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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Problem

People have agreed that reading is one of the most important academic language skills for foreign and second language learners. It should become a major skill for the students to start their lesson in academic life. They must make reading as a routine activity in their daily academic life. The students who learn English need to master good reading skill because through the skill they can enlarge their knowledge and access more information. Much information can be gained if one has ability in reading written material. Since the importance of reading, the students should have good ability in reading. Without having good ability in reading, it is difficult for the students to understand the English text. In fact, most of the students are not able to understand the

English text well. They still get failed in understanding and comprehending the text. Therefore, the students are expected to have good reading skill such as skimming, scanning, referencing, and inferencing. Thus, those skills is tested nationally focusing on the ability to get the gist of the text, detail and specific information, implied information, inference, and reference. Those skills seem to be an active rather than passive process, because the students do not only read but comprehend what they read about. In order to achieve good comprehension, the students should have some strategies in reading. In order to have good ability in reading and to improve reading ability, the students should have good strategies, because the strategies help them easily understand the text. Good students should employ effective reading strategies when they read. Effective strategies can be as tools to assist the students get deeper understanding of the text. Furthermore, reading strategies play an important role in reading a foreign language text, especially English text. Many researchers have found that reading with good strategies can help the students read effectively and efficiently. Some of them agree that reading strategies make the students be good readers. Besides, the strategies can also make the students become active readers. However, based on the researcher‟s experience and observation, the students of SMA Negeri 1 Batang Anai found difficulty in reading English text. They

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frequently found difficulty in figuring ideas in the text. Similarly, most of the students got confused in reading the reference written in English. They could not catch the ideas of the reading materials. They often misunderstood and misinterpreted the contents of the texts. As the result, the students failed to comprehend the reading texts. The students‟ reading achievement was still low or most of the students got low mark. It is indicated that most of the students got low mark; only 15% of the students got mark of 70 or more than that, and 85% of the students failed. The students‟ average of reading achievement was around 40. It can be seen from the result of the students‟ daily test, semester term or final examination. There are many possibilities that may influence the students‟ success in reading English text. It may be caused by some factors. The factors include the students‟ vocabulary mastery or lack of vocabulary, background knowledge of the text, reading interest, and reading strategies. Beside that, the cause can be from the teacher‟s side, like teaching strategy, teaching method, teaching and learning preparation, and reading materials. Based on the problem above, the researcher was interested in finding the way on how to overcome the problem. To overcome the problem, the researcher would do the action research on how to improve the students‟ reading comprehension of analytical exposition text by using Collaborative Strategic Reading toward the students.

B. Identification of the Problem

Based on the background of the problem above, there are some factors that influence the students‟ English reading ability. First, the factors may be resulted from the studentslack of vocabulary, the students‟ background knowledge, the students‟ reading strategies. Second, the factors can be caused by the teacher‟s teaching methods and strategies.

C. Limitation of the Problem

As stated previously, there are some factors which determine the students‟ success in reading English texts. However, in this research, the researcher would focus

on the teachers techniques or strategies in teaching reading English text. So, the researcher would do an action research on how to improve the students‟ reading

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comprehension of analytical exposition text by using Collaborative Strategic reading (CSR) in teaching reading.

D. Formulation of the Problem

The problem of this research is formulated as follow:

Can the students‟ reading comprehension of Analytical Exposition text be improved through the implementation of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR)?

E. Purpose of the Research

Based on the formulation of the problem above, the purpose of this research is to know whether reading comprehension of the students can be improved by using Collaborative strategic Reading (CSR).

F. Significance of the Research The result of this research is expected to be beneficial for:

1. The teacher, especially the researcher herself, in improving her teaching reading strategies.

2. The students in improving their reading skill so that it can increase their ability in reading English text;

G. Definition of the Key Terms The terms used in this research are needed to be defined in order to avoid

misunderstanding, as follow:

1. Reading Comprehension is the degree or quality of the students in understanding or comprehending the texts which is indicated by scores in answering the questions of the reading comprehension tests.

2. Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) is a procedure of teaching reading comprehension skills by teaching students to use comprehension strategies while workinh cooperatively and supports students with varying ability levels to use comprehension strategieswhile reading text in small groups.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

A. Review of the Related Theories

1. The Nature of Reading

There is no reading without understanding. It has become a part of daily lives or activities for people. In the real life, people do not normally read because they have to but they want to. Usually the reading itself has some purpose; there is something that people want to find, need other opinions which they want to confirm, check clearly some information. They do not usually begin reading with empty mind. They already have some ideas of what topics are going to be read. Celce-Murcia (2001:154) explains that reading is an interactive, socio- cognitive process involving a text, a reader, and social context with in which the activity of reading takes place. It means that, in reading, an individual constructs

meaning through a transaction with written text that has been created by symbols that represent language. The transaction involves the reader‟s acting on or interpreting the text and the interpretation is influenced by the reader‟s past experience, language background, and cultural framework as well as the reader‟s purpose for reading. So, reading is a process of cognition, interpretation, and perception of written or printed material.

Reading is a complex cognitive skill which we cannot break down into a series of steps that a teacher can take into a classroom and teach. Reading is a complex process. It involves much more than adding word meanings together. It does not only involve understanding ideas also recognizing the relationship and structure among ideas (McWhorter, 1992). It is clear that reading is not an easy skill to apply or a simple case since it involves several aspects with it. One of the main aspects is comprehension. In relation, Harris (1980: 479) adds that reading is a combination of word recognition, intellect, and emotion interrelated with prior knowledge to understand the message communicated through reading text. Nuttal (1982: 18) states that reading is the transfer of a message from mind to mind. She also defies reading as the meaningful interpretation of printed or written verbal symbols. It means that reading is a result of the instruction between the perception of graphic symbols that present language, and the reader‟s language skills, cognitive skills and the knowledge of the world. In this case, a reader has to create the

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meaning intended by the writer. The write, the reader and the text have a unique contribution to make communication. In addition, Goodman in Carrel (1988: 12) defines reading as a receptive language process; it is psycholinguistics process in which the readers reconstruct the meaning. It happens in human mind; people receive the text and then process with their minds. In processing it in their minds they make their own interpretations of the text they read. Reading is also a process of communication between the writer and the reader. It is the process of recognition, interpretation and perception of written or printed materials. It involves recognition of letters, words, phrases and clues and in some respects. Sheng (2003: 12) also states that reading is the ability to decode written into spoken words, and it also involves understanding. It means that if the reader reads the text s/he intends to understand and to comprehend the context of the text.

Furthermore, Sheng (2003) defines reading as a process of communication from the writer to the reader by understanding the written or printed materials. The process in reading happens when the reader tries to communicate with the writer through his writing, he tries to understand the text well. In relation, Anderson (2003:

68) states that reading as a fluent process of reader‟s combining information from the text and their own background knowledge to build the meaning. He also states that reading also requires some strategies to comprehend the reading text. So the act of reading involves two aspects; background knowledge of the readers and their strategies to read the text. Miller (1984), states that reading is a process of understanding a written text. It means that the reader requires information from it as efficient as possible. Therefore, according to him, a reader needs to consider about what s/he needs, when s/he reads, how s/he reads (skimming, scanning, intensive or extensive reading). Furthermore, Grellet (1981: 139) adds that reading involve a variety of skills, such as (a) recognizing the script of language, (b) deducing the meaning and the use of unfamiliar lexical item, (c) understanding explicitly stated information, (d) understanding information when not explicitly stated, (e) understanding conceptual meaning, (f) understanding the communication value, (g) understanding relation within the sentence, (h) understanding cohesion between part of the text, (i) distinguishing main idea, (j) basic inference skill, (k) skimming and, (l) scanning to locate specifically required information.

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Based on some explanations above, it can be concluded that reading is an interaction and communication between the reader and the writer through the written or printed text. It happens when the reader makes an understanding and reconstructing meaning from the text. In other words, reading is a mental process in the creation of meaning. It is an active mental process by which the readers use their knowledge of the world and of language to derive meaning fro written words.

2. Reading Comprehension

In general reading is defined as the process of recognition, interpretation and perception of the reading text. Comprehension means the understanding of the meaning of the written material. The comprehension deals with the content in which the author put his ideas. Sheng (2003: 13) notes that reading comprehension involves a complex ability to decode the symbols and get the writer‟s ideas. The theories explain that in comprehending the text, a reader should reflect major ideas in the text so that they can get important information. While Dubin,et.al (1986: 8) states that comprehension means making prediction based on the expectation to help us interpret the meaning of the text. So, if we want to be good readers, we should read for meaning, do not look at every sentence or phrase, word, letter, or punctuation mark. Good readers also have less visual information to identify language form, the more limited processing time, the higher level of prediction and thus to the meaning of the text as a whole. If our predictions get confirmed, we continue to read and to comprehend for any given texts, or our knowledge and skill prove equal to the task, we can relate whatever new information we encounter in the text to what already know to our cognitive structure. That is the most ideal sense we can read. According to Adams (2000), in order to improve comprehension, the readers should establish a purpose that help them get involved in reading assignment such as reading for pleasure, reading for practical application, reading for general ideas, reading to locate specific information, reading to critically evaluate, recognizing

and understanding main idea and supporting details, understanding relationship, critical reading (the process of being aware of an author‟s intent or the point of his writing, use of facts, attitude, bias toward subject matter, own bias toward a subject). Based on the theories above, in reading many kinds of text, readers may involve comprehension to the text being read. While comprehension, itself is followed

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by certain purpose in the readers‟ mind. It is stated that critical readers or efficient readers will always involve comprehension in their reading in order to get the ideas from the text they read. The process in reading comprehension involves all aspects in the text.

Reading comprehension involves getting meaning from the printed page. To be fully comprehended, experiences and perceptions gained from reading are received or recalled with clear, broad understanding. The individual may be said to comprehend something within a passage read when s/he can (1) obtain literal meaning, (2) associate meaning both denotative and connotative from her/his own experience to that of impressions, (3) recognize how the experience or her/his perception of it fits contextual situation and into surroundings, (4) be aware of the relationship between the experience or perception and others having similarities and differences.

Page (1979) defines reading comprehension is a process, not a state and it involves the meaningful reconstruction of an author‟s message by the use of prior knowledge, especially the knowledge of language. Every reader who wants to be able to read fluently, they have developed the reading ability in over and over time and they have had a lot of exercises. Comprehension of anything can be highly individual. Each individual has different set of experience that affects her/his comprehension. Furthermore, Sheng (2003: 12 -13) describes that comprehension is a process of negotiating, understanding between the reader and the writer. It includes linguistic factors such as phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic element. The reader receives information from the author via the words, sentences, paragraph, and so forth and tries to understand the inner feeling of the writer. Devine, (1986: 67) offers his definition of reading comprehension as follow (1) reading comprehension is the process using syntactic and semantic found in printed text to construct in the reader‟s mind. Reading is also the process of getting meaning from printed texts. It is not a passive, receptive activity, but requires the reader to be active and thinking, (2) a competent reader reconstructs a writer‟s message. This reconstruction of meaning is an interactive process between the reader and the text because the reader also makes a contribution.

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3. Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR)

The first study of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) was conducted by Klinger and Vaughn in 1998. They conducted the research with 26 seventh and eighth grader with low ability in reading as a second language. Collaborative Strategic

Reading was found of and developed by those two experts in 1987. This strategy is the combination of reciprocal teaching and cooperative learning strategy. According to Klinger and Vaughn (2007) Collaborative strategic Reading (CSR) is a multicomponent strategy approach that teaches students to use comprehension strategies while working collaboratively with their peers in small group. Furthermore, Klingner and Vaughn (2007) emphasize that Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) has four basic sets namely preview, click and clunk, get the gist, and wrap up. The following descriptions exemplify the stage of CSR:

a. Preview In the first step, the teacher sets two activities to the students before reading. First, teacher asks the students to brainstorm what teh students know about the topic. After that, teacher asks them to predict what they learn about the topic.

b. Click and clunk The next step is click and clunk. The students identify the words or sentences that are hard to understand. After that, the students fix the clunks in the learning logs. Students reread the sentences and look for the key ideas to help to understand the words. Then, they read the sentences again with the clunks. The next step is they look for prefix and suffix in the word and break the word apart.

c. Get the gist During this step, students identify the most important person, place and thing in the analytical exposition text. Besides, they also look for the important information of the person, place or thing. In other words, the important idea of the person, place and thing in the text.

d. Wrap up Wrap up is the last step of Collaborative Strategic Reading. In this step, students make some questions and answers based on the text. It is easy for the students to memorize the information by making questions and answers.

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From the definition above, it can be concluded that Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) is designed to increase students‟ participation in reading. This strategy encourages to develop their own reading and thinking processes by setting their own purpose for reading.

B. Review of the Related Findings

Having read a lot of researches done in educational field either in the internetor library, researcher got some previous researches on using Collaborative Strategic Reading as one of the cooperative learning strategies that involves learners more actively in the classroom instruction. John Hicheock et al (2010) conducted the research entitled „The Impact of CSR on the Reading Comprehension of Grade 5 Students in Linguistically Diverse Schools”. The research finding was that CSR effects for EC-ELL and non-ELL subgroups separately were not statistically significant. In other words, CSR did not have significant effects on the two groups. Furthermore, Fitriani (2012) had done a research entitled using Collaborative Strategic Reading to improve the ability of the second year students of MTsN Babussalam Kuantan Singingi in comprehending narrative texts. The analysis found that the treatments could reach the improvement of the students‟ reading comprehension ability. It was reflected in the result of post test 2. There were about 81.8% of the students could achieve the minimum passing score (KKM) of English subject in reading comprehension. Moreover, the result of observation sheets and field notes showed a positive behavior in a process of learning and it also helped students improve their reading comprehension ability and more active in learning process. Novia Erni (2009) also conducted a classroom action research entitled improving students‟ reading comprehension at grade VIII 3 of SMPN 1 Gguk Lima Puluh Kota. She found that there was an increasing of students‟ comprehension score and CSR could increase the students‟ motivation in reading activities. Then, Hermi Suswanti (2011) did a research about improving students‟

reading comprehension of procedure texts by using CSR at grade VII 1 of SMPN 2 Ampek Angkek Agam. The result of the research indicated that CSR could better improve the students‟ reading comprehension of procedure texts. Those researches still have relationship with the research that the researcher would do because this research would focus on reading comprehension. Therefore,

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through this research the researcher would conduct the research on how to improve

the students‟ reading comprehension of analytical exposition text through

Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) at XI IPA 1 of SMAN 1 Batang Anai, Padang

Pariaman regency in the first semester, 2015/2016 academic year.

C. Conceptual Framework

The problem to be solved is the students‟ low reading comprehension

achievement. To improve the students‟ reading comprehension, the teacher uses CSR

strategy in teaching reading. By implementing appropriate teaching reading strategy,

the students are hopefully be able to understand and comprehend English text

especially analytical exposition texts easily. There are some reading strategies may

increase the students‟ achievement in English reading comprehension. The researcher

believed that the students who apply or implement good and appropriate reading

strategies can improve their reading comprehension achievement.

Here, the researcher proposed the conceptual framework, as follows;

The Conceptual Framework

Low Reading

Comprehension

The Conceptual Framework Low Reading Comprehension Collaborative Strategic Reading The Improvement of

Collaborative Strategic Reading

Low Reading Comprehension Collaborative Strategic Reading The Improvement of Students‟ Reading Comprehension

The Improvement of Students‟ Reading Comprehension Achievement

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CHAPTER III METHOD OF THE RESEARCH

A. Kind of the Research

This research was held through classroom action research (CAR). Classroom action research aimed at improving the classroom teaching and learning process becomes better. Classroom action research can be conducted at the departmental level to examine an entire program or curriculum. Furthermore, Johnson (2005: 21) explains:

Action research can be defined as process of studying a real school or class situation to understand and improve the quality of action or instruction (Hansen, 1996; Mc.Taggar, 1997; Schumuk, 1997). It is a systematic and orderly way for teachers to observe their practice or to explore a problem and possible course of action (Dinkelman, 1997; Mc. Niff & Whike Head, 1996). Action research is also a type of inquiry that is preplanned, organized, and can be shared with others (Fashy, 1998; Tomblinson, 1995).

Classroom action research is a research done by a teacher in collaboration with a researcher or done by the teacher himself/herself who acts a teacher in a classroom or school where s/he teaches (Arikunto, et al, 2006. Otherwise while doing the research we as teachers can solve the problem through classroom action research. Snell (1991) explains that an action research is concerned with trying to improve and specific point in a teacher‟s technique in a particular classroom using empirical measurement. He defines it as teacher-initiated classroom research which seeks to increase the teacher understanding of classroom teaching learning and to bring improvements in classroom practice. It typically involves small-scale investigation projects in the teacher understanding of classroom teaching learning and to bring improvement in classroom practice Based on the statement above, it can be concluded that the action research is a process of solving the teaching and learning problem. This action research would improve the quality of teaching reading for the senior high school students, because the technique is systematic and the researcher can apply the result immediately. The researcher chose the action research since she wanted to solve students‟ problem in reading comprehension and in improving the quality of teaching in her class. Finally, it is hoped that the students‟ way of learning, especially in reading would be improved.

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In this research, the researcher would also collaborate with other teacher. It means that researcher and other teacher work together to solve the problems. As Johnson (2005: 325) states that action research in undertaken by individuals or group in concert with other individual or group.

B. Procedure of the Research

This action research is cyclical process. It followed the model which was developed by Kemmis (1998: 11-12). This model consists of several cycles containing

four steps: plan, action, observation, and reflection. The model is as follow:

Reflection Action CYCLE I Action and Observation Revise Plan
Reflection
Action
CYCLE I
Action and Observation
Revise Plan
Reflection CYCLE II Action and Observation Revise Plan
Reflection
CYCLE II
Action and Observation
Revise Plan
Reflection CYCLE III Action and Observation
Reflection
CYCLE III
Action and Observation

Expected condition

1.

In this stage, the researcher prepared everything needed for the research. The researcher chose the class where the research done, discussed with collaborator,

Plan

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prepared research instrument, designed lesson plan based on the technique used, prepared reading materials, prepared reading comprehension test.

2. Action

The researcher did teaching and learning process in the selected class based on the schedule and did the teaching and learning procedures that had been

The

written

The researcher applied

procedures are as follows:

in

the lesson plan.

the reading

strategies.

a. Pre-activity

1. The researcher greeted the students

2. The researcher gave motivation/apperception to the students

3. The researcher told the standard competency and basic competency to be

achieved by the students.

4. The researcher told the topic of the reading text.

5. The researcher asked some questions (activated the students‟ background knowledge)

b. Whilst activity

1. The researcher asked the students to sit in groups

2. The researcher explained the strategies used in reading (CSR)

3. The researcher gave model.

4. The researcher gave some questions to be answered by the students.

5. The students answer the questions

6. The researcher discussed the questions together with the students.

c. Post activity

1. The researcher guided the students to do reflection for reading strategies.

2. The researcher gave task for the homework

3. Observation

The researcher was assisted by a collaborator to do observation on teaching and learning process. The observation was done by using observation sheet. Besides, the collaborator took notes during the teaching and learning activities.

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4. Reflection

In this stage, the researcher discussed and evaluated the result of the teaching and learning with the collaborator. The researcher wanted to know to what extent the strategies used has affected the teaching and learning and the students‟ achievement. If there were some mistakes, the researcher would improve them for the next action. While any positive points the researcher would continue them, and gave more improvement to the students‟ ability. At last, the researcher made conclusion and decision to revise the plan for the next cycle.

C. Setting and Participants of the Research

1. Setting

The research was done at SMA Negeri 1 Batang Anai. There were eight classes of the XII grade students (five classes of social program and three classes of science program); nine classes of the XI grade (four classes of science program, and

five classes of social program); and ten classes of the X grade.

2. Participants

The research was done in XI IPA 1 in the first semester 2015/2016 academic year. There were 26 students; 9 boys and 17 girls in this class. The researcher chose the class because the students in this class were regarded as to have adequate ability in English reading comprehension. Most of the students (19.2%) in

this class had low reading comprehension. They average of the students‟ reading comprehension was 4.7.

D. Instrumentation

The key instrument of this research is the researcher herself. She involved in every cycle. In doing the research, the researcher also used other instruments such

as observation sheet, field note, and reading comprehension test.

1. Observation sheet

The observation sheet was made by the researcher before conducting the research. It was used to record and to collect the real information of teaching and learning process. While the researcher did the action the collaborator observed the researcher and students by filling in the observation sheet. It was also used to know implementation of reading strategies.

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2. Field note

Field note is an instrument that was used by the researcher to take a note during teaching and learning process. It was also done by the collaborator. It was done to record what happened during the teaching and learning process. It gave the information to the researcher as a reason to improve the treatment in action and to decide whether to move to the next cycle, as well as to know whether or not the implementation of the research is suitable with the scenario.

3. Test

The test was reading comprehension test. There were two kinds of the test; pre-test, and post-test. Pre-test was done before the research was done. It was done to identify and diagnose the students‟ problem in reading comprehension. In other hand post-test was done at the end of each cycle. It was done to know the students‟ achievement after doing the action. The test was analyzed to know to what extent the implementation of reading strategies (CSR) can improve the students‟ reading comprehension.

E. Technique of Collecting the Data

Data of this research were collected through observation, field notes and test. First, the data were taken from observation. Since, the researcher wanted to find out what happened in the classroom during teaching and learning reading, the researcher used direct observation as data collection technique. The observation was done the collaborator during the teaching and learning activity. The collaborator observed the condition and the situation during the teaching and learning process. Second, the data were taken from field notes. The field notes are the written observation of what the observer sees taking place in the classroom. To do this, the researcher was also assisted by the collaborator. The collaborator took notes to what happened in the classroom during the teaching and learning activity. Last, the data were collected through the test of the students‟ reading ability. The tests were given before doing the research (pre-test) and at the end of each cycle (post test). The tests were given in order to know the improvement of the students‟ reading ability.

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F. Technique of Analyzing the Data

The data were analyzed in quantitative and qualitative forms. The data which are taken from the test of the students‟ reading ability were analyzed in quantitative technique. The result of the tests was calculated by using the formula proposed by Sudjono (1987: 40). It aimed at knowing the improvement of each cycle. The formula is:

P = F / N

P = percentage of the students‟ achievement F = number of the students who are able to answer N = total number of the students

Then, the data taken from observation and field notes were analyzed in

qualitative form. Those data were analyzed by following the technique proposed by Gay and Airasian (2000: 239).

1. Data managing; data were managed accordingly in order to get good result and ease to analyze. There two purposes of this technique: (1) organize and check the completeness of the data, (2) start on the purpose of analyzing and interpreting the data.

2. Reading/memoing; the researcher read the data that have been collected to sense of the data. The researcher had a record of initial thought and sense of the data.

3. Describing; the researcher examined the data in depth to provide detail description of participants and activities. It was based on the observation sheet and field notes.

4. Classifying; the data were categorized into different aspects and into separate groups.

5. Interpreting; the researcher determined how the result of the students‟ reading ability, what aspects made them able to achieve the ability, and how the teaching and learning process during the implementation of reading strategies. Then, the

researcher wrote and presented the report to describe the findings of the research.

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CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

A. Description of the Findings

This research was held to answer the research question whether the students‟ reading comprehension of analytical exposition text of XI IPA 1 can be improved through Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR). It is carried out in three cycles. Each cycle consisted of three meetings. The findings of the research are presented and discussed for each cycle.

1. First cycle

The first cycle was carried out in three meetings. The English class was carried out twice a week. The first meeting ran on October 7 th , 2014; the second meeting ran on October 9 th , 2014 and the third meeting ran on October 14 th , 2014.

a. Plan

In this stage, the researcher discussed about Actional Functional Model (AFM) method with the collaborator. Fortunately, the collaborator had understood the method easily. Then, the researcher prepared the lesson plan, developed the teaching material. Beside, the researcher also prepared the research instruments used in the action, such as, the forms of observation sheet and field notes to record the teacher‟s and students‟ activities during the teaching and learning process. The researcher also decided to prepare the appropriate teaching aids, such as, pictures. Reading materials in the first cycle were The Importance of Reading, The Danger of Smoking and Three Levels of Government in Australia

b. Action

The researcher came to class XI IPA 1 and began the class by saying “good morning students, How are you?” then, the students responded. Before beginning the class, the students said a pray, and respected the teacher. Then, the researcher checked the students‟ attendances. Furthermore, the researcher built up the students‟ interest by asking them “Have you got breakfast? Are you ready to have English class now?” This activity is necessary to motivate the students, build up the students‟ image, to have good attitude to teaching and learning process.

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After motivating the students, the researcher proposed the learning objectives that the students should achieve. The researcher put the students in groups/pairs (two students for each group). Then the researcher distributed the reading text. The researcher explained the strategies (how to identify general information of the text and main idea of a paragraph and find specific information) used in reading. After explaining those reading strategies, the researcher gave a model to apply the strategies, so that the students could the strategies modeled by the researcher. After that the research distributed another reading text for the students‟ task, and asked the students to discuss (in groups) the task as what had been modeled to them. The researcher monitored the students while they were doing the task. This was done in order to see whether the students could apply the strategies that had been modeled or not, or whether the got difficulties in applying the strategies. After the students finished doing the task, the researcher invited the students to report their result of their tasks. After the students finished reporting the result of their task, the researcher asked the other students to comment what the previous pair had reported. The researcher gave reward to the students by saying good or very good for the students who had reported the result of their task. Then the researcher made correction and evaluation to what the students had been reported by clarifying the strategies that had previously been modeled. Afterward, the researcher gave another task to do as a follow up but it was not in form of the action. While the teaching and learning activities run the collaborator, as the observer, observed the teaching and learning activities. She filled in the observation sheet that had been prepared before and took notes on what happened (students‟ activities and the teacher‟s activities) during the teaching and learning process.

c. Observation To find what was going on during the teaching and learning process, the collaborator observed the activities during the teaching and learning process. She observed the condition and situation of the reading class. She filled in the observation sheet that had been previously prepared with her. Beside that, she also took notes on what happened during the teaching and learning activities. Based on the observation, it seemed that the teaching and learning activities were still the teacher‟s centre. The students were not so active yet and they much kept silent. Some students did not give contribution in learning process while

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they were asked by the researcher. The students could not yet do as what the researcher had modeled. It seemed that some students still got difficulties in employing the strategies in reading. In this cycle, the teaching and learning process were not yet running well. From the observing, it globally could be seen about the teaching and learning process. During the observation it was found that there were 6 (six) students did not fully pay attention the teacher‟s explanation; there were 6 (ten) students did not seriously discuss the task given. Some of the students seemed confused and still got difficulties in doing the task. Based on the task that the students had done it was found that the students ability in reading especially in identifying general information and getting main idea was still low. Beside, by seeing to the researcher activities, it did not seem that the researcher gave any help while the students did the task. So, she let the students do the task themselves. She did not pay attention to the students‟ difficulties in doing the task. As further information, from the observation in the first cycle, it can be seen the description of the studentsactivities during the teaching and learning process as follow:

Table 1 The description of the students‟ activities during the teaching and learning process in the first cycle

No

Students‟ Activities

F

%

1

Paying attention to the teacher‟s explanation

22

84.6

2

Actively giving response to what the teacher asked

4

15.4

3

Actively involving in discussion

20

76.9

4

Actively taking part in reporting the result of the task

6

23.1

Based on the table above, it seemed that there 84.6% of the students who paid attention to the teacher‟s explanation, 15.4% of the students who actively gave response to what the teacher asked, 76.9% of the students who involved in discussion and 23.1% of the students took part in reporting the result of the discussion.

d. Reflection In this case, the researcher and the collaborator discussed everything happened during the teaching and learning process. They also analyzed and reflected to the action that had been done by sharing ideas, as follows:

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1. While monitoring the students in doing the task, the researcher may assist the

students if they get difficulties or confused with the task.

2. The researcher may pay attention to the students who did not actively involve in

discussion and invite them to be active in discussion.

The result of the analysis and reflection to the action would be the basis on

the correction for the next action in the second cycle.

To know the students‟ achievement in learning in the first cycle, the

students were given the test. The result can be seen as follow:

Table 2

The students‟ marks on reading in the first cycle

Students‟

 

Students‟

 

Students‟

 

Code

Mark

Code

Mark

Code

Mark

01

55

10

50

19 50

 

02

35

11

50

20 55

 

03

50

12

45

21 50

 

04

50

13

45

22 45

 

05

50

14

40

23 45

 

06

45

15

55

24 30

 

07

45

16

25

25 55

 

08

60

17

35

26 55

 

09

50

18

40

Average

46.50

Based on the table 2 above, it seemed that there was no significant

improvement yet if it is compared with the pre test. The students‟ reading

comprehension was still low. The average of the students‟ reading comprehension was

only 46.50, while in pre test the average was 34.80. it means that there is little

progress comparing with the pre test.

2.

Second Cycle

The second cycle was also carried out in three meetings. It ran on October

21

st , 23 rd , and 28 th , 2014. In this research, the researcher would also collaborate with

other teacher. It means that researcher and other teacher work together to solve the

problems.

21

a. Plan

In this cycle, the activities were similar to those in the first cycle. Before doing the action, of course, the researcher prepared lesson plan, reading materials. There were three topics of the reading material that would be presented; Compromise in Our Life, Retailer and Corruption and Indonesian Culture.

b. Action

The class was begun as that in the first cycle. The researcher came to the same class, greeted the students. The students said their pray and respected the teacher. Then, the researcher checked the students‟ attendances. Furthermore, the researcher built up the students‟ interest by asking them “Have you got breakfast? Are you ready to have English class now?” This activity is necessary to motivate the students, build up the students‟ image, to have good attitude to teaching and learning process.

Before coming to the new lesson, the researcher reviewed the previous lesson and strategies that the students had got. She grouped the students in pairs. Once, the researcher proposed the learning objectives that the students should achieve. Then the researcher reminded the students that they still would use reading strategies as those in the previous lesson that they had applied. She gave a model again briefly and asked the students whether they had understood. After that the researcher distributed the new reading material. She asked the students to do the task in pairs. While the students did the task the researcher monitored them. She came to the students who did not involve in discussion. She invited them to discuss the task. She also helped the students who got confused and difficulties in doing the task. After the students finished doing the task, the researcher invited the students to report their result of their tasks. After the pair finished reporting the result of their task, the researcher asked the other pairs to comment what the previous pair had reported. The researcher gave reward to the students by saying good or very good for the students who had reported the result of their task. Then the researcher made correction and evaluation to what the students had report by clarifying the strategies that had previously been modeled. Afterward, the researcher gave another task to do as a follow up but it was not in form of the action. While the teaching and learning activities run the collaborator, as the observer, observed the teaching and learning activities. She filled in the observation

22

sheet that had been prepared before and took notes on what happened (students‟ activities and the teacher‟s activities) during the teaching and learning process.

c. Observation The collaborator did observation again as she did in the first cycle. She observed the teaching and learning activities. She filled in the observation sheet that had been previously prepared with her. Beside that, she also took notes on what happened during the teaching and learning activities. Based on the observation, it seemed that the teaching and learning activities were rather better than the previous cycle. The students were already more active than the first cycle. The students could do the strategies already as what the researcher had modeled. It seemed that just little4 (four) studentsstill got difficulties in employing the strategies in reading. In this cycle, in general, the teaching and learning process were run better than before. During the observation it was still found that there were 2 (two) students did not pay attention to the teacher‟s explanation; there were 3 (three) students did not seriously discuss the task given. Based on the task that the students had done it was found that the students ability in reading especially in getting main idea was still low. Beside, by seeing to the researcher activities, researcher had given help to the students who got confused and difficulties while the students did the task. And also the researcher invited the students who did not seriously involve in discussion. In the following table, it can be seen the description of the studentsactivities during the teaching and learning process in the second cycle.

Table 3 The result of observation on the students‟ activities during the teaching learning process in the second cycle

No

Students‟ Activities

F

%

1

Paying attention to the teacher‟s explanation

24

92.3

2

Actively giving response to what the teacher asked

10

38.5

3

Actively involving in discussion

23

88.5

4

Actively taking part in reporting the result of the task

12

46.1

23

d. Reflection

Based on the observation and field note the teaching and learning process

had been already run better than in the first cycle. The researcher had run the teaching

and learning process much better. The researcher had overcome the problem (some

students did not have fully attention to the researcher‟s explanation and did not

seriously involve in discussion) that happened in the first cycle. It was also found that

some students were more active. Most of the students already could apply the

strategies better. There was improvement toward the students‟ reading ability. This

can be seen from the reading exercises done by the students. But it was still found that

there were some students who got low reading comprehension. It means that the

students still had problem in reading comprehension.

Based on the test given, the students‟ reading comprehension was better,

even though some of them still low. It can be seen in the following:

Table 4

The students‟ marks on reading in the second cycle

Students‟

 

Students‟

 

Students‟

 

Code

Mark

Code

Mark

Code

Mark

01

17

10

60

19 50

 

02

57

11

73

20 47

 

03

33

12

37

21 73

 

04

33

13

60

22 70

 

05

67

14

63

23 73

 

06

67

15

60

24 53

 

07

37

16

73

25 77

 

08

73

17

77

26 63

 

09

47

18

20

Average

56.15

Based on the table 4 above, it was found that there were 15 (57.7% of)

students who were already good in reading comprehension. They got high mark. But

some of them (42.3%) were still low in reading comprehension. They got low mark.

The improvement of the students‟ reading comprehension was not significant yet

because the average of the students‟ reading comprehension was only 56.15, but it

was better than the first cycle. Based on this, the researcher and collaborator

concluded that the students still had problem with the reading comprehension. So the

researcher and collaborator evaluate why some of the students had low reading

comprehension. It was assumed that the students had not yet understood how to apply

those reading strategies.

24

3. Third Cycle

Since there were some students whose reading comprehension was still low, the researcher and the collaborator agreed to carry out the third cycle in order to improve more the students‟ reading comprehension. The procedures of the third cycle were almost the same with those in the second cycle.

a. Plan

The plan in this cycle was not so different from the second cycle but the attention focused on the students who still got difficulties and their reading comprehension was still low. So, their reading comprehension could be more improved. There were also three meetings in this cycle. The topics of the reading texts were The Dangerous of Using Drugs, The Problems of being too Fat and The Power of Music in Our Life. The meetings were held on November 3 rd , 6 th , and 11 th , 2014. In order to solve the problem existed in the second cycle, the plan were set up as follows:

1. Redesigning the teaching and learning procedures and the activities focusing on

the implementation of CSR in reading class.

2. Giving more models.

3. Monitoring the students more carefully so that all of them were able to apply the strategies much better.

4. Approaching the students who still got difficulties and did not involve in discussion.

b. Action

The action in this cycle was not different from the former cycles, but there were special attention to the problem that was still rose in the second cycle. The first, the researcher greeted the students; the students said a pray and respected the researcher. After that the researcher checked the students‟ attendance. She motivated the students to learn and reflected to the previous lesson. Then the researcher distributed the materials; Cigarettes, Smokers, and Smoking, Earthquake in Central Sulawesi, Mangrove Trees, Debit Cards. He gave more models in applying the strategies in reading comprehension. After giving more models, the researcher asked the students to do the task in pairs. While the students did the task he monitored the students‟ activities carefully. She paid more attention to the students who seldom got

25

involved in discussing and doing the tasks. She walked around and talked to the students who got difficulties and led them doing the task. After the students finished doing the tasks, the researcher checked the studentstask by asking them to present the result of their tasks and invited other students to argue them. In this case the researcher gave reward to the students. At last the researcher gave the clearance to what the students had done with the tasks and gave other tasks.

c. Observation The observation in this cycle was also the same with that in the previous ones. The observation was done by the collaborator. Based on the observation and field note, it seemed that, the teaching and learning activities run well. One student was absent. All of the students paid seriously attention to the teacher‟s explanation. But in doing the tasks not all of the students got involved in discussion. There were four students who did not work seriously they just talked another thing else not discussed the tasks. There were also still two students who get difficulty in employing the strategies in reading comprehension To overcome this, the researcher came near them, asked them what they were doing, and asked them whether they got difficulties in doing the tasks, then he led them doing the tasks.

d. Reflection

Based on the observation and field note the teaching and learning process had been already run well. The researcher had overcome the problems that were still found in the second cycle (some students did not have fully attention to the researcher‟s explanation and did not get involved in discussion and doing the tasks). It was also found that most of the students were already active the activities. It was almost no problems that were found. In short, everything ran well. But the problem in which the students had difficulty in employing the strategies in reading comprehension still could not be solved yet; it still existed. The following table showed the situation of the students‟ learning.

26

Table 5

The result of observation on the students‟ activities during the teaching learning

process in the third cycle

No

Students‟ Activities

F

%

1

Paying attention to the teacher‟s explanation

25

100

2

Actively giving response to what the teacher asked

15

60

3

Actively involving in discussion

24

96

4

Actively taking part in reporting the result of the task

15

60

After giving reading comprehension test, it seemed that there was the

improvement toward the students‟ reading comprehension. But it was still found that

there were some students who got low reading comprehension. Completely, the result

of the students‟ reading comprehension could be seen in the following table:

Table 6

The students‟ marks on reading in the third cycle

Students‟

 

Students‟

 

Students‟

 

Code

Mark

Code

Mark

Code

Mark

01

50

10

60

19

60

02

60

11

70

20

55

03

50

12

55

21

75

04

45

13

70

22

70

05

70

14

65

23

70

06

70

15

65

24

65

07

55

16

75

25

75

08

75

17

75

26

70

09

60

18

50

Average

63.85

Table 6 above showed that, it was found that there were 19 (73.1% of)

students who were already good in reading comprehension. They got high mark. But

some of them (26.9%) were still low in reading comprehension. They got low mark.

The average was 63.85. Based on this it can concluded that the students‟ reading

comprehension increased even though it was not significant yet but it was much better

than the first and the second cycles. Therefore, the researcher and the collaborator

thought that was enough and decided to end this research.

27

B. Discussions Based on the result of the test in the first cycle, the students‟ reading comprehension was still low. Only one student got 60, five students got 55, eight students got 50, six students got 45, two students got 40, two students got 35, one student got 30, and one student got 25 . The average of the students‟ reading comprehension was 46.50. Before doing the action research the average of the students‟ reading comprehension was 34.80. It meant that there was less improvement. This was assumed that the students‟ reading comprehension was still low because of some problems, such as, the teacher did not give the students enough models, so the students did not maximally apply those reading strategies; most of the students did not yet have fully attention to the teacher‟s explanation; the teacher did not monitor the students carefully in doing the tasks; and the teacher did not directly lead the students who got difficulty in doing the tasks. However, comparing with the pre action research, the students‟ learning achievement had almost increased. The result of the pre-test showed that all of the students got mark less than 60. After doing the action research in the first cycle, there was one student who got 60 for the mark while almost of the students‟ learning achievement was still under 60. The average increased from 34.80 to 46.50. Even the increasing was not significant yet but it can be said that through the CSR the students‟ reading comprehension of analytical exposition text could be improved and the students became competent in reading. The following table presented the students‟ learning achievement before and after the action research done.

Table 7 The students‟ marks on reading in pre-action and cycle I

No

Pre Test

Cycle I

Increase

No

Pre Test

Cycle I

Increase

1

32

55

23

14

40

40

0

2

44

35

-9

15

52

55

3

3

44

50

6

16

36

25

-11

4

52

50

-2

17

40

35

-5

5

44

50

6

18

40

40

0

6

48

45

-3

19

40

50

10

7

52

45

17

20

52

55

3

8

56

60

4

21

36

50

14

9

56

50

-6

22

32

45

13

10

56

50

-6

23

44

45

1

11

36

50

14

24

24

30

6

12

44

45

-1

25

56

55

-1

28

13

32

45

13

26

28

55

27

 

Average

34.80

46.50

 

In the second cycle, there were fifteen (57.70%) students who got 60 to 77 and eleven (42.30%) students got under 60. The average of the students‟ reading comprehension was 56.20. If it is compared with the first cycle the students‟ reading comprehension increased from 46.50 to 56.20. The increasing was not significant anymore because the result of the second cycle was not maximal yet. It was also assumed that the students did not maximally do the strategies suggested in reading activities. So far it seemed that the application of CSR could improve the students‟ reading comprehension. Beside, it seemed that there were some students whose learning achievement did not increase at all, even it decreased. As further description about the students‟ learning achievement it can be seen in table 8.

Table 8 The students‟ mark on reading in cycle I and cycle II

No

Cycle I

Cycle II

Increase

No

Cycle I

Cycle II

Increase

1

55

17

-38

14

40

63

23

2

35

57

22

15

55

60

5

3

50

33

-17

16

25

73

48

4

50

33

-17

17

35

77

42

5

50

67

17

18

40

20

-20

6

45

67

22

19

50

50

0

7

45

37

-8

20

55

47

-8

8

60

73

13

21

50

73

23

9

50

47

-3

22

45

70

25

10

50

60

10

23

45

73

28

11

50

73

23

24

30

53

23

12

45

37

-8

25

55

77

22

13

45

60

15

26

55

63

8

 

Average

46.50

56.20

 

In the third cycle, there were nineteen (73.10%) students who got 60 and seven (26.9% students got <60. The average of the students‟ reading comprehension was 63.85. It increased much better than the one in the second cycle. The increasing was 7.65; from 56.20 to 63.85. It was also significant enough in the number of the students who got the mark ≥60 and in the average of the students‟ learning achievement.

29

The increasing of the students‟ reading comprehension because the teacher did the action more intensively, he monitored the students carefully, lead the students who got confused and difficulty in applying the strategies in reading. The students had self-confident in learning after the teacher gave them the model of how to read better. Table 9 described the increasing of the students‟ learning achievement in three cycles.

Table 9 The students‟ mark on reading in three cycles

No

Cycle I

Cycle II

Cycle III

No

Cycle I

Cycle II

Cycle III

1

55

17

50

14

40

63

65

2

35

57

60

15

55

60

65

3

50

33

50

16

25

73

75

4

50

33

45

17

35

77

75

5

50

67

70

18

40

20

50

6

45

67

70

19

50

50

60

7

45

37

55

20

55

47

55

8

60

73

75

21

50

73

75

9

50

47

60

22

45

70

70

10

50

60

60

23

45

73

70

11

50

73

70

24

30

53

65

12

45

37

55

25

55

77

75

13

45

60

70

26

55

63

70

 

Average

45.50

56.20

63.85

Based on the description of the findings of this action research in three cycles, it seemed that the students‟ reading comprehension increased. The increasing was caused by the application of CSR in teaching reading. This strategy enabled the students to have competency in reading. CSR is a teaching strategy which develops the students‟ competency. It focuses on cooperative and collaborative learning among the students in groups. So the students‟ reading comprehension of the XI grade at SMAN 1 Batang Anai could be improved through the CSR.

30

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

A. Conclusions

Based on the findings of this action research, it can be concluded that Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) at XI IPA 1 of SMAN 1 Batang anai could improve the students‟ reading comprehension of analytical exposition text better. CSR could make the students being competent in reading English texts especially analytical exposition texts.

B. Implications

Based on the conclusion above it is implicated that CSR is a teaching strategy that can develop the students‟ competency especially in reading comprehension of analytical exposition text need to be more implemented in teaching reading. It hoped that through CSR the students would be more competent in reading. It can be said that to improve the students‟ reading comprehension the teacher should apply various strategies in teaching. One of the strategies, in this case, is Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR).

C. Suggestions Based on the conclusion of this research, it is suggested that:

1. The teacher use this strategy in order to improve the students‟ reading comprehensionof analytical exposition text.

2. Since the implementation of CSR did not yet reach maximal learning achievement in this action research, the teacher especially the researcher needs to continue it for other classes.

3. This strategy may be used by the further researches in order to increase the studentsEnglish competent as a whole.

31

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