexual and non-sexual) behaviours are a function of
their religion versus their developmental stage (as adolescents)?
It seems that for both Catholic/Christian and Islam religion systems, women can be at a disadvantaged position
Belief systems spill over to state policies i.e. ways of treating women that puts them into a disadvantage
Inequality is brought about by religious beliefs

In sum
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Religions impact on behaviour, affect, and cognition can be understood by looking at its shared meaning
systems (beliefs, norms) that are often embodied and reproduced (rituals, religious texts) and passed on through
communities
Religion can impact sexuality and reproductive health on an individual and institutional level

Religion can..
tell us what you can and cannot do
who you can and cannot be

Questions revolve around


process
definitions
how systems affect the self

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