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IAHR International

Symposium on Ice


Symposium international

sur la glace de I'AIRH





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Pour commander les comptes rend us, ecrire a:

Prof. Bernard Michel
Departement de genie civil
Universite Laval
Cite universitaire
Quebec, Qc, Canada
G1K 7P4

Reprints from this publication may be made, provided credit is given to the authors and
reference is made to the Proceedings of the IAHR International Symposium on Ice
Quebec, Canada , 1981.

Cette publication ne peut etre reproduite que si les auteurs en re<;oivent Ie credit et qu 'une
reference soit faite aux "Comptes rendus du Symposium international sur la glace de I'AIRH,
Quebec, Canada, 1981".

Division des publications

Service des relations publiques
Universi1e Laval. Quebec, Canada
I l

International Association for Hydraulic Research

Association internationale de recherches hydrauliques

International Symposium on Ice

Symposium international sur la glace

Quebec, Canada

July 27-31,1981

Du 27 au 31 juillet 1981

Editorial Board - Bureau d'edition

Bernard Michel

Kersi Davar

Robert Frederking

Robert Gerard

Rene Hausser

Richard Kry

Jacques Michel

Universite Laval , Quebec, Canada

Ministere de I'Environnement, Gouvernement du;Ouebec


International Association for Hydraulic Research
Association internationale de recherches hydrauliques


International Association of Hydrological Sciences
L'Association internationale des sciences hydrologiques
World Meteorological Organisation
L'Organisation mondiale de meteorologie
International Glaciological Society
La Societe internationale de glaciologie


T. Carstens (Norway - Norvege) (Chairman - president)
O. Starosolsky (Hungary - Hongrie) (past Chairman - ex-president)
G. Ashton (USA - E.-U .) (Secretary - secretaire)
L. Bengtsson (Sweden - Suede)
V. Degtyarev (USSR - U.R .SS)
M. Drouin (Canada)
G. Frankenstein (USA - E.-U .)
R. Gerard (Canada)
V.E . Lyapin (USSR - U.R.S .S.)
M. Mi:ii:illanen (Finland - Finlande)
H. Saeki (Japan - Japon)
J . Schwarz (Fed . Rep. Germany - Rep. fed. allemande)
P. Tryde (Denmark - Danemark)
E. Zsilak (Hungary - Hongrie)


B. Michel (Chairman - president)
B. Harvey (Treasurer - tresorier)
D. Carter
D. Chartrand
M. Drouin
R. Frederking
R. Gerard
R. Kry
N. McNeil
C. Verreault
D. Witherspoon


R. Frederking (Chairman - president)
K. Davar
R. Gerard
R. Hausser
R. Kry



Mariette Michel (presidente)

Ghislaine Carter
Monic Frenette
Suzanne Godin
Suzanne Harvey
Madeleine Ouellet
Claire Verreault
Marielle Verrette



Diane Dussault

Jeanne Roy


The ice symposiums of the International Association for Hydraulic Research have been
organized since 1970 and they were held at the following places : Reykjavik 1970, Leningrad
1972, Budapest 1974, Hanover U.S. 1975 and Lulea 1978.
The 1981 Symposium was held during the full week of July 27-31, in order to cover the
whole field of ice hydraulics with single sessions. A total of sixty-three papers were presented
and eight notes submitted and all of these are included in the present proceedings. The
number of registrants was two hundred and thirty-four. The POAC 81 Conference was
also held at the same time in Quebec City so that another group of four hundred people
could actively participate in the sessions of the Symposium.
The set up for the Symposium has followed the excellent traditions initiated by the
preceding ones of the IAHR. It was open to other international organisations interested in
ice and one of its major achievements is that not only people from POAC , but also from
these other groups have found it an excellent occasion to hold their own special meetings
during the week. Thus stronger ties have been established between members of different
organizations, having similar objectives of disseminating results of on-going ice research
and fostering exchanges of ideas between scientists and development engineers.
We have been very fortunate to have strong local and national groups to set up this
Our National Organizing Committee has given us excellent guidance at every critical
occasion and its members have accepted gracefully all the tasks which were asked from
them. Every member had a specific job to do which was very well carried out and we want
to thank everyone of them for their indispensable help, and more specifically Bernard
Harvey, for verifying all the financial aspects of the organization and keeping it within budget.
Robert Frederking has also been most cooperative in chairing our National Scientific
Committee. This committee was responsible for the choice of the papers and contributed
to the edition of the proceedings. We are very grateful to all our Canadian colleagues who
have done so much for this organization at both the local and the national levels.
The organization of a good symposium depends very much on all kinds of little details that
make things go and which are the responsibility of the secretariat. We have had the good
fortune to obtain from the Conference Service of the National Research Council of Canada
excellent advice for the operation of the Symposium, and the much appreciated help of Daniel
Chartrand. We want to thank them for their collaboration. Neithercan weforgetthe continuous
support received from Diane Dussault and Jeanne Roy at the secretariat and the major
contribution of Mariette Michel in organizing the social and ladies activities.
The success of a symposium depends on the active contribution of the authors, session
chairmen, co-chairmen and the technical personel and we want to thank all of those who
contributed such an enormous amount of work to achieve the results we have had.

Bernard Michel, Dr. Eng.

Professor of Ice Mechanics
and Hydraulics
Universite Laval

Les symposiums sur la glace de l'Association internationale de recherches hydrauliques sont

organises depuis 1970 et ont ete tenus aux endroits suivants : Reykjavik 1970, Leningrad
1972, Budapest 1974, Hanover E.-U. 1975, Lulea 1978.
Le Symposium de 1981 a eu lieu durant toute la semaine du 27 au 31 juillet, ce qui a perm is de
couvrir tout Ie dlamp de I'hydraulique des glaces avec des sessions uniques . Les soixante
trois communications presentees et les huit notes techniques soumises font partie des
presents comptes rendus. II y a eu au total deux cent trente-quatre participants. La Confe
rence POAC a ete tenue en me me temps a Quebec, ce qui a perm is a un autre groupe
de quatre cents personnes de participer activement aux sessions du Symposium.
Les arrangements pour Ie Symposium ont ete faits suivant les excellentes traditions instaurees
lors des symposiums precedents de I'AIRH . Le Symposium a ete ouvert aux autres organisa
tions intemationales qui s'interessent a la glace et I'un de ses resultats majeurs a ete que non
seulement les membres de POAC mais aussi d'autres groupes ont utilise cette excellente
occasion de tenir des reunions speciales durant la semaine . De cette fac;:on , des liens plus
forts ont ete etablis entre les membres de ces differentes organisations qui ont pour objectifs
communs de disseminer les resultats de la recherche en cours sur la glace et de f avoriser les
edlanges d'idees entre les chercheurs et les ingenieurs d'application .
Nous avons ete tres fortunes d'obtenir un appui local et national aussi considerable pour
organiser Ie Symposium .
Notre comite national d'organisation a ete un excellent gu ide a chaque occasion critique et
ses membres ont accepte avec bonne grace toutes les taches que leur ont ete demandees.
Chaque membre s'est vu confier un travail specifique et ill 'a tres bien accompli ; nous desirons
remercier chacun pour son aide indispensable et, plus specifiquement , Bernard Harvey qui a
verifie to us les aspects financiers de I'organisation pour les garder a I'interieur des limites
budgetaires. Robert Frederking nous a aussi fourni une precieuse collaboration en presidant
Ie comite national scientifique qui etait responsable du choix des communications et qui a
contribue a I'edition des comptes rendus. Nous sommes tres reconnaissants a tous nos
collegues canadiens qui ont oeuvre pour cette organisation au niveau local , ou au niveau
L'organisation d'un bon symposium depend beaucoup d'un tas de petits details qui font que
c;:a roule et qui sont la responsabilite du secretariat. Nous avons eu la bonne fortune d'obtenir
du Service des conferences du Conseil national de recherches du Canada des avis precieux
pour la tenue du Symposium ainsi que I'aide tres appreciee de Daniel Chartrand. Nous tenons
ales remercier pour leur collaboration. Nous ne pouvons non plus oublier I'appui constant que
nous avons rec;:u de Diane Dussault et Jeanne Roy au secretariat et la contribution majeure de
Mariette Michel pour organiser les activites sociales et Ie programme des dames .
Le succes d'un symposium depend de la contribution active des auteurs , presidents et
co-presidents de sessions et du personnel technique. Nous desirons remercier tous ceux qui
ont fourni une somme enorme de travail pour obtenir les resultats que nous avons eus .

Bernard Michel , Dr. Ing .

Professeur de mecanique des glaces
et d'hydraulique
Universite Laval

Sponsors by - Parraine par

Committees - Comites

Preface Preface

List of participants - Liste des participants


B. Michel "History of Research on River and Lake Ice in Canada"
L. Bengtsson "Experiences on Winter Thermal Regimes of Rivers and
Lakes with Emphasis on Scandinavian Conditions" 11
Discussion by:
G.D. Ashton 32
Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
Discussion by: D C Ik' 35
Discute par : . a Ins
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
Discussion by:
R. Gerard 39
Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussion 40
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
Discussion by: 42
E.V. Kanavin
Discute par
Discussion by:
R.P. Asvall and S. Roen 43
Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
Discussion by:
Discute par
O. Starosolszky 54
L. Bengtsson "Heat Losses from an Open Water Surface at Very Low
Air Temperature A Laboratory Experiment" 55
G.D. Ashton "River Ice Suppression by Side Channel
Discharge of Warm Water" 65
Discussion by: 74
A. de Haas
Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
Discussion by: 75
S. Beltaos
Discute par

Author's reply to previous discussion

Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente

Discussion by:
R. Gerard
Discute par

Author's reply to previous discussion

Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente

Discussion by:

K.S. Davar 77
Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedenle 80
V. Matousek " A Mathematical Model of the Discharge of
Frazil in Rivers" 81
Discussion by :
L. Bengtsson 99
Discute par

Author's reply to previous discussion

Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
T. 0'0. Hanley and " Acoustic Detector for Frazil"
S.R. Rao 101
Discussion by:
A.M. Dean 108
Discute par

Authors' reply to previous discussion

Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente

Discussion by: R.S . Arden

Discute par

Authors' reply to previous discussion

Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente

Discussion by :

S. Daly 109
Discute par

Authors ' reply to previous discussion

Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente

Discussion by:

D.M. Foulds 110

Discute par

Authors' reply to previous discussion

Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
F.D. Haynes, "Performance of a Point Source Bubbler
G.D. Ashton and Under Thick Ice" 111
P.R. Johnson
Discussion by:
C.A. Wortley 122
Discute par
Discussion by:
G.P. Williams 123
Discute par
Discussion by:
D. Foulds 124
Discute par
Authors' reply to previous discussion
Reponses des auteurs aux discussions precedentes
P. Tryde "Ice Formation on the Walls of a Water Tunnel
Excavated Through Rock in Permafrost" 125
Discussion by : I
Discute par F.D. Haynes 136
Discuss ion by:
G.D. Ahston 137
Discute par
Discussion by:
M. Mellor 138
Discute par
Discussion by:
K.S. Davar 139
Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussions
Reponse de I'auteur aux discussions prececentes
L. Votruba " Relations between Climatic Conditions and
Winter Regime of Water Bodies" 141
D.M. Foulds "Peaking Hydro Generating Stations in Winter" 152
Discussion by:
D.G. Harkness 160
Discute par
Discussion by:
T.E. Wigle 161
Discute par
Author's replies to previous discussions
Reponses de I'auteur aux discussions precedentes
Discussion by: TAM CI 162
Discute par : .. c Imans
Author's reply to previous discussions
Reponse de I'auteur aux discussions precedentes
Discussion by: D. Calkins 162
Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
Discus;sion by: L. Billfalk 162
Dlscute par :
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
0 , Gy6rke, "Problems of Ice Release and Flow Conditions
E. Decsi and Upstream of Low-Head River Dams" 163
E, Zsilak
Discussion by:
I, Bracht! 172
Discute par
Authors' reply to previous discussion 174
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
Discussion by :
G, Frankenstein 176
Discute par
Authors' reply to previous discussion 177
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
H,T, Sken and "Wintertime Flow and Ice Conditions in the
N.L. Ackermann Upper SI. Lawrence River" 178
Discussion by:
TA McClimans 188
Discute par
Authors' reply to previous discussion
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
Discussion by:
OF Witherspoon 189
Discute par
Authors ' reply to previous discussion
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
Discussion by :
0, Calkins 191
Discute par
Authors ' reply to previous discussion
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
TE, Wigle, " Winter Operations International Rapids
J, Bartholomew and Section of the SI. Lawrence River" 193
C,J,R , Lawrie
Discussion by:
OF Witherspoon 203
Discute par
Authors' reply to previous discussion
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
Discussion by:
R,D, Conner 205
Discute par
Authors ' reply to previous discussion 206
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
Discussion by: 207
T, Dafoe
Discute par
Authors' reply to previous discussion 208
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
Discussion by:
D,M, Foulds 209
Discute par
Authors' reply to previous discussion
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
R. Boivin , " Influence de la couverture de glace sur les echanges
O. Caron et d'eau salee et d'eau douce dans un estuaire a maree : Ie
M. Drou in cas de I'estuaire de La Grande Riviere, au debut du
remplissage du reservoir de LG 2" 211
Discussion by :
N. McNeil 221
Discute par
Discussion by :
R. Lariviere 222
Discute par
Authors' reply to previous discussion
Reponse des auteurs aux discussions precedentes
Discus~ion by : T.A. McClimans 223
Dlscute par :
Authors' reply to previous discussion
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
K. Hiramaya " Hydraulic Resistance of Ice Cover" 224
Discussion by : J C Tt'l 235
Discute par : . . a inC aux
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
Discussion by:
H.T. Shen 235
Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
Discussion by :
S. Ismail 236
Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
Discus~ion by: C.D. Smith 236
Dlscute par :
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
M. Jensen " Ice Problems at Vittjarv Power Plant
Measures and Results" 238


F.E. Parkinson "Field Observations of Ice Conditions on the Liard /
Mackenzie River System" 252
Discussion by :
JW. Kamphuis 260
Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
Discussion by:
D. Foulds 262
Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
Discussion by:
F. Clement 264
Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
N.K. Gidas " Recherche sur les meilleures solutions contre les inon
dations de la Matapedia causees par les debacles" 266
Discussion by:
J.C. Tatinclaux 267
Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
F.M. Henderson and "Flood Waves Caused by Ice Jam Formation and Failure" 277
R. Gerard
Discussion by:
S. Beltaos 288
Discute par
Discussion by:
D. Calkins 289
Discute par
Discussion by:
J.w. Kamphuis 291
Discute par
Discussion by:
F. Parkinson 291
Discute par
Discussion by:
Discute par
O. Starosolszky 291
Authors' reply to previous discussion
Reponses des auteurs aux discussions precedentes
J.C. Tatinclaux "Stability of Floes Below a Floating Cover"
and M. Gogus 298
Discussion by:
S. Beltaos 309
Discute par
Discussion by:
G.D. Ashton 310
Discute par
Discussion by:
Discute par
o Starosolszky 310
Discussion by:
R. Hausser 310
Discute par
Authors' reply to previous discussion
Reponse des auteurs aux discussions precedentes
C. Zanting , " Regulating Effect of Reservoir of the Control of Ice
S. Zhaochu, Run on the Yellow River"
X. Jianfeng and 312
C.L. Wang Wencai
Discussion by:
G.D. Ashton 323
Discute par
0 .1. Gordeev and "Computation of Trajectories of Ice Floes
V.V. Degtyarev Movement on the Rivers" 324
N.L. Ackerman , "Transportation of Ice in Rivers" 333
H.T. Shen and
R.w . Ruggles
Discussion by:
S. Beltaos 343
Discute par
Authors ' reply to previous discussion
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
Discussion by :
S.E. Daly 345
Discute par
Authors' reply to previous discussion
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
R.M . Vogel and " The Effect of Floating Ice Jams on the Magnitude and
M.J. Root Frequency of Floods along the Missisquoi River in
Northern Vermont" 347
Discussion by :
B. V.C. Kartha 360
Discute par
Authors' reply to previous discussion
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente


D.J. Calkins ,
D.S. Sodhi and " Port Huron Ice Control Model Studies" 361
D.S. Deck
Discussion by: 372
S.S. Lazier
Discute par
Authors ' reply to previous discussion 373
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
S.F. Daly and " Force Distribution in a Fragmented Ice Cover" 374
D.M. Stewart
Discussion by: 384
J.C. Tatinclaux
Discute par
Authors ' reply to previous discussion
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente

Discussion by: S B It 386

Discute par : . e aos
Authors' reply to previous discussion
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
G. Garbrecht, " Formation of Ice Jams in the Elbe River
H. Fahlbusch and A Case Study" 388
W. Mertens
N.D. Elhadi and " Dispersion in a Covered Channel with Varying
K.S. Davar Roughness at the Top Cover" 398
Discussion by :
S. Beltaos 408
Discute par
Authors' reply to previous discussion
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
Discussion by: JC T r I 410
Discute par : . , a inC aux
Authors ' reply to previous discussion
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
N. Marcotte "Regime thermique des glaces en riviere
Etude de cas" 412
Discussion by:
II S. Petryk 423
Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
S. Petryk, "Numerical Modeling and Predictability of Ice Regime in
U.S. Panu, Rivers" 426
B. V.C. Kartha and
R. Clement
C.D. Smith " Model Study of Ice Movement atldylwyld Traffic Bridge" 436
General discussion of the session by : D J C Ik' 445
Commentaires generaux de la session par: .. a Ins
Souvenirs 449



M. Melior " Glaciers Mechanics" 455
Discussion by: 474
L. Gold
Discute par
S. Beltaos and "Field Investigations of a HangjPg Ice Dam" 475
A.M. Dean
Discussion by:
A. Gerard 486
Discute par
Authors ' reply to previous discussion
Aeponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
Discus.sion by : J.C. Tatinclaux 488
Dlscute par :
Authors' reply to previous discussion
Aeponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
G.W. Timco "A Comparison of Several Chemically-Doped
Types of Model Ice" 489
Discussion by:
G. Frankenstein 400
Discute par
Discussion by : M. Maaltanen 500
Discute par

Author's reply to G. Frankenstein

Aeponse de I'auteur a G. Frankenstein
Discussion by : AT W . 501
Discute par : .. elss
Author's reply to previous discussion
Aeponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
Discussion by: JC T r I 501
Discute par : . . a inC aux
Author's reply to previous discussion
Aeponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente

Discussion by :

J. Molgaard 502
Discute par
D.A. Sandell "Carbamide Ice Growth in a Large Test Basin " 503
Discussion by:
GW. Timco 515
Discute par

Author's reply to previous discussion

Aeponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
M. Nakawo and "The Salinity of Artificial Built-Up Ice Made by
A. Frederking Successive Floodings of Sea Water" 516
Discussion by:
A. Assur 525
Discute par
Authors' reply to previous discussion
Aeponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
F.U. Hausler " Multiaxial Compressive Strength Test on Saline Ice with
Brush-Type Loading Platens" 526
Discussion by:
Y.S. Wang 537
Discute par
Authors ' reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente

Discussion by:

N.K. Sinha 528

Discute par

Authors' reply to previous discussion

Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
X. Bomeng " Pressure Due to Expansion of Ice Sheet in Reservoirs " 540
N. Urabe and " Strain Rate Dependent Fracture Toughness (KId
A. Yoshitake of Pure Ice and Sea Ice" 551
Discussion by:
T.D. Ralston 564
Discute par
Authors ' reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente


P.R. Kry "Scale Effects in Continuous Crushing of Ice" 565

Discussion by: 580
Discute par

Authors' reply to previous discussion

Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
N.K. Sinha "Comparative Study of Ice Strength Data" 581
Discussion by :
Y.S. Wang 593
Discute par

Discussion by:

F.U. Hausler 594

Discute par

Authors' replies to previous discussions

Reponses de I'auteur aux discussions precedentes

P. Duval, "Primary Creep and Experimental Method for Testing
M. Maitre, Ice in Various Conditions of Strain Rates
A. Manouvrier, and Stresses" 596
G. Marec and J.C. Jay
Discussion by:
M. Mellor 603
Discute par
Authors' reply to previous discussion
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
Discussion by :
L.W. Gold 604
Discute par

Authors ' reply to previous discussion

Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente

Discussion by :

R. Frederking 605
Discute par
Authors' reply to previous discussion
Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
L. Lainey and " Parametric Studies of Sea-Ice Beams under Short
R. Tinawi and Long Term Loadings" 607
Discussion by:
N.K. Sinha 620
Discute par
Discussion by:
J.-P. Nadreau 621
Discute par
Discussion by:
R. Frederking 622
Discute par
Discussion by:
P.R. Kry 623
Discute par
Authors' reply to previous discussion
Reponses des auteurs aux discussions precedentes
P. Oksanen "Friction and Adhesion of Ice" 628
Discussion by : J Mid 638
Discute par . . 0 gaar
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
Discussion by:
C.D. Smith 639
Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
Discussion by:
E. Palosuo 640
Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
H. Saeki, T. Ono "Mechanical Properties of Adhesion Strength to Pile
and A. Ozaki Structures" 641
L. Billfalk "Formation of Shore Cracks in Ice Covers due to
Changes in the Water Level" 650
Discussion by :
D. Nevel 661
Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur la discussion precedente
Discussion by: R. Frederking 662
Dlscute par .
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
N. Yoshimura and "The Estimation of Crack Pattern on Ice by the New
K. Kamesaki Discrete Model" 663
Discussion by:
R. Tinawi 673
Discute par

Author's reply to previous discussion

Reponse de i'auteur a la discussion precedente
I.N. Sokolov, "Studies of Ice Action on Pumped Storage
Ya. L. Gotlib, Power Plant Structures" 674
P.G. Dick and
G.M. Ryabkin


LW. Gold "Designing Ice Bridges and Ice Platforms" 685
Discussion by:
P. Johnson 698
Discute par

Author's reply to previous discussion

Reponse de i'auteur a la discussion precedente
G. Tsang "Fin Boom Ice Gate for Ice Control and Winter
Navigation" 702
Discussion by:
W.E. Webb 715
Discute par

Author's reply to previous discussion

Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente

Discussion by :

R. Perham 716
Discute par

Author's reply to previous discussion

Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
P. Yee, " The Lake Erie - Niagara River Ice Boom - An
T.E. Wigle and Operational Experience" 718
A. Hollmer
Discussion by:
G. Tsang 726
Discute par
R. Abdelnour "Model Test of Multi-Year Pressure Ridges
Moving onto Conical Structures" 728
Discussion by: 750
J. Schwarz
Discute par

Author's reply to previous discussion

Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente

Discussion by: DOH d .

Discute par . . . 0 gins

Author's reply to previous discussion

Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente

Discussion by :

G.R. Pilkington 752

Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
Discussion by : T R Ch . 753
Discute par : .. an
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur la discussion precedente
Discussion by:
D.V. Reddy 754
Discute par

Author's reply to previous discussion

Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
H.R. Croasdale and " Ice Forces on Large Marine Structures" 755
R.W. Marcellus
Discussion by:
T. Lavender 766
Discute par

Authors ' reply to previous discussion

Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente

Discussion by:
P.R. Kry
Discute par

Authors' reply to previous discussion

Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente
C.J. Montgomery " Estimation of Ice Forces from Dynamic
and A.W. Lipsett Response" 771
Discussion by:
F.D. Haynes 781
Discute par

Author's reply to previous discussion

Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente

Discussion by:

G.R. Pilkington 782

Discute par

Authors' reply to previous discussion

Reponse des auteurs a la discussion precedente 782

M. Maattanen "Ice-Structure Dynamic Interaction - Ice Forces
Versus Velocity, Ice-Induced Damping " 783
Discussion by: 793
R. Frederking
Discute par
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente
Discussion by: AWL' tt 795
Discute par : ..
Author's reply to previous discussion
Reponse de I'auteur a la discussion precedente

J. Karri and " Measurement of Horizontal and Vertical Ice

P. Jumppanen Loads on Pile Type Structures" 797


Q. Starosolszky "Thermal Regime and Ice Forecasting for Fresh -
Water Bodies" 809
V. Balanin, "Estimation of Ice Conditions and Organization of
V. Tronin, Shipping on Rivers and Reservoirs During the
V. Malinovsky, Extended Period of Navigation" 825
Y. Sandakov and
B. Ginzburg
S.M . Aleinikov, "Protection of Hydraulic Structures from Icing" 836
B.E. Lyapin ,
M.1. Zhidkikh,
A.V . Panyushkin and
N.G. Khrapatyi
R. Gerard "Ice Scars: Are they Reliable Indicators of Past Ice
Breakup Water Levels?" 847
Discussion by:
F. Parkinson 855
Discute par

Discussion by :

B V.C. Kartha 855

Discute par

Discussion by:

Q. Starosolszky 856
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Discussion by :

M. Root 856
Discute par

Author's reply to previous discussions

Reponse de I'auteur aux discussions precedentes
R.T. Weiss, " Determination of Ice Rubble Shear Properties" 860
A. Prodanovic and
K.N. Wood
Discussion by:
B. Ladanyi 871
Discute par
Discussion by :
S.T. Lavender 871
Discute par
Authors' reply to previous discussion
Reponse des auteurs aux discussions precedentes
I. Mayer "Ice Hydraulic Stability Analysis:
Experimental Determination of Pressure
Distribution under Ice Floes" 873
S.P. Chee and " Underside Configuration of Ice Covers" 881
M.R. Haggag
R.M . Desmond, "Ice Growth in Rivers" 884
B.V. Karlekan and
S.G. Kandlikar
H. Hamza, " Elastic Creep Bending Analysis of Floating
D.B. Muggeridge Ice Covers" 889
and T.E. Laidley
T. 0'0 . Hanley "Heat Transfer During Freezing in Calm Water" 894
J.B. Kennedy and " Response of Floating Ice Sheets Under Impact
H.J. Iyengar Loads" 900
A.P .S. Selvadurai " On the Theoretical Modelling of Floating Ice
Sheets which Exhibit a Composite Structure" 905
G.w. Timco "A Technique for Chemically Simulating a Snow
Cover on Model Ice" 910
P. Vasseur, " Numerical Modelling of Dentritic Ice Formation in
L. Robillard and Supercooling Conditions" 913
B. Chandra Shekar
EV. Kanavin "Fifty Years of Experience in the Field of Ice
Problems for River Engineering" 917
A.D. Kerr " Remarks to the Buckling Analysis of Floating Ice Sheets" 932

R. Frederking , " IAHR Recommendations on Testing Methods of Ice

V.P. Gavrilo, - 3rd Report of Working Group on Testing Methods
D.J. Hausler and in Ice" 938
K. Hirayama
IAHR - AIRH 1981


HENDERSON, Francis M. University of Newcastle

ARDEN, Robert
Ontario Hydro
AUBIN, Leandre, chef de service
Societe d'energie de la Baie James

BARABE, Gilles, ingenieur

Ministere de l'Environnement
BELLIVEAU, Dennis, Direction of Works
Sask. Dept. of Highways & Transportation
BEL TAOS, Spyros, Dr.
National Water Research Institute
BEL TAOS, Spyros, Mrs.

BLANCHARD, Duane G. , Program Dev.

Small Craft Harbours Branch
BLANCHET, Denis, etudiant Universite Laval
BOIVIN, Richard Laboratoire d'Hydraulique LaSalle Ltee
BOIVIN, Claudette
BURRELL, Brian N.B. Dept. of Environment
CHARTRAND , Daniel Conseil national de recherches
CLAM EN, Murray, Assistant Chief Engineer International Joint Commission
CLEMENT, Fernand Lalonde, Girouard, Letendre et Associes
CROASDALE, Kenneth, Manager of design
analysis Dome Petroleum Ltd
DAFOE, Thomas, chef, Planification et
gestion des eaux Environnement Canada
DAVAR, Kersi S., Dr. University of New Brunswick
DROUIN, Marc Societe d'energie de la Baie James
DROUIN, Monique
ELHADI, Nabil, Water Resources Engineer N.B. Department of the Environment
ELLIOTT, Russell Ontario Hydro
FOULDS, Barbara
FREDERKING, Robert, Dr. National Research Council of Canada
FRENETTE, Marcel , professeur Universite Laval
FRIGON, Paul Grand River Conservation Authority
GERARD , Robert , Dr.
University of Alberta
GERARD, Pamela

Sask. Dept. of Highways

GIDAS , Nicolas, Dr ing.

Ministere de l'Environnement
GOLD, Lome, Dr .
National Research Council of Canada
GOLD, Joan

GRAHAM , Bruce, vice-president

Arctec Canada Ltd
HANLEY, Thos . 0 .0 .
University of Regina
Laboratoire d'Hydraulique Lasalle Ltee
HAUSSER, Suzanne

HELWIG, Philip, Supervising Engineer

Shawmont Nfld Limited
HERON , Richard , Student
McMaster University
HOARE , Rick D.
Dome Petroleum Ltd
HODGINS, Douglas
Maclaren Plan search
N.B. Electric Power Commission
JACQUAZ, Bernadette, biologiste
les Conseillers BEAK
Queen's University
KAMPHUIS , J.w., Mrs .

KARTHA, V.C., Bijou , Supervisor Hydr. Sec.

B.C. Hydro
KHLOEUNG, isar, ing. hydraulicien
Vezina, Fortier & Associes
KRY , P.R. , Dr.
Esso Resources Canada Ltd
KRY, Rosemary

Ecole poly technique

LAKE, Robert
Institute of Ocean Sciences
LAKE, Barbara

Atlas Construction (1981) Inc.
LAROCQUE, Guy S., directeur developp.
Societe d'(mergie de la Baie James

LAVENDAR , S. Thomas
Acres Consulting Services

LAWRIE, Charles
Canadian Coast Guard
LAWRIE, Sheila

LAZIER , Samuel, Professor

Queen 's University
LAZIER, Beverley

LEFEBVRE, Denis, Mme

L10U , Martin , Hydraulic Eng ineer

SI. lawrence Seaway Authority
LIPSETT, Bill, Research Officer
Alberta Research Council
Canada Marine Engineering Ltd

MARCOnE , Numa, Ing .

MARconE, Cecile

MAYOR-MORA, Ramiro, Chief SNC Inc.

MICHEL, Bernard, professeur Universite Laval
MICHEL, Mariette
MONTGOMERY, C. James, University of Alberta
Associate Professor
MCNEIL, Normand, president Normand McNeil Consultants Inc.
MCNEIL, Jeannine
NEILL, Charles Northwest Hydraulic Consultants
NOBLE, Peter, President Arctec Canada Limited
National Hydrology Research Institute
PEK, Chhoy
Societe d'energie de la Baie James
PETRYK, Sylvester, Ing.
Rousseau, Sauve, Warren, Inc.
POULIN, Roger, ing.
Environnement Quebec
National Research Council of Canada
RANSFORD, G.D., Dr. Ing.
Lavalin Inc.

ROBERT, Sylvain
Societe d'energie de la Baie James
ROOTS, E. Fred, Science Advisor
Department of the Environment
SCHWARTZ, Rochelle, Ms.
Ontario Hydro
SHOIRY, Pierre, etudiant
Universite Laval
SMITH, Cliff D., Head of Civil Engineering
University of Saskatchewan
THOMPSON, Murray W., Chief Engineer
International Joint Commission

TIMCO, Garry, Dr.

National Research Council of Canada
TINAWI, Rene, Dr.
Ecole polytechnique
TINAWI, Liliane

TOUSSAINT, Normand, ingenieur

Transports Quebec
TSANG, Gee, Dr.
National Water Research Institute
TSANG, Potin

WEBB, Walter, Director, Planning & Dev.

The St-Lawrence Seaway Authority
WEBB, Marjorie

WEINBERGER, Ronald, Section Head,

PFRA, Dept. of Regional Economic
Design Division Expansion
WITHERSPOON, David, Engineer-in-Charge Environment Canada
WRIGHT, Brian, Coordinator Oceanograhic
Research Gulf Canada Resources Inc.
YAREMKO, Eugene, Manager Northwest Hydraulic Consultants Ltd
YEE, Peter Dept. of the Environment
TRYDE, Per, Dr. , Assoc. Professor Technical University of Denmark

SWITHINBANK, Mr. British & Arctic Survey

JUMPPANEN, Pauli, Professor Technical Research Center of Finland
KARRI, Juhani, Research Officer Technical Research Center of Finland
MAAnANEN, Mauri, Dr. University of Oulu
MAAnANEN , Mauri, Mrs.
OKSANEN, Pekka, Research Officer Technical Research Center of Finland
TAIVALKOSKI, Raimo, Director Oy Partek Ab

DUVAL, Paul Laboratoire de Glaciologie

STAROSOLSZKY, Odon Research Centre for Water Resources Div.

ELiASSON, Elias Landsvi rkj un
FREYSTEINSSON , Sigmundur VST Ltd, Consulting Engineers
GUDMUNDSSON,Gu~on, D~I. Ing. Almenna Verkfredistofan H.F. Consult. Eng.

HIRAYAMA, Ken-Ichi, Ph.D.
Iwate University
KUBO , Yoshimitsu, Dr. Eng.
C.R. Engineering Laboratory Inc.
NOHARA, Eiji, Assistant Chief
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd
SAEKI, Hiroshi, Dr.
Hokkaido University
T ABAT A, Tadashi, Professor
Hokkaido University
Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co. Ltd
URABE, N., Ph. D.
Nippon Kokan K.K. Minamiwatarida
YAMAOKA, Isao, Professor
Hokkaido University
YASHIMA, Nobuyoshi
Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co. Ltd
YOSHIMURA, Nobutoshi
Nippon Kokan K.K. Minamiwatarida

DEDDEN, Willem, Student Delft University of Technology
DE HAAS, Albert, Ing. Rijkswaterstaat
PIELKENROOD , Anton, Student Delft University of Technology
ASVALL, Randi Norwegian Water Res . & Electricity Board
CARSTENS, Torkild, Dr. Norwegian Institute of Technology
GJERP, Svein Arne Norwegian Hydrodynamic Laboratories
KANAVIN, Edvigs V.
KANAVIN, Oiyind Juris, Student
ROEN, Syves Norwegian Water Resources & Electricity
ROEN, Ragnhild

BENGTSSON, Lars, Dr. University of Lulea
BILLFALK, Lennart, Research Eng. Swedish State Power Board Hydr. Lab.
JENSEN, Mogens, Civil Engineer Swedish State Power Board Hydr. Lab.
JENSEN, Maja, Mrs.
LARSEN, A. Peter, Director Swedish State Power Board Hydr. Lab .
LARSEN, Margareta

MULLER, Andreas ATH - Zurich


ACKERMANN, N. Clarkson College
ARGIROFF, Carl , Chief, Planning Branch U.S. Army Engineer District
ARGIROFF, Carl , Mrs.
BARTHOLOMEW, John, Mech. Power Authority of the State of N.Y.
BURK, James D., Research Engineer Shell Development Co .
COLEMAN, H. Wayne, Ass!. Section Head Harza Engineering Co .
COTRONEO , George V., Hydraulic Engineer Acres American Inc.
DAILY, James W., Prof. Emeritus University of Michigan
DAILY, Sally
DALY, Steven F., Research Hydr. Eng. U.S.A. CRREL
DEAN, Arnold M., Jr. U.S.A. CRREL
DEAN, Stephanie
DECK, David, Research Hydr. Eng. / U.SA CRREL
DEN HARTOG, Stephen, Geologist

DORRIS, James F., Research Engineer

Shell Development Co.
FRANKENSTEIN, Guenther, Mrs.

GOSINK, Joan, Miss, Post-Doctoral Fellow

University of Alaska
HUI, Samuel
Bechtel Civil & Mineral Inc.
HUI, Margaret

KANDLIKAR, Satish, Ass. Professor

Rochester Institute of Technology
KATO, Kazuyuki
KAWASAKI, Koji , Dr.
University of Alaska
KENNEDY, J.F., Professor
University of Iowa
KERR, Arnold D., Professor
University of Delaware
MELLOR, Malcolm , Dr.
MELLOR, Malcolm, Mrs.

MUENCH, Robin, Dr.

Science Applications Inc.
MCGREGOR, Ron K., Director Arctic
Office of Naval Research
University of Alaska
PERHAM, Roscoe E., Mechanical Engineer
QUINN, Frank H, Head, Lake Hydrology
NOAA, ERL, Great Lakes Environmental
Research Laboratory
QUINN, Joanie

ROOT, Morris, Group Manager

Dufresne-Henry, Inc.

SANDELL, David A., Commander

United States Coast Guard Academy


SHEN, H.T., Dr.

Clarkson College of Technology

SHEN, Hayley

SODHI, Devinder , Dr.

SODHI, Devinder, Mrs.

TANTILLO, Thomas J., Mechanical Engineer

TATINCLAUX , Jean-Claude, Resch Hydr.
TATINCLAUX , Jean-Claude, Mrs.
TAYLOR, Thomas Mobil Research & Development Corp.
THOMAS, Richard, Hydraulic Engineer U.S. Army Engineer District Detroit
VAUDREY, Kennon D., President Vaudrey & Associates, Inc.
VINSON, Ted, Associate Professor Oregon State University
VIVATRAT, Vitoon, Associate Brian Watt Associates, Inc.
VOGEL, Richard Dufresne-Henry, Inc.
WATT, Brian J., President Brian Watt Associates , Inc.

WEISS , Richard T., Research Specialist Exxon Production Research Co.

WORTLEY, C. Allen, Associate Professor Uriiversity of Wisconsin-Extension

WUEBBEN , James , Research Hydr. Eng. U.S.A. CRREL

LYAPIN, Vasily N., M.Sc. Eng. The B.E. Vedeneev VNIIG
SKLADNEV, Michael F. The B.E. Vedeneev VNIIG
TRONIN , Vasily A. , Ass. Prof. Gorky, Water Transport Institute
VASILlEV, Georgy V. Ministry of the River Fleet


Technical University Bramnschweig
HAUSLER, Franz Ulrich, Dipi. Ing .
Hamburg ische Sch iffbau-Versuchsanstalt
HAUSLER, Franz Ulrich, Mrs.

JORDAN, Peter, Dipi. Ing.

Ruhr-Universitat Bochum

SCHWARZ, Joachim, Dipi. Ing .

Ruhr-Universitat Bochum

SCHWARZ, Joachim , Mrs.



MELLOR, Malcolm , Dr . International Association of
Hydrological Scien ce s
L'Association internationale
des sciences hydrologiques
STAROSOLSKY,ddon , Dr World Meteorological Organization
L'Organisation mondiale de meteorologie
GOLD , Lorne, President International Glaciological Society
La Societe internationale de glaciologie


Bernard MICHEL Department of Civil En! ',i neering Canada

Laval University


Mo s t lakes and rivers in Canada are covered by ice many months during the
year and this has been histori c ally a major factor in the develo pm~ nt of this

It is, however, a difficult task to prepare the history of r e sea rch on this
subject, which is so mixed with the every day life of th e people, but yet so hard t o
trace in the litterature because of its diversity and the large number of scientific
disciplines it concerns.

The amount of r e~e arch on floating ice has be e n considerable in Canada

and has increased in an explosive man ner in the last decade, with the oil and gas
exploration in th e North.

So we have tried, in this short presentation, first to show the importance

of river ice at the origins of the country and second to discuss the main findings
in river and lake ice up to the beginning of the 70 's. We have followed the order
of topics whic h are discussed in this Symposium and we apo logized to the authors of
many important studies which have been made in the past t e n years and which could not
be covered in thi s limited presentation.


Canada was first colonized along the St. Lawrence river, very far from the
sea, so that it was mOre or less, at the origin, a part time co untry operating only
about half of th e year . During the long winter months the navigation route was
comple tely blocked by ice, 1 000 km from the ocean, and the colony was t rap ped and
isolated from the rest of the world.

It was probably the fi rs t time that the now famous principle of ice
hydraulics engineers was put to use "inst ead of fighting against ice, make use of

Quebec City in the old times was a very lively city during the winter
months with people assembling to gossip on the St. Lawrence river ice, u~ing the ice
to enjoy themselves instead of waiting sadly in their home s during the long winter
months. They used their imagination do develop many winter sports, like skating,
ice 5a111n3 and sleigh racing on the ice. There was also a very unique event
occuring every winter at the Montmorency f a ll s , the sliding with indian toboggan s on
the frazil and frost mound, called the "suga r loaf", just below the falls. A
commerce of hard liquor sa les also developped quickly, on the ice, as merchants
found, sooo enough, that if a cabin was set on the ice, more than 500 ft from shore,
the merchant did not have to pay any ta x to the fed era l governme nt, in Qufbec City.
Thus people succ eed in enjoying themselves in the cold winter months in the early
cOlony. One british lady whose uncle was governor Monk and who came to Quebec City
for one winter, said after returning to London : "What horror is a british winter
after a canadian oneil.

The ice cover of river and lakes was widely used for transpo r tation. Ice
roads were well defined with ever gree ns s tuck in snow on both sides, but many
accidents happened if people stra yed from the road. One day, before he was the first
prime minister of Cana da, John A. MacDonald who had a house in his constituency of
Levis had to cross on the ice bridge. He rented a horse drawn cab, late in the winter ,
and suddently the carria ge broke through the ice. The horse drowned , but MacDonald
was saved an d taken out of the cold water. He got away with a severe cold and the
firm intention to move to Ontario.

A major event for transportation over ice, was the setting of railroad
tracks between Montr ea l and Longueil in 1880. The first train crossed over on
January 31st and everythin g went very well the fir st winter. Unfortunatel y , at the
beginning of January of the year after, after three passages in the ear l y winter, the
train broke th ro ugh the ice and disappeared in the r iver . The traffic was resumed
with a shift in the track, but the c rossin g wa s abandonned the following year.

Ice was not only use d as a recreation platform and an ice crossing but it
was also the only means to preserve food during the summer months. Large quantities
of ice were cut off the ice cover . They were then transported on sleds with an army
of carters that were hired to carry the ice blocks to the large ice-houses along the
wharfs. This was a general industry in the winter and summer all along the
St. Lawrence river, employing a large number of people. What was not done on an
industrial basis was completed by individuals who would glean the ice on the shores
at time of breakup, to bring home the river ice.

Unfortunately ice was not always beneficial in those times and the break-up
was feared by all along the St. Lawrence river and many of its tributaries. Fl09ding
by ice jams was extensive all along the Quebec-Montreal reach: the worst in the
Montreal area happened in 1886 when Notre Dame Street virtually became a river. It
is recorded that 50 people lost their live s during the spring flood of 1865 in the
Three Rivers region. Damage to property and ships was important. The break-up of
the ice jam upstream of Qu e bec City on May 9, 1874 is reported (0 have resulted in
water front damage, including the s inking of many ships, to the extent of one million


We will distinguish here between frazil and ice cover formation although in
most cases, one leads directly to the other.

a) Frazil

The Lachine rapids in front of Montreal is the first reach of a river in

the world where frazil was observed and studied in the middle of the last century.
In fact the name was given to this type of ice from the old French word "fraisil"
which means an accumulation of cinders looking somewhat like frazil slush.

In 1887, frazil was the main topic of discussion of the fir s t meeting of
the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers [1 1 . The most wild and incongruous theories
were advanced to explain this type of ice formation that lead to the formation of
anchor ice at the bottom of river s. For example, Irvin considered that air mixing
with water was the main factor in the production of frazil. Such ice, he said, would
be very cold and therefore dense enough to sink and be carried to the bottom. Lord
Kelvin had a very picturesque description of frazil which was supposed to be the
product of currents of water pa s sing over and desintegrating solid anchor ice,
exposing its bones just as a rock is warn into irregular forms by the removal of its
softer parts.

Professor H.T . Barnes of McGill University was the first engineering
scientist to spend most of his life on river ice research. In 1928 he published
the first book on "Ice Engineering" [2]. He did a lot of fine observations on
frazil. One, for example, on the water velocity below hanging dams: "Uniformity of
water sections suggest uniformity of current during this state of congestion, which
we know does not exist when the river is free from ice. In whatever way this is
done, the cross sections prove that the river, like a judicious stevedore, disposes
of the frazil as it arrives, and so places it as to maintain a thorough fare for its

Barnes defended strongly a theory he proposed that long wave radiations

from the river bottom explain the formation of anchor ice. Unfortunatel y his
theory was proven wrong by the russian Altberg, who showed that water was opaque to
long wave radiations.

More than twenty yea rs ago we were very intrigued by the seemingly
mysterious frazil and we built an outside transparent flume to really observe the
formation of frazil in nature [3]. \,e found that the first frazil particles would
appear suddently in the whole mass of water, that they multiply very quickly in a
matter of seconds and that they will then floculate to form flocs and fra zil slush
floating to the surface.

An important p roperty of Erazil is the large volume it occupies for a

relatively small amount of ice formed and it thus, produces important hangin g dams.
Many such dams have been mea s ured in northern Quebec by the James Bay Energy
Corporation, one having more than 20 km in length and a maximum depth o f 20 m [4].

b) Ice formation

A major process in the fo rmation of ice cover in rivers is the accumulation

of drifting ice floes and slush on the edge of a continuous cover which is progressing

This condition was first s tudied by hydraulic engineer s in 1927 [5] for the
construction of the St. Lawren ce Seaway and it led to a very simple cr iterion for the
formation of ice covers in rivers, based solely on the flow velocity in front of the
cover. For a velocity up to 1,5 ft/sec the cover would progress normally, bu t for a
velocity over 3,3 ft /sec the surface would usually remain free of ice .

A major breakthrough in river ice research happened in 1959 at the Seminar
on "Ice Problems in Hydraulic Structures" held during the Eight Congress of the IAHR
in Montral . Pariset and Hausser [6] presented the first of a series of papers
dealing with the formation of ice covers in rivers, based on an analysis of the
hydrodynamics of the flow at the frontal edge. They gave a condition for the pro
gression of the edge by simple juxtaposition of ice floes or by thickenin g and piling
up of ice floes. Later on, they extended this theor y to show that these conditions
applied only to what they called narrow rivers and that for wide rivers the thicken
ing of the ice cover was controlled, not at the edge, but by internal pressure in
the accumulation.

At the same meeting Kivisild [7 ] also presented his c riterion for the
stability of ice covers which was a critica l value of the Froude number. Th is
criterion was confirmed by many field measurements.

Both of these methods were at the origin of a new field in hydraulics in

which extensive resear c h has been carried ever since.

c) Break-up

Another important canadian contribution to the field of ice research has

been the st udy of break-up. The most successfull approach has been the application
of the theor y of grain silos t o the case of ice jams. This was also done for the
first time at the IAHR Congress in 1959 by Beccat and Michel [8] to com pute the thrust
exerted by unconsolidated ice covers on a retaining stru cture, Later on, we applied
similar mechanics to study the equilibrium thickness and stability of ice jams and I<e
verified this, by tests with polyethylene blocks in a flume ' 9]. Later on
Pariset et a l. [10] presented a paper showing that their theory on ice cover formation
co uld be extended to the particular case of break-up by reducing to zero the cohes ive
value of ice they had been using in their equa tions.

It has been extremely difficult, until now, to verify these theories of

break-up in the field, as it is humanl y impossible to mea sure ice thi cknes ses at
time of break-up. However, a systematic program initiated a few years ago by
Gerard [11 ] then of the Albert a Research Co uncil, g i ve many indications th at these
theories do apply.

Ther e are man y active groups working on the formation and break-up of
river ice in Canada which we ca nnot cite here, because of the limitations set for
this paper. Queen's Univer s it y, the Univ ersity of Alberta and the Univers ity of
New Brunswick are very active in the field . The Canadian Center for Inland Waters of
En vi ronment Cana da has chosen river ice as one of its major topics for research. The
power companies of Canada and most specifically Hydro Quebec and Hydro Ontario have

provided an immense body of informations and analysis on river ice, over the years.
Most of our Canadian engineering consultants are highly qualified and have experience
in dealing with these questions.


I believe that the first investigation in ice mechanics in Canada were

carried on, in 1784, by Major Edward Williams of the Royal Artillery, then stationed
in Quebec City . His experiments were made to observe the expansive force of freezing
water [12] . To do that, he used the iron bomb-shells that were hollow, 13 inches
long, with a tapered fuse hole providing access to the inner cavity. He filled those
with water and then drove iron plugs into the fuse-holes. When the shells were
exposed to the cold, the expansive force of the ice was sufficient to force out the
plugs and cylinders of ice "immediately shot up from the holes". He made a table
of the distance travelled by each plug. Thus in one case a plug of 41,75 onces
travelled a distance of 415 feet. Even, in one case, the iron shell burst before
the plug could go.

As said previously, professor H. T. Barnes was a remarkable pioneer in ice

engineering. To our knowledge he was the first canadian to do tests on the crushing
strength of ice on blocks of ice in the laboratory in 1914 [13]. Even in these
early tests he has a lot of foresight and concludes by saying: '~ests on crushing
strength of ice are of no value in themselves. The crushing strength depends on the
rate of loading and the time element is the greatest factor in determining the
pressure of ice against a structure". He also discovered that there was a large
difference in results by testing columnar ice along the column axis or perpendicular
to it. He found an average value of 363 psi for his tests on the crushing strength
of St. Lawrence river ice at the freezing point and this was at the origin of the
400 psi strength value used as a first approximation by Canadian engineers e ver since.

In the first part of the century one of the major practical problem in ice
mechanics in Canada, was to determine the force exerted by an expanding ice sheet
submitted to a rise in the air temperature. This force was very important in the
design of dams and bridge piers and the use of the crushing strength gave extremely
high values for design, that looked improbable.

The early major contribution on this question was done by Brown and
Clarke [14] of McGill University in 1932. Their technique consisted in maintaining
constant the length of an ice sample held between the platen of a testing machine
and measure the pressure exerted with a rise in the temperature of the sample. From
this they obtained a rate of stress increase for each rate of temperature increase.
From these tests they could then compute the pressure for various conditions of
temperature rise.
After Barnes and Brown the research on ice at McGill University was
continued by Professor Pounder and his colleagues. Those researches are now aimed
more specifically at sea and arctic ice which is not the object of this review. May
we note, however, that the publication of the book on "Physics of ice" by Pounder [15J
was an important event in ice research as it contained many fundamental topics of
interest to river and lake ice engineers.

A major milestone was set in Canada in ' the early fifty's when the National
Research Council of Canada opened the Snow and Ice Section in the Division of Building
Research and Dr. L. Gold became the first full time scientist working in snow and ice
in Canada.

When NRC research began, little was known on the fundamental mechanical
beha vior of ice in the range of testing needed for engineering applications because
previous work had been done solely on glacier ice. An extensive program was the
started on deformation and yield of natural fresh water ice in the ductile range
by Gold [16J. These studies have been pursued ever since by the small group of
scientists of the laboratory.

This group has also been conducting many field trials over the years to
solve many practical problems submitted to NRC. One of the early and major
practical contribution of the laboratory [17J was to determine the bearing capacity
of ice covers. Extensive information was collected allover Canada on loads that had
broken through the ice with their corresponding ice thicknesses, in order to
establish these practical guidelines.

In 1966 we set up an Ice Mechanics laborator y at Laval University and we

were success full in maintaining over the years a group of students to experiment
systematically on ice, in the cold rooms.

Our research program was aimed at determining the mechanical properties

of all types of fresh water ice, both theoritically and experimentally. To do that
we started by collecting many samples of ice and classif ying them according to
internal structure [18J. We, then develop laboratory techniques to simulate the
different ice t ypes in order to obtain consistent te s ting results . The original
testing program of simple mechanical properties was done to cover both the brittle
and ductile range with a wide variation of testing parameters . The major earl y
result s of this program were the identification of the transition behavior from
ductile to brittle failure, and the independence of the strength in the brittle
range on the rate of loading [ 19 J . Another important early study was the determina
tion of the force caused by the thermal expansion of ice, start i ng from a
rehological model of its ductile behavior, adjusted with laboratory tests [20J.
Many applications we re dealt with including the desi gn of reinforced ice bridges at
the beginnin g of the hydro-power development in Ja me s Bay [21). All results are
fully discussed in a book written by Michel in 1978 (22).

The queseion of impact of ice on bridge piers has recei ve d considerable

attention in Canada by the Alberta Research Council stareing from 1967 [23 J . A large
program of field t es es was carried out for many years during spring brea k-up for
piles of different geometries. It stil l is the only real data existing for ri ve r
ice, giving the loads and the characteristics of ehe oscillations of the load.

Although, re lated to arctic ice it is worth mentioning here the famous

"nutcraker" tests carried out by the Arctic Petroleum Operators Association in 1974
[24J. Th 0s~ eeses were done in the Mckenzie Delea by jacking apart two steel piles
frozen into the ic e sheet, until the ice failed by crushing. These tests guve high
pressure values, that raised many questions for designers of arctic structures.

Since the early 70's, there has been an explosion of research in Canada
in [he tield of ice mechanics, [hi~ being oriented mainl y t o sea ice and arctic ice.
Unfortunatel y we cannoe mentioned here all the active work which i~ being done now
by many groups including those of Memorial Universie y in Newfoundland, Ecole Pol y
technique in Montrlal, ehe University of Alberta, the Glaciology Division of the
Department of Environment Canada, the Ministry of Transport and most of the oil
companies and consuleing engineers in Canada.


Looking over the evolution of research on riveL and laKe ice in Canada, it
appears th en the major impulse of new ideas was given in t;,e early 60' s when the
foundations of th~ field o f hydraulics of river ice were laid dOWll.

Unf o rtunatel y, ~ince those years, not much has bee n done to confront, in a
s ystematic manner , these theories with field meas urements. It is OUt personnal
opinion that ~iver ice phenomena have a thermal aspect as lea s t as important as the
hydraulic one. This fir s t aspect having been negleceed, it might be th~ next major
breaktrough in th~ coming decade.

In the last ten years there has been a tremendous increase of research
in ice mechanics. Although this is primed mainly by expluration for oil and gas in
the Arctic, it has an imporcant bearing on the knowledge of river and lake ice.
Because fresn water ice is transparent and can be observed internally uuring its
deformation behavior; i:he field of ice mechanIcs is progressing faster tllan any
other has been previously, in the science and materials. It might even take the lead
an':: bring new lighe to the understanding of the me chanical behavior of .uetals and
rocks .


[11 Trans . Can. Soc. Civil Eng. I, I, (1887) .

[ 2J Barnes, H. T . (1928) "Ic e Engin ee r i.n g " Hontrea1, 364 p., Re nouf Publishi ng Co.

[3] ~Iiche l , B. ( 1 963) " Theory of f ormat io n and depos it of frazil ice"

Vo l . 8, pp . 1 29 - 49.

[41 ~l iche 1 , B. and Drouin, rl. ( 1 975) "Equi li brium o f a n under ha n gi n g dam a t the

La Grande River" Report GCS - 75 - 03-0 1.

[5J S t . Law,re nce \,aterway Projec t , Report of the Joint Board of Engineers ( 1927).

Kin g ' s Printer, Ottawa, Canada .

[6J Pa riset , E. and Hausser, R. ( 1 959) "Formation of ice cov e r s on r ivers "

Paper 3-S1-1, Proc. Seminar Il l, IAHR , 8th Congre ss , Hontreal.

[7 J Kiv is i 1d, H. R. ( 1 959) " Hang ing ice d ams " Proc . Seminar Ill, Paper l-Sl-l,

I AHR , 8 th Congress, Montrea l.

[ 8] Becca t, R. a nd Niche1, B. ( 19 59) "Thrust exe rt ed on a r e t ai n i ng s tructure

by unconsolidated ice c ove r " Paper 11- S1-1, P roc. Se mina r Ill , I AHR,

8 th Congress , Montreal.

[9J Niche 1, B. (1965) "Stati c equ ilibrium of an ice jam at br ea k-up" (in French)
Proc. , 11th Congre ss, IA HR, Se minar on Ice, Pap er no. 1 026. Al so in (1965):
rr Brea k-up: mechani sms , theo r y a nd contrell! Dept. of Civi l Engrg.
Report S-5, Laval Univ ersi t y (in French) both tr ans l a t ions by U.S. Lake
Surv ey, Detroit, 1967.

[ 10J Par i se t, Eo; Hau sse r, R. and Gag no n, A. ( 1966) "Formatio n of ice covers and
ice jams in ri vers" Jou rn a l of Hydraulics Di v., Pro e . ASC , Vo l. 92,
No. HY 6, pp. 1- 24 .

[11 1 Gerard, R. ( 1975) "Pr elim inary obse r va tions of spring ice jams in Alb er t a "
Proc. IAHR Symposium on Ice P roblems, Hanover, N.H. pp. 26 1- 277 .

[1 2 J Jou rna l of Glaciology (195 8) No t e o n "Ea rly expe dm en t on ice " Vol. 3,
No. 24, p. 320-21.

[13J Ba rne s, H.T.; Hayward, J .H. and f1c Leod N. (1914) " Expansive force of ice"
Trans. Proc . Soc. Can ., 8 , 29.

[14 J Brown, E. and Clarke, G. ( 1932) "Ic e thrust in conne ct ion with hy d ro
elec tri c plant desi g n Eng . Journal, pp. 19- 25.
[15 J Pounder, E. R. (1965) "The Physics 0 f Ice" Pe rgammon Press, London.

[16] Gold, L.W. (1958) "Some observations on the dependan c e of strain on stress
for ice" Can. Journ. of Physi c s, Vol. 36, No.2.

[17] Gold, L.W. (1960) "Field study on the load bearing capacity of ice c overs"
Pulp and paper Magazine of Canada, Vol. 61, No.5.

[18'\ Michel, B. and Ramseier, R.O . (1971) "Classifi c ation of river and lake ice"
Canadian Geote c hnical Journal, Vol. 8, No.1, pp. 36-46.

[19] Carter, D. (1971) "'Lois et mecanismes de l'apparente rupture fragile de la

glace de riviere et de lac" These D.Se., Universit: Laval.

[20] Drouin, M. (1971) "Les poussees d'origine thermique exer c ees par les couverts
de gla c e sur les structures hydrauliques" These D.S e ., Universit: Laval.

[21] Michel, B.; Drouin, M.; Lefebvre, L.M . ; Rosenberg, P. and Murray, R. (1974)
"Ice bridges of the James Bay Project" Can. Geotech. Journ . , Vol. 11,
No.4, pp . 599-620.

[22] Michel, B. (1978) "Ice Mechanics" Les Presses de l'Universite Laval, 500 p.

[23J Neill, C.R. (1968) "Research problems pertaining to forces of i c e on bridge

piers and similar isolat e d struc tu res" Proe. Conference on I c e Pressure
on Structures. N. R.C. Tech. Memorandum No. 9851.

[241 Croasdale, K. R. (1974) "Crushing strength of arcti c ice" Symp. on Beaufort

Sea Coastal and Shelf Res., AINA, pp. 377-399.



Lars Bengtsson UNESCO Sweden

Professur and

The heat loss from water to the atmosphere prior to freeze-over and the growth of an
ice-cover during mid winter is discussed. It is found that in northern Scandinavia
lakes free ze over after about the same number of negative degree~days every year, and
that the maximum ice thickness for a specific lake is very much the same from year to
year. Also heat losses from open river stretches at very low air temperatures are

A formula for thermal equilibrium ice thickness is presented. The equilibrium thick
ness depends strongly on air and water temperature and on flow velocity.

In ice covered lakes a pronounced thermocline usually develops. In the course of the
winter the bottom water gains heat from the sediments. Measurements show that the
heat transfer rate is about 1 watt/m 2 .

Different methods for keeping a water surface ice-free are discussed. Examples of air
I,ubbler systems and heated discharges are given. It is shown that when complete
mixing of the heated water and the resident water can be obtained, the heat required
for k~cping limited areas ice-free 1S rather small.

Ice may be produ ced by man for energy utilization purposes, e.g. heating, or for the
purpose of creating winter roads or ice platforms. Since a thick ice cover reduces
the h ~a t loss to the atmosphere, the normal static growth of ice is reduced, and the
total ic e thickness is not very much in excess of that under natural conditions.

1:1 t ro,iuc. t ion
Dates for freeze-over and break-up, heat loss rates from open water surfaces, ice
thickness, temperature stratification in lakes, i.e. the winter thermal regimes of
a water course depend on meteorological and hydraulic conditions. Although theoreti
cal work on the heat balance of ice-covered waters has been made, field measurements
are to a great extent lacking. Some very rough "rules of the thumb" have to be used,
when construction work is made in a river, or if the water during winter is 1n some
way used by nan. Ihth the present knowledge it is difficult to estimate the influence
of man on the thermal regime s of a water course. Observations by the engineer lion the
field" are often more valuable than theoretical work and formulas lacking \o,lell
determined coefficients.

He dt Losses in the Autumn

The first ice formation in the beginnin g of the ",inter is preceeded by a long period
of cooling of the water. The intensity of the cooling depends primarily on meteoro
logical conditions. but the water tem ~e rature field is determined not only by the
heat e xchange with the atmosphere but is also due to currents, turbulent mixing and
influenc e fro m the bottom and the shores. In a river the water can generally be
assumed to be completely mixed. This enables the water temperature to be determin ed
without considering the turbul en t charcteristic s of the flow. In lakes the water
temperature s tratification prior to freeze-over is stable, which prevents mixing.
Whence. only a thin la yer at the water surface need to be cooled to the freezing
point bef ore ice formation takes place. Ice fi rst forms at the shore, and in lakes
and slow moving water it then grows from the shore. The progression ra te depends on
the thermal atmospheric exchange as compared to the tllrbulent heat transport in the
water. Also large lakes freeze over fast. when there ar e no strong winds present.
The vertical turbulent heat transrort from deep water s t o the water surface is too
slow to compensate for the atmospheric heat loss. For engineering purposes it is
useful to approximate the total heat loss rate by a linear function of the temperature
difference between the wa ter surface and the air. Many formulas of the type

H A + B (T - T ) ( 1)
a I; a

where H heat loss rate from the water surface to the atmosphere, T
a w,a
temperature of water and air, A,B = coefficients, have been suggested, for example
by Edinger-Duttwe iler-Geyer [1 2], Jobs on -Y ot sukura [16], ningman-Assur (11]. The
coeffici~nts are functi ons of the solar radiation, cloudiness and wind speed.

For northern areas on days with clear skies and light winds the coefficients are

accordin g t o Di~gman and Assur app roximately

A = 50 ;Jat ts/m

b ut I ' ,cy ma y \Je ll be in th e ran ge 25 - 7 5 an d 10-25, respec ti v ely. It sho uld be

emph asized that the propose d formu l as of type P' I . (1) actua lly are for h ea t e d
str ea ms . In the autu mn the t e mper ature diff e re nce between wat e r a nd air is rahter
s mall , and th e e nerg y bal a nce is domin ated by th e radiat ion bala nce. Consequ ent l y
th e d ominating part o f Eq . (I) is ofte n th e co e tE icient A, whi ch pri maril y d e p e nd s
on so lar radi a tion and atmo S IiIu~. r ic e mi ssiv ity. Thi s is c lear ly s ho\,ffi in Fig . 1 from
me asur~ ",~ " t s in th e s mall Lake Trolltjarn, Lule a.

_~ net mdiation
, \ r
! '( measured heatflux
~-=~~~-~ .~
'-' 2~,_:9,i 1 '~10
V november

Fi g . 1. Measured hea t gain/loss r ate of l a ke Trolltj ~rn ) lul e~ and m~ asure d net
r adia ti on ab ove th e lake s urfa ce, 1977.

The so l ution to th e hea t tran sfer e qua tion wi th cons t an t exchange coeffic ient, and
neg l ec tin g the co nv ec tiv e t erms . and assu ming constant hea t l oss rat e at the surfac e ,
i s for a deep verti c al found from a La p l ace transformat ion as
H (
a I (nu) -0.5 e
T (z, t) T du (2)
w o pc kO. 5

\o,.'h e r e Tw \"rat er t e mpe rature, To = initial water t e mperatur e (v e rtica lly homoge
na us), t = time, Ha = heat loss ra t e t o the atmo sphere, 0 = density o f wa t e r,
c = sp ec ific capacity of wate r , k = exchange coeffici e nt fo r heat, Z = d ep th

coordinat e po s itive dmVl1wards be i ng 0 at t he surface, u = integration parame ter.

Eq. (2) is appli ed t o a coolin g wat e r surfac e. Th e time ela ps e d b e fore the wat er

surface temperature has dropped to OOC lS

PCk O . 5 T 2
t - ( -"H;-----".o ) (3)

Although, as is shown above, not theoretically correct, it is common to describe the

time of freeze-over as a function of the sum of negative degree-days. For small
lakes the sum of negative degree-days before freeze-over is low, SOOe-days or so. For
fast flowing rivers it is much higher. Some examples are given in Table 1.

It is obvious that if the air temperature is close to oDe for a long period, the
water temperature adjusts to this temperature. If then the air temperature drops. the
water body freezes over fast.

Table I. Negative degree-days (oC) prior to freeze-over for some Swedish lakes .

lake, region 1974/75 1975/76 1976/77 1977/78

Valvtrask Rane River 58 55 50

Ov. Flasjon Ranea 44 44 45 32
St. Bygdetrask Umea 40 62 47 52
Stodesji:in Harnosand 40 60 61 70
Mockeln Vaxjo 44 26 23 38

The time of freeze-over for a lake or a specific river reach does usually not vary
much from year to year. Since the period of cooling of the ~ater is very long
lasting from the time of maximum summer temperatures until the appearance of the
first ice formation - meteorological variations from year to year are somewhat
flattened out. Some examples of time of freeze-over for different lakes are given
in Table 2.

Table 2. Date of freeze-over for some Swedish lakes

lake, region 1974/75 1975/76 1976/77 1977 /78

Valvtrask Rane River 3 Nov 4 Nov 28 Oct 10 Nov

Ov. Fl asj on Ranea 26 Oct 30 Oct 26 Oct 28 Oct
St . Bygdetrask Umea 20 Nov 25 Nov 16 Nov 24 Nov
Stodesjon Harnosand 30 Nov 17 Dec 17 Dec 19 De(:

Mockeln Viixjo 15 Feb 17 Dec 15 Dec 4 Jan

Ice formation in rivers can only occur, ..,hen the water is cooled to the freezing
point. However, as stated previously, the first ice formation takes place, when the
bulk temperature of the water is above OoC. When the heat loss to the atmosphere is
no more balanced by heat transfer from the bulk water mass to the water surface, ice
is produced. Observations in Norwegian rivers (Kanavin [17]) have shown that there
exist critical combination s of water temperature and surface velocity as shown in
Fig. 2.


(!J 0.12

-: 000

DO L-.-_ _~---+-~-+--<~----< ---

00 Q2 04 0.6 0.8 10
Surface velocity of flow (m/s)
fonmtion of sheet ice~ rformation of
frazil and bottom
ice Fig. 2. Critical combin c:: tions
of water temperature
zone and surface velocity.

Using Monin's [20] similarity hypothesis it is possible to determine the heat flow
rate from the bulk water mass of a river to the water surfac e as

H uT __K_ pc (Sa)
w w prof2

where K = von Karmans constant, T bulk water temperature, Pr = turbulent

Prandtl number, u = surface velocity, H = heat flow from below to the water surface
In(z/z ) (5b)
where z = vertic al distance frOID the water surface to some reference depth,
Zo = rOUGhness length.

In 51 -units Eq. (Sa) is approximately

H (6)

When the heat loss rate t o the atmosphere exceeds H ' i ce forms at the wa ter surface.
At air temperature -ls-20 C the heat loss from an open water surface t o the atmos
phere is about 400 Wa tt s/ m . This means that a water surface remain s ; ,:<> - free, if

uT > 0.02 (7)


where T
is in c and u in ml sec. For u = 0.4 m/sec a river is ic e-free if T
exceeds 0.05 C. As can be seen from Fig. this s i::;? l e theoretical analysis is at
le as t t o some ex t e nt i n accordance with the observations.

St at i c Growth of I ce
Whe n an i ce co ver has formed th e ice in lak es an d calm rivers grows according to the
heat los s thro ugh the ice cover. This static growth o f ice i s usually described by
the degree-da y me th od . The growth o f i ce i . proportional t o the square root of the
Sum of negative de g ree-d ays as

,. 5) 2 (8)

where h i ce thickness, ho = initial ice thickness, Kc = degre e-day coefficient,

and nE'gut i ve degree-days fro m time O. The degr ee-day co e fficient is of the order
2 cm/(oC,day)O.s, but depends on type of ice and whether th ere is any snow o n the ice
or not. When till: ice is very thin also the surface thermal resistance is of
im por tan ce. Including the insulating effec t o f th e snow-cover the complete heat
transfer equa ti on is

dh a (9)
dt ~ + h + !!s
m A,
wher.e h ice thic kness, hs = snow cover , A,As heat conduction c oeff icient for
i ce and snow, m = surface thermal res istance, F l ate nt heat of fusi on, p =c!en s it y
of ice, T air temperature, t = ti me.

For solid ice with no snow- cove r the de gree -day coeffi cie nt is about 3.5 cm/(oC, da yf~
Th~ snow dep th on the i c e -cover is limit ed by the lifting force fro m the ice. Hence,
the e f f e c t of insulation from th e snow-cover is also limited. A rough analysis usin g
appropriate va lu es for the heat conductivity and densi ty of snow shows that the
degree-day coeff i c ient must be at l eas t 1.5 cm/(oC,day)O.s. Th is i s con firmed from
measureme nts allover Sweden (Bengtsson and Eneri- [4]).
Hhen m dominat es th e denominator of Eq. (9) as for very thin ice, the growth of
ice is proportional to the number of negative degree-days

h ~ K S ( 10)

where K m/(o.F) ~ 0.5-1 cm/oC, day.

m 1

Ice is also formed from above. Aft e r a heavy snow fall the weight of the snow-cover
may become so heavy that it i s not compensated for by the lift force of the ice.
Water percolates through the ice into the SnOW-cover. This water freezes, snow ice
is formed, and the ice grows from above. Ice formed in this way often constitutes a
major part of the total icc thickness. An example is shown in Fig. 3, which shows
the growth of ice in a lake in northern Sweden.


Total ice thickness



nov dec Jan feb march

Fig. 3. Ice gcowth 1975/76 in Lake Valvtrask in the Rane River basin, Sweden.

When comparing ice observations from year to year it is interesting to note that at
least in Scandinavia the maximum ice thickness for specific lakes does not show large
variations from year to year. This is due to the fact that the total number of
negative degree-days over a whole winter season is rather constant fro m year to year,
and that after the i ce has become very thick, it is because of its thickne ss a good
insulator. Some examples of i ce thi ckness are given in Table 3.

For southern Sweden, where the winter is of short duration, there are larger yearly

Table 3. Maximum yearly ice thickness (em) for some Swedish lakes.

lake, region 1974/75 1975/76 1976/77 1977 /78

Va Ivtdisk Raoe River 62 63 74 62

(iv. Flasjon Raoea 63 63 78 64
St. Bygdetrask Umea 64 70 79 64
Stodesjon Harnosand 55 56 61 51
Mockeln Vaxjo 15 34 41 28

Ice in Fast Flowing Wat~r

River rapids nev~r freeze over in the way that a static ice cov er forms. When the
temperature is bel ow oOe, ice must stlll be produced in an open rapid. In fa c t open
river rapids act as sources of i ce production. The heat loss rate from the water to
the atmos~here can be determined fr om an energy balance analysis or from an approxi
mated linearized form, Eq. (1). At very low air temperatur es the equation can be
approx~mated further t o

H -B'T ( 11 )
a a

where T is the air temperature in C. Ashton [1) suggested an average coefficiej.t

a 2 0
o f 25 Wa tts/m 1 C

An example of ice production is given by Bengtsson [5). The ice production in a 400 m
lon g river rapid was estimated from measurements to 4 500 m for th e winter 1975/76.
The heat exchange coefficient in Eq. (11) was found to be about 17 Watts/m /C. In a
pool downstream the rap id the i ce was about 1 m thick, whic h was about 2 times the
static ice thickness. A photo from measurements in the rapid i s shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Measurements in the rapid Langnasforsen in the Rane River.

It is well known as a "rule of the thumb" that a stable ice-cover does not form where
the surface velocity exceeds 0.6 m/sec. However, this critical velocity depends on
water depth, bottom roughness, meteorologic al conditions and on the c haracteristics
of the ice crystals. The characteristics of the ice crystals must in turn depend on
meteorological conditions and turbulent characteristics. Larger crystals will form
when the turbulence is intense and the heat loss to the atmosphere is high. The
turbulence at the water surface must be very intense when the velocity is hi~h,

when the depth is fairly small, when the wind is strong, when the bottom is very
rough, and the heat loss must be high ~hen the air temperature is low and when the
wind speed and flow velocity Jre high. Hence, the critical velocity is a function of
essentially air temperature, wind speed, depth, and bottom roughness. For a deep
river the two last parameters become insignificant, and at some not extremely low
air temperature ma~imum ice crystals having a minimum density are formed. Under
these circumstances a true critical velocity may be determined.

The ice conditions along the Rane River have since 1975 been observed by local people.
The maximum velocity for which a stable ice-cover has been found to exist is as high
as 0.9 m/sec, and the minimum velocity for which ice-free conditions existed through
out a whole ~inter was 0.43 m/sec. 45 reaches of velocities between 0.2-1.2 m/sec
were observed daily during three winters. lee-free conditions, where the flow
velocity was lower than 0.6 m/sec, were found at short reaches of low depth, less

than 0.5 m. The water temperature was of course a.aoc. The observations were reported
by Bengtsson [2,3,61. These ob s ervations are in accordanc e with obsl'rvations in
Norwegian rivers as reported by Kanavin [1 7J and in a textbook by Starosols zky [25).

In rive r rapids the growth of ice is determined not only by thermal conditions but
also by dynamic conditions . Ice attaches to obstacles, or an ice-c over progresses
up -s t rea m. Dynamic stability was first discussed by Pariset and Hausser [22]. They
assumed non-submersion of the frontal edge of an ice-co ver, and when applying
Bernouilli's equation they found the simple relationship

u 2 5 ( 1 _.b.) (12)
(g'h)0.5 D

where u = flow velocity, h ice thickness, 0 water depth, and

g' g ( 13)

where g = acceleration of gravity, Pi = density of ice.

Ooservations in the Rane River have been analysed with Eq. (12). As ean be seen in
Fig. 5, observations and theory co~respond well except when the ice-cover is very
th in.


X Theoretical
0.2 x
0.25 O.SO Q75 1.00

Fig. 5. Dens imetric Froude number versus relative ice thickne ss in the Rane River
1975 /76 and 1976/77.

If the ri ver water benea th an ice-cover conta ins frazil ice slush, the ice grow th i s
acce lerat ed compare d to th e grow th rate of so liJ i ce. Th e in crease d grow t h is related
to th e poroslty, ~ , o f th e fr azll lce su spe nd e d in the fluid . Co n se~ucnt ly, the l e ft
ha nd siJe of Eq. (9) shou ld be multi plied by ~. Oea n [10] made fleld measur eme nt s on
th e poros ity of frazi l i ce slush and found porosity va lues in the range 0 .34-0.48.
In a ships' track Sandkvist [23] has found brash i ce porosity valu es in th e range
0.2-0.4 in th e top metr e and i nc re asing va lu es approa ch ing unity toward s the bottom
of the b r ash ice. Calkins [8] observ ed ice t hick ness growt h at Ottauqu echee River,
Vermont . He f ound tha t it was possible t o predic t the ic e t hickness growth by using
the heat transf er eq ua tion (9), if a po rosity o f the frazil ice o f 0 .75 was intro
du ced. Oown-stream river rapids 1n th e Rane Riv er , Sweden , Bengts son [5] f ound that
ice t hickness increas ed by up t o 100 % co mpared wit h the static i ce thickness.

Thermal Equ i l iurium Th ic kness

At outle ts an d river mouths th e r e mi gh t be an ice thickness equ ilillrium state
depending on bo th t her mal an d dy nam i c c onditions. SnllH' times the heat lo ss to t he
atmosp he re through th e i ce -c ove r is balanceJ by th p heat due t o fri c ti on against th e
underside of the ic e-cover and agalnst t he bottom . The amou ll t o f heat released due t o
friction is, however, l imi t e d and corresponds only to a t emperature increase o f
2/ IOO O C per me tre head loss. When Manning's eq uation i s applie d, th e he a t flow rate
due to friction is for a wid e c ha nn et

( 14)

whe re H = f r iction hea t pro duction rate, n = Mann ing ' s n.


From Eqs . (8) and (9 ) it is c l ear th a t an effective heat co nduction coef fi cien t for
an ice-snow cover i s

( 15)

The heat lo ss ra te t hro ug 1, the i ce-snow cove r is

H -T ( 16 )
a a -h-

Therma l ~quilibrium is o bta ined when the p r oduced heat eq. ( 14) equa ls th e heat
l oss eq . (16). Th e ~ qu ili brium iC0 th ickness is
2 1/3
- 1 1/6 p/ Kc D
eq. = 2 pg - 2 - 3- ( -T) ( 17)
n u

where Kc should be in SI-units (m/(o c , sec)0.5) . Not e that Kc is th e degree-da y

coeffici ent, which i s usually i n cm/(oC-day)O.5.
Eq. (17) is approximately (51-units)

h (18)

Recalling that the static ice thicknes s usually is about 0 . 50 m and that a river
reach remains ice-free if the surface velocity exceeds 0.6 m/sec, it is clear that
a thermal equilibrium thickness (Eq. 18) is rarely obtained. For example, when
the velocity is 0.5 m/sec, the water depth 1 ill, and the air temperature -10 C, the
thermal equilibrium ice thickness is 0.8 m.

Small above-freezing temperatures have a much more significant effect in retarding

the growth of ice than the heat of friction has. Thermal equilibrium prevails and
the ice thickness remains constant, as long as the heat loss through the ice-cover
is balanced by the heat flow from the bulk river water to the underside of the ice
cover. In order to predict the heat transfer rate from the water flow to the
boundaries usually a relation of the form

is used, where C : a constant including a Prandtl number, which is 14 for water

temperatures close to OOC, m: an exponent and NU,Re: Nusselt and Reynolds number
defined as
Nu : (20)
pck T

u R
R (21 )
e v

where H heat transfer rate to the underside of the ice-cover, C : sp ~c ific heat
of wat e r, kw = thermal diffusivity of water, v = kinematic viscosity of water,
R: hydraulic radius (D/2), Tw: temperature of water.

In text-books on thermodynamics, Kays (18], the values m: 0.83 and C : 0.06

are given, when only one side is exposed to heat influence. This situation corre
sponds to the situation in an ice-covered river, where significant heat transfer
takes place only through the ice. Laboratory experiments in a small flume with
cooling from one side only were performed by Haynes and Ashton [13]. Their
measurements are well represented by Eq. (19) with the suggested coefficients.

By combining Eqs. (16) and (19) the equilibrium lce thickness is found as
-T K2 m
m-2 a Pi F c v l-"'-m
h 2 - (22)
eq. T p c kw C l D

where K is in 51-units.
Inserting appropriate values the equilibrium thickness is in 5I-units

h 1 0 (23)
u T

The equilibrium ice thickness for some chosen water temperatures and hydraulic
condi tions is, shown in Fig. 6. The influence of water depth is small . When the
depth is doubled the ice thickness is increased only by 10 %. When the flow velocity
is doubled, however, the ice thickness is decreased to on ly 50 % of the initial
thickness. However, observed thermal equilibrium ice thickness in rivers in northern
Sweden are less than 50 % of the values found in Fig. 6.

u=0.25 rr/s
0=2 m
T =0.2 C 0=2 m
tOO w \=0.4"( u=O.5 m/s
til 0.80 \=0.40[
.x 0.60
C!J 0.40
.~ T =0.4 C

-5 -10 -15 -20

air temperature (0[)
Fig. 6. Thermal equilibrium ice thickness versus air temperature for d,fferent
hydraulic conditions.

Thermal Stratification
During the ice-covered period the heat exchange between the water and the atmosphere
by convection, evap oration and radiati on is replaced by pure conductio n through the
ice and snow cover. The thermal effect of the atmosphere resul ts mainly in the
build-up or thawing of the ice-cover, but it causes practically no changes in water
temperature. Heat exchange with the bottom and through-flow ar~ decis i ve external
factors in the formation of the thermal conditions of ice-covered water bodLcs.
Mixing in ice-covered lakes is due to t hrough-flow currents and convective currents
generated by the heat transfer from the bottom sediments to the water. When heat is
transferred to the water and the water becomes warmer, it also becomes denser, and
there is a ten dency for the water to slide along the bottom toward s larger depths.
In the central part of the lake there must be a cOmpen s ating upward current.
Circulatio n ce lls as shown in F ig. 7 de velop. Fr om me asu reme nts in Swedish lakes
it has bee n fo und . Thand e rt z [2 71. that the vel oc iti es invo l ved ar e of the order
somt" m/ day .

ice cover ~
cold light water
~ ---7
de nse
l' /
~ water
j / .(._.
r heat flow
heat flow
91~\ -----
'--' r

heat flow

Fig. 7. Ci rc ulati on pa tt e rn cau sed by heat fl ow f r om t he sed i me nts in an ice

cove r ed l ake.

In i t: e- C l." )ve tOed 1 ak~s a very p t:" o nounc ed th e rmae 1 ine u s ua ll y deve lo ps . T wo e x amp l es a r e
g i ven in Fi g. 8 .

temperature temperature
0 1 2 3 4 C 0 1 2 3 4 C
2 2
4 Vl
' '
6 OJ
+ 6
.r 8 .r
+ +
g. 10 jan n.
OJ 10
u u
12 7777T1 12
main basin

Fig. 8. Wint e r th ermal s tratification i n La ke Prls th o l mss e l e t. Rlne River (left)

and Lak e Ve l en (right). Sweden.

~~en there i s a thr ough-f l ow the depth of the th e rmoc line i s determined by the
in- and ou tl e t cond ition s. In a lake with no th r ou gh- fl ow th e thermocline is very
clos e to t he unde r sid e o f t he ice. In the cou r se o f t he win t e r th e bottom sedi me nt s
heat the la ke wa t e r. bu t th e he at does no t pass throug h the s tra tific ation, a nd t he

thermocline becomes more and more pronoun ced. The heat transfer rate from the sedi
ments has been measured by Thandertz [26J, Bengtsson [7J, and Holmbom [14) and is
found t o be about 1-2 Watt/m , decreaSing in the co urs e of the winter.

Humon Interferen ce with the Natural Heat Balance

For navigation purposes it is desirable to keep a water sur fa ce ice-free. This is
most commonly obtained by mecha nical means, i.e. br eaking the ice. Other methods are
the use of air bubblers installed at great depths, the use of propeller s which make
the water circulate, discharge of heated water, and insulation of the water surface.
When propellers are used, the condition in a deep river rapid is in principle
reproduced. This method is eKpensive and still not very effe ctive. Air bubblers are
effective only when the bottom water is warmer than DoC, so that the bubbles ca n lift
warm water to th e s urface. Conseq uentl y , an air bubbl er system is not ef fec ti ve in
rlvers . In lakes, however, this meth od is very effe ctive. This has been proven for
example in Babine Lake, Smith [24), in British Columbia where a fairway for a ferry
boat is kppt ice-free throughout the winter. The bubblers are installed at R depth
of 50 rn, where the water temp era tur e is JOe.

In the harbour of Vas tera s in Lake Malaren, Sweden a heat bubbler system is
installed. Air-hoses wi th a total leng th of 1400 m have been placed at a depth of
8 m. The system has proven to be efficient. The daily cos ts are $30.

If a lake is not ve r y big, the thermal conditions therein are influenced by a

bubbler system. A re le van t total heat lo ss for a winter season from an open water
9 2 2
surface is in northern Sweden 1.2.10 Joule/m (30 000 cal/cm ). If the width of a
ships' track is 1/100 of th e total length of a lake and th e average water depth
below the thermocline is 5 rn , th e bottom temperature is reduced by 0.7 C. At least
half o f th e heat lo ss i s compensated for by the heat transfer from the sediments.

I~en heate d water is discharged into the water body the thermal regime is changed.
If the mi xing between the heated effluent an d the cold receivin g water is not
intense, the plume will very soon sink, s ince it becomes denser than the surr oundin g
water of near-freezing temperature. \fuere complete mixing can be obtained heated
diSCharge has been proven to be an efficient mean for ice-reducing purposes. In many
of the Finnish harbour s along the Bothnian Bay a combi nation of heated discharges
and curre nt generators has been used. These harbours are thos e in Oulu, Raahe and
Kokko la. Only in Raahe the heated discharge has actually been planned for ice
reducing purposes. No analysis of the thermal effect of the heated discharges has
been made. In Raahe the steel plant Rautaruuhi has it s own harbour. An area of
5 2 3
1.2 x 10 m of the 8 m deep harbour basin is kept i ce -free by discharging 2.6 m /sec

having an excess temperature of 7C. The heated water is discharged at the surface
and at the bottom . The water temperature at the boarder between ice-free areas and
ice-covered areas is 1.s-ZoC. Also beneath the ice-cover in the ice-covered areas as
far away as 1000 m from the ice-free area, the water temperature is about 1C and
thus well above the freezing point. This shows that the available heat is not used

AS previously mentioned many linearization models for surface heat loss have been
suggested. A de tailed evaluation of different models "as made by Paily, Macagno and
Kennedy [21]. They themselves suggested the formula

H AI + 8 1T ( 24)
a w


3' fune (wind speed, air temperature, relative humudity and visibility)
A' func (as for B and also cloud cover and net solar radiation)

Typical values are

B'. = 50 - Ta
A' 150 - 30 Ta - Rs(l-a )

where Rs = solar radiation and ~s = albedo.

The suggested equation (24) can also be put in the form

H A + B(T - T ) + B" T (25)

a w a w

which in principle is Eq. (I). Related to the heat loss from a water surface at OOC
the increased heat loss at an air temperature of -lOc e and using the numerical values
sugg ested by Paily et al. is found to be 10-20 % per c excess temperatu re.

Still, the heat required for keeping a limited area ice-f r ee is rather small. For
the harbour of Raahe it was found for the relation

QIIT = aA (26)

where ~T = excess temperature of heated water, Q = diSCharge of heated water,

A ~ ice-free area, that the coefficient a was 1.5.10- c sec/m. The coefficient
depends on mixing conditions and climatological conditions.

In a theoretical analysis Carsten s [9] su gge sted that an excess temperature of JOC and
a discharge of 2 mJ/ sec is suff icie nt tor keeping a small harbour of 0.78 x lOS m2
in northern Norway ice-free exce pt in case of very strong cooling. For this situation

the coefficient of Eg. (26) is 0.8.10- c sec/m. Carstens assumed that complete
mixing of the pumped water "ith the resident "ater could be obtained. \-/h e n the
coefficient for the practical situation in Finland and the coefficient for the
theoretical situation discussed above are compared, it is clear that the theoretical
situation is somewhat idealized.

It is often desirable to increase the ice thickness. The purpose might be to make it
possible for heavy traffic to pass over frozen rivers or to create some kind of
"platforms" from which construction work can be carried out during the winter. Water
is simply pumped from below and discharged at the ice surface. Attention must be paid
to that each new ice layer attaches to the one underneath.

Much heat is released when ~ater freezes to ice. When alternative energy sources are
looked for, it is natural to try to utilize the latent heat of fusion. Heat pumps
can be used to cool lake or river water to freezing. The technical system may be such
that the ice is produced within or outside the water body. Also for the latter
situation the produced ice probably has to be put back into the lake. Full scale
experiments are carried out at the Laboratory of The Swedish State POI.er Board, and
experiments in a laboratory scale have be e n made in LuI d, Haggkvist [I 5J.

When ice is produced by man the ice-cover becomes thicker than during natural condi
tions. However, since a thick ice-cover reduces the heat loss to the atmosphere, the
natural growth of ice is reduced, and the final total ice thickness is not much in
excess of that under natural conditions. An example based on measurements and
calculations for northern Sweden is given 10 Fig. 9. When ice corresponding to

feb march

..x i
1.0 J


Fig. 9. Natural ice growth 1977/78 in a lake in the Lulea region and ice growth due
to production of ice corresponding to heat withdrawn at a rate of 10 watts/m
and 30 Watts/m .
2 2
10 \,atts/m or 20 cal / cm ,day is produ ced, the maximum ice thickness is 0.8 m, which
is to be compared t o the natural ice thic kness 0.6 m. \.Jhen the heat withdrawn is
30 lJatts/m , the max imum ice thickness for the wint er pe riod is estimat ed to be l.4 m.

The thermal conditions of a river reach can chan g ~ also when the hydraulic
conditions of the river are c hanged. If a river section is made wider or deeper, the
flow velocity is reduced, and a stabl e ice-cover can form, wh e re it previously did
not. Dm.. ,,rnstn ;lI:: the Vittjarv water pO\';E;:r plant in the Lule River the r e was a small
iSi..l ;,J, and lll(: channels on eac h side of th e island were narrow. The flow velocity
was hi. ~ lt , and the river 'vas not ice-covered in the ,yinter . Frazil ice was produced.
Bottom ice formed do\rostream, and da mming occurred. The head loss was as mu c h as 2 ffi.

It was decided that a part of the isl and should be cut away, and so much sediments
should be dredged that the flow ve Locit y should never exceed 0.5 m/se c . After the work
was comple ted in 19 77, th ere has been only minor hea d losses due to da mming.

\~ en a ri ver is regulat e d and large reservoir s are cr eated, the th e rmal regime of the
ri ver is changed. h~ en a rive r is regulated fo r water power purposes, the river
str e t che s of open water are r e du ced, a nd water from upstream r ese rvoirs may be
wit hdra wn fr om g reat depths. Since t he open water surL1.ces are reduced, less ice i s
produced than during natural condition s . A thermocl i ne can normally not ex ist above the
inlet to a powe r pl an t. In a reser voir a thermoc l i ne develops a shor t di s tance below
the lm.,re r pos ition of an intake. Th i s me ns that if th e r ese rvoir is a natural lake,
th e wint e r thermocli..ne dep th usually is reduced, wh e n a power plant is c onstru c ted .

Br ilk - Up
Ic e b re a k-up in ri ve r s us ua lly happen s very quick ly. In most river break-ups occur,
when there is still a strong ice-cover. Th e determining fa c tor is the r iver d i sc harge.
In lak es the ice me l ts until it becomes week enough for brea k ing by wind and c urrents.

For lak es i t is reasonable to co rr e late the break-u p with positive degree-da ys . From
observations on the lakes in th e Rln e River basin Bengtsson [5] found that the ice
in the lakes disappeared a f ter 90-120 positive degree -days. In sou t he rn Sweden the
numb e r of degree-days required for weekening a n ice-cover is less. An analysis of
me a Sllr ~m c n ts in Swe d ish lakes is made in Tabl e 4.

Table 4. Number of po si tive d eg r e \.-'. -day s , C , prior to break -up In s ome S~ve dish lak es .

l a ke , r ~g i.on 1974 /7 5 197 5/76 197 6/77 1977/78

Valv t ras k Rane a 90 100 120 100

bv . F l as j on Ranea 90 100 120 100
St . Bygde t ra s k lImc~ 14 0 150 150 180
Stodesjon H;hnosand 120 100 100 40
. . l ockeln Vaxjo 40 30 30 20

for an Lce -cov ered river [ pat h there is a l imiti ng equilibrium condition be tween the
hydraulic thrust dll d the r~~ c tion of tIl e s llore. A straigh t forward an~l ys i s, s~c for
exa mple Ilengt sson [6] or t-lich ,, 1 [19] , us ing appropria t e codf icient s shows that
th e l imiting dischar ge for br~ a k-up is

Q = C 8 5 h(O-h)j (27)
break b

where C i s a c onsta nt. whi c h i s about 5 wh e n SI -unit s are used, and th e expo nent
is .l i ~ htl y more than unity but ma y be as high as 2 dependi ng on th e s t age
dischar!;c relation. The co ' l fi cient C de pe nds on th e quality of th e ice and a
combi ned bottom-ic e :--Iannin ~ numbG[ for the i ce - covered reach .
C rlecrea ses as the
we ather gets warmer. \~h c n the som.; in a river basin star ts to me lt , the river
dis c harge incr ea::;es . Ther e fore, a l s o the iJr c.1k - up in rivers i s corre lated with
positi ve de gr ee -d ays.

In mo st reac:hes of the Rane River :)r ~~l ;~ -U p takes place, wh e n the winter clisc:harge is
doubl ed , e.g. 20 m / sec. The limitin g dischaL;~ is according t o Bcng t sson [6]
rea sonably we ll cletermined fr o m th e break-up equation. The numb er of posi ti ve d ~ g ree

days beEore break -u p is usua lly about 60 .

Re f e r nces
J. Ash t on, G.D. (1978). River icc , Ann. Re view Fl uid ;ic'l'h ., vol. 10.

2. Ben gtsson , L. (1976). Freeze - over a nd brc:lk-up in th e Riln e Ri ver 1974 / 75 and
1975/76 , Di v. Wa t e r Re sources Eng . , Lule~, Ser. B~ , TULE A 1976:07 (in Swedish) .

3. Be ngtsson, L. (1977). Ice conditions in th e R~ne River 1976 / 77 , Oiv. Wat er

Resources Eng ., Lulel, Se r. 89, TUL EA 1977:08 (in Swedish ) .

4. 5en gtsson, L. and Eneris, E. ( 1977). Growth of ice in lakes anaL ysed by the
degre e -d ay meth od, Div . Wate r Resources Eng., Lulel, WREL, Ser 58, TULEA 1977 : 09 .
(Englis h summary.)

5. Bengtsson, L. (1978a). Ice conditions in the Rane River, Proc. IAHR Symp. Ice
Problems, Lulea.

6. Bengtsson, L. (1978b). The influence of water velocity on the formation of ice

cover, Nordic Hydrological Conf., Hel s inki, Finland.

7. Bengtsson, L. (1978c). Modelling of dynamic phenomena in lakes, rep. IHP, Sweden,

Research Group on Lakes, TULEA 1978:01.

8. Calkins, D.J. (1979). Accelerated ice growth in rivers, CRREL, Hanover, N.H.,

rep. 79-14.

9. Carstens, T. (1977). Maintaining an ice-free harbour by pumping of warm water,

Proc. POAC St. John s, Newfoundland.

10 . Dean , A. (1979). Investigation s of large hanging da ms, CRREL, Hanover, N.H.

11 . Dingman, S.L. and Assur, A. (1969). The effect of thermal pollution on river ic e
conditions - part II, U.S.Army CRREL, Hanover, N.H.

12. Edinger, J.E., Dut.tweiler, D.W. and Geyer, J.C. (1958). The response of wa ter
temperature to meteorological conditions, Water Resources Research, vol.4, no.S.

13. Haynes, F.D. and Ashton, G.D. (1979). Turbulent heat transfer in large aspect
channels, CRREL, Hanover, N.H., rep. 79-1 3.

14. Holmborn, A. (1979). Energybudget computations for Lake Degerselet and Lake Prast
holmsselet during the winter 1977/78, TULEA 1979:12. (In Swedish.)

15. Haggkvist, K. (1978). Utilization of heat energy from lakes. Div. Water Resources
Eng., Lulea, WREL, Ser. A 20, TULEA 1978:17. (In Swedish.)

16. Jobson, H.E. and Yotsukura, N. (1972). Mechanics of heat transfer in non
stratified open channel flows, Inst. River Mech. paper, Colorado State Univ.

17. Kanavin, E.V. (1975). Water velocity in open and froz en rivers: control of ice
production, Proc. Third IAHR Symp. I ce Problems, Hanover, N.H.

18 . Kays, V.M. (1966). Convective heat and mass transf er , Mc Graw-Hill.

19 . Michel, B. (1971). Winter regime of rivers and lakes, monograph lll-Bla, CRREL,
Hanover , N.H.
20. Monin, A.S. (1970). The atmospheric boundary l ay er, Annual Review Fluid Mech.,
vol. 2.
21. Paily, P.P., Macagno, E.O., and Kennedy, J.F. (1974). Winter-regime surface heat
loss from heated streams, Inst. Hydraulic Research, Rep. 155, Univ. Iowa.

22. Pariset, E. and Hausser, R. (1961). Formation and evolution of ice covers on
rivers, Trans. Eng. Inst. Canada, vol. 5 (I).

23 . Sandkvist, J. (1980). Observed growth of brash ice in ships' tracks, Div. Water
Recources Eng., Lulea, WREL, Ser. A 42, TULEA, 1980:25.

24. Smith, H.L. (1968). Sabine Lake bubbler system, Eng . J., March 1968.

25. Starosolszky, O. (1970). Ice in hydraulic engineering, Div. Hydraulic Eng., NTH,
Trondheim, rep. 70-1.

26 . Thandertz, L. (1973). Heat budget studies. - 1n Dynamic studies in Lake Velen,

rHD, Sweden, rep. 31.

27 . Thandertz, L. (1980). - personal communication - Div. Hydrology, Uppsala, Sweden.




by Lars Bengtsson

Discussion by G. D. Ashton, Sno\> and Ice Branch, U.S. Army Cold Regions
Research and Engineering Laborator y , Hanover,
Ne" Hampshire, USA.

This \Oriter wishes to coment on t\~O parts of the author's paper, the heat gain
from bottom sediments to la ke \Oater in "in ter and the proposed analysis of velocity
and ~. . ater temperature conditions associated ~"ith open water in rivers.
The heat gain from bottom sediments to the lake water beneath an ice cover in
winter is not constant through the \>inter. A simplified analysis of the problem has
been made by O'Neill and Ashton [28] and related to the amplitude of the annual water
temperature variation. The results sho\~ that the heat gain is most rapid during early
winter and considerabl y influenced also by the truncation at OOC of the otherwise
sinusoidal annual water temperature variation.
The proposed analysis, invoking 110nin's similarity concepts, of critical velocity
and tvater temperature conditions that lead to open to/ater in rivers is intriguing but
doe s not ade qu a tely explain the o bse~vations of Devik. In the attached Figure, Devik's
observations have been plotted in logarithmic form and are quite well described by a
power law equation that is quite different from the result obtained in the present
paper in the form of Eq. (7). This writer has analyzed the problem from a slightly
different point of view by examining the conditions under which a very thin ice cover
could exist but not thicken but that analysis led to a result similar in form to Eq. (7)
but, unfortunately, i t also does not explain Devik's observations. Since those obser
vations were for partially ice-covered rivers in h1hich border ice \.,,7as prevalent over
much of the surface perhaps an explanation can be found by examining the limiting
conditions for border ice growth.

[28] O'Neill, K. and C. D. Ashton, Bottom Heat Transfer to Water Bodies in Winter,
CRREL Report (in press), 1981 .

Devik's Observations
(T2 0.005 U2 .7 )

Bengtsson's El7
(T =0.02u- l )

0.001 L_..l.--L-.L.L.L.LLLL-_-L--'--"-----'---~~
0.1 1.0
U (ms- I )






Lars Bengtsson, WREL, Sweden.

The author is well aware of that the heat flow from bottom sed iments to lake water

decreases in the course of the winter. He has published some papers on the subject,

Bengts so n (1978, 1980). In Lake Velen in mid Sweden the heat flow from the sediments

is about 3W/ m2 in January but only about 1. 5 W/m2 in ~Iarch. In Lake Prastholmse let in

northern Sweden the heat flow is about 1.5 W/m2 in the beginning of the winter but

decreases to less than 1 W/m2 in early April.

In mid and souther n Sweden the ice cover may disappear and freeze-over again many times

during a winter. These winters the water i s colder than when the lake is ice covered

through-out the winter. The heat flow from the sedime nts i s more intense these winters.

An analytical solution of the heat flow from the sediments is given by Bengtsson (1978).

Concerning the departure of the theoretical analysis from Deviks observations I think

that transverse variations of flow-, temperature-, and ice conditions in a river must

be included in the analysis in order to obtain better agreement. At l ow flow velocity

the bulk water temperature needed for keeping ice free co nditi ons is lower in theory

than what is found from the observations of Devik, but it is higher at high flow velo

city . There i s obviously a relatively higher flow of heat to the ice free part of a

river, when the flow velocity i s high. However , also the characteristic lengths z and

Zo are affected by flow conditions.

In the preprints there were two equal signs in eq (8). Therefore the eq. was in

error. Also eq (12) is hopefully corrected in the final proceedings. The correct form

of eq (12) i s also found from Figure 5.


Bengtsson, L (1978) Winter Stratification in a Lake Dominated by Through-flow, - in

Mode lling of Dynamic Phenomena in Lakes, editor Bengtsson, L Report Swedish IHP
Group on Lake Hydrology, TULEA 1978:01, pp 24-45.
Bengtsson, L (1980) Horizontal Mixing in Water Quality Modelling, Proc Nordic Hydro
log ica l Conference, Vemdalen, Augu st 1980, pp 401-416.


Paper Title: Experiences on the Winter Thermal Reqimes of Rivers and Lakes
with emphasis on Scandanavian Conditions
Author: Lars 8enqtsson
Reviewer: Darryl Calkins
USA Army Cold Renions Research and Engineerin9 Laboratory
ffanover, ~m

The author has presented some useful data on the heat transfer rates
for rivers and lakes in the Scandanavian areas that are consistent \'Iith data
for North America. With the current renewed interest in hydro development
in the U.S., the ice eXDeriences of ~he Scandanavian countries with hydro
development in their Northern areas will ~rove useful for the winter environ
mental evaluation.
The use of nonin's similaritv h:motilesis to ex~lain the water temoerature/
velocity data of Devik is an interestin~ approach that deserves more detailed
explanation in the derivation than found in the Daper. The values of z and Zo
are very critical in determining the constant in equation 6 and ultimately the
shape of that curve for comoarinn it to the curve given in figure 2. 'lhat are
typical values for these characteristic lengths z and Zo at the \,ater/air in
terface? The site location of the Devik data as shown by the smooth line in
figure 2 has to be carefully considered. It was taken in open leads within
an ice cover and the source of warm water along \'Iith the correlation be-
t~ieen \'Iater temoerature and flow velocity is difficult to explain. The border
ice 9rowth has not been fully studied and this may be an important contribution.
The derivation of the thermal equilibrium ice thickness is a little a\'Ik
ward, and could be clarified; also the values of Kc and n used to arrive at
the constants in equations 18 and 23 should be stated. The equilibrium ice
thickness results when dh/dt = 0 and it is obtained by equating the heat loss

through the snow and ice layers to the heat gained from fluid friction, (assumin9
all the heat is transferred to the bottom of the ice cover and the air temperature
is relatively constant) . The contribution from the different terms in influencing
the ultimate thermal equilibrium ice thickness is more easily seen as

= A( - (-Ta) 0. 33
- - _._- - - hs- -~

2 4/3 pg u3n2 AS
The term 11m is only important for mild temperatures (0 to -2 0 e), but hs/As (the
snow thickness) can be bery significant for all air teml)eratures. This fOnllula
tion does not derend on nrior knowledge to determine an effective heat conduction
coefficient, Aeff from collected data.
Recently collected data by this reviewer on ice cover melting and water tem
perature attenuation in a shallow river indicates that the friction coefficient
for the ice cover underside can be important, which is not included in equation
(19) nor by Haynes and Ashton (ref . 13) . The field data collected suggests that
the Petukhov and Pooov i relationship for the Nusselt number was very consistant
in predictin9 the calculated values. Their non linear regression analysis on
several sets of data yielded the followin~ relationship

Nu (f/8) Re Pr

1.07 + 12 . 7 (f/8)5 (Pr 667 - 1)

which \,as claimed to be accurate to ~Iithin +6%. The term is the Darcy :jeisbach
friction factor.
The brea kup of the ice cover is an area where there appears to be a gap in

Petukhov O.S. and V.N . Popov (1963) Theoretical calculation of heat exchange
and frictional resistance in turbulent flDl1 in tubes of an incompressible
fluid with variable physical properties, Trans. in High Temp, vol. 1 no . 1.

our knO\;ledge. The equation 'liven for breaku~ ilas beer. derived by considerinQ

forces parallel to the river slope. The shear stress in a sheet ice orior to

breakury is far nreater than the fluid shear stresses that can develor on the

underside of the cover. This revie"Jer "Iould think that the vertical forces

from buoyancy and "aves mioht be more imDortant than the horizontal forces.

Field data from stee~ rivers indicates that the ice cover breakun from water

sur~es may be a key i nored i ent to the breakup I,echan i sm.





Lars Bengtsson, WREL, Sweden.

When Monin's similarity hypothesis is used for an analysis of whether ice should form

or not, a friction function f = ln (z/zo) must be introduced. These two characteristic

lengths ar~.very critical for the quantitative analysis. The length z is actually the

depth where the temperature is Tw. It depends on flow conditions and also on meteoro

logical conditions. It decreases with increasing flow velocity. The roughness length

zo of the water surface depends on flow conditions and to same extent also on meteoro

logical conditions. It may be 0.001 m but may well vary with a factor 1000. Usually

the roughness length should increase with increasing flow velocity and decreasing

water depth. The discussion above shows that the coefficient of eq. (7) should depend cn

and decrease with increasing velocity, which is in agreement with Devik's observations.

The thermal equilibrium ice thickness is derived by equating the dissipation rate

determined from Manning's eq. (14) and the heat conduction loss rate determined from

eq_(9) putting dh/dt = O. Instead of using all the thermal coefficients an effective

heat conduction coefficient is introduced. From a comparison of eqs (8) and (9) it is

clear thatthis effective heat conduction coefficient can be expressed as a function

of the usual degree-day coefficient, Kc. When eq (18) was derived from eq (17) the

coefficients n = 0.05 and Kc = 7.10- 5m/(oC, sec)0.5 or 2 cm/(oC-day)0.5 were used.

The idea of using the degree-day coefficient for determining the equilibrium ice thick

ness is that there are numerous measurements of this coefficient. However, from a

theoretical point of view the equation shown by Calkins is more clear in the sense

that the different terms can easily be evaluated.

The ice retarding effect of a combination of small above-freezing temperature and

dissipation due to frictional resistance is very interesting. It is likely just as

the reviewer has found that dissipation of heat is an important ice retarding process

in shallow rivers. This is to some extent also found from eq (18).


Discussion of "Experiences on the winter thermal regimes of rivers and lakes with
emphasis on Scandinavian conditions" by L. Bengtsson

R.. Gerard, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

This is a good broad review that touches on the fundamentals of a veritable

kaleidoscope of topics. A particular blessing is the consistent and persistent use
of SI units; if there is a subject that can benefit from the universal adoption of
this system it is heat transfer. .
The necessary brevity of the presentation leaves a few questions on which the
author's comments I"ould be appreciated:
I. Has the influence of stratification been considered in the derivation of
equation 2? Would it have a significant effect?
2. The water bodies I isted in Table I are referred to several times. To be
able to assess the significance of the various parameters discussed it would be use
ful if some of the physical characteristics of these water bodies were given e . g .
area, mean depth, through-flow, etc.
3. In Table 2 the range of freeze-up dates is given. This range appears to be
up to 2 months, yet in the text it is stated there is little variation?
4 . Would it not be preferable to replace I l'l(z/z ) in equation S(a) with
- 0
simply V/V " , i.e. the dimensionless Chezy C? Also, could the equation be written as:
S t = p;:-:-f2
where St is the Stanton number? A I ittle further discussion of the derivation of
equation S(a) would be useful. For example, presumably the very surface of the water
is presumed to be at OC so that ~T=T? However, the confirmation of Fig. 2 by such
an analysis is indeed interesting. W
5. On p. 9 the statement is made that lIat some ... temperature maximum ice
crystals havingaminimum density are formed". Some more explanation of this state
ment would be useful .
6. The comment is made on p. 13 that the observed river ice thicknesses in
Sweden are less than 50% of those shown in Fig . 6, yet no comment by way of explana
tion is offered. Is there no explanation of the discrepancy? Wouldn't the assumed
value of A be important?
7. The statement on p. 18 that when a river is regulated the stretches of open
water are reduced is puzzling. In my experience the reverse happens. The statement
would perhaps be true if the river was almost all rapids.
8 . The discussion on breakup seems oversimpl ified. I suspect there is more to
breakup than is suggested by equation 27.

By :
Lars Bengtsson, WREL, Sweden


In deriving eq (2) it was assumed that the water was initially homogeneous. An initial

stratification would result in earlier freeze-o ver. When the stratification is close

to the water surface the time required for the temperature to drop to oOe is theore

tically inversely proportional to the atmospheric heat loss rate. Then it is indeed

justified to describe the time of freeze-over as a function of negative degree-days.


Table of Phy sic al charateristics of lakes referred to in the tex t

lake latitud e through-flow m3/sec area km 2 de~th m

Valvtrask 66 6 11
Ov. FLasjon 66 4 12
St. Bygdetrask 64 29 11
Stodesj on 62 8 16 16
Mockeln 57 10 45 22


The date of freeze-over for lakes in northern Sweden and northern Finland, where the

winters are very stable, usually vary within a rather limited range, half a month. In

southern Sweden, where lake Mockeln is situated, and also in Norway the meteorological

conditions in the autumn and through the winter vary much more. Quite often the lakes

in southern Sweden remain ice-free through-out the winter.


In the similarity hypothesis proposed by Monin it is assumed that


,,'here f is a uni versal function with inde x 0 at the water surface, and inde x z at
depth z and where U., T. are turbulent scales. The temperature scale is defined as

( b)



- y---- ------J
from (b) from (a)

It is further assumed that To a.aoc and that the universal function is logarithmic
so tha t


The position z should be that of maximum velocity, Uz ' At this position the water
temperature is assumed to be the bulk water temperature. The roughness length as well
as the reference length depends on flow conditions. Also, the universal function is
not necessarily a logarithmic function .


Ice crysta l s that grow very fast and in highly turbulent water obtain a low density.

At extremely low air temperatures more ice is produced, but the nucleation process

itself is not different from that at moderately negative air temperatures.


Observed ice thicknesses are often less than the calculated ones according to Figure

6. The reason is probably that in the theory neither the heat of friction nor the

tran sverse transport of heat have been accounted for .

The r iver s of northern Sweden are seaso nally regulated, so there are only sma ll daily
fluctuations. There is no flow in the former open rapids.


I agree that eq (27) is oversimpl ified.


Ice formation in water cour ses c an only take place when the water i s cooled to the
freezing point (climatic e ff ect). When this condition is present produc tion of ice
i s related t o the natur e o f the water course (hydraulic fact or s).
Professor Dr. Bengtss on descr ibe s ice conditions in ba s i c terms. Ice engineering
i s an applied research and ha s the s pecific aim of utilizing basic research t o crea t e
new and be tt er tehnical solutions to ice problems of vario us kind s .
A surface ice cover p ro tects water ma sses aga inst supercoo li ng, creating a posit iv
ef fe c t . Frazil- and bottom ice produ c tion in river s and ca nal s presents ser i ous
problems for ice engineering. This has a big negativ eff ect.
\.J'e cannot turn off the freezing process in nature. What we can do is to transform
the negative ice effects int o positive ones.
The following stud i es would be necessa r y for this purp ose:
1. Fundamental know ledge of th e physics o f water courses for the unde rstan ding of
the stabilization of i ce conditions.

2 . A better theoretical basis for c larif yi ng th e hydraulic conditions in s lud ge

carrying open rivers and ca nals. The f o rm u l as of the Chezy 's t ype will not g i ve
a sa ti sfac t o ry soluti on. For thi s purp ose the use of en expanded Be rnoulli theory
is po ssib l e.

3. Close co llab oration between physi c i sts a nd river engineers is necessary. Utili ze
more inf o rmati on from hydrauli c laborat or ie s shoul d be promoted.

From a hydrauli c poin t of view , ic e i s fu ll of fascinating riddles wh ich waits pat ient
l y until we are wise enough to sol ve th em.

6C{Uc'9 " ~' ~7/"C.;:-"~

Edvigs V. Kanavin


Randi Pytte Asvall Norwegian Water Resources Norvay

Syver Roen and Electricity Board No Nay

On behalf of Dr. Edvigs V. Kanavin we have been asked to comment on the

above mentioned paper.

Based on field measureme nc.s and obse rvations in a feW' lakes during four
winter-seasons and based on the theory of cooling and freezing of water
and thawing of ice, professor Bengtsson present some generalizatio ns for
Scandinavian or Northern Scandinavian lakes.

Some of his gene ral conclusions appears to be as followi ng:

1. In Northern Scandinavia lakes freeze-over afte r about the same number

of negative degree-days every year .

2. The time of freeze-over for a lake or a specific river s trech does

not vary mych from year to year.

3. In Scandinavia the m~~imum ice thickness for selecred lakes does not
show large variations from year to year. (In Sou rhern Sweden there
are l arger annual variations),

4. A winter thermoc line cannOt exist above the inlet t o a power plant,

5. For lakes it is reasonable to correlate the break-up with positive


Our C01IUD.ents:

1-2: Observations made in a great number of Norvegian Lakes show large variation s
both in the number of negarive degree-days prior to the freeze-over and
va riations in the time of freeze-over from year to yea r.

In Fig 1 the number of negative degree-days prior to the freeze-over is

shown grap hi cally for three differen t lakes fo r several years.

Fig 2 is a map sketch sho~ing the loc ation of th e above-mentioned lakes.

In Table some physiografic conditio ns for the same three lakes are
given :

Table 1

Length Area VolU1D!l 3 Mean Max Elevation Outlet

Name of Lake 2
in km In m in 10 m depth depth m a.s. Discharge
Rssvatn 39 2 10 14000 75 240 380 100
(nor ther part) 27 54 1500 30 90 662 15-10
Is te ren 18 26 200 8 32 645 20-13
Engeren 18 12 420 34 84 472 4-2
Q)yangen 5 7,5 676 15-10

Fig 3a-c show the time of freeze-over for the lakes Femund, lsteren and

Experiences from Norwegian Lakes indicate, fairly l og ically, chat beside

the a ir temperature, the wind and the physiog rafic conditions of the lakes
play an important role concerni ng the time o f freeze-over and thereby the
number of negative degree-days prior to that event. Windy weather prior
to the freeze-over will thus aff ec t the cooling o f the la ke and this is
most significant in deep, stron gl y wind exposed Lakes .

Also in the ex amples given in Bengtssonrs paper there are fairly l arge
va riations, parti c ul arly in the number of degree-days pr ior t o the freeze
over for the f ou r yea rs considered. Us ing the relation becween the highest
and l owe s t f igure for each yea r , the variations are 1.2, 1.4, 1 .6 , 1. 8 a nd
1.9 r espect ively, for the f i ve la kes mentioned .

A l ong er observation period would probably give even large r variations

acco rding t o data found in a shall ow l ake ' n ~orwaYI the l ake Ister e n,
where the variati ons during the four-year period are small compared wi th
the va riat ions for a l onge r per i od .

3. Fig 4 shows the maximum ice thickn ess f o r three NONe gian lak es , R~ssvatn,

Femund an d S l idrefj ord for some years. The variation-quotients are

respe c ti ve l y 2.3, 1.4 and 2.5.

Compared with the va r i ations in Be ngtss on t s example (ex ce pt ?-locke ln lake,

whi ch i s located in Sou thern Sweden) the above mentioned variations for
~orwegian lakes are fairly lar ge. Unfortunately we have not a ny observa
tions of the ice thickness in ~o Ne g ian lakes for the same period as g iven
for the Swedish lakes.

~ig shm,;s the '..J i ot.:!r thennal st::-ati f icat i on in t~e lak e 0yang en 1 Jan.
1961, 12 Fe br. 196" and 30 jan. 19 76 . The de?th o r ,he outlec is shown
on the d i agr~'!Is.

We assumed that for most of the large ~orwegian re servo irs with regulation
heights of several tens of meters , which is quite common, the thermocline
in winter may very well exist above the intake le ve l. Besides the through
flow (discharge and temperature) the character of the thermal stratification
(weak or stron g) plays an important role for the existence of a thermocline .

5. Fig 6 shows the number of positive degree-days prior to the break-up for
three Norwegian lakes (The same lakes as shown in Fig 1).

The variations in the number of positive degree-days prior to the break-up

seem to be a littl~ le ss than the variations in negative degree-days prior
co freeze-over.

Co nclusion :

Professor Bengtsson's paper covers a wide field. Based particularly on

field observations in a ie~ lakes for a period of [our years , and on
theoreti c al considerations of cooling and freezing of water and thawing
of ice, Bengtsson present same general izat ion s for Scandinavian or North ern
Scandi navian lakes.

Our critizism on the paper does not relate all his Statements and assertions,
simply because we agree to many of his statements.

Our critical remarks are mainly related to the follo~i ng ;

a. The total lack of ph ysiog rafi c data for the lakes in question.

b. The short observation period, only four years.

c. Some of h i s statements and generalizations are tOO firm and exten sive .

d. The use of the expresssions "Scandinaviarr and ":'!urth ern Scandinav ia"
seems not always t o be well founded.

It is diff icult to belie ve that the author really means that all his
statements are valid for the ~hole area even if this is limited to
~orthern Scandinav ia.


'" "

Fig . 2





Lars Bengt sso n, WREL, Sweden.

The di sc us si on is in itself a paper. The re fore I abstain from answering.

Paper Title: Experiences on the Winter Thermal Regimes of Rivers and Lakes with
Emphasis on Scandinavian Consitions

Author: Lars Bengtsson

Discussion by: Dr. ~. Starosolszky, Research Centre for Water Resources,

Budapest, Hungary

In context of the investigation of river thermal regime some general

conslusions ma y be derived.

1 - For the application of mathematical models and formulae several numerical

parameters needed which should be based on observational data. For the processing
of these data and computation of the parameters the shochastic (probabilistic)
approaches may be promising, which have not been reflected fully. These methods
are successfully applied for several hydrological elements (e.g. water shages and
discharges). The IAHR Section on Stochastic Hydraulics offered its assistance. In
the future work more emphasis should be given of the application of probabilistic
methods for ice data.

2 - The lack of sufficient, reliable data of several meteorolo gica l and hydrolo
gical elements may hinder the derivation of accurate numerical parameters referred

in the paper.

More cases should be taken for the collection of data within space and time.
With others working characteristics the simultaneous, compatible observations of
the necessary data would be the next step for generating characteristic numeri ca l

For example, the interrelationship between surface velocity and flow and
water temperature characterizing the stable or unstable ice cover - because several
neglected factor - should be given as a bound of the treshold values.

It is suggested that these two aspects be duty considered in the future works.



Lar s Bengtsson Water R e~o ur ccs F.n ei~~e ring Sweden

Professor Lulea

A laboratory experiment is performed t o investigate the sensible and latent heat
lo ss from an open-water surface at very low air tempe ratures. The time for a fixed
vo lume of water having a fixed surface area t o cool down from about 2 to a.soc is
measured. Since the radiation balance is measured, the Sum of sensible and latent
heat loss is easily determined. The heat loss rate i s found to be proportional to
the air temperature deficit. The proportionalit y fa c tor is 8 Watts/m ,oC. This is in
ag!.'c.pr:1~:ll: with results obtained from a theoretical analysis. Reference is made to
field observations.

In co ld climates ice problems occur where there are i ce free water surfaces. In a
river with open stretches much ice is produced. The ice adheres to constructions, to
river banks and to an ~xisting ice cover downstream . In ice engineering it is
necessary to know where ice problems may occur and also how big the problems will
be . To be able to predict how much ice will be produced in an open river rapid,
one needs a method and a formula for determining heat l osses from an open-water
s urface i n se'Jere cold. To gain some insight into thi s pcoblem some theoretical work,
field investigati o ns and laboratory experiments have been carried out at WREL.

When the air temperature is below the freezing pvint of water, heat is lost to the
atmosphere from an open-water surface. The heat exchange takes place as radiation,
evaporation and convection. It is possible to divide th e radiation into short and
long wave radiation. The long wave radiation is de term i ned from Stefan's formula.

Since the emissivity of water is kno.~ as w=0.97, the outgoing long wave radiation
from an open water surface is easily determined. r!le incoming long wave radiation is,
however, difficult even to estimate, since the atmospheric emissivity depends at
least on air vapor pressure and cloudiness. The most commonly used formula is the
one due to Brunt [5]

c + de ( 1)
a a

where a is atmospheric emissivity, e air vapor pressure and c,d are

coefficients. From measurements on Lake Hefner Anderson [1] suggested for clear
s ki e s c=0.68 and d=0.036 mb- . .

The atmospheric radiation for cloudy skies is estimated from that for clear skies by
multiplying the latter by a function of the cloud cover. Bolz [4J suggests the
r = emissivity ~~ cloudy sky (2)
emissivity clear sky

where C is cloud cover in tenths and k is a factor which depends on type and
hei ~ nt of clouds. In a report from the Tennessee Valley Authority [11] a mean value
of 0.0017 is recommended.

\o/hen Eqs. (1) and (2) are inserted into Stefan's formula the net outgoing long wave
radiation is
0.5) 4
aT - or ( c+de . TaK (3)
W w W a

where \ is net outgoing long wave radiar.;.on, 0 Stefan's constant, T water

temperature OK, and TaK air temperature OK.

At low air t emperatures above an open water surface the air is almost saturated
with water vapor. The vapor pressure can be expressed as

e e + de/dT(T -T ) (4)
a o a oC

\.Jhere e is saturated vapor pressure at a reference temperature, de / dT the

saturated vapor pressure gradient at the reference temperature, T air tempera-
ture c, and T reference temperature C.

\,nen Eq. (4) is inserted into Eq . (3), a series expansion around the reference
temperature gives the net radiation including the solar radiation as

R (5)

where R is net outgoing radiation, RS solar radiation, a albedo of water for

short wave radiation. The coefficients are for saturated air

4 0 5 4 ToC
a a (T - dc+de . ) T (1-4 8) ) (6a)
W W 0 T

b'~are (6b)
where the reference temperature is T in OK and T and


For a "ater t emperature of OOC, reference temperature -10C and applying the
coefficlents found from the Lake Hefner investigation the coefficients are for air
saturat e d with water

a = 80 Watts / m2 (160 cal/cm 2 ,day) b'

for ccear skies, and for cloudy skies

a = 40 Watts/m 2 (80 cal / cm ,day)

The evaporation loss from an open water surface is proportional to the air vapor
pressure deficit and depends also on wind and temperature conditions. At tempera
tures well below freezing the relative hu~idity of the air is close to 100 %.
This is especially true above an open water surface. Thus the dynamic evaporation
formula takes the form


where fE is a wind function, T is wat e r temperature (usually DoC), and the

ratio saturated vapor pressure over temperature, de/dT, should be chosen in the
appropriate temperature range.

Many expressions (Paily. Macagno, Kennedy [8]) have been given for the wind
function. For light winds they all give an absolute value of the wind function of
about 0.3-0.5 mm/day,mb. Henc e , the energy lost as latent heat is about

2 2
-2.5 T Watts/m = -S T cal/cm .day (8)
a a

where again T is air temperature in e . At an air temperature of -loDe the energy

2 2
lost as latent heat is 2S Watts/m (50 cal/cm ,day).

The sensible heat exchange is proportional to the temperature and depends also on the
air stratification, the wind spe ed and the roughness of the water surface. These
parameters are taken into account by the use of a wind function. The sensible heat
loss from an open-water surface is

wh e re HC is sensible heat exc hange rate, and fC a wind function for sensible heat.
The value of the sensible heat loss can be estimated from the Bowen ratio, B, since
from Eqs . (7) and (9)

( lOa)

where p = density of wat e r, L = latent heat o f vapo rization. But the Bowen ratio is
also, pro vid ed the exchange coefficients for heat and mass are e<!ual,

T -T
P w a
B ; 0.62 1000 (de /dT)(T -T ) ( lOb)
w a
where p is the atmospheric pressure, which has a value somewhere around 1013 mb .
Thus, by combining the two equations (10) the fo! \c.ing relations l, ip is obtained

fe ; 0.63 pLf (II)


Inserting Eq. (11) into Eq . (9) and assuming fE to be 0 .4 mm/day,mb the sensible
heat lo ss fr om an open-water surface of OOC is approximately

2 2
He = -7.5 Ta \,atts/m = -15 Ta cal/cm ,day (12)

At an air temperature of -IOoC the sensible heat l oss rate is about 75 watts/m
(150 cal /cm ,day) . However, under unstable atmospheric conditions such as over an
o pen-water surface in midwinter th e exchange coefficient for he at is higher than
the one for mass. still, since the number of measurements especiall y of mass flux
is sparse, And ers on [IJ concludes that the method based on Bowen's ratio must be
considered the most reliable one.

From Eqs. (5,6,8,12) the hea t balance in mid winter at the ~(ctic Circle is ob tained
as approximately

H ; 80( 160) - 1~(28 ) T a Watts/m 2 (cal/cm2,~.y) ( I J)

for clear skies, and

2 2
H ; 40(80) - 14(28) T watts/m (cal/c m ,day) (14)
for c loudy skies, where H is the net heat loss rate.

The relative influence of the differen t heat exchange processes at different air
temperatures is shown in Table 1. Account has been taken of the fact that the va por
pressure-temperature derivative i s reduced, when the temperature is reduced.

Ta ble 1. Relative influenc e of rad i a ti on, evaporatio n and sensible heat los s on th e
net heat exchang e between an ope n water surface of OOC and the atmosphere
at midwinter conditions a t t he arctic circle.

air temperature c
-5 -1 0 -1 5 -20 -25 -30

net radia ti on 2.1 1. 4 1 .1 1.0 0.9 0 .8

evaporation 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2
sensib l e heat
t o tal hea t l oss
related t o that
a t _5 0 C 1. 5 2.0 2 .5 3.0 3.5

Amore general f orm of Eqs. (1) ,14) is

H a - bT . (15)

where the coefficient a is a function o f the atmospheric emissivity and is given

by Eq. (6a). The coeffici ent b is

( 16)

where b' is given by Eq. (6b). Thus, b depends on the cloudine ss , the wind
spee d, the air stratification, and the roughness of the wa ter surface.

Acco rding t o Starosolszky [1 0 ] Pruden suggested for th e St. La wrence river an

expressio n , wh ich ca n be put in the s ame for m as Eq. ( 15) with the coefficien t s
2 2 2 2
a = 90 watts/m ( 180 cal/cm ,day) and b 13.5 Watts/m ,oC (27 ca l /cm ,day,oC).

Above a water surface, whic h is much warmer than the a ir, the stratification must
be unstable. Then, the "wind functions" do not primarily depend on th e wind but on
the temperature difference between the water and the air. In a river rapid th e water
s urface is hydrodynami cally rough also when th e wi nd is light. The influence of the
wind speed must be less than in s till water. At ve ry low air temper atures the
in fluence of the wind on the hea t lo ss is surpressed. When free convection takes
place, it can be shown usin g Monin's [7] s imilarity hypothesis that the exc hange

of sensible heat is

(T _T)3/ 2 ( 17)
ro a

wher e T is the temperatur e at roughness length level. Although T is not

ro ro
known, Eq. (17) indicates that the sensible heat loss increases more than linearly
wi th t e mperat ure.

It is often claimed, Carstens (6), that due to frost smoke produced from an open
river rapid during very cold weather, the heat loss is reduced considerably. Even
when Ero s t smoke exists the atmospheric emissivity can not, however, exceed unity.
Actually it ca n hardly exceed 0.9. For an atmospheric emissivity of 1.0 the
equation for the net heat loss rate is

2 2
H = 5(10) - 14(28)T Watts/m (cal/cm ,day) ( 18)

~'hen the heat loss rate calculated from this formula is compared with the heat loss
rate found from Eq . (13), it is found that the heat loss rate at an air temperature
2 2
of -15C is reduced from 290 (580) to 2 15 (430) Watts / m (cal /c m ,day) and at - 25C
2 2
from 430 (860) to 355 (710) Watts/m (ca l /cm ,day) . Even if the radiation loss is
reduced due to frost smoke, the heat loss rate from an open-water surface is very
intense at severe cold, and the heat loss rate increase s as the air temperature
decreases. There is no reason why an asmyptotic heat exchange rate should exist.

Labor a tory experiment

In order to find an expression for the "wind functions" and to investigate whether
the heat Loss remained constant below a certain air temperature, a laboratory
e x pe riment vIas carried out. The water in an insulat ed box of 0.426 m with a
surface area of 0.78 m was kept well mixed by the use of small air bubblers. The
experiment was performed in a cold room, in which the temperature was set at a
fixed temperature . The time for the water temperature to drop from about 2C to O.soC
was measured, and the heat loss from the water was calculated. The radiation balance
above th e \yater surface was measured, so the latent and sensible heat could be
separa ted from the radiation loss.

Sex experiments were performed. The air temperature was kept at _8C, -12C, -16C,
- 20C, - 24C , -27C. The results are shown in Table 2. Each experiment lasted about
4 hours . The wa ter t e mperature at diff erent levels was measured every halE hour.
The heat loss rate was constant during each single experiment.

7able 2. Measured heat lo ss rates from an o pen-water surfa ce in a cold room.

air temperature \.;ater temperature total heat l02s rate radiation b~lance
c c \Jatts / m Watts / m

-8 0.9 111 35
-12 1.4 167 56
-16 1.4 202 70
-20 1.1 2J3 82
-24 1.4 306 99
-27 1.5 348 111

From Eqs. (7) and ( 9 ) the sum of t he latent and s unsible heat fluxes is found as

+ H
= lEe
+ ~ Lf f d~ 1
E dT J O. 5T
l (T -T )
w a
( 19)


The function within the square brack ets is called and can l~i!sil y be de t ermi ned

since (He+H ) is implicit}y found from Table 2. Th e obtained '!alu e s of the func
tion f for th e six experiments are shmYTl in Tabl e J.

Table 3. La tent and se ns ib le h0at loss rates from an open-wat er s urface in a cold
room, and th e ratio between thi s loss and the temp erature deficit of the

air temperatur e water t empera ture latent and sensible proporti onality
hC3 t loss rat (ac t o r
w HL + He ( HL+Hc)/(Tw-T )
2 2
c c Watts / m Wat ts /m ,0c

-8 0.9 7f. 8.5

-12 1.4 111 8 .3
-16 1 .4 132 7 .6
-20 1.1 151 7 .2
-24 1. 4 20 7 8.1
-2 7 1.5 237 8.3

IE the wind functions are independ en t of the temp e rature, the proportionalit y factor,
the function f, s hould decrease slight l y with decreasing temperatu re. The d~rj v3 tj v~

de / dT is 0.38, 0.33, 0.28, 0.25, 0.23, and 0 .21 mb/oC for air t e mp e ratures -8, -12,
-16, -20 , -2 4 , and -27 C , respectively. Appl y ing the relationship between fC and
fE according to Eq. (11) a va lue of fE f or the six experiments can be determined
as 0.30, 0.30, 0.29, 0.28, 0.32, 0.3 4 mrn/mb,day, respectively. Thus th e wind

function seems t o remain constant with temperature and an appropriate valu e is
0.30 mm/mb,day. It should be stated that "wind function" is not a proper name, since
the wind does not inf luence the heat loss rate, if free convec tion takes place . The
proportionality facto r between latent and sensible heat flow and temperature deficit
was found fro m the experiment to be about 8 Watts/m , oc , which c orresponds to
16 cal/cm ,day,oc. This value is identical with that estimated f rom the "Ru ssia n
Winter Equation", Rimsha and Donchenko [9J, when no wind is present .

The coefficients of Eq. (15) can not be determin ed directly from the experiment,
since the atmospheric radiation is not reproduced in the experiment. However, the
proportionalit y coefficient b can be estimated from Eq. (16) as
2 2
b = b' + 8(16) Watt s/m ,oC (cal/cm ,day,oC) (20)

In the previous theory dis cu ssi on b' was found to be about 4(8). This means that
2 2
b should be about 12(24) Watts / m ,oC (cal/cm ,da y ,oC).

The heat loss rate from a small cylinder of surface area 0.071 m was measured
out-d oors in free air by Williams [12]. From his results the coefficients
2 2 2 2
a = 25 Watts/m (50 cal / cm ,day) and b = 16 Watts/m ,oC (32 cal / cm ,day,oC) can
be evaluated.

Field observations
In the Rautaruuhi harbour in Brahestad, Finland heated discharges are used for ice
reducing purpo s es. In the 8 m deep harbour basin an area of 1. 2 x 105 m is kept
ice-free by means of a discharge of 2.6 m]/s ec of temperature 7 C. The heated water
is discharged at th e surface and at the bottom of the harbour basin. The water
temperature at the borde r between the ice-free and the ice-covered area is 1.5- 2 .0 C.
Also beneath the ice-cover as far away as 1 000 m from the ice-cree area the water
temperature is about 1 C and thus well above free zing. The discharge under tlte
existing ice-c over is estimated to be 2-3 times the discharge at the two outlets. The
heat loss to the atmosphere corresponds to 300-350 Watts/m (600-7 00 c~1 / cm2,day).
For a water temperature of 4 C on a cold -16C clear day, when the coefficient a
in Eq. (15) can be taken as 80 watts / m , the proportionalit y factor b is found to
2 2
be 10-15 watts/m ,oC (20-30 cal/cm ,day,oC). It is, however, not likel y that the
water is completely mixed, so the actual heat los s is probably less than the
estimated one.

From observations of ice masses in a small riv er rapid Bengtsson [3] estimated the
mean heat loss rate from th e river rapid over the period Dec ember 1975 to mid March

2 2
1976 to about 150 Watts/m (300 cal/cm ,day) and over the period December 1977 to the
2 2
beginning of March 1978 to about 100 Watts/m (200 cal/cm ,day). From observations
on cloud cover the coefficient a of Eq. (15) was estimated at 65 Watt s/ m
2 2 2
(130 cal/cm ,day) for the first year and 50 Watts/m (100 cal/cm ,day) for the
second year. When the solar radiation in February and March was accounted for, the
proportionality coefficient b was found to be 11 (22) fo r 1976 and 13 Watts/m ,oC
(26 cal/cm ,day,oC) for 1978.

In a review paper Ashton [2] suggests that the heat loss to the atmosphere can be
estimated as being proportional to the temperature deficit in the air relative to
the temperature of the water with a proportionality coefficient of 25 Watts/m ,oC
(50 cal/cm day,oC) . The influence of wind is included in this coefficient. At large
temperature differences a simple proportionality assumption is quite accurate.
Theoretically, however, an equation for the heat loss rate must include a term.
which does not depend on the air temperature .

The performed laboratory experiment should fairly well reproduce the conditions in
an open river rapid in severe cold. Since no wind acted on the water surface during
the experiment, the obtained heat loss rates should correspond to minimum values .
However, the influence of wind on a rivet rapid having a rough surface should be
small, in particular when the air temperature is much below the water temperature.
A direct proportionalit y between sensible and latent heat fluxes and the temperature
2 2
difference between water and a ir was found to be 8 Watts/m ,OC or 16 cal/cm ,day,oC.
This value is also s upported by field observations and a theoretical analysis. Frost
smoke may increas e the emissivity of the air just above an open-\Jater surface, but
even if it is assumed that the atmospheric emissivity is approaching unity, the heat
loss rate must increase with decreasing temperature. A term, which does not depend
on temperatur e but on cloud conditions, should be included in a heat lo ss formula.

1. Anderson, E.R . (1954). Energy budget studies, Water-Loss Investigations, Lake

Hefner Studies, Techn.rep., USGS Prof. Paper No. 269.

2. Ashton, G.D. (1978). River ice. Annual Review of Fluid Mech., vol. 10.

3. Bengtsson, L. (1978). Ice conditions in the Rane River, IAHR Symp. Ice Problems,


4. Bolz, S.H. (1949). The dependence of the infra red counter-radiation on cloud

mass, Z. E. Met. vol. 3, no. 5-6.

5. Brunt, D. (1932). Notes on rad iation in the atmosphere, Quart.J.Royal Met. Soc.,
London, vol . 88.

6. Carstens, T. ( 1977). vrlL, Trondheim, Norway - personal communication.

7. Monin, A.S. (1970). The atmospheric bo undary layer, Annual Review Fluid Mech . ,

vo l . 2 .

8. Paily, P.P . , Macag no, E.O ., a nd Ke nnedy, J.F. ( 1974). Winter-regime surface heat
loss fr om hc' a ted streams, Inst. Hydraul ic Research, Iowa, rep. 155.

9. Rimsha, V.A. and Do nchenk o , R.V. (1957). The investi ga tion of heat loss fr om

free water surf aces in winter time. Tr. Leni ngrad Gos., Gidrol Inst. 65 ( in


10. Starosolszk y, O. ( 1970). Ice in hyd raulic engineering, Div. Hydrauli c En g . , NTH,
Trondheim, Rpt 70-1.

II. Tennessee Valley Authorit y (1970). Heat a nd mass transfer b2 tween a water surface
and the a tmosphere, Water Res ources Research Lab., rep. no. 14.

12. Williams, G.P. ( 19 59). An empiri ca l method of estimatin g total heat l osses from
open -water su rfa ces , Proc. 8 ~h IAHR Congress, vol. J , Montreal.



George D. Ashton U.S. Army Cold Regions

Chief, Snow and Ice Branch Research and Engineering USA
Laborator y , Hanover, NH

Results are presented o f a field study of the ice suppres s i on caused by discharge of
warm water at the side of the Mississippi River near Bettendorf, Iowa. Included in
the results are measuremen ts of lateral and l ong itudinal open water extents and
late ral , l o ngitudinal, and vertical water temperature profiles. Successive measure
ments were made on both very co ld (-20 o C) and warm days (OOC air temperatures). The
manner by which the ice cover extends during a chnage from warm to cold weather is

Rivers are commonly used for the disposal of thermal wastes and, in most cas es , the
disposal occurs in the form of a side channel discharge of heated effluent. During
periods of ice cover, the effect of such effluents is to suppr ess the ice cover
from its otherwise natural thickening and, in the vicinity of the re lease, a long
narrow stretch of open water often re sults . Recentl y [1] t he author developed a
quasi-steady numerical simulation that predicts the vary ing open water extent as a
function of the thermal load to the river, the atmospheric co nditions, and the
characteris tics of the river flow. In February 1980 a field inv estiga tion was
conducted at the site of a power plant waste heat release int o the Mississippi River
near Bettendorf, Iowa, with the objec tiv e of determining the quality of the simu
lation as well as to answer cer tain questions that arose in th e course o f the
analysis. This paper prQsents the results includ ing longitudinal, lateral, and
vertical water temperature profiles, the open water ext ents and descr ip t ions of the
manner by which the ice cover extends during a change from warm to cold weather.

The source of the thermal effluent is waste heat used for cooling the coal-burning
Riverside Power Plant operated by the Iowa-Illinois Gas & Electric Company. The plant
is a multi- unit plant of nominal capacity of app roximately 240,000 kw. The intakes
and out falls for the vari ous units are arranged in a somewha t complex geometry, made
even more complex by the wintertime prac tice of discharging some of the effluent juSt
upstream of the intakes. Prior to 8 February 1980 a large part of the plant was shut
down for maintenance and even after 8 February (see Fig. ld) all units were not run
con tinu ously. As a result, the energy discharge rate was variable and was determined
from plant records of intake and discharge temperatures and flow rates of the various

The Mississippi River at the site is approximately 1000 meters wide and had a dis
charge of about 850 m3s- 1 (see Fig la) during the present field stud y . Along the
west bank where the effluent is discharged, the flow depth is fairly uniform ranging
from 2.5 to 3 meters. Typical curren t velocities over the length of the study reach
were between 0.2 and 0.32 m s-1 with a representative average of 0.25 m s-1.


Undisturbed ice conditions during January and February 1980 were determined from
measurements at Loc k and Dam No. 15 at Rock Island, Illinois, located about 11 km

downstream of the power plant. After an early temporar y formation of thin ice in
December 1979 the river remained open until late January 1980 when it froze over more
or less completely and, under the influence of sustained subfreezing air temperatures,
thicknened to about 0.25 m in mid-February 1980 (see Fig. lb) . JUSt upstream of the
power plant the river was completely ice covered for several kilometers.

Air temperatures were measured during the time of the field measurements at the plant
location but a more complete record of air temperatures (three hour observations) was
available from the Moline, Illinois ai r port weather station. The daily air temper
atures for Januar y and February 1980 are presented in Fig. lc. Also available are
cloud cover and wind speed data, and these are being used in a detailed evaluation
of the numerical simulation. Of particular note for the purposes of the present
paper are the air temperatures from 13 to 20 February during which the field obser
vations were conducted on site. On 14 February the air temperatures were near fre
ezing and open water reaches were free of any ice at all. On the evening of 15
February, the weather became very cold and ice partially formed over some of the
previously open areas (described in detail below). On 18 February the weather again
~Iarmed to well above freezing. Water temperature measurement s were taken in the
open \.,rat er areas on 15, 16, and 17 February.

Ice conditions were observed both from a boat in the course of obtaining the water
temperature and velocity measurements and, more importantly, during a series of over
flights in a small airplane from which oblique aerial photographs were made of the
open water areas from the plant to the end of the open water extend downstream . The
width of open water was then determined from these photographs by comparison with
the dimensions of numerous structures and features along the shoreline. The results
of two such determinations of open water extents are shown in Fig. 3 for 14 February
1980 and 17 February 1980. Near the plant there was an initially wider open area
(attributed to ice movement, not to melting) that narrowed to about 25 m at a distance
0.4 kID downstream. From there to a distance of 2.2 m the open water increased in
width, then remained at a nearly constant width to a distance of 5 km, and then
gradually narrowed to closure about 9 km downstream. The shaded area extending down
stream from about 4.3 km was ice that had formed the night of 16-17 February and
consisted of large thin plates of ice about 2 to 3 cm thick that spanned from shore
to the more solid ice edge, although this plate ice often did not completely cover
the previously open water surface. Photographs of this ice and the previous open
water are shown in Fig. 2a and 2b at a location just downstream of the leading edge
of the newly formed ice cover. There was considerable uncertainty at the time of
formulating the analysis in [lJ as to the physical processes by which the ice cover
reformed as a result of a change from warmer to colder air temperatures. At least at
the velocity of water at this site ( ~ 0.25 m 5-
1 ), plates readily formed in very large
sheets and spanned across the previously open water extents of about 100 m width. It
1s anticipated that at somewhat higher velocities the ice production would be more
of a frazil nature, or the plates would accumulate do~~stream and the cover would
progress upstream in the manner described by a Froude criterion [2 , 31 . The edge of
the main ice cover upstream of this plate ice accumulation did not appear to encroach

Examination of this ice edge from the boat showed it to rapidly thicken rather than
to have a thin feathered edge and it appeared to be somewhat "armored" by ice for
mation resulting from small waves due to wind action. The influence of plant
operation (see Fig. ld) must be kept in mind, however, because significant increase
in warm water discharge occurred less than a week before the present field study. A
visit to the site on 4 February had shown a narrower extent of open water extending
about 6 to 7 km downstream from the plant. The open water had therefore increased
in width under the influence of the increased discharge of waste heat from the plant
beginning on 8 February .

~ater temperatures were measured on 15, 16, and 17 February uSing a thermistor
attached to the end of a graduated rod that was lowered into the water from the boat.
On 15 and 16 February temperatures were measured at various distances downstream at
locations estimated visually to be at the midpoint between the shore and the ice edge.
Generally at each location measurements were taken at 0.9 m, and 1.8 m depth. The
measurements at 1.8 m depth at the visually estimated midpoint of open water are plot
ted in Fig. 4 and show the expected general increase with increasing distance down
stream. The visual estimate of midpoint was subsequently found to be inadequate due
to the!arge lateral variation s in water temperature discussed below .

On 17 Februar y a number of water temperature measurements were made at various

locations downstream of the plant and at each location a measurement made 3 m from
shore, at the visually estimated midpoint of open water, and at the ice edge. The
latter measurement was quite accurately located using the aerial photography described
earlier. Representative measurements are plotted in Fig. 5a,b, and c for distances
downstream of 970 m, 2980 m, and 4590 m. They show, as expected, the highest temper
atures near shore, lesser temperatures at the midpoint, and lower temperatures at the
ice edge. No consistent variations were found with depth at any location, thus
confirming the assumption made in [ 1 ) of complete vertical mixing.

One further difficulty should be mentioned. For distances less than about 500 m
downstream of the plant water temperatures often were very unsteady and the unsteadi
nes s i s attributed to the edd y s tructure of the near-field mixing process.

All the measurements described above are presently undergoing detailed comparison with
the predictions of the numerical simulation described in [1). One strong limitation
to the model became clear on the last day of the field study (18 Feb) when a large
portion of the riverward ice cover broke loose near the plant and became lodged in
the previously open water area.

This work was performed as part of the Ice Engineering Program of the U.S. Army Corps
of Engineers under Civil Horks Work Unit 31362 "Theoretical Stud y of Ice Suppression
Possibilities." Hr. Bruce Brockett and Mr. Brian Harrington participated in the
field measurements and Ms. Jane ~~son helped analyze the field data. Personnel of
the Riverside Power Plant of the Iowa-Illinois Gas & Electric Company provided
valuable assistance and ready cooperation.

[ ) Ashton, G.D., SuPPression of River Ice by Thermal Effluen ts, USACRREL Re port
79-30, December 1 979, 26 p.
[ ~l Michel, B., Winter Reg ime of Rivers and Lakes, USACRREL Monograph Ill-Bla, 197 1,
131 p.
[3 ) Ashton, G. D. , River lee , Annual Review of Fl uid Mechanics, Vol. 10, 1978. P 369

, ~~

L;: 1000"oot
0 .3
~ 0.02
-" u
>- 0 .01


" -10


Stu d y


200 I


I 100

Fi gure 1: a) River fl ow at L& 15 , 11 km dmm s r eam , b ) Ic e thickne s /it L&D 15 ,

c) Air temperat ures a t ;'.oli ne, illino is 1 0 kID from s it e , d ) \{ast e hea t d i s c har ge
from River s i de Power Pl an t.

Figure 2 : a ) (above) Ne;Jl y forne thin pla.tes of ice On pl"!!Viously open '''l1;er ,
b) (belo") pen "ater at same site 2 days pr"v~ous to ll e" ' y formed plate i ce.

2 100
Lacat ion
Q) 17 Feb 'ao
-<:: 50


0 2 4 6 a
Distance Downstream (km)

Figure 3: Open water e xt ents (width selLe greatly exaggerated) .

4 1
(0) IS Feb 'aO,To=-SoC,V
w = 6ms-
(a) 16 Feb 'aO,To =-12C,Vw = 7ms- 1
(0) 17 Feb'aO,To=-lloC,Vw=ams- 1

o 6 a
Distance Downstream (km)

Figur p 1.: 1,l ater temperat ure s at v isunll y loctltee miJ.poinl of o. en wate r
neasu red at 1.8 m de.th .

o ,-------,-------=;
2 0 0

o. b. c.
from 54 (estimated)

E At Ice
Edge I 3m
A t Ice



o 2 Edge


3 19 (estimated)

F i gu ~ e 5: Vert i ccU. p r:.'f11es of water temperat.ur es a t di stances downs tream of

a) 970 m, b) 2980 m, and c) 4590 m.

Paper A2: "River Ice Suppression by Side Channel Discharge of Warm Water"
by G.D. As hton

DISCUSSION by Albert de Haas

Department of Water Control and Public Horks
The Netherlands

Did you find a relationship between the heat discharge and the length of the
open water? If so, what is this relationship ?
Is there a difference between high water discharge with 10" temperature when
co mpared to low water discharge with high temperature when both have the same heat
discharge from the power plant.

REPLY to deHass
One of the objectives of the study was to obtain field data to verify an
analytical simulation of the open "ater extents created by the release of warm
water ~t the s ide of the ch annel. The detailed verification is not as yet
completed but appears to be reasonably correct. The open water extent is greater
for high heat discharges and warmer air temperatures and less for low heat discharges
and colder air temperatures. The details depend also on the transverse mixing of
the water and somewhat on the unsteadiness resulting from the necessity of melting
ice previously formed. Details of the simulation may be found in Ashton (l J. Since
the simulation is a "Ear-field" type analysis it does not distinguish between volume
flux and temperatur e of the effluent but only on the heat discharge. Such effects
may be present in the near-field where momentum considerations determine the warm
\.,rater extents.

DISCUSSION by S. Beltaos, Hydraulics Division, National Water Research Institute,
Canada Cent re for Inland Waters, Burlington, Ontario, Canada .
(River Ice Suppression by Side Channel Discharge of Warm Water by G.
D. Ashton).

Valuable field data on river ice suppression by warm effluents are presented in this paper.
Of particular interest are the lateral and ve rti cal water temperature variations that were
obtained in addition to longitudinal ones . The data are to be used as a means of further testing of
a numerical simulation method that was developed earlier by the author. Below are questions
and comments on a<iew details.
1. What is the accuracy of the water temperature measurements?
2. Could the author comment on what would be the approximate river length required for
complete vertical mixing of water tempera ture?
3. Fig. 5 shows that the water temperature 3 m from the shore has a maximum at 2980 m.
Under steady-state conditions and without localized heat sources (e.g. warm springs), one
would expect this temperatur e to decrease continuously in the downstream direction. Fig.
1 shows that Feb. 17 (date of measurements shown in Fig. 5) was preceded by a period of
fairly co nstant waste heat and river discharges; however, air temperature varied during this
period. Could air temperature effects account for the above noted finding or should the
latter be attributed to a local heat source?

Paper A2: "River Ice Suppression by Side Channel Discharge of Warm
Water" by G.D. Ashton

Hydraulics Division
National I-iater Research Institute
Canada Centre for Inland Waters
Burlington, Ontario, Canada

Reply to Beltaos

The precision of the temperature measurements waS of the order of =O.OloC but
the accuracy was much \.Jorse than this largely due to inherent unsteadiness in the
temperature of the water at anyone point. This unsteadiness is largely attributed
to the eddy structure of the flow and was most extreme near to the plant where
difficulty was had in reading the temperature to even O.SoC. Downstream much
less difficulty '.Jas encountered and the measurements are believed accurate to about
The approximate river length required for complete vertical mixing of water
temperature depends on the densimetric Froude number of the flow, and complete
mixing is an asymptotically approached condition. Using Schiller and Sayre's
[~l data applied to a flow velocit y of 0.3 m grl, a depth of 3 m, and a ~T of
2C (near OoC) results in a distance of the order of 100 times the depth or 300 m.
The temperature measurements located 3 m from shore were somewhat inconsistent
with the expected monotonic decrease downstream. In the case of that at 2980 m
shown in Fig. S there were no known local heat sources but the water there was
shallo{y and may have been \.Jarmed somewhat by short wave radiation. The air temper
ature at the time of the measurement was about -9 C so no sensible heat gain was

Discussion of IIRiver ice s uppression by side channel discharge of warm '-"later" by
G.D. Ashton
By R. Gerard, Dept. Civil En g ineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta,
The scientific worth of an investigation such as that described in this paper
lies in ~...,hat is deduced by the investigator about the processes at work, as he
struggles to make the predictions of a conceptual model fi t the observations, rather
than in simply being able to predict the extent of open water created by the dis
charge of thermal IVaste, al t hough the latter may be t he justification for the expen
diture in this particular case. The results of the investigation described certainly
have broader implications than suggested by the title, and doubtless man y readers
wi II be more than a little intere st ed in .the final resul ts when they become av ai lable.
The page I imitation obviously imposes a severe constraint on a description of
such an in ves tigation. Ho.. . ' ever, even for this preliminary description, the following
information would be helpful in understanding the impl ications of the measurements
presented: plan of the reach; plant water discharge variation; t yp ical c ross-section
or two and the associated depth-a veraged velocity distribution.
In the paper it is stated that the ri ver' froze over more or less completely.'
Although not of direct concern in the context of the pape r as presented, it would
nevertheless be interestin g to know just how the initial ice cover formed: was it
simply "lake or border ice" type growth as inferred in the paper, or was it the re
sult of an ice accumulation gradually moving up f rom downstream, as is often the
ca se on other ri vers?
Apparentl y the v isual estimate of the mid-point was found to be inadequate,
although it is not stated just how inadequate. Presumably, though, this explains
wh y the temperature profi Ie taken on the 15th Februar y is lower than those of the 16
and 17, despite the warmer air temperature - or is the discrepancy due to plant
discharge va ria t ions? In fact the temperature profi Ie measured 3 m from the bank
on the 17th may have been a more reveal ing profi Ie.
A comment on the apparent anomaly of ice forminq on ,. 1C vlater (Figs. 3, 4, 5)
would seem worthwhi Ie.
Fundamental to the predictions of such thermal plumes is an abi I ity to predict
the characteristics of a plume of conservative tracer. The major requirement for
this latter task, other than the definition o f the hydraulic geometry and velocity
distribution in the reach, is an ac c urate estimate of the t ran sverse mixing coeffi
cient. This is a very interesting tas k for the type of side plume considered here.
There seem to be very fe," documentation s of such plumes on large rivers reported in
the literature to assist in the choice of an appropriate value of the coefficient,
and it is a very moot point whether mixing coefficients deduced from central plumes,
and non-dimensi o naJi zed using gross channel characteristics, can be used for very
local ized side plumes (Smith and Gerard, 1981). In particular, this brings up the
question of whether th e lateral mixing charact er istics of the turbulence are go ver n
ed by the depth of flow, as is usually assumed, or by some lateral scale of the
channel. A brief comment by the author on this point would be appreCiated. In thi s
regard, it would have been interesting to measure the time scales of the unsteadiness
found in the water temperature near the plant.


Smi th, D.W . and Gerard, R., 1981, 'Mixing and microorganism survival in the Slave
River, N . W.T.', Proceedings of Specialty Conference, Technical Council on Cold
Regions Engineerin g, ASCE, Seattle, Washin g ton, Apri I.


By :

G.D. Ashton, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory,


There are more points raised in the discussion than can be covered in a reply of
reasonable length. A longer report is being prepared that wi ll contain much more
detail on the measurements, observations, and behavior of the river at the site. For
the present, the following information is provided:

The river reach is 700 m wide and the plant discharge i s on the inside of a bend wi th
a radius of approximat e l y 2 km. Cross sections in the open water reach were typically
steep-sided down to a more or less uniform J m de!'th. The river froze over this reach
by an accumulation of frazil and plate ice and did not appear to have been by an
orderly upstream progression, although the writer waS not present at the time.

The apparent inconsistencies in the temperature data are being examined in more detail
aided by a numerical simulation framework for the analysis. The "apparent anomaly of
ice forming on >loC water" is most likely due to the fact that the ice had formed
during the night when cooling was more rapid and was not as yet melted away. Again,
the detailed simulation will shed more light on the ice behavior.

The writer is familiar with the question of whether lateral or vertical scales of
channels determine th e lateral mixing characteristics but not ready to reach a
conclusion. The boundary of the ice cover that results in open water next to cov ered
flow makes this an important question.

A temperature sensor was located in the flow just downstream of the plant and provided
a several day record of the highly unsteady water temperatures there. The unstead iness
has not yet been analyzed.


George D. Ashton. 1
Di scussi on 2
by K. S. Davar

Thermal discharges from power plants have important effects on the

regime of river ice in their vicinity. The author has presented an interesting
description of the field studies carried out to improve an understanding of
these physical processes and related modelling. Since river ice formation is
essentially an heat transfer process, it would be susceptible to two additional
effects, not reported in the study:
i) Convective effects due to wind, and
ii) Insulating effects of increased snow cover .
Perhaps, the author can clarify and elaborate if such additional provisions
are considered worthwhile for the field program, and also if they have been
allowed for in the numerical simulation model.

1. Chief, Snow and Ice Branch, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and
Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, N.H., U.S.A.

2. Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick,

Frederi cton, N. B., Canada E3B 5A3.



G.D. Ashton, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering

Laboratory, USA

In the numerical simulation developed to evaluate the ice suppression wind is included
in the algorithm for determining the heat loss from the I<ater surface and the ice or
snow surface. Similarly the snow thickness on the ice cover is included in the ice
thickening/melting algorithm. In the field stud y a limited attempt to gather wind
speed was made but a more complete record \.)a5 provided by the 3-hourly measurements
at the local weather station, albeit several miles from the site. Comparison of the
two show the site winds to be about t'vo-thirds of the station winds. The value of
t he snow thickness is arguable near the ice edge since the edge is washed by waves
and snow near this edge is affected by that water. In fact, this wave action tends
to armor the ice edge somewhat.


V. Matouek Ohfe River Chomutov

Deputy Director Authority Czechoslovakia

The paper presents a mathematical model of ice discharge in a river

with steady flow. The model is based on the thermal balance of the
river and laws governing the evolution of ice in the river. The veri
fication of the model confirmed the good agreement between the measu
red and modelled values. The model can be used for predicting, simu
lating and determining the discharge of frazil ice. The simplified
version of the model will serve for operative informative calcula


Frazil ice is formed under conditions of supercooled turbulent

flow. If the turbulence is small or nonexistent, the ice crystals
forming on the surface cannot be drawn into the current and only
surface ice is formed. The degree of turbulence necessary for the
production of frazil ice has not been defined yet. The limit of
frazil ice production is expressed in relation to the average velo
city of the water. Hanley's and Michel's laboratory tests /1/ have
shown that the formation of frazil ice in a cylindrical tank with
mixing device, necessitates a water velocity of 0.24 m.s- This
finding has been also confirmed by the results from observations of
the freezing of the river Ohfe.

The single cryst a ls of frazil ice agglomerate and form porous

flocks and cluster s . The flocks and clusters tend to concentrate on
the surface. Ice crystals or clusters remain near the surface if
their settling velocity is greater than the average vertical velo
city fluctuations of the current. The settling velocity for
particles of frazil ice with a diameter of 10 mm and a thickness of
1 mm is 4 cm.s- 1 Thes e dimensions are reached by the largest
crystals of frazil ice. However the crystals agglomerate and the
settling velocity of the clusters is higher than that of the
crystals. Assuming the settling velocity for clusters is 4 cm.s
we can derive the relation for the average water velocity, at which
clusters of ice crystals still float on the surface /5/

m.s ( 1)

where C - Chezy's coefficient.

This relation, however, does not hold true for boulder and stony
riverbeds with small depths, that cover insufficiently the uneven
ness of the bottom.

From observation of frazil slush development in a river it is

evident that the frazil slush thickness is dependent on the trans
port distance of the ice-that is the river length in which the ice
is formed. This dependance was studied on the river Ohfe. From the
measurements the following conclusions could be drawn :

1. The thickness of the frazil slush up t~ a velo city v is depend

ent on the distance through which the ice is tran spo rted.

2. Under the given conditions the thickness of frazil slush is with

in the range of 4.5 to 20 cm. Greater thicknesse s can be measured
in frazil ice jams or in places of riverbed contractions or
perhaps during dense s now. Smaller thicknesses were encountered in
the zone of supercooling and ice formation.
3. For an ice transport distance between 4.5 km and 20 km the thick
ness of the frazil slush e in cm is equal to hte transport
distance~ in km. The relations is not valid for places where the

formation of frazil slush is disturbed by fast currents, rapids

or a weir. Behind such places the ice agglomerates again and
regains, relatively quickly, the original formations. The necessa
ry distance for the creation of ice formations corresponding to
the thicknes s of transport distance is dependent on the water
velo city. However, suggests 6 km is a sufficiently safe distance.
The re su lt s obtained on the river Ohre cannot be , for the moment,
compared with data from other rivers. Quantitative data about the
development of frazil slush in a river cannot even be found in
foreign literature. For predicting and simulating the discharge of
frazil slush, the laws of the d e velopment of the ice thickness is of
basic importance and for this reason it is necessary to study thes e
laws further.
The density of frazil slush is cited in literature within the
range of 300 to 640 kg.m- 3 Generally it is assumed that the density
of frazil slush is dependent on the air temperature when it appears,
on the ice transport distance, and the water velocity. Measurements
on the river Ohre /5/ did not confirm the dependence on ice transport
distance, but showed a sufficiently close relationship to the air
temperature. For air temperatures within the limits of -10.5 c to
-20.5 C, the following relationship was derived:

~vl = 343 - 11,65 to (2 )

where , vI - density of frazil

~ slus~

to - mean air temperature c during the time of ice transport

from the most distant point of formation to the measure
ment sec tion .

The dependence on the ve locity could not be verified. In all

measurements the water velocity was 0.5 - 0.6 m.s-

The evolution of frazil ice is shown schematically in Fig. 1.

If obstacles or changes in the riverbed are encountered suc h as
e.g. ice cover formations, changes in the direction, slope, cross
section and natural and artifical obstacles, the movement of frazil
slush can be stopped. When the water velocity in the river is small
and the frazil slush is not pulled down under the obstacle, a frozen
frazil slush is formed. At greater velocities it is pulled under the
obstacle and forms an hanging dam. For the limiting velocity at
which the frazil slush is being pulled under the obstacle, Michel
/6/ derived the equation

v = 0,154 V(l- [ ) gh o m.s


where - poro si ty of the frazil slush,

ho - depth of water in front of the obstacle,

g gravitational acceleration m.s


Assuming steady flow in the river, the thermal equilibrium in

a short river reach j without ice can be expressed /2 , 3/ by

= 0 (4 )

When in the river reach j frazil ice discharge is encountered, we

must introduce into the thermal balance the value of heat necessary
for thawing or frazil ice formation. Then the thermal balance
equation acquires the form

o (5)

In Eq (4) and (5) the following symbols are used:

1 O 1
c - specific heat of water; c = 4 168.8 J.kg- C- ,
~ - density of water kg.m- ,
- magnitude of inflow in the direction of axis x into reach
j m3 .s 1

- magnitude of outflow in the dlrection of axi s x from the
r ea c h j m3 s -l
:0 -1
- magnitude of local inflow m.s ,

- outflow of frazil from reach j m3 .s 1

- inflo w of frazil into re ach J m3 .s 1

- t e mperature of inflowing wa ter in the direction of axis x c,

- temperature of out flowing water C,

- t em perature of local inflow c,

- area of the water su rface of river reach j m ,

- heat flux ( gai n) between water and ambient environment w.m- ,

- 3
density of frazil ice kg.m ,

- l a tent heat of fusion of ice J.kg- 1 ,

- time period.

Eq (5) has two unknowns, i. e . tvo a nd Qlo' Inspite of that there i s

a so lution, since:

1/ if Qlo """ 0, then t va DoC, and we solve Qlo from Eq ( 5)

S.q ("
o 0 J v ( 6)
-10- -lp= - <;'vl' 1

2/ if Qlo= 0, then t vo > 0 and we so lve t vo from Eq (5)

(7 )

Eq (6 ) ex pre sses the change in the disch a rge of frazil ice in the
reach j . In the calculations we proceed in s uch a way that by mean s
of the mode l of temperature variations we calculate the temperature
profile and when the water temperature reaches 0 C, we calculate
according to Eq (6 ) the discharge of fr azil ice.
Frazil ice starts to form during s upercooling and in the period of
s upercooling, the increase of its quantity i s not unif or m. Eq (6)
does not take account of thi s and presents the ice production
dependent on heat tran sf er between water and environment. When we
want to determine the ice discharge for a longer time period or
greater distance on the river, we do not commit thi s inexactne ss ,
since supercoo ling is converted to fr ez il ice. During su pe rcooling
anchor ice is formed also and by its quantity the discharge of fra
zil ice i s reduc ed . Ice discharge is also reduced by the ice ret a in
ed within the river re a ch, and increa s ed by snowing and the lateral
input of ice. The complete equation of the change in ice discharge
in the river reach attains then the following form:

S.q ('r)
J v

'i'vl 1

3 -1
m.s (8)
3 1
where AQld - part of ice formation m .s- deposited in river reach
j as anchor ice, AQ
- part of the frazil ice and frazil slush
3 -1
m.s .
reta~ne d"~n
rlver reac h J,
. Qlb - 1 atera 1 lnput 0 f lCe, Hsn
- quantity (intensity) of s now precipitation mm.h- ~sn - dens~ty
of snow kg.m- , st. - area of river reach j between shore ice.
Anchor ice is formed on stony and boulder river bottoms in periods
of water supercooling. In such rivers, with s mall water depth,
primarily anchor ice i s formed and here almost no di sc harge of fra
zil slush is encountered. Such a river is e.g. the river Chomutovka
above Chomutov. In deep rivers, or those with a predominantly sandy
bottom, the anchor ice quantity compared with frazil slush is usual
ly rather small. Inspite of this is it always neces sa ry to ascertain
its quantity.

The deposition of frazil slush occurs mainly in places with

obstacles or changes in the river channel, where a frozen frazil
slush or hanging ice dam are formed, depending on the water velocity
Fig. 1

In both cases, the discharge of frazil slush is interrupted and

according to this the calculation must be adjusted. Part of the fra
zil slush is deposited in the shore ice and below the shore ice. The
deposited quantity can be estimated by the analysis of velocity
distributions in cross s ections or determined in a survey of the
ri ve r during ice run.

When introducing into Eq (8) numerical va laes of general constants

3 -1 0 -1 -1 3
c = 4.1868 .10 ;].kg C , 1 = 33944 J.kg , q= 1000 kg.m , we put
for ~sn 150 kg.m and qvl is expressed by Eq (2) and at the same
time we neglect AQld and AQla' we can re-write it in the form

6Qlj('r)= -(343-11,65t o )-1 [2,986.10- S qv('r)+ 12,50
- 41,7.10- sn
6H Sj]
+Q lb
3 -1
m s (9 )

For the case without lateral triburies and without snowing Eq (9)
can be simplified to the form

3 -1
m s (10)

The density of the resulting heat flow rate of heat exchange

between water and ambient environment qv is determined from the
different items of heat exchange using equation
W.m- 2 (11 )

where q1 -
density of heat flow rate due to evaporation W.m -2 ,
q2 -
density of heat flow rate due to convection W.m -2 ,
q3 -
density of heat flow rate of long-wave radiation W.m -2
q4P- density of heat flow rate of absorbed d irec t solar
radiation w.m- 2 ,
q5p- density of heat flow rate of absorbed diffused solar
radiation W.m -2 ,
q6 - density of heat flow rate of heat exchange with the
subsoil w.m- 2 ,
q7 - density of heat flow rate of heat receipt from work done
by forces of internal water friction w<m- ,
qs - de~sity of heat flow rate due to atmospheric precipita
tion w.m- 2
For the determination of the different items of heat exchange
a number of relations can be found in technical literature, exhibi
ting however various degrees of precision. A more detailed analysis
of the problems, including the comparison, relations reported by
various authors, has been conducted by Matousek /2, 4/. The author
derived relations for:
the density of heat flow rate due to evaporation and convection
q1+ q2= [61,32S(t o -t v ) + (e - eo)] (O,l10+0,029w) W.m- (12)

where to - air temperature 2 m above the water surface C,

tv - water temperature C,

e - vapour t e nsion 2 m above the water level Pa,

eo - saturated-vapou r tension at the temperat u re of the water

in the riverbed Pa,

w - wind ve locit y 2 m above the water surface m. s
the density of heat flow rate of long- wave radiation

97,5.10-6e(1-C2n)] -5,445.10-8T~
W.m -2 (13)
where To - absolute air temperature, To = 27 3 ,15 + to'
Tv - absolute water temperature, Tv= 27 3 ,15 + tv'
Co - coefficient expre ss ing the effect of visib ilit y
c = 0 f or v i sibi lit y d--5 km, c = 0,142 f o r v i sib ilit y
o o
d ~ 5 k m,
c ,c - coefficients express ing the effect o f increased atmo
1 2
spheric radiation due to th e density of cloud s z and
visibility: sho wn in Table 1,
n - cloudine ss in fractures of one 0 - 1: with clear sky
n = 0:
the density of heat flow rate of absorbed total sola r radi a tion

Q40 [(_L
+ 0,066 sec Z) ( l-n)k + 0,94 klnlJ
( 14)

where Q40- de nsi t y of the flux of direct so l ar radiation at c le ar

sky given by the relation

W.m (15 )

where Z - zenith distance of the sun in degrees Z = 90 0 -H

H - elevation of the sun, angle in degrees,
- percentage of absorbence of direct sola r radiation by
water, indicated in Table 2 ,
ko - coefficient expressing the decrease in so lar radiation
due t o v i sibi lity and atmospheric pollution by dust,
indicated in Table 3,
kl - coefficient expressing the reduction of radiation due to
cloud d ens ity, indicated in Table 4.

The values y and m are expressed by

y 10-0,0568m + O, 00038 m ,
( 15a)

m - sec Z. (16)

The heat exchang e between the riverbed and th e water is small

compared with the preceding items and therefore it is considered by
mo s t authors as constant. For the winter period we recommend
q6 = 7 W.m-
The heat flux due to the work of internal water friction forces is
q7 = 9810 i B
l W.m -2 ( 17)

where i-bottom or surface slope, Q - discharge of the water

through the riverbed m .s- 1 , B - surface width m.
Atmospheric precipitation, mainly snow, significantly affects the
water temperature in the ri ve r. Relations for the determination of
q8 can be found in the literature e.g. /2, 4/. In the case of
a slush ice run the va lue q8 is small and can be neglected in the
Frazil slush on the surface reduce s the heat exch ange between
water and atmosphere. The effect of this reduction i s expressed by
coefficient a, whose va lues a re given in Table 5. Frazil slush pre
vents also the uptake of solar radiation and it i s possible to
neglect its heat input in the calculation.
The product of the resulting density of heat flow rate and area
through which the heat exchange take s place can then be expressed by

Sjq)'T) = {BVjq)'C ) + Bkj [a(ql+ q2+ q3)+ q6+ q7J} Lj W (lB)

where B .- width of the free surface in reach j and is determined

by the equation,
m (19 )

B - river width in the level of the surface m,


B - width of shore ice m,

B - width of surface co ve red by frazil s lush, and is

expressed by the equation

v - average water velocity in reach j m. s
e (j_l) - thickness of the frazil slush in reach (j-l) m.


For the calculation of the frazil slush discharge we start from

Eq Qlj = Ql(j-l)+ AQlj and the increment of ice discharge AQlj is
determined from Eq (8) or Eq (9), respectively, using Eq (18) and
(11). Most frequently we proceed so that we determine the changes in
ice passage in the longitudinal river profile. With the calculation
we start in the profile in which the ice discharge or the water
temperature is known.

The river between the starting profile and the profile in which
the ice discharge is to be determined, is divided into reaches. The
longitudinal profile of ice discharge changes must be calculated in
time dependance on the progress of the river water. Input data for
the calculation are given for all cross-sectional profiles limiting
the river reaches. The profiles are given by the mileage /km/ of the
river and they are supplemented by the time calculated from the
beginning (time at the starting profile) and the time of water re
tent~on in the river reach. Input data in the profiles must corres

pond to this time.

The distance between the profiles (length of the river reach) must
be chosen so that the input data expresse suffiently accurately the
parameters of the reach, mainly the width of the surface and the
course of meteorological phenomena used in the calculation of qv'
In rivers with long retention times, the profiles are chosen so as
to have small distances between each other. Between two profiles
there should not be a longer retention time that 4 hours. Maintain
ing this principle ensures that the input data adequatly express the
diurnal temperature, air moisture, wind velocity, cloudiness, sun
elevation and ?recipitation patterns.
For the calculation of the frazil slush discharge in the longitu
dinal profile of the river it must be verified whether conditions
are created for its passage through the riverbed and whether it
floats on the surface or passes through the whole transverse profile.
As guide-line to these considerations we can use Fig. 1, interpret
ing the evolution of frazil slush in the river.
The effect of the frazil slush discharge due to the formation of
bottom ice must be considered in the choice of the equation for AQlj'


The mathematical model of me frazil ice discharge was tested on

the lower part of the river Ohre. For these tests complex measure
ments and observations of ice phenomena and of meteorological para
meters, including the already mentioned measuring of the thickness
of the frazil slush and its density were used.

The measured frazil slush discharge was ascertained from the

visually determined density of ice run, measured ice velocity, its
thickness and surface width. A total of 51 measurements were conduct
ed and the difference between the modelled and measured discharge
was not greater than the precision of the determination of the ice
run density.


Relations (12) and (13) can be simplified for the case tv= 0 to
the approximate expressions. For the air temperature within the
range (-5, -15 > c we chose e = 200 Pa and after adjustment we
obtain the approximate expression
ql+ q2+ q3= -134 + 10t o + l,8(t o - 6,7)w +(318 + 4,6t o )cn W.m- ( 21)

For air temperatures in the range ~15, - 2 5> c, we use e = 93,5

Pa and after the same adjustments the approximate expression attains
the form
W.m (22)

where c - coefficient dependent on the cloud density and given in

Table 6.

For the calculation of the density of the absorbed solar radiation

flux can be used the approximate equation
q4p+ q5p= q40 [A(l-n)k o + 0,94 kIn] W.m (23)

where A ~/100 + 0,066 sec Z varies its values very small and we
can use A = 1. The value q4Q is determined by interpolation between
the value q40 at noon and the value Q40= 0 at sun riGe or sun set.

The net heat flux Qv we determine ~~ using the approximate rala

tions (21), (22), and ~3), Q6= 7 W.m and Q7= 10 W.m- 2 ,

In case where it is not necessary to consider the effect of solar
radiation, the relation (18) can be expressed by the approximate

Sjqv('l) = [Bj- Bkj (l-a)] Ljqv('t") w (24)

where Bj= B - Bbj

At a density of ice run ~ ~ 0.4, the val ue of expression B
kj (l-a)
is small and for informative calculations it can be neglected. Then
Eq (24) changes to the form

SjqJe) = .BjLjqv(rc) (25)

In Eq (18) we can ex press the relation

-1 -6 1
(~vl.l) = 2,986.10 (343 - 11,65t )-

by approximately linear rel a tionship independently for the interval

to < -5, -15) and the interval(-15, -25 >
Then the change in the ice discharge in river reach j, expressed

by Eq (18), can be re-written in approximate relations. For the

interval to (-5, -15> we get

~Qlj= -(B,5+0,2t o )10 -9 BjL

[ -117+10t o +2(t o -5)w 1
+(322+5to)C~ _1(27)
m s
and for the interval to (-15, -25 >
9 1

L\.Q = -(7,2+0,1t )10- B L . [-1 26+10t +2(t -6)w+(334+5t )cn] (28)

1J o J J 0 0 0 3-1

m s


The mathematical model of the frazil ice and frazil slush dis
charge permits the foreca s ting, simulating and determining of the
ice discharge in rivers. The model takes into conSideration all
phenomena th at affect the ice discharge and i s complex, uni ve rsal
and adequately precise. By its use it is possible to solve the evolu
tion of frazil slush and water temperature in the lo ngi tudin a l river
profile. Intruducing Eq (3) or (7) the model is able to determine
even the sites of the origin of the ice cover and hanging ice dam.

AS input data for the model are used currently measured meteoro

l ogical data and d a ta obtainable without greater difficulties.

The simplified mathe matical model expressed by Eq (27) and (28)
finds, inspite of limited conditions of use, a wide application in
practice it allows of forecasting a nd simu l ating ice discharges
from easily measurable meteorological data and the knowledge of
basic river data. However, it is also appl ic ab le for the d e termina
tion of ice discharg e especially where its measurement is not
possible or inaccurate.


/1/ HANLEY, T. 0 '0., MICHE L, B.: Temp erature Pat tern s During

the Formation of Borden Ice an d Frazil in a Laboratory Tank.

Proceedings of the Th ird International Sym po sium on I ce

Problems. IAHR, Hanover, New Hampshire, 1975, p. 211-221.

/2/ MATOUSEK, V.: Teplotni a ledov~ re lim vodnich to k O /Therma l and

Ice Regime of Water Streams/ . Pr agu e , SZN 1980, 408 pp.

/3/ MATOUSE K, V.: Modelov~ni teplotnich zmAn ve vodn im toku.

/Modelling of temperature changes in a water cou rs e/ .

Vodohosp. Cas ., 28 , 1980, C. 6 , pp. 643-6 6 3.

/4/ MATOUSEK, V. : V~mAna tepl a mezi vodnim proudem a oko ln im prostfe

dim /Heat exchange between water current and ambient environ
men t/. Vodohosp . Cas ., 29 , 1981, C. 2.

/5/ MATOUSEK, V.: Kaovit~ led a matematick6 modelov~ni jeho prOtoku

v tocich /Frazil and mathematical modelling of its discharge
in ri vers/ . Vodohusp. Cas., 29 , 1981, c. 4.

/6/ MICHEL, B.: Properties and pr ocesses of river and lake ice.

Proceedings of the Banff Sy mp osia "The role of sno w and ice

in hydrology", Unesco-WMO-IAHS, 1972, p. 454-481.

Table l. Coefficients c and c
l 2
Cloud density Visibility cl c2

0 - thin d 5 km 0,174 0,154

d :=. 5 km 0,032 0,154
1 - moderately dense d 5 km 0,355 0,539
d :=. 5 km 0,213 0,539
2 - dense d =--5 km 0,485 0,846
1 :=. d :=. 5 km 0,416 0,910
d 1 km 0,460 0,960

Table 2. Percentage of absorbence of direct solar radiation

by water

z ;"/ 90 88 86 84 82 80 75 70 65 55 50 40 20
T'J /%/ o 10 20 30 40 55 75 85 90 93 94 95 97

7able 3. Coefficient k

Visibility Atmospheric pollution

by flying dust

d=--5km 0 1
3 0,95
1 to 4 mg/m
5 to 10 mg/m 0,91
3 0,86
11 to 40 mg/m
2-=d:=.Skm 0,73
d:=.2km 0,47

Table 4. Coefficient kl

Cloud density

thin 0,69
moderately dense 0,38
dense 0,17
dense with fog 0,12

Table 5. Coefficient reduction of heat, exchange trough the

frazil slush layer - a

e a e a e a
/cm/ /cm/ /cm /

5 0,78 10 0,65 20 0,49

6 0,75 12 0,61 25 0,44
7 0,72 14 0,57 30 0,39
8 0,69 16 0,54 40 0,33
9 0,67 18 0,51 50 0,28

Table 6. Coefficient c

Cloud density z c
------------------------------ .
thin o 0,06
moderately de:1se 1 0,16
dense 2 0,27

T ab le 7 . Com par i so n o f ca l c ul ate d a nd meas u red QJ va l u e s
Da te Ti me o f S' 0' Q v Ql v Qlz Ql v - Ql z d v C;\Z oy cx. z
mea sure -
2 3 -1
m s
men t
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B 9 10
4 .1. 1 3 .30 EO - 211 0 , 70 0 , 87 - 0 , 17 0,2 8 0 , 3 5 - 0 , 07
0 0
EO Lf)
197 1 16.30 Lf) -1 94 0, 66 0 , 75 -0, 09 0 , 27 0 , 30 - 0 , 03
Lf) C\I


-22 8 0 , 74 0 ,75 - 0 , 0 1 0 , 30 0 , 30
5. 1. 4.5 0 II II - 265 0 ,81 0 , 78 0 , 0 3 0 , 73 0 , 70 0 , 03
1971 B. 20 CO ...J (j) - 23 9 0 , 76 0 , 80 - 0 ,04 0 , 68 0 , 70 -0,0 2
12 .20 -15 9 0 , 27 0 , 31 - 0 , 04 0 , 35 0 ,4 0 - 0 , 0 5
16 .2 0 -156 0 , 26 0 ,1 5 0 ,11 0,2 6 0 ,15 0 , 11
20 . 20 - 192 0, 3 5 0 , 21 0, 1 4 0 , 34 0 , 20 0 ,1 4
6 .1. 4 . 30 -21 8 0 , 40 0,3 9 0 , 0 1 0 ,50 0 ,50
1971 B. 20 - 243 0 ,43 0 , 39 0 ,04 0 , 5 1 0 ,50 0 , 01
12 . 20 -1 6 4 0 , 31 0 , 31 0 , 30 0 , 30

15.2 0 - 1 69 0,31 0 , 37 - 0 , 06 0 , 30 0,3 5 - 0 , 0 5
16 . 20 -1 93 0 , 35 0 , 36 - 0 , 0 1 0, 34 0 , 35 - 0 , 0 1
17 . 20 - 230 0, 38 0 , 52 -0, 14 0 , 37 0 , 5 0 - 0 ,1 3
I B . 20 -24 9 0 , 44 0,6 2 - 0 ,1 8 0 ,43 0 , 60 - 0 ,1 7
19 . 20 - 267 0 ,45 0 , 77 - 0 ,32 0 , 44 0 , 7 5 - 0 , 3 1
20 . 20 - 26 3 0 , 44 0 ,77 - 0 , 33 0 ,43 0 , 7 5 - 0 , 32
7 .1. 4.40 - 240 0 , 39 0 , 33 0 , 07 0 , 4 4 0,3 5 0 , 09
19 71 5. 20 - 2 40 0 , 39 0 , 31 0 , 08 0, 44 0 , 3 5 0 ,09
6 . 20 - 236 0 , 39 0 , 31 0, 08 0 ,4 4 0 , 3 5 0 , 09
7 . 20 o -2 33 0 , 39 0, 31 0 , 08 0 ,44 0 , 35 0 , 09
8 . 20 o -237 0 ,39 0 , 35 0 ,04 0 , 44 0 , 40 0 ,04
9 . 20 co - 2 43 0 , 41 0 , 40 0 , 0 1 0 ,4 6 0 ,45 0 ,01
10.2 0 - 242 0 , 41 0 , 40 0, 01 0 , 46 0 ,4 5 0 ,01
11 .20 -23 1 0, 38 0 ,4 0 - 0 , 02 0, 43 0 ,45 - 0 ,02
12 . 2 0 o - 209 0 , 35 0 , 40 - 0 , 0 5 0 , 39 0 , 4 5 - 0 , 06
13 . 20 I' -1 98 0 , 33 0, 4 1 - 0 , 08 0 ,37 0 , 45 - 0 , 08
14. 20 - 18 1 0 ,31 0 , 40 - 0 ,09 0 , 35 0 , 4 5 -0,1 0
1 5. 20
o - 2 08 0 , 34 0 ,44 - 0 ,1 0 0 , 38 0, 50 - 0 ,1 2

16 .20 - 2 17 0 , 36 0 , 44 - O, OB 0,4 0 0 , 50 -0 ,1 0
1 7 . 20 (f) - 245 0 , 42 0 ,5 3 - 0,1 1 0 ,4 7 0 , 60 - 0 ,13
18 . 2 0 -2 62 0 , 45 0,54 - 0 , 09 0 ,51 0 , 6 0 - 0 , 09
19 . 20 - 280 0 ,47 0 , 54 - 0 , 07 0 ,53 0 , 60 - 0 , 07
20 . 20 - 2 90 0 ,49 0 ,5 4 - 0 ,0 5 0 , 55 0 , 60 -0, 0 5
Table '1. Continued

Date Time of S' qv Qlv Qlz Qlv-Qlz c1. v "'z ck v - O{.z

measur8 2 -2 3 -1 3
ment m W.m m s m s -1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

8.1. 4.30 -3 28 0,51 0,68 -0,17 0,57 0,75 -0,18

1971 5.20 -325 0,51 0,67 -0,16 0,57 0,75 -0,18
6.20 -318 0,50 0,59 -0,13 0,56 0,65 -0,09
7.20 -305 0,48 0,58 -0,10 0,54 0,65 -0,11
8,20 0 -295 0,47 0,49 -0,02 0,53 0,55 -0,02
9 .20 0 -286 0,46 0,51 -0,05 0,55 0,60 -0,05
10.20 ro -260 0,43 0,34 0,09 0,51 0,40 0,11
11.20 -237 0,39 0,38 0,01 0,46 0,45 0,01
12, 20 0 -212 0,37 0,38 -0,01 0,44 0,45 -0,01
13.20 -190 0,35 0,38 -0,03 0,41 0,45 -0,04
14. 2 0 " -179 0,34 0,34 0 0,40 0,40 0
15.20 -178 0,34 0,30 0,04 0,40 0,35 0,05
16. 20 <:t -177 0,34 0,29 0,05 0,05
0,40 0,35
17.20 -185 0,36 0,30 0,06 0,42 0,35 0,07
18.20 (f)
-205 0,38 0,30 0,08 0,45 0,35 0,10
19,20 -210 0,39 0,30 0,09 0,46 0,35 0,11
20.20 -213 0,39 0,30 0,09 0,44 0,35 0,09

o-1 v - frazil ice discharge determined by mathematical model,

Qlz - frazil ice discharge dete rmined from measured va lue s by means
Qlz = c(. z e VI B . .
d.- z - visually determined ice run density ( surface ice cover
estimated by the obse rve r)

~v - ice run density calculated from

e Vl,B


turbulent flow

y==- 0,24ms 1

i i
supercooling supercooling of snow
of lIow surface lever


high surface

increasing increasing
of formation of formation
t t

without challges Increasing of velocltv obstacle or

v><> vy change of riverbed

Y"'0, ISVIl- E I gho

decreasing of increasing
fo rmation of formation
t t
Fig. 1. Evo lution of the frazi1 ice in the l o nyituniaal profile of the river


Lars Bengtsson, WREL, Univ. of Lulea, Sweden

The paper presents a mathematical model for determining the amount

of ice produced in a river. The model is based on the heat balance
equation and requires a fair determination of the heat loss from
the partly ice covered water surface to the atmosphere. When the
heat loss is calculated all possible meteorological parameters are
considered. Still, however, it is well known that especially the
atmospheric long wave radiation cannot be very accurately deter

Since the heat exchange between water lair and icel air is different,
it is necessary to determine how much of the water surface that is
covered by slush ice, the thickness of the ice, and how much the
heat loss to the atmosphere is reduced when ice is present. From
measurements on the river Ohre the ice thickness is determined as
a linear function of the ice transport distance, and also a heat
loss reduction coefficient depending on the ice thickness is deter
mined. These relationships are, however, not theoretically discussed
in this paper. The relationship between slush ice thickness and ice
transport distance is likely to depend on flow velocity and air
The model is said to be verified from a comparison with 51 measure
ments, but no comparison is shown. The results should be very use
ful for determining heat exchange coefficients between atmosphere
and running water.



BY :

V. Matouek, Ohfe Ri ve r Authority, Chomutov, Czechoslovakia

The author would like to thank Prof. Bentsson for his discussion on
the paper. In this discussion he points out that the atmospheric
long wave radiation cannot be very accurately determined. Equation
(13 ) has been derived from direct measurements of long wave radiation
and compared with equations of other authors /2,4/ . The measurements
indicated unequi voca lly the effect of cloud density and visibility on
a tmospheric long wave radiation. For this reason the coefficients cO'
c ' and c 2 ' taking into account this effect, ha ve been introduced.
The relation between the frazil ice thickness and it s tran s port
distance was derived from measurements on the ri ve r Ohfe. These
measurements were conducted to ver ify also the dependence of frazil
ice thicknes s on air temperature and water ve locit y . They were
carried out at average air transport temperatures from _10.5 C to
0 l
-20.5 C and average tran spo rt velocit y of 0.4 to 0.6 m.s- Within
the ran ge of these values no dependence of the frazil ice thickn ess
on air temperature and water velocity could be proved /5/ .
The coefficient of heat exchange decrease due to frazil ice ~, was
determined theoretically using the laws of heat conduction and pass
age through a porous material la yer partly sub mer ged in water /5 /.
The model of frazil ice di sc harge has been ver ified in the lower
reaches of the river Ohfe. The ice discharge was measured in the
brid ge pr of ile at Terezin. The necessary meteorological data were
measured and observed in two meteorological stations on the studied
river reach. Data on river width and length were obtained from
detailed geodetic measurements. Measured and observed were also all
other model input data. The compared mea s ured and calculated Q
va lues are summarized in Table 7. The ice run density in the range
0.2 to 0.8 cannot be determined visually more preci se ly than +0.1.
The difference cx. v - cL z
is within the limits of +0.1 with the
exception of five in stan ces out of 51.


Thos. O'D. Hanley, S.J. Campion College Reg i na

Dean of Camp i on Co I lege Universit y of Regina Canada
S. Ramachandra Rao Physics Department S4S OA2
Research Associate University o f Regina

Acoustic pulse s were detected and counted during the formati on of fra zi I ice in a
laboratory freezer. The COunt rate was fai rly st eady un ti I frazi 1 began to form,
and then increased fourfold or more , decreasing noticeably again as frazi I formation
became 5 1o\--Je r. No increase in count rate was obser ved I,-'/hen the agitation of the
\,--/ater ~';las too slight to produce frazi I. An electronic de v ice has been constructed

which activates a swi tch ,,,hen frazll begins to form. Field tests have revealed de
fects in this de v ice which \oJ are <..:urrently trying to overcome.

In a paper presented at the preceding symposium on ice problems, Hanle y

(1978) reported the detection of acoustic impuls e s due to the formation of frazil,
and suggested that the y might be useful for controlling ice accumulation on trash

racks. The present paper w i II revie.. subsequent studies of the phenomenon and of
a device for uti Ii ti zing it.
It wi II be useful t o describe briefly the experimental arrangement. Fraz
il was formed by allowing water to cool in a plastic bucket placed in an ordinary

top-loading household freezer. For most experiments a depth of 30 to 40 mm of water

was used in a container ""i th a diameter of 160 mm. The \>.Jater was stj rred by mag

neti c Teflon-coated stirring bar rotated at a suitable speed. A piezoelectric trans

ducer resonant at about 120 KHz ",as suspended with its sensitive end about 5 rw.l

be low the surface of the water. The signal from the transducer ",as preamplified and
fed to a pulse counter and an os ci Iloscope. To reduce mul tiple counts on strong

pulses, an electronic switch was inserted before the counter in order to switch off

the input for one mi Ilisecond after each count. Air and water temperatures were


monitored by a thermistor connected to a digital multimeter.

Figure I shows the number of emissions counted as a function of time for

four rates of rotation of the stirrer, that is, for four different degrees of tur
bulence in the water. In Figure 2 the count rate R ~ ~N / ~t is plotted against a
time scale along with the tempe rature of the wate r; this is shown for two rates of
During the earl y stages of an experiment, whi Ie the water was cool ing to a
temperature slightly below the freezin9 point, Fi9ure I shows that the number of
co unt s rose slowly at a rate which was weakly dependent on the rate of stirring.
Then about the time that frazi I began to form there was a marked and rapid rise in
the number of counts which, for all but the most vigorous sti rring, soon settled
back to the initial count rate. For stirring rates less than a certain speed, how
ever, needles of ice formed in s tead of frazi 1 disks , and no increase in the count

rate was observed. From casual observa ti on it appears that these needles were
formed at the air-water interfa ce as is corrmon in ca lm water, but no careful stud y

was made to ve rify thi s assumption . The water temperatur e changed wit h time accord
ing to the familiar pattern seen in Fig. 2, dipping to about 0.4 degree below the
freezing point and then rising to the freezing point after ice ha d begun to form.
Me anwh i Ie the count rate remained fairly constant unti lone or two minutes after the
rise in temperature, andthen increased sharply to four or five times the background
value. Within one or two minutes afte r rea ching its maximum the count rate dropped
again, remaining near its initial background va lue at moder ate stir ring rates, or
rising again to an intermediate value when the stirring was vigorous.
Th e supercooling of about 0.4 degrees before ice began to form is much
greater than has been obser ved in laboratory co ld rooms (Hanley and Mi chel, 1975) or
in nature; yet these greater values occurred consistently in our freezer. If nucle
ation of the frazil depends on a mass exchange between air-borne ice crystal s and
the water, it seems likely that the small air-water surface area and the total lack
of forced convect ion in our freezer may decrease the probabi I i ty that ai r-borne ice
crystals wi II form, and so may allow supercool ing to attain several tenths of a
degree before ice growth in the water beComes noticeable.
In an earlier paper Hanley (1978) offered three hypotheses concern in g the
source of these acoustic emissions, namely:
(1) development of stress-releasin9 imperfections (such as twinning ) during growth
of the ice disks, (2) collisions between ice crystals tumbling in the turbulent
water, or (3) fracturing of seed crystal s from larger c ry stals. Other Sou rces seem
to fit under these; for example, there seems no reason to expect coil i sions of ice

crystals wi th the rotat ing st i rring bar to emi t signals di fferent from those of
collisions between two ice crystals. The first of these hypotheses seems ruled out
by Figure 2, since emissions due to crystal growth ought to be at thei r maximum
during the time of most rapid growth, which should occur when the temperature is
rising most rapidly. As a further check, apparatus was set up to grow disk-shaped
ice crystals in motionless water, with an acoustic transducer in contact with the
water; no acoustic emissions were detected under these conditions. 1ft he ch i e f
source of the acoustic emiss ions were the rel ief of stress in the crystal, these

emissions ought to have been at least as easi Iy detected during quiet growth as they
were during frazi 1 production.

The delay of about I to minutes between the initial growth of ice and the
sudden increase in count rate can be explained by the second hypothesis. The ice
disks would have to grow to some minimum size before their collisions would have
sufficient energy to trigger the counter. Then when the crystals have begun to
sinter together and form flocs, the number of collisions and the count rate may be
expected to decrease, as shown in Figure 2. A simi lar argument can be used in

favour of the third hypothesis, which requires a fracturing of ice crystals. But
this fracture-nucleation hypothesis (Garabedian and Strickland-Constable, 1974)
opens a wide variety of poss ibi I i ties of fracture - such as gross fracture of large
crystals, or the shedding of a multitude of tiny crystals when larger crystals
touch and then come apart - and this breadth of possibilities makes it difficult to
predict a pattern for the count rate. It does seem possible that such fracturing
explains the higher count rate in the later portion of the curve for vigorous
stirring in Figure 2.

The distinctive characteristics of the acoustic count in Figures and
make it possible to discriminate electronically between the background and the
frazil-produced signals. A device for this purpose has been constructed and tests
in the laboratory have been encouraging. The rat io of the output of the instrument
at the beginning of frazi I formation to the output before and after frazi I initiat
ion can be considered as a signal-to-noise ratio. In laboratory tests this ratio
was greater than 5 to I under adverse conditions and 40 to I or better under quiet
conditions. In the present form of the device an audible signal is activated and
an electric clock stops when frazi I begins to form, so that it is easy later for an
operator to know the time at which frazi I first appeared. It would be a simple
matter to change from this to activating automatically a heavy-duty heater. Tests
were conducted in the first ",eek of December 1980 at a field site of the U.S. Army
Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory on the Otto Queche River in New
Hampshire, with technical help from CRREL engineers. In these tests we found that

the background noise of the turbulent water of th e ri ver was too high for proper
operation of the instrument. We are currently in vestigating ~",ays of ov ercoming this

problem, perhaps by sui table fi Itering.

The electronic circuit for the frazil detector "as designed by Basil Rama

dan, technical officer for the physics department of the University of Regina.

Funding for the project was prov ided by the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and

Engineering Laboratory and by the Jesuit Fathers of Saskatche"an.

Garabedian, H., and Strickland, R.F. 1974. Collision breeding of ice crystals.
Journal of Crystal Growth, ~, p. 188.
Hanley, Thos. 0'0. 1978. Early detection of frazi I. Proceedin9s, IAHR Symposium
on Ice Prob lems (Lulea, Sweden, 1978), Part 2, pp. 95-102.
Hanley, T. 0'0., and Michel, B. 1975. Temperature patterns during the formation
of border ice and frazi I in a laboratory tank. Proceedings, 3rd Inter
national Symposium on Ice Problems (IAHR, Hanover, New Hampshire),
pp. 211-220.



2500 -

is 2000f
u /
LL.. /
o /
1500 r- I

1000 /
500- ,1


oL-~-~-~-~[=:.E=.=;=.;i="'=~= -=l~r~ =
~ ~I
10 20
__ ______ _______IL-_
40 50
TI M E (minutes)


x x 200


1.0 100 Z
ffi 0. 2
~ O~-L __~~__~~__L--L__L--L__L-~O

I- -0.2
I- -0.4
~ -0.6

-0. 8L-------------------------------~
TI ME (minutes)

3 .0f
. .----.-
~ 2 .0 f


'T/ /

~ i I I I I
100 200 300 400 500 600
TIME (seconds)



1i = 0,10 t 0,55,
Discussion on ACOUSTIC DETECTOR FOR FRAZIL by T. 0'0. Hanley and S. R. Rao
Discuss ion by Arnold M. Dean, Jr. USACRREL, Hanover, NH

Drs. Hanley and Rao are to be commended on their research in an area pre
viously untouched. It is my opinion, however, that the development of an electronic
detector is somewhat premature. There appears to be no question that something

acoustically unique does occur following the nucleation of frazil ice in the lab or

atory. It is quite difficult to evaluate the utility of this occurrence without

further data on its nature and on the corresponding characteristics of the field en

vironment in which the parameter(s) are to be sensed.

The authors have determined that the development of stress-releasing imper
fections are not responsible for the acoustic emissions. If crysta l co llisions are an
acoustic emission source, the frazil ice density in the laboratory experiments when

the "counts" increase dramatically wou ld be quite useful. Should the frazil ice
density exceed about 2% by vo lume, the sensing of the emissions would not be a
practical field or laboratory techni q ue for frazil foreca s ting . Experi men ts record
ing the emissions caused b y fracturing of seed crystals from larger crystals should
be performed to determine thei r contributions to the observed "count s".

From my observations in the field and laboratory with Dr. Rao, it appears
that intensity is not so unique a characteristic of each incident Ilcount" and may not
be used t o identi fy the existence of frazi I i ce in the wa terbod y. The next parameters

to be in vestigate d should be the pulse width and frequency spectrum of each "count".
In accordance with this, both laborator y and field background spectral analyses must
be made. A comparison of the uniqueness of the "count" spectrum i n j ts background
would then determine the uti I i t y of this technique.

These remarks are constructive and much appreciated. These and other s ug
gestions made during the symposium ought to aid us in identi fying the so urce of the
acoustic emissions, and we shall continue our attempts to study the spectrum of the


Some information about frazil ice density is available. The frazil ice

density F, defined as 100 x ice volume/total volume of ice plus water, is equal to

Mi/0.92, where Mi = 100 x mass of ice/total mass of ice plus water = our "reduced
mass", if 0.92 is taken as the specific gravity of ice. Fig. 3 shows how the reduced

mass evolved with time in a series of experiments done with the air at -13 0 (!; the
sol id I ine fitted to the points is a graph of the function
Mi = O. lOt 0.55.

In terms of the volume density F this could be "Hitten

F = 0.11 t o . 5S

Discu ssion by R. S. Ard en, Ontario Hydro

Unfortunately I have no particular knowledge or acquaintance w ith the

phe no mena of emi ss ion of acoustic pulses related to the formation and growth o f
frazi I i ce crysta l s. Howeve r . ' would make a general comnent ba se d on my own ex
perience th dt ( observat ions o f phenomena .occurrin g in naturall y flQ\.'iing ri ve rs o ften
cannot be dup i cate d in the l abo ratory. ro r examp l e;

your lab o ra tor y expe rime nt ind ica ted extreme s upe rcoo l ing in excess of 0.6C. How
ever, it i s rare i ndeed in a t yp ical river to find temperature s dropping lower than
-0.0 5 e except i n cases of ve r y rapidly falli ng air tempera tu re ,-,hen a temperature

of -0.07e can be a ttain ed. After a short inter va l, th e temperature wi II rise to a

steady state va lue of about -o.oloe to o.ozoe as surface ice pa n s begin to develop.

This may in part exp l a in the lack of success in yo ur field trial s on the Otto
Queche Ri ver .

A second point I wo uld I ike to make is wi th regard t o the purpose for devel
oping thi s instrument Ivhich yo u describe. If it is to be employed as a signal to
energiz e electric heaters, steam blmvdov.Jn o r a \varm water recirculation device, the
s i gna l L Y . ,ell come too l a te to y ield effecti ve r es ult s for preventing icing of in
take ra cks. A mo r e ti me l y meth o d . ,o uld be th e use of wea ther forecasts coupled
w i t h th e monit o ring o f th e rat e o f 'vater tempe r at ur e dec line . Th e s l ope o f the
",ater temperature-time relation w ill not onl y gi ve an ad v ance wa rning, but can be
u sed to est ima te both t h e r a t e o f frazil i ce formation and its quantity .

In a slight re vision o f the body of the paper we have proposed a possible
explanati on for the l a rg e s upercool ings observed in these experiments. Even experi

ments in cold rooms norm a lly shoVi the much smaller s upe rcoo l ings (Hanley and Michel,

1975) .
The second objec ti o n may be a more seriou s one _ If th e acoust ic frazi I de

tector "'. . ere to be come a practical reality, the placement of the acoustic transducer,

say for a hydroelectric installation, would depend on the individual rlant. have
pi ct ure d the transducer l oca t ed in a head race about I / ~ mi Ie (~OO me tr es) above the
tra s h ra cks. If th e wate r f lows at 10 mi / hr (1.. 5 m/s), that allows a bout 90 second s
f o r th e sw it ched-on current t o raise the healer s t o opera ting temperature. I tis

indeed possible that thi s s hort dela y I, i II make th e device use l ess in s ituations

simi lar t o the o ne desc rib ed a bo ve .

Di scusser: Steven Daly, USACRREL, Hano v er, NH
Discus s i on: Did you "seed " the water in the experiments \"ith ic e c r ysta ls prior to

ice f orma tion?

For th e exper ime nt s described in this paper we did no t seed the water in any

way, relying on natural nu c leation processes. We have sug ge sted that this may

account for the unusually great supercool ing observed in Figure 2.
In other experiments we did seed the water with crushed or shaved ice. After
the water temperature has descended to the freezing point, the effect of such seed
ing is to provide a substratum for ice growth, to prevent further supercooling,
and to syppress enti rely the growth of frazi I disks. This observation did not seem
especially noteworthy, although it is possible that a wei I-placed snow-making machine
(or strategically located cloud seeding) might produce snow slush in place of the
highly adhesive active frazil .
Discusser : Derek M. Foulds
Discussion: The temperature curve seems to work weI I, and I can veri fy this too.
Why do you need the acoustic instrument?
This is an interesting idea, and an electronic system simi lar to the one

we have used ought to work for temperature too, el iminating spurious transients such

as various experimenters have experienced in temperature sensors at the time when

ice began to Form. The main objection to using the temperature curve, I think, is

that I have seen the same kind of curve - a supercool ing followed by a rarid rise
to the freezing point - under 5 low-water or calm cendi tions when no frazi 1 was formed.

Thus it seems that the temperature curve alone cannot suffice to identi fy the
formation of frazi I.



F.D. Haynes, Materials Research Engineer U.S. Army Cold Regions Research USA
G.D. Ashton, Chief, Snow and Ice Branch and Engineering Laboratory
P.R . Johnson, Consulting Engineer

Air bubbler systems are used to suppress ice formation and prevent ice damage to
structures. Injection of air into the slightly more dense, warm water at the bottom
of a body of fresh water raises the warm water to the surface. A bubbler system
provides a simple and inexpensive means of suppressing ice if the body of water has
the necessary thermal reserve. A study was conducted with a point sOurce bubbler to
examine its performance when installed under an existing layer of thick lake ice.
~~en a small hole existed in the ice above the bubbler, the induced flow caused
rapid melting of the sides of the hole at and below the water level. Melting pro
gressed outward until the ice cavity reached a radius of 3 m, at which time the
unsupported ice sheet above the cavity collapsed. The outer edge of this thin ice
plate remained in place but the center sagged into the water and melted.
"~en the bubbler was placed under a solid ice sheet without an escape hole, the
air escaped laterally under the ice tmoJard the shore. After one day the air began to
escape through the ice directly above the bubbler. A cavity was formed to the hydro
static water level and then enlarged as with the earlier test. Again, the unsupported
ice above the free water level failed, sagged into the water, and melted.
The radial flow at the surface melted the ice sheet on the periphery of the
cavity. After the ice above the cavity collapsed, melting continued at the periphery
of the open water. The melting front of the cavity was approximately vertical with
minor irregularities in the side wall. Little evidence was found of thinning of the
ice sheet beyond the edge of the open pond.
The mixing of the water by the bubbler disturbed the stratified thermal
regime in the vicinity of the bubbler. Ve locity and temperature profiles are given
for the bubbler plume and radial flow pattern. A heat transfer analysis is also

Air bubbler sys tems are commonly u sed to suppress ice formation and t o melt
existing ic e by inducing a flow of warmer wa t er from the bottom of a l ake. Prev ious
investi gations [1, 2, 3, 4] give experimental resul ts for bubbler systems operated in
va ri ous locations. Analy tical and numer i ca l treatments of a bubbl er opera tion have
also been publi shed [ 5, 6, 7].
The present s tud y was made t o de termine th e beha v i o r of a point sO urc e bubbler
on an existing thick (0.9 m) i ce s heet. Prev iou s s tudies with bubblers ha ve been
made duri ng the formation of an ice s heet. The investigation was made a t Lake Lake
view , Alaska, wh i ch is about 8 km east of t he Fairbanks Internatio na l Airport. Two
holes were made in the ice with the bubbler; one had a small (0.18 m diameter)
existing hole over the bubbler and the other hole was made without a preex is t ing
Lake Lakeview was chos en for the tes t site beca use of its suitab l e ice t hic kness
(0.9 m), because it was easi ly accessible, and because meteorological data wer e
a vailable from a ne arby s tati on at th e fai r ba nks Int e rnational Airp ort .
The first t es t (Ho le No. 1 ) was star t ed on 29 Febr uar y 19S0. The average dai l y
temperatures are sho,m in Figure 1. A hole (O. l S m diameter) was made in the ice
about 20 m f rom shore. A seco nd hole was made about 2 m away from the firs t hole
through which the air line was fed and the bub bl er orifice was positi oned directly
bel ow the f ir s t hole. The air was pu mped by a small vane type air pump driven by a



E Hole 2
f 10 Started
(3 Apr)



20 20

Fi gur e 1. Average daily t emper atures, Fairbanks

International Airport (National Weather Service).
186.5-W (1/4-hp) electric motor . Air was deli vered to the orifice through 100 m of
plastic tubing with an internal diameter of 6.35 mm. The orific e waS a 4. 76 mrn
diameter outlet in a standard plastic check valve fitting wired to a steel weight so
it wou ld remain on the lake bottom. The air flow was controlled by throttling the
intake side of the air pump and ranged, during the tests, between 0.00014 m3/s (0.3
cf m) and 0.00024 mlls (0.5 cEm). Flow rates were calibrated by collecting the air in
a container at the water surface in a measured time. Temperature measurements were
made with a thermistor calibrated at the water-ice triple point . Water velocities
were measured ,...ith a Harsh-McBirney current meter.
The second test (Hole No .2) was started on 3 April 1980 . As shown in Figure I,
the a ver age daily air temperature \Jas significantly higher at this time than \Jhen
Hole No. 1 was started. This test was designed to determine the behavior of a point
source bubbler on the ice sheet without a pre-existing hole above the bubbler. Hole
No. 1 wa s used as an access hole through \vhich the orifice and air line ~. . ere placed
Eor Hole No.2. The orifice was attached to a l4-m pole with a removable pin con
nection. The pole was pushed under the ice to its full length, the pin was removed,
and the orifice, mounted on a steel plate, "as allowed to drop to the lake bottom.
The air pump was turned on and evidence of e s caping air investigated. Three hours
after the pump was turned on, leaking air was observed along existing cracks near the
shore. Bubbles escaping through existing cracks were seen intermittently for the
next three days.

Hole No. 1 was made where the water was 2.85 m deep. The undisturbed water
temperature at the bottom of the lake was 2.5C . A constant air flow rate of 0.00024
m3 /s (0 . 5 cfm) was ma i ntained Eor this test. A cavity was melted in the ice, and
its shape after 71 . 5 hours oE bubbler operation is s hown in Figure 2. The melted
ca vity was essentially symmetrical about the bubbler position. An air gap between
the hydrostatic water le vel and the cantilevered ice plate prevented melting of the
plate because no contact was possible between the plate and the above freezing
water . The first point of contact of this water and the ice was at the circumference
of the cavity. An accurate determination of the circumference of this cavity was

easily made by tapping the ice with a stick and listening for a change in pitch.
When the cantilevered plate reached a critical radius it failed in bending due
to the uniform loading of the ice itself. This critical radius can be predicted
using the elastic plate theory of Timoshenko [8J. For example, the maximum stress on
the edge of a clamped circular plate can be obtained from


r '------'I-".5~m'____ _--11

'/. \J
In ilia I

:I. -45
r~i : /
)" i;~

" /.

---''-----'/- L-l ..I.-L 0'0 - - - "------1--

0 0 0 0
Successive Profiles rOO
of Melted Cavi fy 0

0:0 ~1 2.1 m

Undisturbed T... ~2.5C

t~ 0.00024 m'l,
(0.5 elm)

Figure 2. Melted cavity after 71.5 hours of

bubbler operation, Hole No.1.

where w is the plate deflection, r is the radius, P is load per unit surface area,
and D is the flexural rigidity of the plate. By inte grating eq (1) and applying the
ed ge boyndary conditions

\, 0, dw
o (2)

the moments at the edge can be obtained and also the maximum stress,

3 a
'4 P h2

where a is the radius of the plate and h is the plate thickness. If we use the
measured critical radius of 3.05 m, a uniform ice loading of 0.896 kPa, and a
measured ice thickness of 0.079 m, solving eq (3) for or ' the maximum tensile
stress on the edge, gives 982 kPa. Based on data from [~rXthis is an expected stress
level for failure.

Temperature measurements were made at many loca~ions to determine isotherms in

the lake during bubbler operation and during pe r iods when the bubbler was not
operating. A typical plot of the se isotherms for Hole No. I is given in Figure 3.
The lake temperature was stratified without the bubbler operating. After the bubbler
was on for 40 minutes the temperature field was disturbed as shown in the figure.
The 2e water at the bottom of the lake was entrained in the bubbler plume, and
there was considerable mixing along the cent e rline of the plume.

f Bubbler

8 O.3~~
Ice I' I "" ~
- -__---.Jb----f-/---- -----'\7-,--0.40
I 1.3,5
-",,,---""",,"<--o- I. OO
I I I '< , . . . 1.50 ,
I J I ....... _ ....... - 0
---4''-----1{- __ ~J. 60

RuM ing (est . )

Bubbler on for

40 Minutes (est.)

(0) Data Poinls

Fig ure 3, Isotherms fo r Hole No, 1 measured on

29 March 1980 ,


Lake Bottom,

Centerline Vertical Velocity Im/s)

Figure 4, Vertical velo c ity profile for Hole No, 1,


o ~~2~_\.lm_(_D_is_to_n_c_e_f_ro_m_t_Plume)


g. 0.5


1.0 '--

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Horizontal Velocity (m/5)
Figure S. Lateral velocity profiles for Hole No.1.

After the ice cover was melted, velocity measurements were made at various
lo ca tions in Hole No. 1 alon g the centerline of the plume and at various depths and
distances from the centerline of the plume. The velocity profile in the vertical
direction along the centerline of the plume is given in Figure 4. A maximum in the
ver tical ve l oc it y was measured at a depth of about 0.5 m and then the velocity de
creased to about 0.5 mls at the water s urface. It was observed that the bubbles
carr ied the "ater above the hydrostatic level about 2-J cm near the centerline.
Horiz on tal momentum then forced this surfac e water to flow laterally from the
centerline. Velocity profiles were also obtained at five distances from the center
line. As shown in Figure 5 the pr o files indicate decreasing velocities with in
creasing radius, as required by co ntinuity.
The following heat transfer analysis relies heavily upon the approach developed
by Ashton ( 7]. His approa ch inc ludes the analysis of a plume caused by a stream of
bubbles l eaving a submerged orifice. This includes a Gaussian distribution of the
vert i ca l water ve locit y about the centerline of the plume. After impingement of the
plume on the underside of the i c e cover lateral flow o be ys the usual laws of continuity
and momentum. The heat transfer coefficient for impingement of the plume on the under
side of the ice cover is based on an analogy with empiri cal results for impinging
axisymmetric air jets. Details for this approach may be found in (7].
5 . - - - - - - - - - - , - 1 - - - - - - - -- . - 1 - - - - - - - - - ,

(m) Hole No. I
2 (29 Feb -10 Mar 1980) -

~ First
Observation -
of Melt-through

o 100 200 300
Time (hrs)

Figure 6. Radius of Hole s 1 and 2 a~ter bubbler was turned

on at time == O.

A heat transfer co ef fi c ient will now be deterlnined using data from Hole No.1.
This coefficient will then be compared to an adjusted coe ffi ci ent f rom the analysis
in [7J. Using the geometry of the cavity sho'ffi in figure 2, the time ( t ) needed to
melt the mass (p ) o f ice in the cavity and the latent heat of i ce (A) giv es
p ,.
q =
3,778 W (12,893 Btu/hr) (4 )

where q is the rate of heat deliver ed to melt the ice. The average heat transf er
coeff icient, hay' is given by

h (5)

where A i s an average effective area, Twh is the surface water temperature at t he

cen te rl ine of the plume, and Tm is the melting temperature of the ice. The average
effective area was found from data plotted in Figure 6 . The radius of the cavity (r)
after one-half of the time required to melt the cavi ty shown in Figure 2 was r at
37 . 5 hours shol-lI1 in Figure 6. This enabled an effective area subjected to water
imping emen t to be determined. Using eq (5) h was 405.4 \~/mLoC. Now a n unknown
numerical co efficie nt (C ) can be cal culated using the follo wing r el ationship given
in 17]

11 7
Nu (6)

where the Nusselt number is

h b
av av
Nu = ---k--- (7)

Here, bav is a characteristic length for the convective process and k is the thermal
conductivity for water. The Reynolds number, Re ~ Uchb/v, contains the centerline
plume water velocity at the surface, U ' and the kinematic viscosity of water, v.
The properties k and v were taken at OC. Therefore,
h vO. 55 b 0.45
av av
C = (8)
1 k U 0.55
For Hole No.1, the length b was the average impingement distance downwards along
the wetted cavity wall between the hydrostatic level of the water and the bottom of
the ice sheet. Using measured data, C
= 0.98, so that

Nu 0.98 ReO. 55 (9)


for Hole No.1. If the average Tw from r 0.18 m to r 1.5 m is used instead of
T ' C is increased about 5%.
wh l

In order to obtain the equivalent expression for the analysis in [7] we make

use of the expression for the radial variation of h,

her) (10)

where hb is the heat transfer coefficient over one half the width of the plume and
one half the plume width at the surface is b c 0
= (H + Xo) C Q 0.15. Here, H is the
water depth, Q is the air discharge rate, Xo is an empirical coordinate to correct
for near-orifice effects, and C is an empirical coefficient to account for the
spread of the vertical velocity profile. Using measured data, b = 0.16 m, which
compares well with the measured width. An average h can be found from
1 2
avg L f her) dr (11)
where the limits of integration are the initial and final b, or the effective length
for convection, and L is the difference between them. Substitution of measured
quantities into eq (11) and integrating gives h
= (0.46) h b , and

Nu = 0.96 ReO. 55 (12)


where NU is the adjusted Nusselt number for the analysis in [7].



Nu Nu = 04 ReO 65 ./
2 (Gilpin, 1973l~ :;/:;/

2 ~


Figure 7. Heat transfer as a fun ction of Reynolds


Gil pin [10] conducted tests on i ce with water je ts to melt cavities in i ce . For
the slower ablation rates he found his data to be corre lated by

O 65
Nu 0.4 Re (13)

Using the measured quantities for Hole No. 1 we obtain

Nu ~
0.3 Re (14 )

The discrepancies bet"e en the relationships in eqs (3) and (14) may be ex plained by
the fact that he was using a water jet to o bt ain a highly l oca l melting effect while
eq (14) represents a bulk average melting effect by impingement of slowly moving
water. However, the range of Reynolds numbers for both eq (13 ) and eq (14) are the
Th e heat transfer analysis results are sho~~ in Figure 7. In this figure the
relati onsh ip based on Hole No. 1 data, eq (9), is essentially the same as the analysis
in [ 7] adjusted for the cavity geometr y, eq (12). The experimentally determined
relationship, eq (14), is about 30% lower than Gilpin's correlation, eq (13 ).

~~'~~<{ ;~~,~'~: b ~~~/:~' " ~:~6:~. ~ i~ .:.~r~f.r~~:~.~./:;;:::~~:~; ~~~:~~,;.~~>~~::
Coorse Grovel Bed

Figure 8. Cavit y for Hole No. 2 after three days

of bubbler operation.

Hole No.2 "'as started on 3 April 1980 after a warming trend indicated on
Fi gu re 1. The resulting cavity is shown in Figure 8. The results were similar to
those of Hole No.1 in that the plume "dr.illed a hole" in the ice sheet. There was
very little evidence that the ice sheet was thinned beyond the edge of the cavity
hole. Unlike Hole No.1, where the ice above the c avity reached a critical radius
a nd failed in plate bending, Hole No. 2 was made when the ice was ''''arm and visco
c.l r1:.. tic and it simply s aS8e:d into the tvater and melted in place. The first observa
tion of a hole is indicated in Figure 6. The hole enlarged rapidly after the ice above
the cavity started to sag. A much smaller tempe rature gradient existed in the ice
sh 'c t for Hole No. 2 as compared to Hole No . 1 and this resulted in less sensible
heat removal required for melting.

'fhe basic phenomenon o bserved in the performance of a point source bubbler under

thick ice is that it melts a cavity in the ice up to the hydrostatic water level. If
a hole in the ice exists above the bubbler, melting occurs along the walls of the
hole and the cavity enlarges laterally. After 70 hours the wall of the cavity
reaches a slope of about 45 toward the centerline of the bubbler. If no hole exists
above the bubbler a ca vity is made with nearly vertical walls. A small air gap
exists bet\",een the thin ice plate above the cavity and the water in the cavity. Fo r
cold ice this unsupported plate will collapse when a critical radius is reached.
Th i.s radius can be predicted using standard e lastic plate theory. For warm i c e, the
thin plate will simply sag into the water and melt.

When a bubbler is turned on in a ttl e rmally stratified lake, the relatively warm
\vater from the bottom is entrained in a plume which causes mixing along its vertical
axis. Water velocities along the centerline of the plume increase with distance from
the orifice until a maximum is reached about 0.5 m from the surface for operation in
water with a depth of 2.85 m. Radial velocity profiles decrease with distance from
the ce nterline as required by continuity.
Heat transfer correlations obtained from o ur field data verify previous analy
ses. These analyses can be adjusted to fit the field conditions and used to predict
ic.e melting.
- - ---
[11 Williams, G.P. (1961) A study of winter water temperatures and ice prevention
by air bubbling. The Engineering Journal, Vol. ~~, No.3, March, p. 79-8~.

( 2 ) Baines, W.D. (1961) The principles of operation of bubbling s ystems. In

Proceedings of the Sympos ium on Ai r Bubbling, Ottawa, December 1961, National
Research Council of Canada, Technical Memorandum No. 70, p. 12-22.
[3] Dick, T.M. (1961) Description of air bubbling s ys tem s at Cambridge Ba y and
Tuktoyaktuk, N.W.T. In Proceedings o f the Symposium on Air Bubbling, Ottawa,
December 1961, National Research Counci l of Canada , Technical Memorandum No. 70,
p. 70-77.
[~] Sydor, H., B.O. Krogstad, and T.O . Adlang (197~) Evaluation of bubbler system
for winter navigation, Howard s Bay, Superi or , Wisconsin, winter 1973-74.
University of Minnesota, Dulutll, Lake Superior Basin Studies Center, July.
[5] Ashton, G.D. (197~) Air bubbler systems t o suppress ice. U.S. Army Cold
Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Special Report 210, September.
[6) Ashton, G.D. (197S) Numerical simulation of air bubbler systems. Canadian
Journal of Civil Engineering, Vo l. 5, p. 231-238.

[7) As hton, G.O. (1979) Point sou r ce bubbler systems to suppress ice. U.S. Army
Co ld Regions Research and Engineering La boratory, CRREL Report 79-12, Nay.
fS ) Timoshenko, S. and S. Woinowsky- Krieger (1959) Theor y of plates and shells.
New York : Nc Graw- Hill.
[9) HaHkes, I. and H. Mellor (1972) Deformation and fracture of ice under unia xia l
stress . Journal of Glaciolog y , Vo l . 11, No. 61, p. 103-131.
[lOJ Gilpin, R.R. (1973 ) The ablation o f ice by a water jet. Transactions of CSME,
Vol. 2, No.2, p. 9l-95.

by F. D. Haynes, G. D. Ashton, and P. R. Johnson
Discussion by C. Allen Wortley, Associate Professor of Engineering
and Applied Science, University of
Wi sconsin- Extension, USA

The observations on melting ice with bubblers reported by the authors agree
well with those of the writer. The writer is monitoring several hundred Great
Lake s boat harbor s, many of which have piled structures protected during the winter
by compressed air deicing systems. The ice thicknesses in Great Lakes harbors
range between ], m and 1 m, and the observed harbor bottom water temperatures
between 0 and 20C. The bottom water frequently is only 0.1 to 0.2 0C and well mixed
throughout its depth.
The authors report melting a 3 m diameter hole in an ice sheet about 1 m
thick with 2.5 0C bottom water at a depth of 3 m. The melting occurred over three
days when the average daily temperature was fairly warm, -lOoC . The quantity of
air used was 0.00024 m /s. A second hole i s reported with similar results for
s imilar conditions. The writer has observed a melting out of ice under somewhat
similar but not identical conditions. The conditions were 3 m of water depth at a
temperature of O. 10C, an air flow rate of about 0.00012 m3/s (half as much), and
an ice thickness of 0.9 m. The melting occurred around a steel piling and was
about 1 m in diameter. The bubblers in this harbor had been operating throughout
the winter and the observed hole enlarges and shrinks depending on the severity of
the co ld. The above description is typical of many Great Lakes harbor s.
It ha s been said that the diameter of the melt hole is about equal to the
depth of water. It appears that for water ranging between 2 and 5 m deep, that this
would be about as large as the diameter would get. The authors' hole s appear to
have stabilized at this ma ximum size.
In conclu s ion, the writer believes compressed air deicing systems are very
effective in Great Lakes harbors and work well even with very co ld bottom water; and
that the theoretical models advanced by Ashton (5, 6, 7) adequately estimate the
required quantity of air and system performance.

INVITED DISCUSSION OF: "Performance of a Point Source Bubbler Under
Thick Ice," by F.D. Hayn es , G. D. Ashton,
P. R. John s on. Internationa I Sympo sium on Ice
Qu ebec 1981.

SUB~IlTTED BY: G.P. William s , Division of Building Research, National

Research Counei 1 of Canada, Ottah'3, C:aJlaJa.

The description of the experiments, analysis, results and conclusions

are clearly and logically presented. A few relatively minor comments can
be made:

1. Th e Reyno ld s number and heat tran sfer coefficients s hown on Figure 7

are surprisingly si milar considering that the re sult s were obtained
from field exp eri ments under con s iderably di Herent condi tions. One
can hardly de sc ribe the difference s between Equations 13 and 14 a s
lithe discrepancies" or as lIthe range,"

2. It would have been better to have carried out the second test in
another lake or in an area filrther from the first test during a colder
part of the . . , inter, especially if the test "\<!3S designed to determine
the behaviour of a point source bubbler on th e ic e sheet without a

pre-existing hole above the bubbler."

It is not alway s realized that air bubbling systems can set up

convection currents that will, in time, influence water temperature under
an ice co ver over quite large areas. Some yea rs ago* the writer conducted
air bubbling trial s on an ice covered reservoir 120 by 20 0 m. After si x
da ys of operation the single-point source bubbler had opened a large hole
(140 m2 ) in the ice cover (0.4 m thick ) ; water temperature profiles under
the ice cover in all parts of the re servoir were not only identical but
were substantially altered by the air bubbling operation.

'Williams, G.P., "'ater Temperature Observations Taken 12 Jan t o 1 Feb

1960 Ouring Air Bubbling Trials. Nationa l Research Council of Canada,
DBR, Tech. Note 305, March 14, 1960.



by F.D. Ha ynes, G.D. Ashton and P.R. Jo hn so n


Derek Fould s , Ont a rio

tfuat source of he at wou ld give 2 ,SoC in 2 ,1 m of water?


There have been other reports oE warm water (2-2,SoC) in 2 m of water

under thick ice. Formation of an initial ice cover be fo re the water cools to OC e
results in con tainm e nt of the warm water above OoC (but below 4C).

AUTHORS' REPLY to C.A. Wortley:

Th e size of the melt hole is not limited to the depth of the water . The
bubb ler "as turned off and the maximum size obtainable was not fo und in this study.
The authors know of no physical basis that would limit th e hol e diam e ter to a s i ze
equivalent t o the depth of water. There are far-field mixing behaviors re por ted of
open wa t er bubblers that suggest the induced surface flow i s limited t o a radial
dist a nce o f the order of six times the depth .

AUTHORS ' REPLY to G. P. \.Ji ll iams :

The. t wo re l a tions shown in Figure 7 are quite simi lar considering the dif
f e r nee i n th e expe rimen t s . When the measured data was used to find a net" numeric a l
coef f i c ien t f o r th e Gilpin relationship, i.e . Nu =C ReO , 65 , a discrepancy was found
and an explanation give n in th e paper . The authors agree th a t it wou ld have been
be tt e r t o co ndu c t the t wo te s t s, with and without a pr e-existi ng ho l e, a t th e same
time in di ff erent parts of th e lak e . The same ice and weat her conditions could th e n
be used f o r a comp l e t e comparison. For this study the co mpar is on i s only qualitative
in na tur e

I CE FO ' C'lll'f ! O' 1 0 ',) T HE ' liIL LS OF II \" A.'l' F ~ TUN NE

P. TRY DfO Tn s U u t e o f Hy d r o d y namics and Hydr 3.uli Enqineer i nq

De nma rk
As s. oc . Pro f essc l:" Tu ;,.: h ni c al :"'Ini v{" !'" si ty C De n ltl a r k

'f :U:= ::-)1 n r.eCl dl~ v e l .:..Jpm n c f '."! .Jte r pC'.-:-e r _H a rct ic n r e']s 1;/ t i: o e nr. d ~ !:" OS L "u nO l ':i o n s has
in i t- "a t o d in vQs 'q ati I I !: , ice r"'\ t:"rr J. tio l ~ on the \: a l l -t:. n f ~.; .a t Q r :w m~ l s ex c a v a e c

thr ough r o ck 1.<)1 ~h t e mpe:t" d t u rt..' li e.: ~ O\\ Z'I? !"(" i l(~ h" i t t: a '..: a P r ::.cmp e r. a tiJ r e at o r ne~H he

freezi ng point.
Th e .:ti m of t h t:,' [' re s n p a Fer i s (') an ct Lyze t:. .e p r ohl f"' III f ~ '"" m Q t heD rpt i c dl :,c i lLt of

wi l l be given.

The mo de 1 o n Y;h i ch t h i nvesL i 'l dtiLoIl tJ,l !::i L~n Cdr t ~d out is ~va il ab le l.n a com

puter p rogram mo d e in Lh f:!. FL/ 1 an Uclq~ .. rhis rL": ( ?J~l h S 013 ;: 11 Hed t o cr e a t ~ a n urn~e r

of typi ca l situa U-oll s , ~..rll ici1 can d e :: . u :1 ~ tr-a L -:- th e b ~ h v i o r o f t.h e s y s t --m for a number

o f se l e cted phr.lmp tf" r S ,

T he time sea lp o f c il p p r ch : ef;l is of 1 :'l: r ~~ c: E> r of o ne Y0."'!t' l.nci th e acc ep t a ble thick
n e s s of lce )ppe ars t o be a r o \.ln o !; roo Th e pc\.re ,r l oss c. u rint] the initial year

will be neg ligi !l l E , as t he he ad l os s i. n t he tunn c ll.1 ;J a _i y ~\'i':'l be smu l l c OlTipa ~ ed\: it h

the net hC .;'I.d on th e tu r bLnc 5 . In the c dSe. inv 5l i na l ec'! for ro = 1 m, th e te mpe rature
of the rock Tr = - (J Q: C a n d th ~ \-/ a t e r vf: l oc''' i~ s t 10\'" 0 . 75 m/ s t;! c it \/i ll be nec s S .J ry

to supply appr ox. SO W/m by i,n :r orlu ction of an e l~ ctricat cc i ~ t h rnu ghou t t.hL' tun nel
in order to prevent ex c as i ve ice f o r maLion on t he wal l s . at~ nr v arL ouc radii,
rock tempe ratures and ve l oci t i e s may be propor j o nf-' C f r om the Curves gi ve n.
~h @ investigation is i l l. in p r o grc s ::.: Cl.L U man y dud: l i o n ' l c a lcula lio ns and experl
men 5 1.;il1 be eces sa r y be .:o r the beha vior of th e s y s . f' ITl i.... ull 'i pndi ct able .


Geometri ca l parameters:
Radius of ro ck tunnel m ro
Radius of ice tunnel m r
Thickness of ice la yer m l!.r ro - r
Thickness ratio ex r !ro
Length o f tunnel m it

Physical parameters:
Water discharge m3! sec Q
Water ve l ocity m!sec v
Water discharge for v m /sec Qo
Di scharge ratio Q/Q o
Manni ng number ml!3/ sec '1 25 . 4!k liG , '1 30 for rough wall
Equivalent sand roughness m k
Time sec t
Dimensionless time T t K r! r~
Acce ler ation of gravity 2 g
m!sec 9.8 1
Heat flow into the rock .I!m
Fricti ona l heat of water ~I! m

Prandtl number
Pr V\y/KW

Reyno l ds number Re vl2r) !v w

o s
Nusse it number Nu 2 rh !A w = 0.023 Re . Pro.'+
Coefficient o f heat trans fe r I,! 1m2 C) h

Rock Ir) 1later Iw) Ice Ii)

Density kg!m 3 2.7 10 3 9.999 10 2 9.2 10 2

Thermal conduct ivity w/ (m Cl 3. 5 0.59 2 .24
Speci fic heat capacity c p joule / (kg Cl 8.4 10 2 4.18 10 3 2 . 09 10 3
Speci fic latent heat L joule /kg 0 .3 34 10
Vi scosity v m' /sec 1. 79 10-
Thermal d iffus ivity K m' /sec 1. 543 10- 1. 41 2 10- 1.1 6 5 10-
K = V ip c pl

Temperat ure T c initial _ 6 0


Here shown for ro = 1. 0 and Q = 3.14 :

A, Kr L Pi TT 1.4897 10' joule/ (sec m)
2 Kr/r ~ 1. 5432 10- l/sec
A 2 Q/(n ro "w) 1. 116 7 lOG dimensionless

S Pr o .
A, 0.5 0 .02 3 ,\ w r-0 1 AO. 1t 1. 2917 10 3 W/ (m 2 DC)

As 0 .2552 Q3 M- 2 r~'./3 P g 8.6110 10 1 W/m

A 1/,\ 2.8571 10-' m C/W

1/(2r n \ )
A7 7.1051 10- 2 m C/W

As 1/(2 n roA,) 1. 2321 10-' m C/ W


We shall consider one meter of the tunnel which is assumed located in an infinite
rock massive in permafrost condition s with temperature below zero. The temperat ure
of the water is initially assumed to be at the freezi ng point. If the tempera ture of
the water entering the tWlnel i s mo re than 0.1 DC practically no i ce i s formed, even
for a tunnel several kilometers l ong. If the water enters in a sUgercooled condition,
say, at a temperature of - 0 . 05 C , frazil i ce i s formed the first few hundred meters
of the tunnel and the temperature of the water is raised t o zero, the frazil i ce will
then be of the passive type, whi ch is not cohesive and which will not harm the tur
A c ross section of the tunnel is shown in Fig. 1.

Watllr dischargll Q Watllr tQfllPliraturli T02 = 0

ICIi laYlir with
ROCK: thicKnllss ro-r

Fig. 1 Cross se ct ion of tunnel.

Heat is conduc ted out into the rock controlled by the equation
aT (1)
valid for the case of a circular cyl inder \oJ i th the cons tant temperature Tw' place d i n
an infinite medium with an initi a l uniform temperature of T r . In ti me the temperature
in the rock surrounding the tunnel \Vi ll rise approaching that o f the \oJater, thus the

temperature gradient will gradually decrease and eventually for t ~ 00 ap p roach nil.
K is the thermal diffusivity o f the rock K = '\r/ (Pr Cpr) (m /sec), whe re ,\ is the th erma l

conductivity (vl/ (m DC)). P r is the density of the ro ck (kg/m') and cpr is the s pecific
neat capacity of the rock (joule / (kg " C)).
solutions are available for the differential equation (1) in the case of r = ro
(Carslaw and Jaeger [1])

fIT) = (2 )
\r (Tw - T r)

where r is the heat flow per unit c:n q h of tunnel (t-l/ m ) . )'r is the thermal condu c
tiv i ty of the rock (1-1/ ( m DC)). T". is the tempe r ature cf he 'date r a n d T r i s the i nitial
te mpera u re of the rock. ,. is t p.e tUrne n s ic n l e:;s t tw.~ exp r es se o by T = t Kr / r~, where
t is t .h e time in s econds.
Eq uation (2) h as b ee n t u t ed b y Car sl.:.~,' . 0 J e q e ::- [1):

J 10- , 10- 2 10- J 1 lO J 10 2 10
f ( : } ) exact 115.2 38 .51 14. 13 6.18 3. 3 ~ 2. 17 1. ', "
f (- ,)
I 115.7 38.2 14.1 6.20 3.39 2.20 l. '::1

T he las t row o f n.umbe r s is .e ri ved from the ~o r m\l a

( 3)

whi c h ,:! i ve::; a g r:".lOd aptJ !"('; ximation of the exact nLl mo~ r s in th e interv al 10 -
3 < T < ,.

Fcrmu 'lt: (} ) '.-iill be 1.I~ cl in the f ol lo\"i ng. P,s sho',m a ter t h is covQr s an ::;"':0rval
frc m appro x. 10 rni nute s to 20 yea rs .
The clcti ve source of ~1E!:a t in U ,e v: a r ~ r i s t hE! fricti onal he a t diSSipated in the wa
CY: , t,;i lich can be c alcul d. ce d fr o m lhe fOrmlll.d

\ ! = IogQ ( ', ,/m) (4)

wher t::: L' is _he de ns.l ty of t hf' w et e.r (kg/ ,, 3) . g is the a ccele :r: at i o n o f gravity . equal
9.81 1m/ s e c ') and Q is h~ cis c hd rge of '.<at:e r Im 3 /sec) . I is the head loss due to

fr i ct.io!l exp re s sed in meto r \"raLer column per IT.ete r , and calculated from the '''-anning
for mula usi ng he: r ad ius r to he rock or ice surf ace .

I = 10. 29 r,(2r)9Q/ 3 M
]2 IBr" ing [ 2]) (5)

\"rhere the nannin g n u. lbc r

25 . 4 }/,/
11 = 'I< (m sec) (6)

k b e i ng t he equivalent san d roughnes s (m).

Formu l a ( 4) can be 'Il ritte n, using r =a ra

<!> w = 0. 255 2 -Q' r- 16 / ' 0 g ,,-16/3 (7)

i"i2 0

0 . 2552 Q'
- r-o '6 / ' 0 g
As = I~ 2


I ,1(\ imensi onlE Iss I
.t. 1 ,II I II I I, jI I ' '


"r jN- I I I
I , I
j " '-
1 I l:r "
IV'" . -
Sl~ htl .!: fl J'~
I _n_,
iTn I' I I. I
II .. --UJ j~ Rotk.Ar,Tr.

'\ . r : .1j'
r T. <b W/rn

,.' ~ . ~--

++ ~LXr~ t


\ I . ~t -l
r c.-
) '--+- .
I . ,


I\ I U Exa; 'sbluti(lr :1
arslaw & JqJ e er
~ -- -
>---: ' I '-r I
~I .L.. . - --
i\ A ~ /ApProxi~ai( n :3 .,- 0.5 :JJ Q.ll --r---T (erJ ~ 1! $% for 10-i3<t<103)

"'l-- i/)' I I
I ----~- T- - -~

~ ~J I II

I r~ 'I I
!-+-1 :.~ -. -_.-



,I ~ l ' [ , I


Ii III '~ 1-- I 'p iml!n~i b ~ss tirTle , = ~, t

I I I ! I Ii
10- 3 10- 2 10- 1 10 "0 2

Fi g. 2 Fouri er ' s equation of r adia l heat f low from a ci r cular cylinder.


4>w = AS ex -5. J J (9)

For a rough excavated rock surface the Manning number may be 30 , co rresponding to
k = 0.37 (m), "hile for a smooth ice surface "ith k = 0.02 the Manning number will be
nearl y 50. In order to include this effe ct when ice is gradually building up on the
\-"all it is suggested to use a linear increase from M = 30 for ex = 1.0 to M = 50 for
o = 0.6 by using the formula
M = - 50 0 + 80 ( 10)

Si nce the water temperature is at freezing point, heat can on l y be released by

water freezing into ice. We shall no\-,' determine how much ice must be fo rmed in the
course of time in order to compensate for the he at flow of ~r - ~w into the rock.
The equation o f i ce formation can be written

Jt'( r -
O r o
<1 dt = - L Pi 2 " Ir
r dr ( 11)

where L is the specific latent heat (joule/kg), P i is the density o f i ce (kg/m') . It

sh ould be noted that t!lr is a function of time. Cor. ~> i. d(' ring 'P r - !f>w cons tant over an
interva l. 6 , we can write

- <I' ) i\t = - L p. 2 11
w 1.
[!C - r2~ J
( 12)

Introduci ng the dimensionl p ~::; s time by [).t = [).T :r~/Kr and Al Kr L Pi n we obtain
(<I>r - <l'w) 61 = KrL Pi 11 (1 -,,') = A, (1- 0.') (1] )

(<1\ - <l>w) 61 (<I>r - <l>w) In
60 = 1 - 0 = L P 11 K r (1 + 0.) ( 14)
1\, (1 + 0.)

whi c h will be used in the numerical integration.

For the heat flow through the ice \-"e shall use th e fu rmula
r ] a
( 15)

f or the stat ionary case. Since the ice volum is 50 relative s mal l it is justifiable
to neqlect the he at capacity of he ice.
The coefficient of heat transfer from the tu rbule n t wa t e r to the ice can be writ
2 h r 2 h 0 r
Nu = AW ----O = 0.02] Reo . Pro .
--- A (Kay [ 3 ] ) ( 16)

Nu is t he Nu s s el t number, h is the c oe fficient o f h ea transfe r (\~/ (m 2 e) , Re is t h e

Rey nolds numbe r and Pr is the Prandtl numbe r . We have

with ( 17 )

Re is the Reyn " lds number for radius r and d i Scha rge Q.
The Prandtl nu::.: :(' r is dt"'fined as Pr = V",/Ki,.vl ",;he re v\., is t he ki ne ma tic viscos i ty

(m /sec) and Kw is the coefficient oE theLmal diEEusivity of the \.Jater. \ve can now
wri te
h : ~.O 023 A r-o'AolBprO'a-'B (18)
2' w

with A, : ~. O. 023 Aw r ~ , A~ . B Pro., .

The equations of heat conduction from the water through the ice out into the rock
can now be derived:
In the rock: T - T ( 19)
ro ~

<1>i ln l/a
In the ice: Tr - T : (20)
r 2 n A. ,
Water/ice: To - T (21 )
r 2 n ar o h

where the various temperatures written are the interface temperatures. By adding the
equations (19), (20), (21) we obtain
~r ~i ln l/a <1>t

To - Too : ~ + 2 n Ai
+ ---
2n r h
(22 )

As we must have ~r = ~i ~t' we can write

To - Too
_ _1_ _ + ln l/a + __

f(')A r 2nAi 2nrh

by introducing A. l/A , A7 :
1/ (2 n Ai) , A : 1/(2 TIro A,), and using equation ( 19)
r B
for h, we get
To - Too
<l>r (24)
A./f(T) + A, ln 1/0: + As 0: 0 . 8


Insert the values of all the given parameters and calculate all auxiliary constants
for a given system (r o ) and a given situation (Q). Start initially with T = 0 and
a : 1. Select a small step interval 6, and proceed to calculate <l>r (eq. 24). Calcu
late <l>w (eq . 9) and sub tra ct value from <1>r to find 6a by equation (14) and with the
new value of a the procedure is repeated in the next time step. By this method we
can determine the growth of ice on the tunnel wal l and we are able to follow the de
velopment of the system in time.


The curves in Fig. 3 show the development of the heat flow in the system as a func
tion of the dimensionless time. The heat ~r flowing into the rock is shown for dif
ferent values of Q/Qo for r o : 1.0. The curves are all below the theoretical values
of the solution to equations (1), (3), as the formation of ice will tend to act as an
in sulator and thus decrease ~r' the more ice is formed, the lower the curve will be.


Heat flo... ~ W/ " , ~\
~~ / /
~'int of equp. ( I
a = 1 50
150 IWO - IL" 0-

t ~~ II/~ 10. = OJ) T. = _"or
a/ao = 1.5 ~Wn
130 ~-
30 W)'n I ~~ ~ VII! Q a o =C 7S Qo = 3.14 m3/sl!< .

a/Q o =1.2S ~Wo:t 17 Wm ~ ~WI/ a P o =c SO

120 f- I----

110 ~ II"rCD - Ie - --
~~ / . -'-"-
i ~ l""X J
Q/Q o = 1 l'."'-.............. I"... I-
~ ~~ ~ ' I
. -.....:
~ .

80 ~ -.....:
Fri tiopa rle t i water ~ Ii R:: I'--.. ~t--.
t-::: ~ V Heat fl w I
70 I - -
, "~ ~ Max.. 1;e-1~c:Jtl

50 f -

40 1O/Q. =O7~


J-- ~
I--- b...o.
t-, I

I ie, - 3 m

l-- i==='
Q/Q o = 0.5
10 I - -I-
Dimensifless ime 't \,r~ . t
01 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 4 6 8 10 20 40 60 80 100

-18h - 7t days -75 days - 750 days

Fig. 3 Heat f l ows in tunnel an d rock sys te m.

r 1
1.0 a =ro 0/0 0 =1.5 0/0 0 =1.25 a/a o =117
' ) 0/0 0 = 1

0.9 _ _t-:;ro!.-:...
= ~'-I--+----+-lJJ..d
Tr = 0/0 0 =075
-0 0 =

0.8 r-i-+-++-l--;-WJ-- ]
50 ~' l15I Ii.-;TI+I
i -' I I I

"'t-,...----.=-rI-'-r1 Q/Oo =0 50

40 60 80 10 2
. . -750 days
Dimensionless time 1: = ~ . t

Fi g. 4 I ce ::.h1 ckness r- 5 :' io '1 as a funct.ion o f t. i i1~ .

1) Ob tai ned fr o m r 0 ~ 2, Q ~ 12. 57 and Q/Qo = 1. 0

converted t a ro ~ I, Q, = ~ '. 77 . 12. 5 7 ~ 3.68 and (Q/QO)r ~ 1 1.1 7,
0-' but real ti me is t 'C 30 day s f o r T = 1. 0. 0
The curves for $w show the variation of the dissipated heat in the water as a result
of the ice formation on the walls. Although the increase for Q/ Q o = 0.75 may amount
to a 50% increase of $w' the decrease on the net head will be negligible during the
initial period of time .

This brings us to the question of how much ice should be allowed to form? In Fig.
4 is shown the variation of n = r / ro' the thickness ratio, as a function of time for

different values of Q/Q o . For Q/Qo equal to 0.5 and less, the situation indicates an
excessive rapid ice formation, which could lead to an unstable situation. It should,
however, be realized that the power station only part tiree would be operating on
loads below 50%. Also it should be noted that the Qo discharge used corresponds to a
water velocity of 1.0 m/sec, and most power tunnels would be operated on higher veloc
ities. Until further data are available, I would recommend to limit the ice thickness
to approx. 15\ of r 0 . In order to cope with the si tuation Q/Q o < 0.75, it is reCOm
mended to introduce a heating coil in the tunnel, which will be able to supply approx.
50 W/m during low discharges. For a tunnel of, say, 5000 m this would give 250 k\>l.
In Fig. 4 is indicated with a dashed line the situation Q/Q o = 0.25 with an addi
tional artificial effect from the electrical coil of 50 ('1/m, which would decrease
the ice thickness from 58 em to 15 cm (if operated continuously).
What is the time scale of the ice / no-ice situation? If we - arbitrarily - assume
that the maximum ice thickness should be reached within T = 13.3 (100 days), and that
after maximum 2 years the ice should have disappeared, vIe can read from the diagram
that only a flow producing a frictional heat of approx. 70 W/m will result in an ac
ceptable system.
All the above has been made for ro = 1.0, in case we have ro = 2.0 resulting in dis
charge Qo four times greater we should have a more favorable condition. If we plot
the si tuation for r 0 = 2 and Q = 12.57 giving Q/Q o = 1. 0, it wi 11 correspond to Q/Qo =
1. 17 and r 0 = 1.0, but the time scale wi 11 now be t = 7.5 4 = 30 days for T = 1. The
conversion formulae are: 1) <1>01 = <1>0' gives Q,= (r / r ,)'77 0." and if equal veloc
o o
ity in the two cases 2) Qz = (rO,/r Ol )' Q, and <1>01 = (r / r ,)0.77 <1>02
o o
The more practical problems have not been dealt with in this investigation, as for
instance: 1) What will happen if some ice breaks loose? 2) How will melting in the
rock effect the stability of the rock? 3) How should the installation for the heat
ing of water be built ? 4) What will the situation be if the tunnel at some locations
is excavated close to free surfaces with extremely low air temperatures?

Finally I would recommend experimental research to be performed in order to deter

mine the variation of the Manning number, when ice is gradually formed in the cavi

ties of the rock and thus is changing the roughness of the wall.


On the basis of the theoretical investigation it is possible to predict the behavior

of the tunnel system, and it appears that it will be feasible to limit the ice forma
tion on the tunnel walls to a technical acceptable level.


[1] Carslaw, H.S. and Jaeger, J.C.: 'Conduction of Heat in Solids', Oxford 1978 .
[ 2] Bretting, A.E.: 'A Set of Practical Hydraulic Formulae', IAHR Congress,

Stockholm 1948.

[3] Kay, J . M.: 'An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer', Cambridge 1963.


--- -
by P. Tryde
Discussion by F. D. Haynes. U.S.Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering
Laboratory. Hanover, NH

The author has analyzed the problem of ice formation in a water tunnel
excavated through rock in permafrost. r1any simpl ifying assumptions have been made
to render the problem tractable in this analytical investigation. The one
dimensional transient heat transfer problem is solved numerically by assuming
idealized uniform ice growth for a tunnel with full flow. Heatin9 of the water
is ri9htly considered for controlling the ice formation. especially during low
discharges . The author reasonably recommends limiting the ice thickness to 15%
of the excavated radius.
Some ~ractical problems have been raised by the author to be dealt with in
future investiaations. To his list of problems the following should be added:
1) based on experimental \~ork by A. Dean. a hydraul ically smooth transi tion at
the entry must be ensured to avoid initiating frazil accumulation; 2) heating
of the water at the entry may be critical to avoid active frazil formation;
3) if the tunnel is through ice rich rock. thawing of this formation by the flow
could cause collapsing of the wall; and 4) careful seasonal control of the
therma 1 and fl ow regimes may be mandatory.
The author is to be commended for presenting his analytical results and
raising questions on this problem.



by P. Tryde

Discussion by George D. Ashton, Snow and Ice Branch, U.S. Army Cold Regions

Research and Eng i neering Laboratory, Hanover,


The anal ysis of the probl e m appears to have been correctly carried out within
the context of the assumptions made in for mu lating the problem. Two of the assumptions
are considered conservative and this writer offers two possible means of improving
the analysis.
First, the equation (16) for the turbulent heat transfer is an empirical cor
relation for smooth-walled conduits. The effect of rough walls is to increa se the
turbulent heat flux fr om the water to the \<1a11. Another correlation of the results
of a larg e number of turbulent heat transfer studies is that of Petukhov and Popov
[4J that has the advantage of including the friction factor, f, explicitly in the
Nusselt-Reynolds-Prandtl number relationship . That formula is
(f/8) Re Pr
Nu (25)
1. 07 + 12.7 (f/8)~ (Pr 2/3 - 1)
To use this equation in the author's study would require calculation of the value of
from the Manning number.
Second, and probably more important, is the assumption that the water temperature
is constant at OOC over the full initial time. Even in very north er l y latitudes the
water temperatures in flowing rivers and in lakes undergo annual variations that can
be roughly described as sinusoidal truncated at the OOC freezing point . The effect
of the warm summertime temperatures is to force the oOe isoline into the rock and
store some energy in the volume between this line and the tunnel surface. Durin g the
winter months the oDe isoline will return to the tunnel surface and ice ma y form.
However, the net effect ,dll be to diminish the ice thickness. It is possible to
analyze this effect and the results may show that plant star t up during summe rtime
would entirely preven t the ice f orma tion problem, especially for shorter tunnels.

[4J Kays, {'.H., and M.E. Crawford, Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 2d Edition,

McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980, p. 245.




When Prof . Tryde first explained this problem, I wa s perhaps a little more
optimi stic about the situation than would now seem justifiable in th e light of
results from his very thorough heat tran sfer anal ysis . The only point I might raise
is a practical one concerning the thermal effects of tunnel construction.
When tunneling in frozen soils, deliberate refri gerat ion is necessary to main
tain stability. All of the e ne rgy dissipated in th e tunnel by machines, li ght in g,
and people is available as heat for warming the surroundin gs unless it is removed
promptly. In a rock tunnel, where thaw sta biLity is of no concern, it may well be
desirable to permit warming of the tunnel during construction, and even to introduce
warm ventilation air. If the tunnel receiv es heat input for three months Or more, it
is conceivable that the OC is o therm might be several metres into the rock before
water fl ow s tarts. The strategy during tonstruction would be to maximize th e input
of warm air in summer, to keep out cold air in winter, and to utilize waste heat from
eq~ipment outside the portal.



K. S. Davar, 6hiversity of New Brunswick, Fredericton,

New Brunswick, E3s SA3, Canada

In view of the sophistication of the analysis it would appear to be preferable to

employ the Darcy - Weisbach friction factor (dimensionless) rather than the Manning I 5

In the paper the Manning coefficient M was used on the basis of the height of rough
ness protrusion k only, while actually it is dependent on the roughness height, the
hydraulic radius, and shape of cross-section. In contrast, the Darcy -Weisbach fric
tion factor is dimensionless, is related to these parameters and guide values are
available in literature presented for large tunnels.
Since the ice phenomenon is dependent fundamentally on energy dissipated due to
flow resistance, it is important to have as precise an approach as possible; for these
condi tions the Darcy - Weisbach analysis would be much superior in es timating the en
ergy generated in friction.

M. t-lELLOR and K. S. DAVAR


P. Tryde, Institute of Hydrodynamics and Hydraulic Engineering,

Technical University of Denmark

I agree with Dr. Haynes concerning the list of problems 1 to 4, which he has added.
The transition at the entrance must be made in such a way that formation of frazil ice
is prevented and the heating of the water must be applied in order to avoid active
frazil formation. It is true that thawing of the rock may lead to rupture, this must
be investigated. It is also true that monitoring should be used to control the ther
mal and hydraulic flow of the system.
Dr . Ashton propose to use the formula by Petukhov and Popov, when calculating the
Nusselt number. There will be no problem in calculating the friction factor f directly
from the formula

I/IE ~ 3.46 + 1.74 In(a/c)

where a is the radius of the pipe and c is the equivalent size of the surface rough
ness (equivalent sand roughness; diameter of sand grains). The calculation of the
head loss in the tunnel could be made directly by use of the Chezy's formula. It ap
pears that these modifications will not greatly influence the result of the investi
gation, although there will be a slight shift in the time scale.
It is also true that the temperature variation during the year of the water and
the rock should be included. The variation of the heat flow along the tunnel due to
variation of the distance from the tunnel to the outer rock surface should also be
included in a detailed calculation.
agree that the computational model used must be improved in order to make it use-
able on an engineering project.



L. Votru ba Fac ulty of Ci vil En gineering Czecho slov ak i a

Prof.l ng.D r. Tec hni cal Univ er sity of Prague


The climatic conditions are the main determining genetical

elements of ice phenomena and processes in the rivers, reservoirs and
channels. The probabilistic concept of the winter phenomena with their
statistical processing is an important factor for the evaluation of
the technico-economical and social significance of winter phenomena.
By a suitable interpretation of the results a good base for predicti
ons of the winter regime under stationary conditions, but also for ca
ses of non- s tationarity due to human activities can be given.
Especially the phenomena with multiannual periodicity, such
as are also ice phenomena in the moderate zone le.g. of Central Euro
prj, require for probabilistic evaluation long series of observation.
In Czechoslovakia with a very meteorological and hydrological service,
there exist very favorable conditi)ns for these solutions /meteoro
logical da ta in Prague-Klementinum since 1776 and hydrological data
for river La~e at De~in since 1851/. The application of these long ob
servation series for the unders tanding and characteristics of the win
ter regime phenomena and processes of water bodies is the main topic
of the paper.

When investigating the effect of the temperature factor on
the appearance and course of the ice regime in rivers and reservoirs,
it is sufficient for a nuaber of problems to know:
- average diurnal air temperatures td lOc] ,
succesive sums of average diurnal air temperatures in the frost pe
riod, L \i [OC] and
- air temperature gradients agove the water surface ~a [K.h- 1]
The first two data are usually available fro. routine Og
servations, for the analysis of the third it is necessary to have aore
detailed,Dest Gf all thermographical continuous aeasurements.
The successive sums of average diurnal negative air tempe
rature& L td are used for the determination of the ice cover thickness
and its growth with time on the quiescent surface lafter Bydin,Tetsu
-Mara, Gon~arov, Butyagin, Yefroimson, Votru8a-Prochazka and others [5J.
They can be also used as suitaDle and relatively un~iassed indicators
of the total severeness of the winter period, or its partial frost pe
riods, respectively.
Gradients of air temperature decrease 19-> vz [K.h- 1] are most
ly very closely correlated to the wster temperature decrease and hence
also to the appearance of ice phenomena and processes. For this reason
they can be used with sdvantage for the operative forecast of the ice
regime on rivers or reservoirs together with td and L td

1. Climatic conditions in Czechoslovakia

The territory of Czechoslovakia belongs to the moderate cli
aatic zone Ibetween 47 0 50' and 50 0 50' latitude/. But inspite of this
are here, with a view to the different elevations sBove sea level, con
figurations of the terrain and the apparent effect of the ocean from
the west and continental climate from the east, significant differen
ces both in the mean and extreme air temperatures Ithe maximum ampli
tude of air temperatures exceeds 75 Cj absolute minima were observed
below _42 0 C/.
Air temperatures are measured on the territory of the sta
te having an area of about 128 000 km 2 in a network of about 750 sta
tiona. The stations possess sufficiently long observation series, pro
cessed mostly from the beginning of this century. The most important
station of European significance is the observatory of Prague-Klemen
tinua, where as early as 1752 air temperature and p~ssure, rain and
snow precipitation, wind and cloudiness were measured, The measurements
were carried out with a view to its period quite systematically and
instrumentation was satis~actorily ensured. Thanks to this there are
more than 200-years-long series of Dasic meteorological data available
The 200-years series of average diurnal air temperatures,
minimum air temperatures in the single months for the period 1776-1975
we processed for diagnosis of the complex effect of air temperature on
the appearabce and evolution of ice phenomena and processes [5].

2. Analysis of the temperature series in Prague-Klementinua

The minimum diurnal air temperatures for the winter months
January, February and December suit with very satisfactory statistical
agreement the theoretical binomic distribution of probability with the
Cv 0.222 Cs -1.60 for January,
Cv 0.193 Cs -1.23 for February and
Cv 0.183 C -1.20 for December.
Fro. long-tera observations it appears that the lowest air
temperatures are approximately in December and January; with a trans
gression probability of 95%, they are about -13 C. For more profound
analyses we treated in great detail two partial 50-years periods of the
200-years series: 1775-1825 and 1925-1975. In the last decades of the
second period the winters were relatively moderate. A non-stationarity
of the temperature series, that has not yet been convincingly proved,
could be introduced in measurements by the development of the town bnd
its activities /the Prague-Klementinum station has been situated for
the whole 200 years at the same place in the centre of Prague/ and per
haps also by the change in the microclimate along the river Vltava af
te~the construction of the reservoir cascade on it /since about 1960/.
For all winters of the two 50-years periods, the values

Ltd were enumerated IFig.l/. Their sum in the 50-ear period 1775-1825
I L td = -10 098.3 CI is substantially higher than in the last five
decades 1925-1975 ILtd = -6 621.7 CI, which can prove the non-stati
onary of the thermal regime in the winter periods and the resulting
non-stationarity of the ice regimes on the rivers and reservoirs, res
pectively. In the period 1775-1825 there occurred a consideraDly nua
ber of winters with Ltd with a continuous frost period Ibetween -100
and -300 CI than in the s e cond 50-years period. However, the number
of spacially severe winters IILtdl"7 300 CI was in both investigated
partial periods approximately the same. This can be seen fro~ the du
ration curve exceeding having a net value greater than 100 c IFig.2/.
From the duration curves in Fig.2 can be read that J.L td I>
100 c occurs on the average every second year, 1Ltd/> 200 c about
every fourth year and II td l "7 300 c every eight year. With a probabi
lity of P = 1% a Ltd= -600 c can be expected on the average once
in a century. The empirical probability distribution of the average
diurnal negative air temperature sums is most satisfactorily expressed
by the theoretical binomic distribution with high variability Ivaria
tion coefficient Cv = 1.1/ as well as asymmetry lasymmetry coeff'icient
Cs = 2 Cv
With the proved correlation between the air temperatures and
the ice phenomena and their interpretation as stochastic phenomena and
processes it was shown that a suit cble analytical aethod is the theory
of probability. From the empirically demonstrated validity of the bi
nomic distribution of probabilities we derived by means of quantils af
ter G.A.Alezeyev an equation for the estimation of the parameters of the
duration curve of the value L td for the two 50-years periods:
1775-1825: 165 [1 + 1.01~(P)C = 2.2] 11/
1925-1977: = 149 [1 + 1. 18 t.P) C = 2. 9 ] 121
and for the combination 11775-1827/ + 11925-1975/:
I[tdl p = 154 [1 + 1.12(P)C = 2.6] /31
where I[ td1p is the absolute value of the sum of tne mean diurnal ne
gative air temperatures with a transgression probaDility ~,
(PlC - function (P,C ) = Xi - x 16 ,e xpressing the deviations of
s the coordinates or the commonly tabUlated .inoaic duration
curve for the Ca values determined.


[oc] !

- 600

- 500

-4 00

- 300

-2 00

-10 0


r-- ", to

N N ,
r-- ::;.,., "
" N

N i'!
t [wi nter period]
Fig. 1 Diagram of the chronological order of the values of the indi
cator of winter severeness l:td in the periods 177 5- 182 5 and 192 5-1 975

[ c 1
Ltd I
-500 ..
- 600 ~ ..

- 500 '~
- 500
... ~,
- 1. 00

: /19 25/75

-300 '.
... /
(177 5/18251. (1925/ 751 1\ \/1775 /1 325

.... -2 00

- 200
". .. \
-1 00 '> + , 80 100__ [. 1
'. 20 1.0 Po I .
'" *~ ? ~~
.......... ....

1.0 50
I ,
50 90
I -1100
Po [ '1,1

Fig. 2 Empirical duration curves of Ltd values in the peri od s

1775-1825 and 1925-1975
The SUla [. td of the average diurnal negative air tempera
tures added during continuous frost periods, where exceptionally also
days with td slightly above zero can be encountered, can be recom
mended as indicator of the total severeness of winter. Its probability
analysis in the long historical series, whose results we indicated,can
contribute to the improvment of the statistical forecast of the appea
rance and course of ice phenomena and processes, their intensity and
extent of difficult situation they create. However it is necessary to
differentiate between the types of ice phenomena and processes that
predominate on the river or reservoir and to judge according to this
the statistical value of the indicator of the severeness of the winter
period rtd'
Within the treated period, the []lost severe and, as far as
ice phenomena and processes are concerned, the most exposed winters
not only in Czechoslovakia but in almost the whole of Europe were tho
se of 1939/40 /.[td = -542.6 C/, 1928/29/-516.2/,1946/47/-493.1/,
1963/64 /-448.0/, 1941/42 /419.5/, 1955/56 /-295.7/, 1965/66 /-228.3/.
A specific position has the winter period 1978/79 with ..[t d = -132.0
C, which according to the value of its winter severeness indicator
takes only the 34th place of 100 values, but is rather exceptional by
its extraordinarily great intensity of growth of Ltd in the first
days of the continuous frost period that affected adversely the econo
my of several countries in Central Europe.
A similar very intensive increase in value T was observed
only at the beginning of winter 1940/41. The increasing velues Ltd
at the beginning of the mentioned most severe winters of the evalua
ted century and of winter 1978/79 are shown in Fig. Ja. During the
first seven days in these two winters Ltd dropped to -80 C, whereas
e.g. in the otherwise very severe winter 1975/76 only slightly below
-20 C. At the beginning of the frosts the temperature gradient affects
most markedly the appearance and course of certain ice phenomena and
processes,especially the formation of ice sheet and its rapid growth
with very unfavorable consequences mainly for navigation. With the co
operation of ruther climatic and meteorological factor do not take
part, an ice cover can form quickly inhibiting the formation of ice
crystals in the supercooled turbulent water current and thus preven
ting the predicaments of winter transport.
The great intensity of the growth of Ltd within the win

o Ltd
[,C] ,
/ from 9.2.

-100 . -100 / from 16.1

. /. ., from 24. 12.
- 80 -80 /;.j/frOm1.1
/ - , - 1775-76
-6 0 / ------ 1853 - 54 -60

'/ 1928 - 29
. / / 19 39 -1,0
-1,0 'I
/ 1940 - I, 1 -1,0 Ii'
-20 /~"+/'" 194 4 -45
8 /- /
1978 -79 -20 ~'/
u /
o o'-+-t-+-t-+-+--t-- -
7 o 7 -[days]

Fig. J Increasing values of the indicator of winter severeness with

time: a - at the beginning of especially severe winters of
the investigated century; b - in the period of determined aa
ximum gradient in specially severe winters of the investiga
te d century.

ter need not deteriorate the ice regime in the river or reservoir,
if an ice cover is formed previously isolating the water from further
cooling effects of the atmosphere. The maximum observed gradients of
negative average diurnal air temperatures in some of the most severe
winters are indicated in Fig. Ja. After seven days of almost equally
intensive cooling in February 1929, a drop of more than 100 c was
obtained which can be considered as absolute maximum under Czechoslo
vak and Central European conditions, respectively.
~nder Cz echoslovak conditions the pattern of Ltd growth with
time is characterized by two or three inflections that indicate two
to three marked continuous frost periods with substantial frost mode
retions and even potential rises above 0 c between them.

J. Relation of thermal and ice conditions in the Yah Cascade

The gradients of diurnal average negative air temperature
d rops are only a global indicator that cannot sufficiently discern
the cooling process of air with a direct effect on the cooling of wa
ter in its surface layer with turbulent water mixing / during its flow,
during wave formation on the surface by wind action, etc./, and the
amplitude of its values. Even in the moderate zone in elevations abo
ve 150 to 600 m above sea level, there occur gradients of air cooling
~a of about 4 K.h- 1 e . g. in thermo~raphical measurfuents of air tem
perature on the dams of the Vah Cascade in western Slova<.:ia during
the last winter periods. ~ gradient of air temperature decrease of
- 1 0 . .
~a= ] K.h was observed for a time of max. 6 hours, ~a= 4 K.h- 1 max.
for 1 hour. With a view to the potential danger of a great quantity
of frazil ice on the derivation cbnals of the w8ter power plants of
the Vah Cascade, as a rule a wind speed of w ~ J m.s- 1 , these gradi
ents are of great importance. On these canals we carried out a detai
led analysis of the effects of climatic factors on the ice regime.
Frazil formed in the canals and entering them also from lateral tri
butaries led to the clogging of the inlets of the water power plants
From the evaluation of' the observations and t;J.easurements of
air temperatures /momentaneous values, decrease gradients/, weter tem
perature, wind, cloudiness, and also humidity and pressure conditions
in the atmosphere, respectively, informative steps for the control of
difficult ice phenomena and processes were suggested that include a
relatively wide spectrUt;! from the prevention to the solution of emer
gency sitUations on the different dBllls of the cascade or the whole
cascade, respectively [2].
Specific and marked is the significance of the wind condi
tions Iwind speed and its direction, especially when it blows appro
ximately in the direction of the route of the derivation canal, i.e.
with a considerable starting velocity/. A reliable verification of
the proposed criteria for the different dams requires still further
Under the conditions of this water management and hydroener
getical system, we cQ:1,pleted after a more uetailed analysis of the
effect of the heat factor also the informative criteria for the sum
of the average diurnal negative air temperatures. It can be stated
that under little exposed wind conditions frazil ice i ~ formed apro
ximately after reaching the value Ltd= -40 e. After transgressing
E td= -50 e, an ice cover usually starts to fO~. Unde: exp~sed ~ind
conditions /wind sp eed greater than about 3 m.s wlth ltS dlrectlon
aproximately in the route of the canall frazil is formed already at

Ltd = -20to -15 c [3].
The same indicator L td together with certHin values of the
average negative diurnal air temperatures and their duration was used
to express the degrees of ice control measures on the significant Labe
water way by V.Kakos.
For short-tera forecasts /a few days/ of the appearance,
transformation or disappearance of the ice phenomena dependent mainly
on the water temperature the use of the l 'ollowing regression equ.ation
seeas to be promissing:
t v,n = f ( t v,n- l , t d ,n- 1,k.))
where tv,n is the water temperature on the nth day,
t v ,n_l-the water temperature on the In-l/th day,
t d 'n-l-the mean diurnal air temperature on the /n-l/th day,
ki -coefficients determined by theoretical thermal calcula
tions or measurements in nature.
Into the solution the assumed or predicted meteorOlogical
situation is introduced which can be measures in each step /day/ of
the calculation and thus tne forecast can be made more precise.
Interesting results appears the estimation of correla
tions between maximum thickness of ice cover and the monthly mean
temperatures, the sum of negative diurnal or monthly air temperatures
in frost period of winter, respectivelly. From the analysis of these
relations for 22 reservoirs in Czechoslovakia it was shown that:
- significant relation is between average of maximum ice cover thick
ness hi ,max and mean air temperature in winter period /r = -0.596/,
- significant relation is between the sum of monthly mean temperatu
res /from Dece.ber to February/ and hi,max /r = -0.605/,
- significant relation is also between observed minimum yearly mean
temperature in a long period and hi ,max /r = -0.592/.
For Husinec reservoir e.g. we derived r = 0.501 and
for Kl:(~ava reservoir r = 0.491 between r.td and hi,max in period
of the observations 1953/54 - 1968/69.

4. Conclusions
The statistical analysis of series of climatic factor
values of the appearance and course of ice phenomena and processes
cannot do without relatively extensive measureaents on reservoirs

whose tiae series as a rule have not yet~ adequate length and re
presentativity. It is necessary to continue with thea, evaluate thea
and gradually to get preciser informative values of the criteria of
prevention and protective aeasures against the harmful effects of the
ice regime. By applying probability aethods a justified base for the
economic judgement of the winter regime can be contrived.

(1 J Votruba,L.-atera,A.: Measurements and observations of winter
phenomena on the derivations canals of water power plants lin
Czech/,Katedra hydrotechniky CVUT, Praha 1975, 156 pp.
[2] Votruba,L.-Patera,A.: Evaluation and experiences fro.the occuren
ce of ice phenomena on the V8.h Cascade in .January 19'(6
lin Czech/,Katedra hydrotechniky CVUT, Praha 1976, ~3 pp.
[3) Votruba,L.-Patera,A.: Obs~rvations of ice phenomena and processes
on the Vah Cascade lin Czech/,Katedra hydrotechniky CVUT, Praha
1979, 41 pp., 1980, 37 pp.
[4J Hydrometeorological Institut: Meteorological observations in Pra
gue-Klementinum, Vol.I 1775-1900, Vol.II 1901-1975, Praha 1976,
459 pp.
[5J Votruba,L.-Patera,A.: Thermal and winter regime of river,reser
voir and water 8che~es, Academia, Praha 1981, print.


Derek M. Foulds Retired Canada

Hydraulic sources of peak and emergency electrical energy
have become extremely attractive as the cost alternatives con
tinue to escalate. One way of getting the additional power
f a irly reasonably seellled to be to re-develop existing, "run of
the river", stations with the result tha t the river would be re
quired to pass virtually freshet flows in any month of the year.
Operating requirements required flows to go from 0 to 420 cubic
meters per second in five minutes, and continue at that level for
up to ten hours. Water levels were ex pected to rise several meters,
and velocities would be at least three time s the previous winter
time maximum, consequently there were grave doubts concerning the
effects on the ice cover.
A river system in Ontario was subjected to tests in winter, and
its peak output was increased by a f a ctor of three. A new station
was constructed on another river with a peak output five times
greater than the dependable December flow. In the paper the tests,
problems, and techniques for obtaining the desired results are

Approximately fifteen years ago Ontario Hydro was experi
encing a large number of forced outages of large thermal-electric
generators. Similar problems were occurring with the equipment of
utilities in the United States, and there was a great shortage of
reserve energy. As a consequence the existing hydro-electric
stations were being pressed into service, more and more often, to
make up these losses, and having peak hydraulic power available
suddenly assumed major economic importance. For example, having
peak power available was worth $60.00 per megawatt per day plus
the value of the energy at its replacement cost. As the replace
ment was by combustion turbines the value was four or five times
the energy v~lue of the original plant. Today the cost is $120.00
per megawatt per day and the energy value, due to oil costs, is
again four or five times greater.
Many of the hydraulic plants had been designed to supply
wintertime energy with capacities based on the dependable December
flows, with a modest peaking operation of two to three times these
flows. It was clear that these plants were now much more valuable
as suppliers of peaking than for energy. Further, it appeared
they could be substantially enlarged, and used throughout the year,
provided that the winter ice covers did not break up and cause
major jams.
To meet the emergency outage needs, an entire river system
was required to do the following:
a). All plants must be capable of going from zero
discharge to full load in five minutes.
b). All plants must maintain full load for a minimum
of two ho.urs.
c). For extreme cases a 10 hour period of continuous
operation, at full load was desired.
As ~here were no reported problems with the existing
method of operation there was no way of knowing how much to
enlarge the stations. It appeared that the limiting factor might
be wate:c availability and the following questions were posed:
d). What should "full load" flow become? And, how much

stress would the ice cover withstand without causing major ice
e). Could the increase in full load operation justify
the cost of enlarging the existing stations? If so, then new
stations on other rivers would be designed accordingly.
f). What new problems should be expected and what new
techniques would be needed?
An existing river system having three plants in series and
a remote upstream storage facility was selected for testing.
About one month after the normal ice cover was formed the ice was
inspected from its upstream storage reservoir to its mouth, for
stability, evidence of jamming, and likely trouble spots.
There were two areas which seemed likely to cause serious
problems. The first was an ice hump or "volcano" (because of its
shape) as shown in Fig. 1.

FIG. 1.
This formation was 13 kilometers downstream of the last plant
and about 3 kilometers from the mouth of the river. It was made
up, almost entirely of pieces of ice dislodged from the rapids
immediately upstream and ranging in thickness from five to eight
centimeters. It had been caused by the existing peaking operation
and could be expected to become much worse.

The second problem area was 40 kilometers upstream and is
shown in Figure 2. In this case the cause was almost entirely
frazil, however as the water from storage had to come through
this area, it was thou0h t that there might be enough rise in level
to break off pieces and create a "volcano" as well , thus cutting
off or delaying the flow from storage a nd making ten hour
operations impossible.

FIG. 2
To provide enough water for testing and to simulate ice
break-up conditions, the plants were shut down from 2000 to
0800 hours. The first test commenced on the plant furthest down
stream using the maximum plant flow, and augmenting this by fifty
percent by opening t he spillway. The "flood wave" was followed
downstream by helicopter so that any major problems could be noted
immediately and the test terminated. Measurements of changes in
water level were made at key points as well as the times required
for these changes to take place.
As there were no problems of consequence the ice cover was
subjected on following days to flows of two hundred and two
hundred and fifty per cent of the previous winter maximum.
The latter flow was the limit that the reservoir system could
support so testing was stopped - without the ice cover having
been seriously affected.
Wherever a river-wide ice cover had existed before the tests
it did not break, except for the first kilometer downstream of the
plant, where the water level rose 2.3 meters in one hour and
average velocities were 4.4 meters per second. The quantity of
ice in the tailrace was relatively small as the river tended to
drain away except for the first two hundred and fifty meters which
formed ice overnight. This ice would, in time, form a "volcano"
at the point where the first substantial increase in channel
size occurred, but the small quantity and the steeply sloping
water profile meant there would be no effect on the tailwater.
The rapids upstream of the "volcano" (FIG.l) were cleared
of ice with the exception of about ten per cent which remained
firmly frozen to the bottom. While the "volcano" enlarged in
size, the water made its way around it by various routes including
over the cover for a distance of several hundred meters.
The water from storage took roughly twice as long to refill
the forebays as under open water conditions. There was no problem
in the "compression-ridge " location (FIG. 2) and only a small
amount of shore ice was broken, due apparently to the gradual
change in water level; i.e. the change was slower, and much less
than in the downstream location of FIG. 1.
The apparent success of the tests meant that the upstream
plants would also have to be enlarged to make use of the water
coming from storage, en route to the plant used for the first
tests. One of these was separated from its headpond by a headrace
canal one kilometer long, fifteen meters wide and ten meters deep.
To peak this station the canal would have to be widened, or deep
ened, or both. Rock and ice conditions favoured deepening but
the question was: "hat to do with the ice cover which would form
overnight and perhaps over week-ends?
The existing plant was shut down long enough to create ten
centimeters of hard blue ice. When the plant was started the ice

oover broke into fairly large pieces, some of which gathered in
front of the trash racks, while others broke up and passed through
the openings between the bars. As time passed the pieces continued
to break and found their way to the tailrace after passing through
the turbines without any problems other than noise. The new tur
bines were to be much larger in physical size so it seemed likely
that they would have no trouble in "eating" the ice, provided it
did not jam on the racks. In order to prevent this happening the
top raok seotion could be removed for winter operation, as is done
in other stations to prevent frazil problems.
A new, remotely controlled generating station was added at
the upstream end of an existing two-plant river system. Between
the new station and head pond of the next one downstream there
was about two kilometers of tailpond, then the river narrowed
abruptly and for the next forty kilometers consisted of almost
oontinuous rapids. As winter temperatures average about -15 0 C,
with lows of -40 0 C being fairly common it will be appreCiated that
this river would produce vast amounts of frazil and a great deal
of anchor ice as well. The location was quite remote from human
babi tation, but there was a provincial highway paralleling the
river beginning about sixteen kilometers downstream of the station.
Based on the experience of the previous tests it seemed
likely that an increase in the peak flow to five times the
dependable December flow would be possible and this plant was
designed accordingly.

CASE "An - Plant enlarged to use 7l times dependable winter flow.

There were no troubles in winter but bank erosion problems

occurred in the open water season. There were marine clay layers
in some of the banks which did not take kindly to the fluctuating
leve.ls - except in winter when they were frozen. The eventual
solution was to develop the downstream site and flood out the
eroding areas.
CASE liB" - Headrace canal
The anticipated ice cover break-up was not a problem because
the local staff experimented most successfully with a bubbler
system extending the full length of the headrace. It was located
at about eighteen meters depth and was effective in reducing the
ice cover by about eighty-five per cent.
CASE "C" - Developed for peaking
The provincial highway flooded thirty-three kilometers down
stream of the generating st3t ion at a time when the plant Vl 2 S shut
off, and had been so, for eight hours! ~urt her , the flooding
occurred with the plant operating at only forty-five per cent of
it s peak output.
Examination of the records showed that
(i) The flow at the problem area peaked eight hours after
it was originated by the gene rating station.
(ii) A sustained flow of 150 cubic meters per second for
twelve hours caused the flooding; ie 1800 cubic meter hours.
A survey by he licopter indic ~ ted extensive anchor ice de
posits, tremendous frazil production and massive pressure ridges
similar to FIG.2. A series of rapids had been flooded out by
frazil accumulations and as the flooding process worked its way
ups tream it came to the ar ea where the high':/ay ran parallel to
the river.
When the plant shut down the rapids drained almost complet
ely in eight hours and therefore would take a roughly similar time
to fill up again. It seemed likely that this feature could be
used to advantage by shutting the plant down for some hours before,
and between periods of peaking.
Using only ninety percent of the volume 'I/hich had produced
the flooding (ie 1620 cubic ~eter hours),this theory was tested.
It was found that the plant could run at its maximum rate for two
hours (over the morning peak - 1000 to 1200) and again over the
evening peak for two and a half ho urs (1700 to 1930), provided it
was shut down for five hours in advance of each peaking period.
This procedure permitted the value of the plant as a source of
peak to be realised, while negotiations for raising the highway
were being made.

Peaking hydraulic stations in winter is entirely feasible

with flows up to seven and a half times the dependable December

flow. The process is safest when the river system is fully
developed and where the tailrace of one plant leads to the head
pond of the next; hO',lever, as has been shown this is not essential.
A river-wide ice cover once formed will stand a lot of
abuse. Break-ups occurred benerally within one kilometer down
stream of generating stations due to changes in water level of
up to 2.2 meters in one hour.
Where the cover is not river-wide it will likely brea k up
if the change in water level is gr eat er tha n 0.3 meters.

:;ote: Accordin; to the :.;ul tilinCL; 81 lc e 'l'" rnino l ogy, .~dde n du.:'1 ."1,
the oro '..) r n8.me for the i'or :~: ::_ t i o r~ sho':n'l ~r. Pi ". 0"01 should
be "fll.!!Ll::: ockll ( n i..u:ber 46 ). I ,::.~ t : . ( r t~~;_~ ~: "volc;;.:.o'l!




I wish to compliment the au thor on his pape r and its authenticity, and would

lik e to elaborate on the signific ance of the se test s.

The tests performed in Cases A, S, and C as presented in the paper were indeed
a significant stepping stone to the realization of maximum peak i ng operations under
winter condit ions. This daily peaking pattern of maximum station flow and output
has contributed significantly, for more than a de c ade, to hydrau!lc generation ..... hi ch
provided in 1980 some 38% of Ontario Hydro's de pendable p e ak power.

There are 67 Ontario Hydro pla nts w.i t il a c a.pa c ity of 6 ,500 M\.J and a dep (' ::d,lb lc
peak output of 6,300 Mw.

F i f tee n of these are attended a nd 52 unattended.

Ope rating patterns have been developed as a result of the se te s ts such that

ope ra ti ng in winter conditions is not i nh i b ite d in any way, from prod ucing full

s tat ion flow and output from these hydraulic generating s tations.

Hydraulic generation (3 0 ' ) l S v e ry s uc c ~5.s fully comple men ting nuclear genera

tio n ()2~) while reducing ac ~ d e mi ss i o n s It f o ss il-fuelled s t a tions. To furthe r

this contribution to the generation mix, devel opme nt of 36 h yd r aul ic sites greater

than 1 0 i'1w capacity and some 57 sit es betwe en 2 tlw and 10 Mw capacity is planned

over th e n e xt :U\f' decades starting in he mid-1980s.

In add ition, existing units at hydraulic st a tions are being up-grad e d with new
turb in es and generators to maximize th e ir outpu t . Some 29 u n its have alr eady been
up-graded recently, and 12 more will be completed in the next few years.

Additional pea king capacity is also being considered at nine existing stations

on major developed river systems.

Th ~re are Iso, three potential sites for development as pumped-storage

5 Lat io ii s unuer s tudy, as well as un d eg round p u mp i ng generating stations near load
c e n t r es . The se will be probably d e laye d until t he 1990'5 or later a s they are net
e n e rgy loser s .

There for e, it can be seen from the foregoing that the use of hydraulic genera
ted power plays a most important role in the generation mix of Ontario Hydro's
operations and will continue to do so. A great deal of thi s dependable power is
generated as peak, due to these most successfu l tests, a nd developed teChniques for
winter operation.

D. G. Harkne ss
Hydraulic Studies and Development Department
Design and Development Division
June 3/8 1 Ontario Hydro

Discussion by T.E. Wigle
Peaking Hydro Generating Stations in Winter


Derek ~1. Foulds

The paper reviews the need to change the operating procedures of river
systems developed for power, from basic run of the river systems to ones
for peaking. In a power system when the demand for power d u ring the
peak hours of the day, exceeds the system's capability to supply the
power, energy must be purchased from other neighbouring systems. The
cost for this involves not only the cost of the energy but an
additional cost, called the daily demand charge. The high resultant
total cost puts great emphasis on changing the mode of operation of
those facilities capable of producing peak power.

The problems envisaged and encountered as a result of the change are

described. Winter operation is identified as an area where little
information existed, and as a consequence, it was necessary to conduct
winter field tests to simulate the proposed peaking operations.

Case C cites a river system where a frazil ice problem area is

located about 33 km downstream of the generating station. Due to this
distance, and the plants peaking mode of operation, the normal direct
cause and effect relationship was not valid. Due to the hydraulic
time lag, the ice problems develop some 8 hours after the plant has
been shut down. A key to the prevention of the problem is to ensure
the volume of water in the channel system is not greater than that
volume ,,'hich is known to create the flooding problem. In actual
practice, this allm/able volume diminishes as the winter progresses
due to the permanent storage of ice in the channel.

The author has shown that the operating flexibility of river systems
developed for power can be safely increased, markedly through careful
field testing and observing despite the traditional winter problems.

Response to Mr. D.G.Harkness and Mr. T.E.Wigle - Ontario Hydro.
The current plans for greater use of the rivers of

Ontario for peaking in winter provide perhaps the best testimonial

for the success of this activity.

Mr. T.A.ltcCl imans, Norwegian Hydrod~'nami cs Labora torie s

" 'IIhatsafety measures are reQuired to avoid loss
of property and life while performing these large scale eXperiments?"
Generally the areas involved were remote and very
Ii ttle of the ice-covered river '.'las in use; neverthless, announcements
were made on the local radio stations and in the press, that tests
were to be carried out and the ice might be unsafe. The most reliable
measure was to monitor the results by helicopter, as each successive
increase in flow strained the ice cover. If there was any sign that
a major problem could develop the test would have been terminated.
~~r.D. Calldns, U.J.A., C.,:~.R.J::.L., Hanover, New ~iamps'1ire.

" Are there water level data available with time

during the peak discharge tests?"

Yes. Several people asked about this after the talk

and arrangements have been made to provide the data to those who

wished to have it.

Mr. L. Billfalk, SwediSh State Power Doard,

" Did you make any measure;r.ents of the ice thickroess

along the different river stretches?"

Yes. It was ~enerally 0.3 oeters and thicker except

"here the ice hao. only one, or trio days to for!] \:here it was only

3 to 10 cms. thick.

" Could You discuss the cro.ck pattern on the ice

occurring during the test?

Where bre8.;:-up \las cOI1:!,1.e te, in the first Icilometer

from the Generating utation, the redid not appear to be a pattern.
In the other areas t'1ere was ;enerally a hinge crack near the shores
through ",hi cr. ti1e risi:1C ',;(iter bubbled <lnd indeed flowed over the ice
surluce, but li~ited to the first 10 to IJ meters adjacent to the
store. The wain ice cover in the oiddle floated up with the risine
level, with the eJ:cep~i :m of its upstrea;;; edges where there was some
mino r erOSion, o~ th e order of 5 to 10 Q8ters.


GyBRKE,O.,Section Head, Research Centre for Budapest

Mrs.DECSI,E.,Sen.Res.Associate Water Resources

Dr. Eng. ZSILAK, E. ,Section Head l,ater Resources Engineering Ce.,


The reservoirs created by low-head river darns are seldom large

enough to store entire ice-carrying flood waves arriving from the up
stream river sections. For this reaSOn provisions must be made for
passing the ice through the reservoir. Normally an open strip is cut
by means of icebreakers in the ice cover of the reservoir and the
broken ice, together with the running ice arriving from the upstream
river sections is released through the weir. In such cases the unbro
ken ice cover is required to remain stable.

The related problems have been investigated in the hydraulic model

of the Dunakiliti Darn and the conclusions derived therefrom are pre

1. Formulation of the problem

Rapid breakup following severe winters causes running ice to arrive in

to impoundment reservoirs upstream of low-head river dams through which
the ice must be passed. The normal practice consists of cutting an open
strip by ice breaker vessels into the ice cover of the reservoir and of
releasing the broken ice, as well as the running ice from the upstream
sections through the weir. The ice release may create in the vicinity
of the weir high flow velocities and considerable drawdown, as a con
sequence of which large ice floes may separate from the unbroken, but
occasionally cracked ice cover, and these may float into the cleared
strip and block it. Two fundamental cases can be distinguished:

a. The reservoir upstream of the dam, specifically the weir,is relative

ly wide and deep.

b. The reservoir upstream of the dam widens gradually.

In the first case the flow velocities are likely to remain low enough
- except for the immediate vicinity of the weir - not to affect the
stability of the ice cover, whereas in the second case this contingency
must be anticipated owing to contraction and thus to the gradually va
rying high flow velocities.

These latter conditions prevail upstream of the Dunakiliti Dam, which

di verts the flow into the power canal of the Gabcikovo Power Plant, the
upstream member of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Power Project on the Bratis
lava-Budapest section of the Danube. The stability of the ice cover was
therefore investigated.

2. The process of ice release envisaged at the Dunakiliti Dam

The reservoir upstream of the dam has the function of providing daily
storage for peak-power generation. The reservoir will be created in the
flood bed of the Danube, with a width varying from 1500 to 4000 m, and
a mJ x i mu m depth of 7 m in the flood bed and 12 m in the channel /Fig.l/.

At the end of severe winters, if breakup starts over the upstream sec
tions of the Danube, it may become necessary to cut into the ice cover
in the reservoir a strip following the main cha nnel, in order to pass
the ru nning ice through the reservoir.

~7Reservoir embankment

Flood bed


boom contemplated

... .. Strip to be cleared
. :,:. and ice to be released
1842-52 RS.t. km .

Fig.l. Pl a n of the investigated Danube cn d the Rese r vo i r section

The icebreakers start cutting th e ice at the weir. The broken ice and
the floes arriving from upstream sectio ns are release d peri odicall y
through the weir. On such occasiOn s the retention l evel is lowered from
EI.131.l0 m - th e norma l ope rat ing level - to El.l28.00 m, while power
is generated . Periodic release is made necessary, among othe~s, by the
fact that in such sensons the inflow to the res ervoir is small, while a
l arg e discharge is required to set into and keep in motion the i c e.
For this reason the water must be stored [ 1 ] .

A dyk e with the c rest at El.128.00 m is env is a ged in th e r eservoir on

the left-hand ban k of the main channel. On the one hand this wil l help
to maintain in th e forebay of the power canal the icecover already de
veloped and will pr ev e nt, on the other hand, the i c e in the left- 1"'l.pd
side of th e reservoir fr om entering the strip cu t by the i c ebreakers.
Finally,by concentrating the flow it will create higher velocitie s and
thus facilit ate the passage of ice. No such dyke i s envisaged in the
smaller, right-hand side of the r ese rv oir and thus the stability of the
ice cover therein had to b e investigated for the currents created by
ice releas e operations.
}. Investigations into the stability of the ice cover

For the hydraulic studies on the Dunakiliti Dam an undistorted three

-dimensional model has been built to 1:100 scale in the open yard [IJ.
The same model has been used for studying the ice problems. The model
studies were expected to provide information on the distribution of the
forces that cause the displacement of cover pieces, also, the velo
cities and flow patterns which act on the different parts of the ice
cover, the latter being expected to crack up with high probability into
larger fields along the banks.

For the model studies the ice floes have been reproduced by paraffine
cast on gauze material, with the following prototype dimensions:

- 5 by 5 m for the ice floes arriving and broken up by the icebreakers

which move in the main channel and in the cut leading to the weir;

- 50 by 50 m for the ice floes formed by the cracking solid ice cover
and moving in the flood bed. The ice cover in the flood bed is cracked
and broken up as the water level is lowered. This floe size has been
determined during trial operations on model technology. This size
was found to be the largest one which could be handled in the model
and which was free to move under the effect of currents, providing
data on the distribution of forces producing movement;
- thickness of ice floes: 50 cm.

The model tests extended to the investigation of the conditions con

sidered typical [2J, of which the results obtained with the first and

fourth arrangements are described here.

In the first arrangement ( Fig.2 ) , the large floes were fixed on both

sides of the open strip cleared by the icebreakers over the entire length

of the model and in the right-hand flood bed at the upstream end of the

model, to simulate in the prototype flood bed a complete ice cover which

was cracked during the level drop created in preparation to ice re


In the main channel the broken ice arriving from the upstream parts of

the reservoir was launched at R.St. 1846 km. As soon as the running ice

in the main channel has arrived R.St. at 1844 krn the ice floes of the

cracked ice cover were released.

As to be seen in Fig.3, the large ice floes proceeded fairly rapidly

Fig. 2. Position of large floe s simulating cracked flood-plain ice
cover on the sides of the cleared strip , befo r e star ting
i ce re l ease

Fig . 3. The large ice fl oes enter rapidly into the strip and i ce j am
is formed near the wei r
from the sides into the strip formed along the cut, whereupon the small
and large floes jammed at a distance of 300 m from the weir axis. The W3

ter level started rising and the jam was dislocated under the pressure
of the ice floes building up behind it. Sub sequent studies were con
cerned with the possibility of preventing, or minimizing the entrance
into the cut of the ice floes along the banks by a floating ice boom
anchored in the flood bed, further,with the practicability of influenc
ing the movement of the running ice in a way suited to prevent them from
jamming in the strip cleared for the purpose of ice releasing.

In the arrangement illustrated in Fig.4 it has been assumed that the ice
cover along the banks on both sides of the cut was broken up by ice
breakers over a length of about 2 km upstream of the weir and that the
ice was released through the weir before lowering the water level.An ice
boom situated almost perpendicularly to the direction of flow was in
stalled in the reservoir, in the right-hand side flood bed ( Fig.l). The
initial movement of the bank ice cover is shown in Fig.S. As seen
from Fig.6, the larger ice floes \>Jere not displaced from the flood-bed
strip upstream of the ice boom. OYer the more distant sections of the
r ~ 3ervoir the larger ice floes entered the cleared strip at sufficientlv

~ig. 4. "Start po sition" of large floes up st ream of the installed

.i c boon'

Fig. 5. Initial movement of the f lood-plai n ice over after starting
ice r e le a se

Fig. 6. Ice boom is effective in retaining the flood-plain ice cover,

the running i ce passes wit hout obstruction over the weir

slow rates and in small numbers, so that they mixed with the smaller
running ice and passed without obstruction over the weir.

In the vicinity of the ice boom the flow velocities and directions were
measured to obtain design data for the anchorage. In the flood bed flow
velocities from 0.20 to 0.40 m/s were registered, with the higher values
recorded over the lateral river branches meandering in the flood bed. In
the vicinity of the main channel the flow velocities approached the
0.60 m/s figure.

4. Discussion of results

In view of the limitations imposed by the model, the tests were expected
to provide qualitative information only, since:

- actually several ice floes freeze together, while the paraffin models
do not;

- the picture obtained in the model on jamming of the displaced ice is

worse than can be expected actually. In fact, the ice cover in the
flood bed is likely to be broken up into floes larger than 50 by 50 m
and to float less readily into the cleared strip;

- the actual floe density in the cleared strip may be heavier;

- in addition to the sizes and flow conditions reproduced, the movement

of ice is influenced by several factors, such as wind, sudden changes
in temperature, etc.

5. Conclusions

Regardless thereof, from the results of the model tests performed the
following conclusions can be arrived at:

- Without preventive measures large floes would float from the broken
ice cover along the banks already in the early stages of ice release
into the strip cleared for passing the running ice, and would block
the strip completely.

- The ice cover upstream of the weir should be broken as far as R.St.
1844 km, and passed over the weir before lowering the water level.

- The ice boom situated as shown in Fig.4 is highly effective in retain

ing a major part of the large floes which tend to enter from the bank
strips in the flood bed.

To cut up the larger ice floes, which may arrive occasionally,an ice
breaker should be operated over the section directly upstream of the

The ice boom contemplated in the flood bed should be about 800 m long.
To reduce the load on the ice boom, relatively short dykes should be
constructed parallel to the direction of flow, which would subdivide
the flood bed and carry part of the ice thrust. Additional theoreti
cal- and model studies are suggested for this problem.


1. Decsi,E. ( Mrs. ) and Gy6rke,0.: Hydraulic model tests on the Dunaki

liti Dam (In Hungarian). Project report No. 7783/5-404.
VITUKI, Budapest, 1977.

2. Decsi,E. (Mrs.) and Gy6rke,0.: The Dunakiliti Dam. Report on the

stability studies of the ice cover in the flood bed
(in Hungarian). Project report No. 7783/2-512. VITUKI, Buda
pest, 1979.



by: O.Gyorke
Mrs E.Decsi

by :
I. Brachtl, Department head, Water Research Institute, Bratislava,

The problems of ice drifting through the Dunakiliti dam had been
dealt with in our Institute as early as in 1965, with the main objec
tive to prevent the exposure of the Capital Bratislava, situated in
hlTI 1 8 69, at the end of the Dunakiliti dam backwater, to ice flood.
The research results were published at the congress and symposia of
IARH ( Forth Collins 1967, Beograd 196 9 , Lulea 1978 ).

In the area of Bratisla\'a ice-jamming may occur and during the

spring break-up, coming dOlo.'!1stream, also ice-flooding may be expected.
The occurence of ice_jam may be predicted only for about 48 h ahead.
\"ithin this period it is necessary to cut a channel in the ice cover
of the relatively wide and shallow reservoir and thus obtain the space
for drifting of ice masses,accumulated during the winter period in the
area of Bratislava. Ice breakers have to cut a strip 20 km long from
the Dunakiliti dam upstream to the ice jam in the hlTI 1862, dOlo.'!1stream
of Bratislava. To maintain the broken ice floes in motion and to skim
them through the dam it is required to provide a surface velocity of
at least 0.8 _ 1.0 m.s- , even in the deepest part of the reservoir.
IVe therefore,have proposed the construction of a submerged embankment,
ha\'ing a crest at 128.0 m (Fig. 1 in the above discussed work). The
purpose of this embankment will be to prevent the ice motion from the
left-hand side of the reservoir after the level decreasing to 128.0 m,
to concentrate the flow, increase the velocities and facilitate the
ice-floes approach to the darn. In addition to the ice breakers, '''hich
would cut the strip in the ice cover, we have recommended to use one
ice breaker for clearing the area within the ice cut immediately in
front of the dam. No provisions were proposed for the protection of
the right-hand part of the cut strip between the km 1842 to 1848 ,
since between the krn l i:l48 and l i:li,0 the surf ace st reamlines tend to
wards the ri g h t flood plain, in the luwer part being parallel to the
river ba nk line. Tbe prevailing wind direction is north-west, that
mean s that the ice rlu es are drirted to the ri g h t -hand channel s ide.

The fluating ic e boofll proposed by the autl lOr s wuuld increase the
sa fe ty of the ice-cut aga ins t t ile jannlling wi th la rge i ce rloes coming
from the rig'hi side. The suggested ,;kirnming uf the 2 km lon g sec t ion
in front of the dam w.ithou t Hater le\rel dec rea sin g in the reservoir
may be time consuming, the attained efficiency be ing nut adequate, due
to low suri'ace veluc i t ies. T hus Ule designed con str uction 01 short
submerged dylces parallel tu th e 110w direction in the lower part of
the right-hand 11 0ud plaiJl i s to be accepted as f a \'o ura b le. Acc ording
to our opinion the i ce , arter the level decreasing before the slcimming
wou ld be an chored on those dykes and hence the i ce skimmin g through
the reservoir would be accelerat ed.


O. Gyorke, Research Centre for \Yater Resources, Budapest, Hungary

The authors would like to thank colleague Brachtl for his valu
able discussion on the paper. The comments in discussion permit a
good orientation in the problems of ice drifting through the Dunaki
liti-dam, which has been studied in collaboration by both Institutes
in Bratislava and Budapest.

The construction of the submerged dyke, having the crest at

EL. 128,0 m (Fig. 1) with the purpose mentioned in the discussion was
proposed by the researchers from Bratislava.

The hydraulic Laboratory in Budapest investigated the possibili

ties to protect the previously cleared open Strip against the intru
sion of large ice floes separated from the cracked ice cover on the
flood-bed, which occurs as a consequence of the gradually increasing
high flow-velocities and conside rable drawdown beh,een the km 1844 _
and the close vicinity of the weir, caused by the ice release opera
The proposed floating ice boom assures the safety of the pre
viously cleared ice cut and area against the jamming with large ice
It is true, that the clearing of the 2 km long section in front
of the dam before lowering the water level in the reservoir to
EL 128,0 m is time consuming and may be an operation of lower effi
The utilisation of parallel submerged dykes constructed in the
lower part of the right_hand flood-bed to anchor the flood-bed ice
cover between km 1844 .5 - and the weir means, that the cutting and
c learing of the strip in the i ce cover may be effectuated only after
the lowering of the leve l in the reservoir, as mentioned in the dis

cuss ion. During the time_consuming operation of the icebreakers, the
power station has to function at a lower head-"ater.

For energy_production a solution is preferable by which the pre

paratory work of the icebreakers can be made previously, and the
lowering of the water-level to EL. 128.0 m may be concentrated only
to the relatively short period of the intensive ice release, exe
c uted by lifting the gates in 2 or 3 weir openings.

It is to mention that not only on the right-hand side, but also

on the left_hand side, between kms 1844, and 1842.5, the i ce must be
prevent from entering the strip cut by the icebreakers, as seen from
Fig. 1 to 3. For this reason another arrangement was also investigated ,
in which floating ice booms were installed on both sides of the
cleared strip, namely: from km 1843. 5 - to the curved dyke at weir
(Fig. 1) on the left-hand side, and from km 1844 - to the weir, on
the right-hand side.

The effectiveness of this arrangement was quite acceptable, but

as the ice booms were installed in the area of greatest velocities
and drift for ces , as seen in Fig. 3, the ancho rage of the ice booms
presented considerable problems.

Because the arrangement in Fig. 4 of the paper solves the prob_

lem ",ith a shorter ice-boom located away fro m the area of high velo
ci.ties, thi.s arrangement was found by the designers to be more favour
able, hence recommendable for application in practice.

Problems of Ice Release and FlOl" Condi :;ions U~stream of Loy,-Head River Dams

by : O. r.yorke

!1rs. E. Decs i

Dr. E. Zsilak

Discussion b'y: G. Frankenstein. U.S.An'y Cold Reoions Research and Engineerin0

Laboratory . Hanover. NH

The authors mentioned that the ~odel was exoected to provide data on the dis

tribution of force s that cause dis~lacement o~ the ice cover and velocity and floy,

Qatterns. \'Ihy were no such data include~ in the rerort? ~':ere the model ice pieces

used in the stud'y always square in shape? The amount of model ice passin0 over the

v.;ir Clay have been reduced considerably if random size ice piece s '."ould have been

used. Based on the reported velocit y . a boom should maint.in a stable ice cover.

Exper ience in North America has silOlvn t hat "booms" can be very effective in f'1&intain

in~ the intearity of 3n ice cover. In heavy ice areas more ti : ~n one boom has been





O.Cyorke, VITUKI, Research Centre f'or liater Resources,

Budapest, Hungary

Hr. Frankenstein misses data on f'orces causing displacement of'

the ice cover, on velocities and on f'low patterns. In the course of'
the model experiments aiming at elaborating the relatively most pract
ical solution, it was not necessary to make a detailed point_by point
quantitative evaluation of' the f'orces and the velocities. To mode lise
the cracked f'lood-bedice cover we utilised f'loes with size 50 by 50
by 0.5 m as mentioned in the paper. All of' the pieces had the same
surf'ace and the same mass. On the photos shoo ted in every 10 proto
type minutes, it was possible to identif'y the displacement of' the num
bered individual pieces, the travelling patterns and the relative ve
locities as well. Based on these consecutive photos qualitative inf'or
mation could be get on the relative distribution of' the drif't f'orces,
the consideration of' which made possible the elaboration of' the most
apprepriate solution, presented in Fig. 4.0f' the paper.

Flow velocities and directions were measured only in the vicinity

of' the ice-boom proposed, and they are presented in the paper.

Concerning the question related to the shape of' ice pieces, we

note that ~nly the "large f'loes", modelling the cracked f'lood-bed ice
cover were square in shape. The small ice pieces modelling the ice
f'loes arriving at f'rom upstream sections and moving in the main chan
nell had random shapes.

The experience cited f'rom North-America supports our proposal

made f'or the designers. Thank you f'or the communication.


Hung Tao Shen Deparcmenc of Civil and Environmencal Po csdam

Assis tant Professor Engin eer ing. Clarkson College of New York
Tec hnology USA
Norberc L. Ac kermann
Profes sor and Chairman


In this paper, results of recent st udies on flow and ice con diti ons in the
Ogden Island reach of che Sc. Lawrence River upscream of Che Mos es-Sa unders Power
Dam are reporced. Aspeccs of che invesCigaCion which are discussed include: a) flow
discribuCions around Ogden Island; b) field measuremenCs of ice cover Chickness and
Che formation of frazil ice hanging dams; c) heac budgec analyses and frazil ice
production in che sCudy reach; and d) relationship between flov resiscance and
weather conditions.


As the only natural outlet of the Great Lakes, the St. Lawrence River conveys
water from Lake Ontario to the Atlantic Ocean. In the wintertime, the formation and
control of ice covers upstream of the Moses-Saunders Power Dam have presented
problems to power generation, the regulation of lake water levels, and the planning
of navigation season extension. ~t has been found that nearly 70 percent of the
head loss due to the ice cover occurs upstream of the Power Dam between Ogdensburg
and Morrisburg (Fig. 1). In that reach the majority of the loss occurs between
Iroquois Dam and Morrisburg in the Ogden Island area. In this paper, results of
recent studies [1,2,3,5,10) on flow and ice conditions in the vicinity of the Ogden
Island reach will De presented.


Velocity distributions, ice cover thickness, frazil ice accumulation, and flow
cross sections were measured during February and March of 1978 and 1979, along line
A-A in Fig. 1, across both the north and south channels of the River at Ogden Island
[2,3). The composite logrithmic velocity formula [6] was found to fit the measured
data very well. Total discharges are calculated from measured data and summarized
in Table 1. Flow distributions are nearly the same as the summer time distribution
of 60.3% and 39.7%, determined by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1976. A
formula for determining the transverse flow distribution was developed [9).

, 5/3 a'p. 2/3

Q' A)
( (_ _1) (1)
Q A a P~

nb 3/2 Pb
in which a = l/[(~) (~) + 1); Q = total discharge; A = total flow area; Pi'

Pb wetted perimefers of fhe ice cover and the channel bed, respectively; n , nb
mean values of the Manning's roughness coefficients of the ice cover and the channel
bed, respectively; and superscript represents variables for the partial flow
area. A comparison of the computed and measured dimensionless flow distributions of
unit width discharge, q, is given in Fig. 2. Using the calculated dimensionless unit
discharge curve, and measured unit width discharge at a station near the centerline
of the channel cross section, the total discharge can be determined.


The thickness of the solid ice cover and frazil ice accumulations were measured
along the centerline of river channels [2,3). The midwinter thickness of the solid
ice cover was in the order of 2 feet. Frazil ice accumulations up to 16 feet or more


Ogdensburg Poin t

Fi gur e 1. St. Law rence River be tween the Ogdensb urg-Pres co tt Boom
and t he Moses - Sa under s Powe r Dam , Mass ena

Ic e Cover
Q 155,245 cfs 2 .0
t\ 48,596 sq ft

B 174 5 ft
h ~ 40 ft
1 . 023
. 026 1. 2
Meas ured

o Ca l cu l a te d
Fe b. 17 , 19 78

0. 2 0.4 0.6 0. 8 1. 0
\: ig ure 2. Comparison of Tr~ n sv e r se Flow Di s tributions, North Chann e l.
al Ogden Is l a nd . St. La wre nc e Rive r

Table 1

Flow Distributions Around Ogden Island

Oischarge a t 06den Island, ft /sec Di ::cha rg e at Power
Date Error
South Channel North Channel Total Discharge Dam, ft /sec
2/16/78 99,085(37%) 168,837(63%) 267,922 285,000 6%
2/21/78 96,992(36.8%) 166,920(63.2%) 263,913 290,000 9%
2/28/78 106,256 (36 %) --- --- 295,000 -
3/9/78 118,430(39.6%) --- --- 298,000 -

2/13/79 U9,939(43.6 %) 155,44 7(56 .4 %) 275,386 252,000 9%

2120/79* 79,867(35.2%) 146,868 (64 .8%) 226,735 243,000 7%
3/1 /79 87,618(35.6%) 158,552(64.4%) 246,170 250,000 1.5%
3/7/79 101,300(39.1%) 157,492(60.9%) 258,792 264,000 2%
3/13/79 83,465(35.9%) 149,142(64.1%) 23 2 ,607 275,000 15%
*Estimated from Eq. 1

were found near Leishman Point in the winter of 197 7-7 8 . Lesser accumulations were
found in the winter of 1978-79 in the same a rea. This was caused by the fact that
i ce production in the Iroquois region was les s in 19 78 -79 than in 1977-78 [10). A
large fralil ice hanging dam wa s found near the Sparrowhawk Point in March 1979 and
was closely monitored until the break-up period (Fig. 3). The theory of convection
diffusion of suspended particles in an ice covered channel W2$ used to study the
transport and accumulation of fralil ice (5). The form li la t ion used by Pariset and
Hau sse r (7) was modifi ed to co rrectly account for the effect o f ice cover on the
velocity profile and the turbulent mixing co ef fici e nt. Results of a quasi-steady
state analyses using a two-dimensional finite difference scheme shows that hanging
dams develop along the rive r in a periodic for m.


The heat budget in the river between the Ogdensburg-Prescott Boom and the Power
Dam was calculated for three t y pical winters [10]. The hea t loss rate or the rate of
fra z il ice production was estimated by

( 2)

in which, $ the net rate of heat l oss per un it length of the river; Bs the t op

width of the river; Bi = th e width of the ice cover; Bb = the width of the channel

bottom. a9proximately equal to Bs; ~wa = the rate of s ur f~c e heat loss per unit open
water area; ~wi = the heat flux from water to the ice cover per unit area of the ice
cover; $b = the bed heat influx per unit area of the channel bottom; ~f = the
frictional heating per unit surface area; and ~s = the l oc alized heat influ x to the
800' 400 ' H 400' 800'

Ice Sheet

Fra zil Ice ,/


Flow March 2, 1979

March 5, 1979
March 8, 19 79

Figure 3a. Longitudinal Profiles of t he Frazil Ice Hanging Dam Near

Sparrowhawk Point

80 0 ' 400 ' 400' 800'

Ice Sheet
Frazil Ice
" "'--./ I

Figure 3b. Transverse Profiles of the rrazil Ice Hanging Dam Near
Sparrowhawk Point

river such as industrial waste heat discharges . For the purpose of convenience in
interpretation, the net rate of total heat exchange in the river reach was expressed
in terms of the volume rate of ice production and was calculated by the formula

QUB + bXL $i* dx (3)

in which, I = net rate of frazil ice production in the study reach, ft 3 /day; QUB
thermal energy influx acrOSs the upstream boundary, expressed in terms of ft 3 of ice /
day; $.* = $* / p.L., is the net rate of heat e xchange per unit length of the river,
3 1 1 1
ft of ice/day-ft; x = distance along the river channel in the streamwise direction,
ft; Li = latent heat of fusion of ice; Pi = density of ice; ~ = total length of the
study reach, ft. The result of this calculation indicates that during a warm winter
or early in the season, the thermal energy Q contained in the river water as it
flows into the study reach and the surface heat 108s are important factors in the
heat budget analysis. During the ice covered period, the heat flux from the channel
bottom accounts for an important portion of the total heat budget. The effect of
frictional heating is found to be negligible. The heat transfer from the flow to
the underside of the ice cover was neglected by considering that the temperature of
the frazil-laden river water in the ice covered region is equal to OC. Fig. 4 shows
the r e sult of heat budget analysis for the winter of 1978- 79.


Variations of local roughness coefficients of the ice cover calculated from the
measured velocity profiles are shown in Fig. 5. Resistance coefficients C in a
stage-fall-discharge relationship developed by Quinn [8] for connecting channels of
the Great Lakes are calculated. This coefficient is defined as

(4 )

in which a = a constant which equals 1 f o r open water conditions and equals to 1.59
for ice covered conditions; band c = coefficients which describe the shape of the
flow area and are defined by A = cTd and T = bd l / 3 , respectively; T = channel width;
d = depth of flow; L = length of the reach; and n = composite Mannings coefficient.
Values for C are calculated for winters between 1972 and 1979 and compared with
variations o f the air temperature and ice cover conditions [1] . Values of C are
found to vary with the change in areal e x tent of the ice cover, the accumulation of
frazil ice, the accumulation of broken ice fragments underneath the ice cover, and the
erosion of the i ce cover surface roughness. As an example, Fig. 6 shows calculated
resistance coefficients, ice cover, and air temperature histories for the winter of

0 . 2r-v-~~---------------------------.


10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Days f ro m lll~ Beg i nn i ng o f ~~ in t cr (Dec . L8)

1 H~ \Jr e 4a. S lIrf., ct' I! t't""! t Exch'-ln ge Ril r(~ . fhl1r mal Ene rgy
Influx l' hr n u~ h t he Ups t r e;lm UO lJ n d':!fY , O1 nd
1'o t .3 1 II C;lL Exc h.,nge Ka l L' , bet '...'(! \ n OAdt.: u sburg
a nd Pow e r D ~w . Winte r of 19 78 - 79

2800 r
;:;: I \.
2000 -

1 J'
12 / 12 /7 8 ........ 1 \

1601) .
\ I ~ I \
'\ /'0 \
-;:: ......
1 200

) I \
I '''' <0\\ / \ \
/\ f \\../, /\
't. I
800 ~


. .J
\ I
,''''-. \1I\ "

,;.J 1/4/79 \
\ ,
---- - - - - ------
10 15 20 25 30
Lo ngitud ina l Stati o n s

' i~ ure 4b. Dis tribu tio n o f He~t Loss Rates Along the River,
on Se1ect"d Dat~ s l<int er o f 19 78 - 79 or

0. 05

0 . 06

0 . 03



0.0 2

0.0 1

Sou th Channe l

0 I I I I
3 4 5 6 8 9 10

0 . 05


0 .03
. .<



Nor th Chnnne 1

O ~~~~__~~-L~~__~__~__~~+-~
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Station No . Al o ng the Transverse Line A-A

Feb. 13, 1979

Mar . 7 , 19 79

o Feb . 20, 1 979 Ma r. 13, 1979

o Mar. I , 1979

Fi gure 5. Local Roughne ss Coefficients of the Ice Co ver Al ong



0- 16

....0"' Pu wer Dam t o Mo r r j s burg


12 2
Mo rr isb ur g t<:J

Iroquois Dam t o Cardinal

Iroq uois Dam

... 8
:< '"'
'"c.." 3
15 25 15 25 15 25

Figure 63 . E:..: t tm t s o [ Ope n Wa t er Area , Win t c r of 19 78 - 79



l l,l ~ ...
p . 20
....co If)
> ]0

<l! 0
-t o

55 00



4 000


15 25 15 25 15 25

Fi gur " 6h. V,l r ia t i o ns o f Re s l ."'i Ldnc:e Coef fici ent I \~in tc r of
1978- 79


The research reported herein was supported in part by the St. Lawrence Seaway
Development Corporation under contracts DOT-SL-7S-S19, DOT-SL-79-SS2, and
DTSLSS-SO-C-C0330; and in part by the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratories
under contract NASORAC00147.


1. Ackermann, N. L., and Shen, H. T .) "Rela t ionship Between Ice-Covered Flow

Conditions and Winter Climate on St. Lawrence River," Tech. Rept., Dept. of

Civil and Environmental Engineering, Clarkson College of Technology, 1979.

2. Batson, G.,Jl., et. al., "Survey of Flow and Ice Conditions in the Ogden Island
Reach, St. Lawrence River, Winter 1977-7S," Rept. No. DOT-SL-7S-S19, U.S.
Dept. of Transpt., 1978.

3. Batson, G.B., eta a1., "Investigation of Flow and Ice Conditions, Sparrowhawk
Point to Murphy Island, St. Lawrence River, \<inter 1978-79," Rept. No.
DOT-SL-79-552, U.S. Dept. of Transpt., 1979.

4. Freysteinson, S., "Calculation of Frazil Ice Production," Proe. Sym. on Ice and
the Action on Hydr. Strs., IAHR, 1970.

5. Landry, S.J., IIFrazil Ice Transport and Hanging Dam Formation," M.S. TheSiS,
Clarkson College of Technology, 1979.

6. Larsen, P.A., "Head Losses Caused by an Ice Cover on Open Channels," Jour.
Boston Soc. Civil Engrs., 1969.

7. Pariset, E., and Hausser, R. "Frazil Ice and Flow Temperature Under Ice

Covers," The Engrg. Jour., Vol. 44, No.1, 1961.

S. Quinn, F.H., .~ Technical Note on the Derivation and Calibration of Stage-Fall

Discharge Equations for the Great Lakes Connecting Channels," GLERL
Contribution, No. 134, Great Lakes Environ. Res. Laboratories, Ann Arbor,
Michigan, Great Lakes Environ. Res. Laboratories, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

9. Shen, H.T., and Ackermann, N.L., TlWintertime Flow Distribution in River

Channels," Jour. Hydr. Div., ASCE, Vol. 106, No. HYS, 1980.

10. Shen, H.T., and Ruggles, R.W., "Ice Production in the St. Lawrence River
Between Ogdensburg and Massena," Report No. DTSLS5-80-C-C0330-A, U.S. Dept.
of Transpt., 1980.



Authocs of discussed papec: Shen, Ackermann

Number of paper of session: 83

Discusser name and address: T.A. McClimans

Norwegian Hydrodynamic Laboratories
Trondheim, Norway

Discussion: Is the heat tcansfer at the bottom velocity independent ?

How much is it?

Since the civer f l ow is fully turbulent the heat flux is govecned

by heat conduction in the bed. The bed heat flux i s velocity
independent. The magnitude of the bed heat flux is shown in the
following figure.


0 .4 H~~\:~~~

-0.4 to S.d \



I woul d like t o comp limenr the aut hor'" on theil' wo rk on thi s part o f" the St .

Li:l\"rr('nce Pi ver. These a re sorr.e of the lirst in t ensiv e f'ie l d t ype s tudies u:,('Iul i n

de",ribi.!::' the dcc UOllllati on Clnd d iss i. poti.on of the i c c . Howe ve r' , I lind it d i ff"icul t

t o disc uss th i g paper b cc ~u se of the wi d e range 01 mate rial that it c ontai ns .

Thr'.(~ s tudi e~'" howeve r, demonstrCltc t hp variClL>l '! nature of the i ce cove r, both

.in time ard sra ce , as shOlAlf} by th e transve l se profi 1.c!-7 of frazil dC)lcY,lts ( f7.i(-'.', Ures

3a Dlld 3b ) i U-"'Id the vari ni.-"i on in 110w 1~'f;'s i s L ~U1CC "1ho\\1Tl on Fi ,011t'1.. ' 6b.

1\5 pClrt o f em i c e cove r rTXmito l'ing p rogra m conduc tC'ri i n Canada lor the Inte r

nat ion':"'i.l :5t. J.....<l\\'renre RivL: t, 13o(u"'C1 of Control, a bac kwo. ( 'I' model of' the proj ect a rea

c hanr.c J~.; i s used to H'loni t o r i ce r ou..Q.! U1C!SS hy Mi Hming ' s in I. A t abl corllpa ring the

a ve r a ge loc< ,l val ues s hown 1'o r [-h e dil t " " rne c""urcd by the Clutho rs with thos e of the

bac kwater n 1 f'o llows:

IJat..:kWLlle r ~'lcxle l f\'bnnin~ ' 5 'n' LQ<.;;,l Ro~ne ss

0. 028 Feb . 13, 19 75' 0.03()

o .o;n F (;D . 20 , 1 979 O. 0 2Y
0 .021 ~lt"\ r. I, 19 7 ,1 O. 0 21:l
Cl. O') 1 ~"" r . 7, 1 <)79 0 . 0 22
0 .0 18 ;It!!' . 13, 19 79 0 .Cl32

In gene r a l, Lhe vLllu ' ~ obt. ~ l i.ncd by b<:1, "kwa t e r rncx:iel ~I r"e less t hWl t hose measW"'eCi

loca lly . By reI rene e to Fj g Ul"E" 6a , it C; 'Ji be s cen tha t the I e", di ssipati on bega.n

.i n the upst r e EllTl r eac il es about the end o f.' February. Figure 310 s hows the s equent ial

ch;m?(':; tak i ng p l a ce jn the h;ul~"~ ing cL::ll1l upstn ,l.nl. No doubt ~ jmi lar c hi l n.ge~ taJ<ing

place under the cove r in th" "lo rrisbu rg -II'OCj1.lOis Da m reac h a re r elected in the

d ec rea;:,i n9: Manning ' 5 'n' wi t h ti 1;:( ' .

Discussion by D.F. Witherspoon on:

"Wintertime Flow and Ice Conditions in the Upper St. Lawrence River" (83)

Author's Reply by:

Hung Tao Shen and Norbert L. Ackerma nn, Department of Civil and Environmental
Engineering, Clarkson Co llege of Te chnology, USA

The authors wou ld like t o thank Mr. Witherspoon for his careful revi ew. The

compar is on of Manning's In' of the ice cover presented is particularly interesting.

S in ce the backwa ter model did not consider the existence of the open -water area it is

not surprising that n va lues obtained by the backwater model are less than the

measured lo c al val ues. Average n values for th e ice c over in the reach were

det ermined using a backwate r model \...hich took into considera tion the exist e nce of the

open -water area. The following figure shows bo th the average n value s and the

co rresponding measured local values. The measured values are generally lower th an

the average values except for Mar . 13. Th ese difference s can be explained by <he

fact that most of the large Erazi l hanging dams are formed near the up s tr eam e nd of

the reach which causes the average va lue of n to be large r than the local val ue

measured at a downstream location. Mar. 1 \4a5 preceeded by a period o f warm weather

which may have induced dissipation of hanging dams and ice rough nes at t h~ upstr ea m

end. 0.05

> 0.0"


:: 0.02
.;; -- n be t\4een Iroqu js and Mo rri sburg
~ 0.01 I
n at Secci(ln ~-A

0.0 I I
Januarv Fehruarv :--1,q rC'h


Paper Title: Yintertime Flow and Ice Conditions in the Upper St. Lawrence
Ri ver

Authors: Hunq Tao Shen and Norbert Ackerman

RevieVler: Darryl Calkins

U.S.Army Cold Regions Research and Enqineering Laboratory
Hanover, NH

The reviewer recognizes the fact that space limitation was a concern for

all "Jriters and the majority of comments reflect this problem. Hopefully this

discussion \;ill allow the authors to clarify the work in more detail.

The us e of enuation (1) could be further eXlllained by knowinq hO~1 the

change in ice thickness across the Section A-A \'ias incorporated, (i.e. through

field data). If velocity distributions ,,/ere measured in Section A-A . could

the total dischar,]e not be com puted from those measurements or v/ere the pro

files not continued to the bed?

The authors should expand the section on the heat budqet analy sis to

indicate y/hat aoproach \.as taken to estimate the terms <)lwa ' <Pwi and <)lb' It

is not readily aooarent from Fi9ure ~ that the bed heat flux is the dominant

term durin~ the winter ~eriod.

It is no~ clear to this revi~wer h~' the va~ues of the resistance coef

ficient C are related to the multitude of parameters given in the section on

Analysis of Floy/ ~esistance. Further documentation \'Jould heln clear up this

area. HO\; are the coe"ficients band c co m~uted?

Discussion by Darryl Calkins on:

"\Jinter Flo\.,J and Ice Co nditions in the Upper St. Lawrence River" (B3)

Author's Reply by:

Hung 1' :]0 Shen and ~orbert L. Acke rmann. n pa rt tnent of Civil and Environmen t al
En g in eerin g , Clarks on College o f Te chn o logy, U~ A

Th auth o rs would like to thank ~Ir. Ca lkins f o r h i s co nstructi ve comments.

In this study, v elo ci t y :n ~a sllr erne n ts were made by atta chin~ a vel o cit y meter to

a st ee l pipe e Xlt':l ding down ward fr o m the ic e c nver. Due to th p la r e drag f o rce

produced by the current, measu rements could rarely be mM de beyond a depth o f 15 fe e t

be l m,l (lie ice c ov er. As a re s ult, fi phl ml~a 5ur el'1 rnt s of the ve l oc i ty can o nly be

o h a ined for a po rti o i'! ot t he f l o !",l d e p h ,1 t mos t sta t i ons . The l oga rithmic f o rml1 l a

[61 \~t ,']s u~ed to e x t n d ;~c s u r ,I! v e locity rr Dt i les to the channel bo ttom.

Eq . 1 wa s u s d t o s i mulate t h o transv e r s e dis t ributi oll of the unit wi dth dis-

c ha r ge in o rd e r t o reduce the numb er of tr a lls v e r s e s ta tio ns required f o r ca l c ul a ting

tl1P lotal discharge 0 bas tI on mea s ured g C'omeLr y o f t he f }<)\..l cros s section {9].

OU.:l iJ dis c us s i on (J the he a L buclgC' l 311 a J vsis c a ll h fo und in Ref. [10] a ~' [lll.

Th e hed h('a f tu :; i s the dOl"1inD te th.... a t- e:-:change r>rm i n t he ice-co ver e d rea c h due t o

lh e i l15U10 i u n c[ ec t of the ice t ov er. Sin c e 3 maj o r portion o f the study reach is

c o vered hy ice duri ng I he \vincer, the bed heat flll x has an important contribution t o

th e c o la} heat budge t f o r fr a zil i re r r o du c tion/d i ~ s ip a tion.

TIlt.' r e.s i s t a n"f' ..! c n e f i c ient C ("" a n be deduce d f ro m l l1 e Manning I 5 f o r n ula


Fr om t he> ef in ition of the terms f o llowing Eq. 10, t he hydraulic radius can be
l 5
des c r i b ~ a s R = cd / a . , the ~!ann in g !s formula then be c ome s

where , d = mean fl ow de p th and ~l = head 105 5 in the r ea ch.


11. Shen, H.T., a nd Ruggles , R.W., "\'int e r Heat Bud gd and Frazil I ce Production
in the St. La~~)rence Riv c: r," to appear in t.,!a t er Res o ur ces Bulle tin.


T.E. Wigle On tado Hyd~o Canada

J. fI"'~tholomew Powe~ Autho~ity of the USA
State of New Yo~k
C.J.R. Lawrie T~anspo~t Canada Ca nad a


The St. Law~ence Seaway and Powe~ P~oject, const~ucted jointly by

Canada and the United State s during the pe~iod 1954 to 1958, b~ought
about ve~y significant changes to the ~egime of the St. Law~ence
Rive~, including a plan fo~ ~egulating the outflow f~om Lake Onta~io.
These changes were particularly significant in the 170 km Interna
tional Rapids Section of the river stretching from Lake Ontario to
Cornwall, where construction of the Power Dam and as soc iated control
works resulted in elimination of the numerous rapids by creation of
the new Lake St. Lawrence behind the Dam.

The impact of winter ice conditions in this new regime was, and con
tinues to be, a very important rdctor which is careEully tested and
evaluated by the Power Entities in their winter operations, and whiCh
has r e quired the establishment of certain ice control features and
operating techniques.

The regulation plan for controlling Lake Ontario levels and the eco
nomics of pOwer production depend upon the capability of this critical
section of the river to pass the prescribed volume of water through
the channels during the winter months. This capability is achieved
through the establishment of a smooth and stable ice cover by reducing
velocities in the various channel reaches. This in turn requires a
reduction in the outflow of Lake Ontario and results in sacrificing
power ge nerati o n on the short-term, while the ice cover forms, for the
sake of greater reliabilit y of power production and regulation on the

Constant monitoring of th e variables which influence the rate and

quality of ice formation and the degree of stabilization achieved
takes place during the initial freeze-up period, the mid-winter
period, and the break-up period.

Winter operations are influenced by the hydrologic conditions on the

Gr ea t Lakes basin and the meteorologic, hydraulic, and physical con
niti o ns of the International Rapids Section.

The St. Lawrence Power Project ill tile International Rapids Section of
the St. T...awce'lC~ Ri.v l ~t" is 1 t)n,C l: or: th~ ()vera ll and coordinated devel
opment of the International Rapids Section of the river for both pOwe,
and navigation (Figu,e 1).

The Internati ona l Joint Commission established by the 1909 Boundary

Waters Treaty between Canada and the United States, to approve all
uses, obstructions or diversions of boundary waters, approved the
power Project ill 195 2 . The Order of Approval gave Ontario Hydro and
the Power Authority oE the State of New York the go ahead to
construct, maintain, and operate the Power Project.

The main features of the Power Project consist of the IS20 MW Moses
Saunders generating station, constructed across the International
noundary near Cornwall, On tario, along with the Long Sault Dam Spill
way located nearby and a control dam located near Iroquois, Ontario
(Figure 2).

The Order oE Approval, among other thin(J?, '-:':ii>~b lish,~d d pr,)vl.slOI)

fOL: a Plan of Regulation for Lake Ontario; as well as an Inte ,
national St. Lawrence River Board of Control, to oversee operational
matters related to levels and flows.

The Order of Approval imposes on the Power Entities the responsibility

to operate the project work s in a manner designed to protect the
rights of riparian interests, navigation, and downstream power inter
ests, while ,naximizill'J ,)o we, p,oduction at the St. Lawrence Project.

Need for Ice Cover Protection

The original engineering analysis indicated the importance of an ice

cover. Under natural conditions, most of the river surface between
Lake Ontario and Prescott became ice covered in a normal winter. The
72 km reach between Prescott and Cornwall, being composed of rapids
and fast water, remained open. Consequently, vast quantities of ice
were generated in this reach and often plugged the channels around
Cornwall Island. It was not uncommon for the river to rise 12 m at
Cornwall and to occasionally flood the downtown streets.

Power Project Design Objective

An essential design requirement was to eliminate, to the gcedtest pos

sible extent, the ice manufacturing capacity of the river. An ice
cover is the most effective way of achieving this objective as it will
prevent the formation and transportation of ice in the area which it
covers. This results in less trouble with restricted river channels,
iJllp,oves the effective operating head at the Moses-Saunders Generatin<J
Station, and increases the reliability of pOwer generation.

Criteria for Ice Cover Formation

The criteria established for the development of an ice cover was:

(a) Smooth ice covers may be expected to form in rivers with veloc
ities up to 0.3S1 m/s in -ISDC weather provided there is no high
wind preventing such action.




15 mi. 9 mi. 20 mi.

25 km 15 km 32 km










19 5
(b) Floating ice and slush will pack upstream from an existing cover
with velocities up to 0.686 mls without danger of ice going under
the cover.

(c) Above 0.686 mls floating ice and slush will be drawn under the


Design Criteria

By reducing the flow sufficiently, it is theoretically possible to

create a cover over the entire reach between Prescott and Cornwall,
Figure 2. However, this is not in the interest of power generation.
To optimize power output, it is desirable to maintain as high a flo w
as pos sib le wh ile the cover i s forming and to be able to increase the
flow after it has formed without undo ri sk of having the cover

Maintaining a high flow at velocities necessary for the formation of

a stable ice cover required enlargement of the river channels. In

general, the channels were enlarged so that river velocities would

average 0.686 mls with a steady flow of 62)0 m)/s.

Channel Enlargements

The Order of Approval directed the Power Entities t o enlarge upstream

channels, by excavating some 48 million cubic metres of material, to
ensure a stable ice co ver wo uld form. In the International Rapids
Section, channel enlargements became bigger and more expensive with
distance upstream from the powerhouse, with the result that an ecO
nomic limit was reached, and excavation had to be curtailed.
Consequently, average velocities of up to 0.914 mls were anticipated
during the ice cover formation period between Spa rrowhawk Point and
Prescott (Figure 2). These areas were expected to remain open during
the winter but, because of their relatively small size, they wer e not
expected to produce troublesome quantities of frazil.

Opera ting Experience Leads to Ice Boom Installation

During the first winter of operation, in January 1959, a severe ice

jam formed near Cardinal, Ontario, f igure 2, as a result of high
winds. These winds initiated break up of the ice cover in the
Ogdensburg-Prescott area and the high flow velocity drove the broken
ice under the head of the cover at Cardinal. This jam, or hanging
dam, was measured to be as much as 12 m thick and reduced St. Lawrence
River flows up to 25 percent. Power Production at Ontario Hydro, the
Power Authority and Hydro-Quebec generating stations was substantially
reduced for the remainder of the winter. Downstream domestic and
industrial water intakes were uncovered. The effect on Lake Ontar io
was that on April 1, 1959, the level was 0.09 m higher than if the
prescribed regulated flows had been released.

Both the Regulation Plan for controlling Lake Ontario levels and the
economics of power production depend upon the ability of the river to
pass the prescribed volume of water through the channels during the
winter months. It appeared that this ice problem could be solved by:

(a) restricting the quantity of ice passing Prescott during the
formation period; and

(b) restrictin9 the movement oE ice between Prescott and Cardinal at

all times.

As a result of this experience, th e P,) ..er r::ntities installed six ice

booms, totalling nearly 4600 m in length, in the Pres co tt-Galop Island
reach, during the fall of 1959, Pigure 2.

Benefits of Ic e Control

The goal of "ice control" is to form a smooth, stable ice cover. The
i ce co ve r insulates the water surface from the cold air, th ereb y
li'~itin9 the production of frazil ice, which in turn reduces the
prospects for creatin9 the flow-retanlln 'J hal1qing dams.

A smooth stable ice cover thereby ensures that greater reliability of

the river's discharge capability exists throughout the winter. This
in turn provides:

(a) beneficial con trol of Lake Ontario le ve ls,

(b) more dependable river flows for power production, and
(c) greater power generation through reduced head losses.

Winter operations in t;,e International Reach are divided into three


(a) the initial freeze-up and ice stabilization phase,

(b) the i c e co ver maintenance phase, and
(c) the break-up phas e.

In all phases of operation, continuous monitoring occurs of the

factors which influ ence th~ r~te and quality of ice formation and the
degree of stabilization achieved. These factors <'Ire:

(a) Meteorologic - A particular Characteristic of the air

temperatures in this region is that it is often variable in time
and magnitude, alternatively cold, warm, moderately cold, etc.
?~ocedural actions taken to establish a smooth stable cover and
,n r.l i"td j " ii: ,nJ'it " <lcicipate and reflect this variability.

(b) Hydrologic - The runo( I: l~()qd i. i: 1.01) '5 ')(1 ti1 ~ GCf?1t:. LilkC::3 hasin in
general and the Lake Ontario basin in particular are important
input parameters of the Regulation Plan for Lake Ontario, and
consequently the prescribed flow releases from the Lake through
the St. Lawrence River. Wet conditions mean high flow releases
which, in turn, mean potentially high velocities to co ntend with
while r:')C'Ili<lJ and maintaining an ice cover. The wet conditions
give added empha$ .t':) l,) t!lf: II1 , li r\i:. e q .::l r)(>~ f) r- th~ clow carrying
capability of the river channels during the ice season on one
hand, and induce greater risk through the actual passage of high
flows on the other hand.

(c) Hydraulic - As referred to in (b), high flows create unsuitable
ice cover forming velocities. Rough, unstable ice covers result
in reduced flow carrying cdpacity ,)f. the river channels and a
high potential of not being able to release the prescribed flows
from Lake Ontario during the winter months. This not only
impacts on the spring levels of Lake Ontario but results in
reduced energy production during the winter at a time when it is
most needed.

Ice Formation Process

The creation of a smooth, stable ice cover is dependent upon several


(a) the river flow and conse<juently water velocity;

(b) the geographical location of ice formation on the river; and

(c) the meteorological conditions.

Only with the first two factors is there any measurable degree of con
trol. Water velocity is regulated by varying the discharge from the
Moses-Saunders Generating Station, and the location of surface ice
cover formation is influenced by means oE ice booms and a stationary
control structure.

The Initial Ice Cover Formation

- Below Morrisburg

The formation of an ice cover in the St. Lawrence is an evolutionary

process. In the late fall, above freezing water flows from Lake
Ontario. During its transit between Kingston and Cornwall, Figure 1,
the water cools at a rate which is dependent upon the meteorol,)<]ic;dl
conditions at the time. If the air temperature is cold enough, a unit
of water leaving Lake Ontario will cool to the freezing point before
it reaches the Moses-Saunders Generating Station at Cornwall. As the
ice forms during its transit downstream, it collects and freezes into
large sheets. In the Moses-Saunders forebay, the incoming ice >5heets
pack against one another and the stationary solid cover progresses
upstream. The rate of progression is dependent upon the amount of
incoming ice which is, in turn, a function of the meteorologic

During this initial ice forming period, experience has shown that no
beneEits are gained through special procedural action. Flow reduc
tions are unnecessary as long as the ice Eront is witilin Lake St.
Lawrence, that is, downstream of the Morrisburg area, where velocities
are relatively low.

The Initial Ice Cover Formation

Between Morrisburg and Cardinal

When the leading edge of the ice cover has reached Morrisburg, its
progression upstream is carefully nurtured by tile procedure of flow

The particular flow required is dependent upon:

(a) the weather condition at the time; and

(b) the forecasted conditions.

In some years if the air temperatures are only marginally below freez
ing, a poor quality cover will start to form as a result of thin,
fragile ice flows. Under such a situation, the flows may be increased
during the night by 850 m3/s to 1420 m3/ s to discourage the formation
of a poor quality cover by flushing the ice downstream into Lake St.
Lawrence where it can cause little harm. If this were not done, a
very thick, rough cover would develop from the packing of the ice
floes. This rough cover would cause high head losses and reduce sig
nificantly the long-term discharge capacity of the channels.

However, when favourable cold weather develops (-18C to -30C), the

flows are reduced, and the ice cover is allowed to progress upstream
through the higher velocity Ogden Island Channels to a point several
kilometers downstream of Iroquois Dam. This is a high velocity area.
It has been determined that a large portion of the ice moving through
Iroquois Dam will flow under the stationary cover in this area and
form a hanging dam. To prevent this occurrence, the gates of the
Iroquois Dam are lowered 4.5 m to 6 m into the flow, thereby cutting
off the upstream supply of ice to the downstream area. Thus,
potential reductions in channel capacity are limited by this action.

After the Iroquois Dam gates have been lowered, the ice packing pro
ce5S c OlltinlJes upstream towards Sparrowhawk Point and Cardinal. By
the til~e the ice cover reaches the high velocity Sparrowhawk-Cardinal
area, the available open water reach immediately upstream has dimin
ished to the point where it can no longer generate an appreciable
volume of ice. Consequently, the ice front remains at Cardinal since:

(a) an insufficient volume of ice is being generated to further the

upstream progression; and

(b) the high velocity sweeps the ice that is produced under the
stationary ice front.

At this point in time, flows are increased usually to level5 above

those prescribed by the official Regulation Plan. The philosophy is
that during the initial period of the ice season a moderate over dis
charge is good insurance against those unforeseen circumstances that
may reduce channel capacity later in the winter period.

The Initial Ice Cover formation

in the Prescott Reach

Concurrent with the foregoing process, ice builds upstream from the
Galop and Ogdensburg-Prescott ice booms, thereby covering those
reaches of the river. The ice booms stabilize these covers until cold
weather produces a monolithic slab that is keyed into the shoreline

The~ea[ter, bd~~ing extended wa~m spells and st~ong winds, expe~ience
has shown the cove~ can with stand the st~esses of ~elatively high
flows fo~ the ~emainde~ of the winte~ season.

The Maintenance of the Ice eove ~ Phase

Situations sometimes a~ise whe~e the~e is ma~ginal time allowed fo~

comple te stabilization of the ice C()v~C i~\) I :.~ ~(~ pl-:t:;~ l) ,~r:c)t~e the
release of higher flow is imple JOent e,1. R.j_ .s~~ ~'3 ()f i.<: ~ :; )"~C Inovl2:I\ I~qL
and channel blockage a~e the~efo~e inc~eased substd'lti<l ll/, :-> , l:,) :!
the~e occu~s a pe~iod of time between the end of the navigation season
and the beginning of the ice season when ext~a ~eleases can take
place. Howeve~, with the extension of the navigation season ove~ the
past few yea~s, towa~d and into the t~aditio'l<ll i c e EODning pe~iod,
this oppo~tunity toe hi'j)l cl,),,, ~"!l ,"~ -; , )'; i'; ;' ,l.1l l 3'1.1 .)r:t e n 'l,)nexis
tent. (Note: high flows ~eleases above the Regu lati on Plan gene~alli
cannot occu~ du~ing the navigation season due to the effect of the
high flows on the hyd~aulic g~ade line of the ~ive~, and consequently
ava ilable channel d~aft.)

Anothe~ facto~ that aEEecr.>i the p~e,1isc;1i~c 'Je potential is the

weathec . IE f~ nc ~e-up is late, a g~eate~ oppo~tunity will exist than
if f~eeze-up is no~ma l o~ ea~ly.

Following the fo~mation aE the ice

C0ve~ , many facto~s must be con
side~ed befo~e flow can be implemented. A comp~ehensive
monito~ing p~og~am goes on th~oughout the winte~ pe~iod. The weathe~
pa~amete~s of ai~ tempe~atu~e, p~ecipitation, and wind , both cu~~ent
and forecasted, the hyJcauli(; 'J c-1 , -li~ r \i- L ,\ ':it:.: ce, c ') "; :)[ i:h(~ (' t. V I~ (' ..

the ice qual ity, and thickness a~e all ~ecor-ded an ] ; ')dly',;,= 1 ) " ,
conti nuous basis.

By monitoring the hyd~aulic g~adient of six critical ~ea ches; viz .

(Headwa te~ to Mo~~isbu~g, Mo~~isbu~g to I~oquois and Mo~~isbu~g to
Waddington, I~oquois to ea~dinal, ea~din al to P~escott and P~escott to
Kingston , info~mation is obtained as to the discha~ge capaci ty of the
~iver-, i'lnd whethe~ it is inc~easing o~ dec~easing. If the flows
~eleased f~om the gene~ating statio'1 <lr-c JC"!i'lte ~ than the flows
th~ough the va~ious ice cove~ed ~eaches upst~eam, the fo~ebay will
natu~ally fall and the stati on discha~ge must be ~educed to maintain
ope~ati'lg head. G~eat ca~e is taken to establish a p~o pe~ balance
bntw ee'l fa~0h.,y l e ve l and magnitude of inflow, in o~de~ to maximize
:;iI -ln') e l discha~ge while at the same time optimizing powe~ p~oduction
by maintaining a high forehay elevation.

Expe~ience has shown that du~ing extended pe~iods of cold weathe~

(-18e to -20 0 e), channel capacity is slowly ~educed, as evidenced by
a g~adual d~opping of the fo~ebay le vel at the powe~ plan t. No~mally,
the g~adient between Lake Onta~io an,1 t h e <Je<),=~.,'-_ i.q'j -; ::.,::i ')'l --Ii:
eo~nwall is not allowed to exceed 1.7 ,q. Ice ,;.)"'~C si)ii'ti:l 'J .~n,1 ,n--l5S
movements can be detected by watching the individual g~ddient>i wil:h
~espect to the next one upst~eam o~ downst~eam. Sudden change-; a~e i'l
good indi cation of cove~ movements. When these phenomena occu~,
immediate flow ~eductions of 280 m / s to 580 m /s take place.
3 3
Depending on the weathe~ fo~ecasts and the ~esults of actual ice cove~
obse~vations , the flow may be inc~eased g~adua lly afte~ a few days.

IE a wacming tt"end pee-sl .,> !::) du ei :)J ; fll:l- .-.'i.nto:~(" .-.'i.r,') l "iil:l :l }~ '1l 'J:1S fl,l):)vP.
OOC, additional C-3C~ i:j takt-~:j L) ~) ec;':;r~CVt; i:jl f~ l:~ ' :': ~)"\~ e . p')r:: ~l >"jl:j l) f
strong down river winds (40 km/h +) prompt serious consideration of
temporary Elow reduct ion s . Experience has shown that strong winds
combined with the drag of high flows and the weakened state oE the ice
due to warm temperatures, can cause cover break-up and mass move
!Of~nLj . .SI Ich iTlove loent'.:. i) clVI"? l)vecr-ldden the ice booms, causing damage
dn..-] 'Hv" n~s"Lted in
hanging dams up to 9 m to 12 m thick at the
;"' ..ld ""J e.i'Je or: t:,.~
i c e cover downstream . The reach of open water
left by the movement can become a source of frazil, depending on the
time with in the winter per io d . IE a reach 1 km or more becomes
uncovered before the end of February, serious consideration woul d be
given to encout"aging an other- covet" to tOr.-.tll Oil tillS c~,, \~h t;lCt) '.l~l) flow
red uc t ion s tot h e 6 210m 3/ 5 t ,) (; ') L0 L) 3/ S CFI 'J e.

Ice Cover Break-Up Phase

Th e ice cover break-up on the International ~eGtion of the

St . Lawrence does not generally cause any problem. By the end of
March, the eff ect of the lengthening days, moderated air temperatures,
etc, and presumably slightly elevated water temperatures, has liter
ally wotcn out the ice cover. Thicknesses have diminished, accumula
tions of Erazil slush on the underside of the cover have disappeared,
many holes have appeared in tl"" cover. I\s i'\ resu lt oE this action,
the hydraulic gradients have improved and the effective head at the
generating station increased.

By the time the ice cove r has lost its s tructural int eg rit y with the
shoreline and starts mOvin'] dOI<nstrea,n, it has deteriorated to such an
extent i:;' ..i C its ,novement over the booms causes little damage.

As stated earlier, ou tfl ows from the Moscs-SaunrlerB Gen~ratiJ1U Station

during the winter months are governed in accordance with the regu
lation plan f or Lake Ontario to permit formation and retention of a
stable ice cover. In doing so, the potential Eor ice jams and reduced
rivetc clBnnel GCltHCity is mini,nized, thereby making it possib le to
discharge plan flows to meet the energy requirements during the winter
,,:) .1 j .ti:1. :.; ::/ !:;ll~ el-;'JI .ll('I:.! I1(~ : )i ::i ,)~ Ul('; 1:1t~Cq 0 i:i~)'l-:l1 .T:)lllt \)) Ifll lli .':i" lOn's
:lc-h:r: o f ,\ ~)..>c-)v"l p'.!Ci"..li l~l ~lJ :-,1 ) ~d~~ l "8v Gl (,t?,]u l atiGn .

The objective of regulation during this winter operating period is to

maximize St. Lawrence River fl ow s in order to discharge the total
volume of water from Lake Ontario prescribed by Regulation Plan
1958D. This must be accomplished while forming and retaining the ice
cover in the International Rapids Section and downstream at the
I)(' I ) :)')';~ /l :J,,;;1)1.I\!: 1)"-1 ,:"(, L ':h~v!~l ~ )I)I.l (~tlt an " be COI)'31st:er1r. with the other
"o~ ' l~Ji.r,=,"""t ,; of the Plan. Th"e degree to which this is accomplished
can be monitored by comparing the amount of water dischar ged in
relation to that amount called for through strict applic at ion of the
Regu lation Plan.

Operationally, this quantity of water is continually combined, on a

weekly basi.5, wit;) tile runi'lii'll) tot<'ll o f: ,,1.1 ti)-= wat-=r which has
been either overdischarged(+) or underdischarged(-) during the
rrevi0u~ wf~ eks. TillS procedlJce c~sult : 3 i:l d c1J:1niny tot~l fig ure

20 1
~ep~esentative of ope~ational pe~fo~mance. The following table ~i s
plays the end of pe~iod accumulated deviations with ~espect t o st~ict
adhe~ e nce to the Regulation Plan. As can be seen, the~e have been
some winte~ pe~iods du~ing which ove~discha~ge ha s not been pos s ible
du e to thl~ pr ! ~ v'li.li.q(J i,.:;.~ .-: )q ;li.i:lor) ':i , "' ~ 1i.lf=- ,l'jr:i.'l'j )til ' ~( ""lql', .: r''; 1. : 1 ~
goal of ~egulation has been e'J uaIe ,1 or , :< ce ~ ,l,~.1.

1'0 put th...:s(~ r: (~ ';'Jlts 1.. : \ i>eC':i p ective, con s ider two oE the years listed,
in which di s tinctly diffe~ent hyd~aulic conditions existed; 1977 with
an accumulated winte~ deviation of -5550 mJ/ s-wee k s (unde~discha~ge),
and 1978 with a deviati o n of +<)ll7 mJ/ s-weeks (ove~discha~ge). Due to
abno~mally cold we a thec at th~ b~~innin0 o f the 1977 winte~ ope~ating
pe~iod, sevece ice conditions ~ e sulted which cause.-1 c <)(\ ,,; i<l, ~ ( .~ : )l';
difficulty dudng the Clo s ing of the navigati o n s easo n . Th ese c')'ld i
tions p ~evailed th~oughout the wint ~ ~ s uch that Plan outflows could
not be met until Ma~ch. This ~esulted in an Ap~il 1st level on Lake
Onta~io that was 0.172 m above the level that would Ila ve been p~oduced
had plan flows been discha~ged du~ing the same pe~iod. In c ont~ast,
the wif\ t t~( r)r: lq7H w :~s ci ldLdct: ~ r.-i./'( ~ l ~) .Y j,).):l i ,;,~ c!\ditll):l -3 , ,~ . ,.,:)lif\ :J
the discha~ge of flows as high as 8500 m / s in early ;1a~ch. Cy,
sequently, by Ap~il 1st, the l>;vel of Lake :)nt .; ri,) w.,-; 'l.2R :j 'n t) ,= l ) .,
the level that would have been p~oduc e d had plan flows i)o>"~ :,t ri c tl. y
ob s e~ved.

St. Law~ence Rive~

Annual Winte~ Accumulated Deviations

Winte~ Winte~
Yea~ Acc. Dev. ~ Acc . DeVa

1960 0 mJ/ s-weeks 1970 0 m3 / s-weeks

1961 +38 1971 +4 8 0
l ')6 J. +6:30 l <)72 -2.1 2 0
1963 -1020 l'J 7J 0
l%4 0 1974 0
1965 0 1975 U
1966 +310 1976 +6570
1967 +370 1977 -5550
1968 +1610 1978 +9320
1969 0 1979 +200
1980 +8100

Anothe~ benefit acc~uing f~o m winte~ ope~ations a~ises f~o m utilizing

the full capacity of the ~ive~ unde~ the ice to discha~g e fl o ws as
high as possible. This p~ovides a flexibi lity to Allow sub .s e 'luent
cutbacks of Lake Onta~io outfl o ws du~ing the sp~ing f~eshets in th e
otta",,, Ri v e~, th e ~eb l' all e 'Jiati 'I'J flood conditions in the Mont~eal
a~ea and downst~eam. Fo~ example, in the spdng of 1979, the ~e s ult
of su c h flow deviation s was to ~educe the high wate~ stages in Lake
St. Louis by ove~ 0.152 m, while the sho~t-te~m effect on lake Ont"ldo
level was l e ss than 0.025 m.

In the final analysis is has be e n found that the riv~( c:; :""", e J."
~esulting f~om const~uction have tu~ned o ut t o be 'a') ce e fFi, : ie<lt; t :,.1"
originally designed; monthly Int:d q [l')i/ s :i'J(L :\'J til l~ i( ; ~ FI)( I1 \ ..-l I~i ' )iL -:\1\ ,1
s tabilization phase of winter: opecd.!:j.') rl C d q ;)e i :H{)(.) I/I=! 1 -Y' ~l iL'~ ("'~. liJ,-:i_q (J
the ~isk of flooding on Lak e Ont a ~io "lnd along the st. Law~e n ce Rive~.


By; T.E. Wigle Ontario Hydro Canada

J. Bartholome\oJ Power Authority of USA
the State of New York
C.J.R. Lawrie Transport Cana da Canada


D. F. Witherspoon, Engineer-In-Charge, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence

Study Office, Environment Canada

I woul d like to compliment the authors on their thorough

discussion of winter operations in this section of the St. Lawrence
River. However, there are two areas which I belie ve require
further emphasis . The first of the se is the importance of quality
of ice during ic e formation. In the critical sections of the rive r
for the ice to pack to achieve the smoothest cover, the ice pans
moving into the head of the cover must have adequate strength and
body to resist the shear from the underflowing water and have
sufficient buoyancy to resist overturning under the cover at its
he ad. F low reductions are made to reduce the velocity and reduce
the se occurrences. The amount of flow reduction and consequent
ve l ocity reduction in the critical sections, that must be made, is
dependent on the q.uality of the ice reaching the head of the ice

The second point I would like to make is that although I

agree that the St. Lawrence Power Project channels have proven to be
more efficient than their original design, I do not agree that the
criteria for efficient winter operation should be the existing
regulation plan. The winter discharges specified in it are very
conservative since there was insufficient experience in winter
operations available when the regulation plan was designed. It
would seem that the hydraulic conveyance under winter operatio n
compared to the hydraulic conveyance possible under open water
conditions would provide a better indicator of the achie vements of
winter operations in the International Rapids Section of the St .
La\oJrence River .



T. E. Wigle Ontario Hydro Canada

John Bartholomew Power Authority of the USA
State of New York
C.J.R. Lawrie Transport Canada Canada

The authors agree that a comparison that relates

hydraulic co nv eyance under ice with that of hydraulic
co nveyance under open water conditions might be more
realistic, however, there are a number of indicators
that can be utilized to establish success or failure.

Our comparison merely was a means of displaying

the overall success of winter operations. This success
is displayed in the table entitled, " St . Lawrenc e River
Annual Winter Accumulated Deviations ".


By: T.E . Wiqle Ontario Hydro Canada

J. Bartholomew Power Auth o rity of the USA
State of New York
C.J.R. Lawrie Transport Canada Canada

R. D. Conner, f o rmer Member

International St. Lawrence River Bo ard of Contro l

The authors are to be commended for this discussi o n o f the

operation of the International St. Lawrence Power Proje c t under what
can only be described a s severe winter conditions .

A minor point - as regards the S t. Lawrence Po wer Project, the

International Joint Commission's 29 October 1952 Order of Ap p roval
stipul a ted the project would be built by Ontario Hydro and an entity
to be named by the Unit e d S tates Government; President Eisenhower
subsequentl y named the Power Authority of the State o f New York a s
the agency to construct and o perate the United States p o rtion of the
power facilities.

It should be noted that the dis c harge of 6 , 230 cubic met e rs per
second mentioned under "Channel Enlargements" was the ma x imum flow
for January incorporated i n the original and succeeding Lake Ontario
regulation plans . This rate of flow was provided to the two power
ent i ties for their guidance in designin g the channel enlargements .

Altho ug h not specifi c ally mentioned under " Benefits o f Ice

Control" flow reductions below those sp e cified by the plan of
regulat i on are often required one-two we eks prior to the onset of i c e
c o ver f o rmati o n in Lake St. Lawrence to facilitate the form a tion of
an ice cover over the Beauharnois Canal of Hy dro Quebec, downstream
from Lake St . Lawrence . The water leavinq Lak e St. Lawrence continues
to cool as it flows northeasterly such that ice cover formation
begins at Beauharnois before it occurs in Lake St . Lawrence.
Obviously , the ab i lity to release the fl o ws called for by the
regulation plan can be adversely affected by ice jamminq above either
power comple x . Thus, it is essential that optimum ice cover be
formed above both plants and happily, cooperative action by al l
concerned has been the rul e since regulation began in 1960 even though
Hydro Quebec has no dir e ct responsibility insofar as Lake Ontario
regulation is concerned.

By way of clarification , the autho rs imply in "Maintenance

of the Ic e Cover" that flows higher than those prescribed by the
Lake Ontario regulat i on plan cannot be released during the navigation
season because the resulting water surfa c e profile between Lake
Ontario and the US locks would not support full draft navigation.
This situation no rmally doe s not OC Cur until the l ate summer a nd fall
months , after Lake Ontar i o has begun its seasonal de c line.




T. E. WiC11e Ontario Hydro Canada

John Bartholomew Power Authority of the USA
State of New York
C.J.R. Lawrie Transport Canada Canada

At the time the desiqn criteria for channel

enlargements were selected, 'it was understood that mean
water surface velocities in the critical sections of the
of the river had to be reduced to approximately 0.686
m/s to allow the formation of a stable ice cover.
Following the stabilization phase of the ice cover, St.
Lawrence River flows can be increased at the Moses
Saunders Power Dam to satisfy the requirements of
regulation and to optimize the benefits of ice control.
These same rules generally apply downstream in the
Beauharnois-Cedars complex to facilitate the formation of
an ice cover there as well.

The authors support the clarification provided

through Mr. Conner's statement relating to "Maintenance
of an Ice Cover." Lake Ontario outflows in excess of
those prescribed by the plan of regulation normally do
not affect available navigation channel depth until late
summer and fall, although it should be noted that the mean
velocities in critical sectiornof the Seaway System may
be adversely affected for a much longer period.


By: T.E. Wiqle Ontario Hydro Car.ada

J. Bartholomew Power Authority of the USA
State of New York
C.J .R . Lawrie Transport Canada Canada


Tom Dafoe, Environment Canada

At the POAC Conference yesterday afternoon, a U. S . Corps

of Enqineers representative presented a paper on year-round navigation
on the Upper Great Lakes that indicated that this would indeed be
both feasible and of economic benefit. Based on your work on this
section of the St. Lawrence River, would you consider year -rou nd
naviqation along thi s section to be fea s ible and, if so , what might
be some of the problems that might be encountered?



T. E. Wigle Ontario Hydro Canada

John Bartholomew Power Authority of the USA
State of New York
C.J . R. Lawrie Transport Canada Canada

Under the present Oreer of Approval for the St.

Lawrence Power Project, including the plan of regulation
for Lake Ontario, winter naviqation in the International
Rapids Section of the St. Lawrence is not feasible. Year
round navigation would require substantial modification
to the existing ice control structures both in this reach
and downstream in the Beauharnois-Cedars complex, since
navigation channels would have to be maintained to Montreal
to achieve the objectives of winter navigation .

Anticipated problems in the Montreal-Lake Ontario

Section of the St. Lawrence River include serious ice
jamming in critical sections with consequent impingement
on required depths for full draft navigation, reduced
operating head at the Moses-Saunders Power Dam leading
to inability to discharge prescribed Lake Ontario out
flows called for by the plan of regulation .

0 F' 'i :,;:; ::i T . ,";, ,,' ,.,,,;.(,..:. HI VER
1'. c; ..!l GLJ:;
J . BiUT:.OLO',:i::';[
C.J .R. 1 A'.U U:

In th" concl udi n" paraGraph t'le authors state: "the river
cha nnels havc turned out to be more efficient tha n origin
al] y dE:Git;r.ed". It \'Iould be of considerable interest to
note wbat t he de si Gn bas is was at the time. For example
one no te s t i,[: t:
( 1 ) ~:: .' clesiGn crit e ria for ice cover formation were sel
e ct",d OVE:r 25 ye'';.r s a;;o w~,en ther'e was by no me ans gen
e ral ag reement on the limiting velocities for success
ful ice cover progression - yet the operating results
seem to ha ve been s atisfactory. If the project were
being designed toda y what changes, if any, would be
made" e8.in the iC G roughne s s assumptions .
( 2 ) The plan of regulation apparently calls for much higher
flows afte r th e ice cover has formed and I seem to re
call disag reem e nt on whether this could be done without
breakinc; th e cover. ',[hat per centage increase in flow,
over the ice cover forming flow , has been attained?
(3) It was stated that meteorological conditions have quite
a n effect on ice cover formation, a nd hence the head loss
which results. It would be useful to know what variat
ions in head losses, for the same flow, have occurred as
a result of differences i n the quality of the ice covers;
eg . between a smooth cover formed under cold conditions
with little wind, compared to one with heavy snow, high
winds and mo derately cold temperatures.






T. E. ~ligle Ontario Hydro Ca nada

J. Bartholomew Power Authority of the USA
State of New York Canada
C.J.R. Lawrie Transport Canada

The authors are not suggesting that different design

assumptions should have been made, however , experience
to date indicates that higher St. Lawrence River dis
charges can be achieved wlo adversely affecti ng the
stabilized ice cover, than were thought to have been
possible during preproject planning stages. It has been
found for in s tance, t hat the February monthly mean flow
has been increased by as much as 25% over the prescribed
regulated outf low for that same period. These higher
flows are not always possible and the plan of regulation
considers this since the prescribed winter flows required
to discharge the necessary volume of water from Lake
Ontario are quite conservative,due in part to the un
predictability of supply conditions and ability to manage
the outflows under the prevailing ice conditions.


Richard Boivin, ing~nieur en chef, Laboratoire d'Hydraulique Lasalle, Montreal.

Octave Caron, ingenieur hydraulicien, Societe d'energie de la Baie James, Montreal .
Marc Drouin, chef du service hydraulique, Societe d'energie de la Baie James,

La coupure du d~bit de La Grande Rivi~re a LG 2, si elle etait intervenue

en periode d'eau libre, aurait entraln~ en moins de trois semaines 1 'invasion
saline de son estuaire d'une longueur de 37 km. Afin d'y sauvegarder les
populations de poissons d'eau douce (especes dul~aquicoles et semi-anadromes), la
Societe d'energie de la Baie James (SEBJ) prit la decision de retarder cette
coupure de la mi-octobre au 27 novembre 1978, jusqu'a la prise complete des glaces
dans ce tron~on de la riviere. Cette decision etait conforme au x enseignements de
1 'etude sur modele reduit qui d~montrait que la penetration de l'eau salee:
(a) en presence de la couverture de glace, n'atteindrait que
le point kilometrique 20 environ
(b) apr~s la debacle, en eau libre, pourrait ensuite ~tre
contenue entre des limites acceptables, grace a un debit
d'appoint provenant de 1 'evacuateur de crues.
Menee en parall~le avec une campagne d'observations biologiques (portant
sur la qualite de 1 'eau et les deplacements des poissons), une campagne de mesures
hydrographiques a permis d'acquerir une information tres detuillee, au cours de
1'hiver 1978-79 et de 1'He 1979, sur 1'evolution n~elle du phenomene salin et
ses param~tres. Cette communication a pour but d'en degager les principaux
resultats et de les comparer avec les previsions des etudes anterieures sur modele
mathematique (regime d'eau libre) et sur modele physique (regimes d'eau libre et
de glaces).


La fermeture de la derivation provisoire de LG 2 a ete completee le

27 novembre 1978, a llh.30, sous un debit de 1 640 m'/s et une temperature de
-18 0 C. La coupure du debit etait ainsi realisee apres la formation complete de
la couverture de glace dans l'estuaire de La Grande Riviere entre la baie James
et le point kilometrique (P.K.) 35. Mentionnons que 1 'amenagement de LG 2 est
situe aux environs du P.K. 120 de La Grande Riviere.

SA 2,4 ~






A partir du 13 novembre 1978, des survols periodiques de la riviere ont

permis de suivre la prise des glaces. Le bord frontal de la couverture etait dejl
a la hauteur du P. K. 15 le 21 novembre et atteignait le P.K. 35 le 25 novembre;
parallelement, les enregistrements maregraphiques accusaient la presence des glaces
(par exemple, la valeur moyenne du marnage a la station MA-l,8 etait tombee en
dessous de 0,90 m au cours des 4 jours precedant la coupure, alors qu'elle etait
de l'ordre de 1,40 m au cours de 1a premiere semaine de novembre). La couverture
de glace etait donc tout a fait propice a la coupure au moment ou fut prise 1a
decision de la rea1iser.


2.1 Position du front salin

2.1.1 Position en fonction du temps

Les mouvements salins ont ete etablis a la fois a 1'aide d'apparei'ls

mobiles (mesures ponctuelles de la salinite) permettant de reperer le front salin,
et d'appareils a poste fixe (courantographes Aanderra) donnant des enregistrements
continus, en fonction du temps et a differentes profondeurs, de la salinite, des
courants et de la temperature de 1 'eau.

La figure 2 donne, en fonction du nombre de jours N depuis la fermeture

de la galerie, le point kilometrique atteint par le front salin (defini par une
valeur de la salinite S = O,5 0/00).
LEGENDE 34 65 93 124 154 185 215 246 276 307 337 N
0 3
1303m'/s ~ Q ~ 8,5 m3/s ,M= 1,4611115'=0,5%0 '"0:> 30
O~ 2,Bm}/SjM=I,46m;S=O,5 0/ oo ,.




Q=IIOm 5/s \ M=I,46m; S:; 0,5 % 0 Z


0: 110 m3/s; M: 1,46 m, S =0,0 o/co

BAlE JAMES 0 +-~---+-+-,-+-~I---+-+--r--'---7""T--r--+-~

ANNEE 1978-79



On neut voir, superposees en pOintillee, les previsions des etudes

anterieures [I, 2). Ces etudes, dont on connaissait mal le degre de precision
avant les cDntr5les "in si tu", sont dans 1 'ensemble assez bien recoupees par
les observations, si 1 'on tient compte des facteurs qui compliquent
1 'interpr!tation (les points modlles resultent sDit d'un essai en regime variable,
auquel cas ils sont fonctions de 1 'hypothlse faite sur la decroissance du debit
en fonction du temps, soit d'essais en regime etabl i, i.e. essais avec maree et
debit constants; les calculs reposent egalement sur 1 'hypothlse d'un regime etabli;
or un tel regime n'a generalement pas le temps de se realiser en nature ... ).

Ainsi donc (fig. 2), l'ordre de grandeur des previsions des etudes

anterieures est confirme concernant:

a) 1 '~volution des cinquante premiers jours, legerement
defavorable au modele r~duit. L'ecart observe entre
la courbe et les mesures en nature s'explique
comme l'indique la figure 3 par une diminution trop
rapide du debit en fonction du temps, au cours de
1'essai .
b) la limite superieure atteinte sous couverture de glace,
vers le 125ieme jour ( il ne peut y avoir, dans ce cas,
de comparaison rigoureuse, car la limite modele
est tiree d'un essai en regime ~tabli, i.e. maree et
debit constants; le recoupement est malgre tout des
plus satisfaisants .. . ).
c) la limite superieure en reglme d'eau libre, vers le
225ieme jour (m~me remarque qu'en b, en ce qui touche
le regime ~tabli, pour les limites modele et th~orique
et ; on peut note r egalement que la limite
theorique est definie par S - 0,0%0 au 1ieu de S =
0,5 % 0, ce qui contribue un peu a la deporter vers
le ha ut).
600r-__ ~ __ ~ ____ ~ __- ;__ ~ __-;

- _~
I t~~EN~ SOUS GLACE ~ 500 1-

i'S I-~ 1 I "e

::: - ' \ cEBITS 81Mlllis AU ..,
;:: 400
:l 10 ~"""': \ \ \ MOOtu R'TtOUIT-ft-
I >i.


r-~ ~I' \- -- _i_f-!
~ !J V' I
'" 300

...J 200

'" S r- ~ Ir;;,~Y.ni +-+:r<t-l---j

.~ ~~I 't'V


Au-dela de ces recoupements d'ordre quantitatif, la figure 2 peut etre

expliquee comme suit:
d) la fin de la courbe pOintillee, qui laissait prevoir

que le f ront salin tendrait, sous co uverture de glace,

vers une position d'equilibre proche du P.K. 19,6 ne

s'est pas materialisee en nature parce qu'elle etait
intimement liee a la loi de decroissance du u~bit admise
au cours de l'essai en regime non permanent. Cette loi
correspondait a une variation de debit tendant vers une
valeur minimum constante, egale il. 8,5 ml/s (fig. 3). Elle
a ete prise en defaut car Ie debit, d la fin de l'hiver,
etait compris entre 3 et 6 ml/s, apres etre tombe
aecidentellement il. 1,5 m3 /s au debut de fevrier en raison
de travaux en rivi~re I LG 1. Ceei devait permettre la
remontee des eaux salees jusqu'au P.K. 31,4.
e) apres avoir atteint cette limite superieure en presence
d'une couverture de glace, les eaux salees ont ete soumises
a un mouvement de va-et-vient que 1 'on pourrait resumer
comme suit:
une regression importante so us couverture de glace,
jusqu'au P.K. 6 environ, a d'abord ete observee au
moment de la crue de printemps du bassin versant
residuel d'une superficie de 2 135 km 2 , sui vie d'une
progression en eau libre jusqu'au P.K. 22,5, amorcee par
Ie depart des glaces et accentuee par la decroissance
du debit de la erue. Des Ie 20 juin 1979, Ie niveau du
reservoir de LG 2 atteignait une cote suffisante pour
permettre une faible evacuation.
les mouvements successifs de recul et d'avance, qui ont
ete analyses en detail dans un rapport d'etude [3],
s'e xpliquent dans 1 'ensemble par 1 'effet eonjugue du
debit evacue I LG 2 et des precipitations observees,
quoique 1 'on releve dans les enregistrements continus
de la salinite en fonction du temps des pics de salinite
independants du debit fluvial, lies aux param~tres
suivants: marees, niveau moyen de la mer, vent (effet
direct de frottement sur la surface de l'eau ou effet
indirect sur les niveaux d'eau ... ).
2.1.2 Correlation avec Ie debit
On a porte, sur la figure 4, les limites superieures en presence des
glaces et en eau libre, en fonction des debits correspondants tires de la figure
2. Les debits indiques sont des valeurs moyennes, pour les periodes considerees,
qui sont celles ou 1'equilibre etait "a priori" Ie mieux realise.


...I I I


100 ~ ~
I I~
I- 20 ~
C> 10
"- t-....

o 10 15 20
25 30 " 35 40



Ces points s 'intgrent assez bien dans 1 'ensemble de poi nts

des essais en r~gime permanent, ce qui fournit ain si "a poste r io r i"
e x p~ r ime ntau x

une va l idation int~ ressa nte.

2 .1,3 Corr~ lation entre LIHo et VclVo
Cette corr~lation, plus g~nerale, est d~montr~e par la figure 5 qui est
le fruit d'etudes, au modle reduit et en nature, sur 1 ' equil ibre sal in dan s les
estuaires de deux rivires nordiques: La Grande Rivire (So ciete d ' energi e de 1a
Baie Jame s) et La Grande Rivire de la Baleine (Hydro-Quebec).
Ce diagramme en grandeurs adimensionnelles, qui permet de determiner
rapidement en fonction du d~bit d'eau douce la limite sup~rieure des eau x sa l~e s
dans ces deux estuaires, a ete etabli en portant les parametres LIHo en absci ss e
et log VelVa en ordonnee (L etant la longueur de penetration de 1 'eau s al~e, Ho
et Vo les profondeur et vitesse moyennes a 1 'embouchure et Vc la vites se cri tique
qui empecherait la penetration du coin sale a 1'embouchure)' ) .

(') : .; ~ :JHo ' au' g est l 'ac:aelera:tion de la pel antelUl' et p la masse

Bpecifiq!le du flui de Ze moins den"e .
va )/8"0 ' au' Q es t le debit ' eau douae et 8 la l l"geul' de La section

U'GENDE 10000



2000 A j 1610
A~ 3930
t~R1~E ~:~7~5MDE





100 L I ",.Uf.,y /
I #,,/



POINTS O' OBSERVATION" in situ 10 20

GRANDE RIVIERE(79 .04 .26 .'79.07.10) 10



o 2 4 6 8 10 12 14)(10 3

On remarque qu'il ya une bonne correlation entre les deux quantites,

pour des valeurs 2<Vc /V o <225 en regime d'eau libre et 14 <Vc/Vo <6 600 sous
couverture de glace , Cette correlation confirme l ' importance du nombre
densimetrique de Froude Fo = l/(Vc/V o ), int r oduit pa r Keulegan (1952) dans
1 'etude de s phenomenes de remontee de 1 'eau sa1ee dans les estuaires,
Jusqu'a present, 1a relation reposait sur des points experimentaux
obtenus a 1'aide d'essais sur modele s reduits, sauf pour une observation "in situ"
dans 1'estuaire de La Grande Riviere de 1a Baleine, en date du 29 juillet 1976, En
portant dans le diagramme les limites superieures de la remontee saline observees
au cours de la campagne de mesures sur La Grande Riviere en regime de glace (25
avril 1979) et en regime d'eau libre (10 juillet 1979), on constate que : (a) en ce
qui concerne le regime de glaces, le point ajoute confirme remarquablement la
relation modele, tout en elargissant considerablement le domaine des valeurs
Vc/Vo couvert par les es sais (la valeur maximale pa sse de 720 a 6 600) et (b)
en ce qui con cerne le regime d'eau 1ibre, le nouveau point se situe en de~a de
la droite modele, peut-etre par defaut d'equilibre en nature (la remontee des
eaux salees n'ayant pas eu le temps d'arriver a terme, pour une situation donnee
du debit de La Grande Riviere) , Quoi qu'il en soit, ce point, s 'il etait vraiment
en de~a de la droite modele. comme d'autres du reste. tendrait a demontrer que

cette droite, qui est pratiquement l'enveloppe des resultats dans les deux

estuaires, offre un bon coefficient de s0curite.

On ne peut malgre tout affirmer que la correlation mise en evidence

dans la figure 5 serait valable dans un domaine excedant largement celui des
observations, par exemple pour des estuaires dont la morphologie et Ie regime
hydraulique seraient tres differents de ceux qui sont a la base de la relation.
Cependant, les recoupements obtenus (donnees "in situ" ou indications par
d'autres methodes de calcul) permettent d'en proposer l'utilisation, en premiere
analyse, a des estuaires de meme famille, que I 'on pourrait caracteriser a la
foi spar:
leur geometrie: loi de decroissance de la section-en-travers,
de la largeur ou de la profondeur d'aval en amont.
leur regime hydraulique: volume d'eau sous Ie niveau d'etale
de basse mer, volume de la maree, volume d'eau douce qui
pen~tre dans l'estuaire pendant un cycle de maree .

2.1.4 Incidence favorable de la couverture de glace

La protection interessante qu'offre la presence d'une couverture de
glace contre l'invasion saline est explicite, dans la figure 5, ou l'on constate
que, toutes choses egales par ailleurs, la longueur de penetration de I 'eau salee
L/Ho ne correspond, sous couverture de glace, qu'~ environ 40% de la longueur qui
serait atteinte en regime d'eau libre.
On peut a cet egard avancer diverses explications: affaiblissement du
marnage dans 1 'estuaire et du volume de la maree, modification du rapport entre
Ie frottement a 1'interface et Ie frottement aux parois, alteration des
repartitions verticales des vitesses.
2.2 Variation de la salinite en fonction du temps
Les enregistrements conti nus de la salinite cux differentes stations de
mesures concordent pour situer vers Ie ler avril 1979 (N = 125 jours) Ie point
culminant de la remontee saline sous couverture de glace. Au-dela de cette date,
les salinites decroissent d'autant plus rapidement que la station est loin a
I 'interieur de l'estuaire et est plus sensible au recul du front.
L'interet de ces enregistrements ne se limite pas aux salinites
maximales et aux variations sur plusieurs mois. lIs enseignent tout autant sur
les variations de salinite dans Ie cours d'une maree (qui interessent au plus

haut degre les biologistes) que sur celles observees d'une journee, d'une semaine
ou d'un mois a 1'autre . ..
2.3 Variation de la salinite dans Ie profil-en-long
Cet aspect deborde Ie cadre de cette communication; precisons cependant
que les mesures "in situ" et 1'etude sur modele reduit offrent la encore un
recoupement des plus satisfaisants L3] .
2.4 Profils de la salinite sur des verticales (incidence de la
couverture de glace)
Dans 1 'ensemble, les repartitions verticales refletent de forts taux
de melange . Cela etait previsible, vu Ie tres faible rapport existant entre
Ie volume d'eau douce entrant par cycle de maree et Ie volume de la maree
(parametre de Simmcns [4 J ) et d'autres parametres proposes par differents
auteurs pour caracteriser Ie degre de melange ou de stratification (methode de
lppen et Harleman, methode de Hansen et Rattray [1,5]).
Deux facteurs diminuent 1 'uniformite de cette repartition verticale
[3], a savoir:
la proximite du front salin
la couverture de glace, dont la presence tend a diminuer
la salinite dans les couches superfiCielles, sousjacentes
a ce:1'! -ci, comme 1'avaient mis en evidence les essais
sur modele [2J

Pour 1'essentiel, ces observations "in situ" confirment les conclusions
des etudes prealables et notamment la protection interessante qu'offre la presence
d'une couverture de glace vis-a-vis des remontees salines, dont elle limite
notablement 1 'amplitude.
L'ensemble des mesures recueillies ne concerne pas que la position du
front saumatre. 11 offre une bonne description des phenomenes physiques
(variation de la salinite en fonction du temps, variation dans Ie profil-en-long
et variation sur des verticales ... ) et permet de cerner l' influence des facteurs
dominants tels que Ie debit fluvial, les marees, les niveaux d'eau, Ie vent . ..
Cependant, 1'interpretation de detail est souvent compliquee par Ie caractere
transi toire des phenomenes, qui se modi fient sous l' infl uence des facteurs
dominants avant d'avoir atteint un etat d'equilibre.

Enfin, i1 est important de sou1igner que 1es precautions pri ses pour
limiter les remontees salines dans 1'estuaire de La Grande Riviere ont
effectivement permis de sauvegarder les populations de poissons vi sees par les
mesures adoptees [6] .

Societe d'energie de la Gaie James.

"La modification de 1'equilibre salin dans

1'estuaire de La Grande", Dl'cembre 1976, par

C. Marche, T.T. Quach et P. Desroches.

2 Socil'te d'energie de la Baie James.

"t1ode 1e redui t de l' es tua ire de La Grande Ri vi ere:

Risque s d'intrusio n sa line au debut du remp1i ssage

de 1a retenue de LG 2", rapport LHL- 715,

Janvier 1978, par Richard Boivin.

3 Societe d'energie de la Baie James.

"Invasion sal ine dans le bief d'aval de LG 1, au

debut du remplissage du rl'servoir LG 2 - Observations

"in situ" - Analyse et comparaison avec les

enseign ements des I'tudes theorique et sur modele

reduit, rapport LHL-774,

Decembre 1979 , par Richard Boivin.

"Some Effects of Upland Dis charge on Estua r ine

Hydraul i cs ", September 1955, by Henry B. Simmons,
ASCE Proceedings Paper 792.

5 "Estuari es: A Physical Introducti on", K.P. Dyer

(John Wiley &Sons, 1972), pp. 14-20.

6 Societe d'energie de la Baie James.

"Coupure de La Grande Riviere: Peri ode cri tique

pour la faune aquatique en aval du barrage de LG 2",

par Octave Caron et Dominique Roy - Eau du Quebec,

Vol. 13, No 1, pp. 23-28.



Les auteurs demontrent, dans cette interessante communication, la

resistance qu'exerce une couverture de glace a la progression d'un front salin.
Les calculs et les essais sur modeles, recoup~s de fa~on tres satisfaisa nte par
des mesures "in situ", tiennent egalement en compte les effets de la man"e.
L'estu ai re de la Grande Riviere etait un choix judicieux pour ces etudes
d'une part, parce qu'on y retrouve des conditions hi ver nales fort rigoureuses
favorisant la formation rapide de la couverture de glace qui s'etablit soit par
accumulation de fra si l dans les zones de grandes vitesses, soit par epaississement
du couvert dan s les zones plus calme s pt, d'autre part, parce que les amplitudes
de la maree sont mesurables et peuvent atteindre assez faci lement lm50 a
1 'embouchure, lorsque le debit de la Grande Riviere est faible.
11 est rassurant de noter, qu'en general, les mesures effectuees "in
situ" , confirment les hypoth eses theoriques et les essais en laboratOire mais
affichent egalement des valeurs qui sont securi tai res ce qui prouve, une fois de
plus, que des modeles en similitude de Fro ude, en autant que les conditions aux
limite s et les do nn ees physiques soient respectees, donnent des resultats sur
le sque l s on peut se fier tout en conservant un facteur de securite qu'il est,
notre avis, essentiel de maintenir dans tous les calculs dingenierie. 11 est
important de soul igner que le s ecarts parfois sens ibles que 1 'on constate entre
les valeurs s ur modele et les llIesures "in si tu" , so nt fort probablement dues au
reg ime d'equilibre qui etait necessairement atteint sur le modele mais non en
nature. D'ailleurs, notarnment dans les mouvements du front sal in de la fi gure 2,
les valeurs maximales rnesur~es au 225e jour (debit modele = debit a 1 'embouchure
de la Grande Riviere = 110 m3 /s) , se rapprochent de la valeur donnee par le modele
rnais demeurent inferieure s f aute d'avoir atteint 1 'equilibre, puisqu'immediatement
apres le debit de la Grande Riviere etait porte a 140 m3 /s, ce qu i a eu pour effet
de repou sser le front sale vers 1 'embouchure.
Les auteurs ont, par 1a suite, tente de ge neral iser le s theories, en
faisant une corre lation entre le nombre densimetrique de Froude et le rapport
adimensionnel (L/Ho) pour deux rivieres du Quebec ayant sensiblement le merne type
d' ecou lement, soit 1a Grande Riviere et la Grande Riviere de la Baleine pour
laquelle des mesure s "in situ" et sur modele reduit avaient deja He rea l isees.

Les resultats montrent une assez bonne corr~lation pour les valeurs de (Vc/Vo)
inferieures a 20. Pour des valeurs superieures, cependant, la correlation est
nettement moins bonne. On remarquera, toutefois, que pour une riviere donnee,
les correlations sont tres valables entre la maree moyenne et la maree maximum.
Ces correlations ouvrent la porte a la recherche, et les auteurs sont conscients
que les resultats obtenus pourraient etre utilises, en premiere analyse, a des
estuaires de me me famille mais certainement pas, tout au moins pour le moment,
a n'importe quel type d'estuaire.
Nous tenons donc a feliciter les auteurs pour leur excellent travail
et nous so uhaitons vivement que leurs travaux puissent inciter les scientifiques
a poursuivre les recherches dans ce domaine afin que l'environnement , qui est
maintenant notre dernier espoir de conserver des conditions de vie acceptables,
puisse en beneficier pleinement.

Les impacts sur 1 'environnement des amenagements hydroelectriques

meritent d'etre etudi~s et optimises pour les am~liorer. Des sommes enormes

sont consacrees d des amenagements mitigateurs ou compensateurs de maniere d

rendre 1 'ensemble du projet acceptable.

Les impacts dus a la construction des amenagements peuvent, a premiere

vue, etre moins importants; la construction est en effet une phase temporaire.
Neanmoins, et c'est le cas ici, les consequences peuvent etre permanentes et
justifier que des mesures de conservation soient prises. 11 peut etre frustrant
pour 1 'ingenieur d'avoir ales considerer, les etudes coOt-ben~fice etant la
plupart du temps defavorables sur ce plan, vu la nature provisoire de ces mesures.
Une bonne connaissance du milieu et un objectif precis permettent

cependant d l'ingenieur d'evaluer plusieurs scenarios. Nous voyons i ci qu'un

impact negatif provisoire peut etre attenue en lai ssant la nature, dans son

caractere cyclique, travailler pour soi. L'idee est originale et fait preuve

d'un esprit de synthese que 1 'on aimerait voir se manifester souvent.

L'hypothese etant posee, les etudes sur modeles mathematique et

physique permettent de verifier son fondement . Enfin, les mesures sur le site

valident ces modeles.

Nous nous rejouissons de la validation des corr~lations entre 1'intrusion

et le debit, ainsi qu'entre L/Ho et Vc/Vo par des mesures in situ.
Nous remercions vivement HM. McNeil et Lariviere de leurs commentaires
ob1igeants, qui reconnaissent d'une part 1'interet du sujet traite et sou1ignent
d'autre part 1a fiabi1ite de l'etude sur modele reduit, mise en relief par
cette campagne de mesures "in situ".
Comme nous 1 'avons nous-memes sou1igne, la correlation entre le nombre
densimetrique de Froude et 1e rapport adimensionnel (L/Ho) a 1 'avantage d'etre
d'app1ication facile, mais el1e ne peut etre etendue a d'autres estuaires qu'avec
precaution. Nous venons de 1e faire pour un estuaire de meme famille, ce1ui
de 1a riviere Eastmain, et avons trouve qu'el1e offrait effectivement un bon
coefficient de sec urite par rapport a 1'invasion sali ne observee dans cette
riviere, apres son detournement dans la Grande Riviere.

How did you cope with friction and di stor tion in the scale model tests

The hydraulic scale model ~Je utilized was the existing overall model
of the La Grande River Es tuary, \~hose horizontal and vertical scales \~ere 1/600
and 1/150 respectively.
With the above scales and distortion factor, it was possible to adjust
friction with artificial roughness grains fi xe d on the bed so as to reproduce
both the water level s and tide amplitudes correctly, unde r the clear water test
The ice material (polyethylene grains) which was used in the ice
covered tests was also chosen so as to suit friction and ice tran spor t criteria
in a satisfactory manner .


HIRAYA~ , Ke n-l ch l T.. . r ,')t e 11n i verc; it y JAPAN


I)es i ;~ n o f cha nn e l s. i ., co ld r egions requ ire s , e ttp [ un der s t:tndings of a n ice

('over"'~ s tr ea ~, slJch .::ts the k notJ! e rl e of hydraul i t:' res i strinc e of th e ice cove r and a
metho d to e V<:Ilur'lte A cO T:lpo s i t e rou S! n ~ss coef f i.cie nt for;) sec ti o n. Howeve r llt era
tll r e rl ,nl l t Lee r():I?, hn e~sJ f or eX(ln ple , stl l t inriic ;1tI)s a wid e v<1riety o f t he i ce re
-.; .l:5t lne ,= f ro l., h ydra u li ca ll y s~,ooo th to a (';),se wh ich is :l l mo s t a~ 1ar:-:l' .'lS f oc na t u [" a l

river DC c:. . Hence t o ob c. I ,t mor!' r10fi n it ,;. i ',ro rm a tl o n, f i ve yea r s fi e l rl i n ves t'i ga
t i n n was pl.1. n n~ c\ ;"ln ci r erforrned i '1 HokkAi. rl O. Rase d o n the me AS: lr e r:l nt s thi s pap er de

-;cr lhe s s e ver<1 1 hydrau Li c fC:lt ures o f i.('e -cov('r( ~d s t re:l " S ; a ft e r a f1roc e ss of t c e
r OIJ,;?, r f or11.at ton Is eX f1 18. inerl, from ~) b se r va ti r) n s of vert i ca l nnve me nt s f)f t he cove r i t
i "i con r l llcie rl th rlt a n l ce cover ls f l o ;) t i n~ o n the 5u r f ~ c e o f I..,' ater a nci cove re d th is
': iJ LHl ne l f low ha~ ;J pr ess ur e equn L to a . . .' e i 9;h t o f t he lce Cf)ver . The n ~1tl.nnin g ' s

rl)( I ~~11I)eSS cf)eff icie ntt; for t he cove r rlr e co~:)u t e ci fr ol'l me ;)sur ed ve l oc it y cif.s t r lh u
t i~~: ~ :lnd g r c) up ed in accordance with i ce co nd i ti o ns as a f l a t and smooth i c e co ver,
ripp l e d iC2 cover, a cove r Ivit h f r az il lee flowin g or accumu l a ting u nder t he cover .
.\ :)('1 :] "',l jnit u ri e of t he c oeffici en t for eac h o f th ese cases i.s obtai ned . An
ana l y tic ~l for l'l ula f o r eva l uatln~ the compos it e ro u g hn ess i s a l so propos ed and t he
ide " to rl e r ive this f orm ul a i s tes ted sat isfac t ory by compari ng a t h eo retical
rel atlo nshlp for a ro slt l on o f r e lative depth o f t he ma xi mum ve l oc it y and a ra t lo of
rou~ ~ "~('':;s coe ff i.ci.en t s f or r i ve r bed and Lee c o ve r '.. ,r ith results me,l s ured i n the
f le I.rl s .

Freezlng of Flowing water is a common nrltural phenom eno n in the northern part of
Jaran. Thickness of an ice cover s om e times e Kce eds 50 em, and there ha s been ob
served a considerable increa s e o f water stage and a corresponding c ha nge of water
rlischarge - s tage relation s hi p . A safer design of a channel and more accurate
e~timrttion of the writer discharge durln g winter truly requires a better under s ta nd ing
o f hydra ulics of ice-c o vered streams and flow resistance of the cover as suggested in
mAny pa pers; Ne zhlhkor s ki y l8] summarLzed Russian literature a nd Manning's roughness
coefficients for a sLush ice cover a nd for a smooth cove r. Care y l3] made a n observa
tIon of ice ripples, water di sc harge under the c o ver at St. Croix river in USA and
roughne ss coefficients for a ~ec tion were obtained, from which coefficients for the
Lc e cov er itself were computed by BeLkon- Sa haneev equati on. Larsenl71 performed a
s imiLa r observation aLong channels of a SwedIsh power plant and several characteris
tics of a flow under rtn ice cover and a reLationship of roughness coefficients for
river bed, l c e c over and Cl composite roughness coeffi c ient were in vesti ga ted. Yu and
et all1 21 also proposed a method to evaluate a composite roughnes s coefficient of an
lee-covered sec tion and Uz unerll O] made a summary o f va rious formulae for the rough
ness. However, rou ghn ess coeff1.cients given Ln these papers are not specific enough
when an ice conditi on is g Iven and aLso reLationships among roughness coefficients
a re not always theoretically clear and often hased on a wrong assumption. Hence a
maln purpos e of this paper is to coLLect more information about the roughness coef
ficlent In the field and improve our understandin gs about the flow resist a nce of an
ice cover. In the fIrst part of this paper our field measurements and a process of
the Ice cover formation are briefly described and a vertical movement of the ice
cover, which is import an t to realize a fL ow under the cover, is explained in the Suc
ceeding section. Then Manning's coefficients obtained from measured velocity di s trl
buttons are explained and in the l a st sect ion an equation for the composite roughness
Is rroposed.


Field measurements of present Investigations started in 1975 in Saru rl ve r and
~uk awa river and after the third year many rivers in the no rth eastern part of
Hokkaido were chosen to study under various hydraulic a nd climatic conditions. t1ea
surements were planned three t ime s a year; one prior to the ice cover formation, one
at the heginning of free ze -up and one at mid-winter. Main items f o r field investiga
tions are given as follows; (I) i ce thickness distribution, (2) water surface pro
fiLe, (3) velocit y distribution and (4) vertical movement of an ice cover etc. For
the first two winters our equipment was not endurable against the cold climate and
aLso a snow drift and a warm winter of succeeding years gave us difficulties to find

ciesirrl.blc conditions for me.1sureml?nts. For the measurements of item (1), (2) and
(4), common equipments sllch as a level, an ice ;luger, a ch<'lin saw and a tape and
weight cievice for a measurement of ice thickness etc. are useci. For velocity me,l
surelnents four types of current meter - Price meter, two propeller type current
meters with a ciiameter uf 80 mm, Pitot tube of a 10 !lUll diameter with a he,1ter allci two
electro-magnetic current Ineters were tried. Price meter did not work weli when the
rotating cones catch flowing frazil ice while electro-magnetic current meters were
gellerally good since tlley do not have any mech~nical parts excel>t when the fra~il ice
ls In lts magnetlc fleld and lnstabllltles of the slgnal are recogni7.ed. Supporting
rods of several lengths, which stand on <'I bottom of the river, were prepared to get ~

correct ciepth of the meter anci to obtain precise measurements of a distrihution.

Hore than JOO veiocity dlstrihutions were att;)ined and their ice conditions were
checked for about a half of the ciistributions. The maximum ciepth and the maximum
mean velocity for these distrihutions were 3.0 m and l.2 m/sec respectively.


Earliest free7.ing in Hokk<'licio starts at the beginning of December anci lasts for
more than three months till the last ice dis;:j,ppe<'lrs in April. t1easurernents of water
ternperc::lture( 11] show that it begins to decreAse in August and reaches to the freezLng
point in December. lnitLation of an lce covc.r is foliowed by flowing frazLl
particles which are called by many local names. Flm.,rlng down a stream they stick
together to enlarge in size and clog in ~ reach of mild velocity anci at a river
mouth, or are stopped at a weir crossing the stream. Massive alnount of ice supplied
from the upstream wraps the water surface promptly and a complete lce cover is estab
lisherl in a day anci the front of the c loggeci ice moves upstream very fast, say
km/day at Mukawa rlver of Dec. 23, 1976. Thls type of Lce formatlon is easlly
noticed in a water st;:j,ge record since there is an ahrupt increase of water stage.
Another type of ice formatlon is a shore lce growing Llttle hy little towards the
center of the stream. When a slope of a river ls steeper than 1/700 - 1/IOOfl, only
the shore lee formatlon ls posslhle In I-Iokkalrlo. Soon after the lce formatlon an
underside of the cover is pretty rough and this l1neven ice thickness disappears when
the lce grows thlcker. Thlckenlng of the ice cover also takes place on the upper
surface of the cover quite often; after a snowfail, water penetrates and immersed
snow wllL freeze. Aceordlngly, a predlciton of the lce thlckness In Hokkalrlo can not
be accurate enough when a degree-day factor is simply consiciererl, and precipitation
as well as the ;:j,mount of rainf;:j,ii are not taken into account. Frazil ice can stay
under the cover when a velocity is not high anci this hecomes solici and increases the
thickness. Ice of this type can be easily seen since ~ portion of frozen frazii ice

looks yellow or brown due to suspended sediment lnrlusion; the limiting velocity for
non-accumulation was found O.R m/ s. Temperature of water generally stays above zero
once the water surface ls covered with lrtyers o f ice and snow. Then a . . .avy form
called an ice ripple is originated by flow of turbulent water. Further development
of rippies causes a separatlon of flow and results In R thlnner and weakened lce
cover, which ls flnally broken due to the action of increasing water discharge.


Formation of an ice cover brings an increase of wetted perLmeter . . . ith a flow
resistance and introduces a certain amount of hydraulic pressure to the flow under
the cover. In this section observations for a vertical movement of an ice cover,
which is important to understand a covered channel flow of thls type, are briefly
described. Observation s of water surface profrLes!41. in a reach of uniform cross
section shows that a profi.le with an ice cover was raised extensively though a . . . ater
discharge in winter is generally 10 . . . , and it seems that an ice cover has enough
flexibility for a longitudinal change of water surface. In Figure I, a relationship
between a change of water level and a corresponding variation of ice cover surface,
measured in several rivers in Hokkaido, is depicted and it l s easily known that the
both changes are equal and a vertical movement of Lce cover is free from a restric
tion due to a connection between shores and the cover. A theoretical investigation
about the strength of an ice cover fixeo and hinged to shores predicts a crack forma
tion in the flow direction with only a small change of water level!)l. Hence it is
concluded that, for the climate condition in Hokkaido, the cover is floating on the
water surface and a pressure under the cover ls the same as the welght of the ice
cover. Therefore an increase of water stage ls composed of two factors; an effect of
ice thickness and a flow resistance introduced by the lce cover.


Flow under an ice cover has two boundaries . . . ith a different roughness and a
position of the maximum velocity is lo.. . er compared to a case wi.thout an ice cover
(see Fig. 2), and it will depend certainly on the roughness of the ice cover. In
this section a flow resistance of an lce cover is investigated from measured velocity
distributions and expressed in terms of Manning's roughness coeffi c ient n. When a
velocity distribution is represented by a logarithmic velocity profile distribution,
a shear velocity u* is calculated by following methods; (1) plotting u and log y to
fit a linear relationship and its slope is equal to 2.30 u*/k (k ~ 0.4, Karman con
stant), (2) using the maximum velocity umax and the mean velocity V obtained from
the distribution and apply a relation u* ~ (u max - V)/2.5. Then Manning's rough
ness coefficient n is given by Manning-StrickLer's equation or us ing relations of

V/u* = 18/f and f = 8gn Z /y1/3, whe re Y is a distance to the roaxinum velocity from
the boundary. Values of n calculated by these two me thods are compared in Fig. 3,
whlch shows a tendency of sllghtly larger n by the first method. As indicated by
Nikitin and introduced by Sinotin[9], the measured nistributions showed a small dif
feren ce from the logarlthmic law arounn the maximum velocity. States o f ice-flow
interface were observed for each of the distributions and the y are classified into
four patterns as; (1) flat and smooth ice cover, (2) rippled lce cover, (3) frazil
ice accumulating under a co ver and (4) frazil ice fl ow ing under a cover. Pattern (2)
has a rather wi de variation; it includes a very gentle waVe form for which a separa
tlon of the flow will not occur, and also a sharp form having a ratlo of wave length
to the he ight close to one as sh own in Fig. 4. Pattern (3) corresponds to a state
when a cloun of frazll lce stays under the cover. The ice concentration for this
accumulating frazll ice was about 30 - 40%, for example and shearing strength of
united frazil particles was a order of - 100 gr/crrf. when it was measured by a vane
with a ranius 40 mm and a height 100 mm, depending on the concentration of the ice
and on the degree of bondage between particles. This strength was larger than the
shear ing force of the flowing water. In pattern (4) a vertical di s tribution of ice
concentration and an int erm ittent passage of a cloud of frazil ice were very commonly
observed. Figure 5 shows Manning's roughness coefficient for each of these ice con
ditions. Mean value for each pattern is given as, (1) n = 0.0111, (2) n = 0.021i,
(3) n = 0.0252 and (4) n = 0 .0168. And it is also deduced from the figure that for
pattern (1) the coe fficient n rare ly exceeds 0.02 and for pattern (2) the coefficient
may change from 0.015 to 0.03, depending on the form of ice ripples; as far as the
present in ve stig a tion are concernen the height of the ripples had the most dominant
effect on the coeffl cie nt. For pattern (3) n ranges from 0.02 to 0 .03, which is
certainly larger than n for pattern (1).


An ex pression for a composite rou ghness coefficient of two dimensional flow
shown in Figure 6 is derived by a similar procedure as Larsen[7] and compared with
the result of fieln nea s urements. In Flgure 6 YO is a total de pth and YI and Yz are
a depth of i nfluence region for a river bed and for an ice cover res pe ctively. When
mean ve locities for Yo' Y I and Yz are VA' VI and Vz r es pe c ti ve ly, equations (1) and
( 2 ) a re satisfien,
Yo = Y 1 I- YZ --- ( 1) Yo Va = Y1 VI + Y2 Vz --- (2)
Using frictlon co e ffIcients fl and fz for the both boundaries and fa for a cross
sectlon, ann a s s uming energy gra nients for both r eg ions are the same Eqs. (3) and (4)

are g iven,
fjVIZYI = f 2 V/Y 2 --- (3 ) fjVj 2 + f2V/ = 2fOVOZ - -- (4)
Ellmlnatlng Y2 from Eqs. (I) ~nd (3) , usl ng n for f, Eq . (5) is ob tained as
1'2/VI = (n l /n2) (YO/Y I - I) Z/3 --- (5)
On the o th er hand expressing a velocity cl.Ls tribution by il logarithmic equation t s
ulu* ~ 2.1 In 30 yt/k l - - - (6)
where ul is a ve locti y at d distance Yi froM the boundary i (i = l, river bed; i
;::; 2, ice cover) and ki. i s .3 height of rOtlRhness . Cal cu lation of a me~n ve locit y
and ct maximum veloclt y results in the following equati on s;


/sTf Z 2 . 5 [In (30Y /k

z z) - I) --- (8)

Using F.qs. (7) , (8) a nd (9) , ki C~1l he e limina ted and fi is written In terms of
ni' Then co" blnlng with F.q . (5) , a funn i on of Yj /Y O f or g iven "I' "z a nd YO Is
ob tained.

_ y /Y ) 1 /2
1/(2 . 1/-;n
~ j ) (Y j / Y0 )1 / 6 + I/Y 0 1/6 (I
1 0
- - - -- - - - -- - - - - --- --- ( 10)

liene e wh e n Y1/Y O is calculated for given n1' n2 and YO by F.q . 10 ,

M rati o V2 /V 1 is

attained thro ugh Eq. (' , and a reLA.tionship be tween no/n1 and n2 /n 1 exp res s e d as,

no 1 2 /3
n;- ~ (z-) --- (11)

which is equi va lent to an expres s ion givel) by Larsenl7l. Figure 7 shows a

relationship of Eq. 10 and ",ea sured Y1/Y O and c~lculated nl/nZ i n the prevlous
sect ion. For a ran ge of Yo ~ 0 . 5 m - 1 . 0 m thl s cu rve in the figure Ca n he used with
reas o ncthLe .1cc urac y . The re is ;} scattering of data poin t s a round the curve , but ~

coinci de nce of theoretlci'll appr oa ch to Field dat3 i s appr ox Lmate 1y observed. Thus a
valldity of eq. II, which I s derived un der the same <1ssumption, ls also end orsed (sec
Fig. 8) .


Thls paper ls a s ummar y of fie ld investigations In ~okk " l.jo and the foLlowlng

22 9

conclusions are attained.

(I) Typical procedures of an ice cover formation and thickening of the cove r are

well understood.

(2) The water stage in the ice-covered period is raised by an amount which is

equal to the weight of the ice cover in addition to a rise caused by a resistance of

the cover.

(3) Manning's roughness coefficients for various s tates of i ce-flow interface

are obtained from measurements of velocity distribution in the field.

(4) An equation for the composite roughness is reasona bl y obtained and its basic

idea for the derivation is tested by field dta.

Hence these conclusions would be useful for design of channels, a prediction of

water stage and an estimation of water discharge in rivers in freezing regions.

However, further informations from the field ab out ice ripple formation and its

development and about many properties of frazil ice are definitely required to come

closer to the goal of this study while theoretical and experimental investigations

are strong l y desired to get a wide and inclusive comprehension of the problems.


Author expresses thanks to Hokkaido Development Bureau for supporting thi s

investigation and to all colleagues of lwate University who pa rt!cipa te~ in field



[IJ Ashton, G.D., Kennedy, J.F., Ripples on underside of river ice cover, ASCF.,

Proc. of Hydr. Div., pp. 1603- 1624, 1972.

[2J Calkins, D.J., Deck, D., Martinson, C" Analysis of velocity profiles under ice

in shallow streams, Workshop on hydraulic resistance of river ice, Burlington

(Canada), pp. 94-111, 1980.

[3J Carey, K., Characteristics of river ice, at St. Croi x river, USGS Prof. paper

575-C, pp. 200-207, 1967.

[4J Hirayama, K" Characteristics of ic e-cove red streams in connection with water

discharge measurements, IAHR Ice Sym., Lulea, pp. 197-217, 1978.

[5J Hirayama, K., Characteristics in hydraulics of ice-covered streams, Proc. of

24th Japanese confe rence on hydraulics, Tokyo, pp. 139-146, 1981.

[6J Komora, J., Sumbal, J., Head losses in cha nnels of ice - cov ered streams, IAHR

XII Congr., Fort Collins, pp. 270-278, 1969.

[7J Larsen, P., Head losses caused by an ice cover on an open channel, Journal of

Boston Soc. of Civil Engrs, Vol. 56, No.1, pp. 45-67, 1969.

[8J Nezhikhorskiy, R., Coefficient of roughness of bottom surface of slush-ice
cover, Soviet Hydrology, AGU Pub., No.2, pp. 127-150, 1964.
[9J Synotin, M.S., Velocity structure of flow under ice-cover, IAHR XI Congr.,
Leningrad, pp. 81-83, 1965.
[10J Uzuner, M.S., The composite roughness of ice-covered streams, J. of Hydraulic
Research, Vol. 13, No.1, pp. 79-102, 1975.
[IIJ Yamaguchi, K., Nishimura, Y., Measurements of water temperature and freeze-up of
rivers in Hokkaido, Report of Civil Engr. Res. Inst., Sapporo, No.8, 1965.
[12J Yu, K.H., Graf, W.H., Levine, G., The effect of ice on the roughness coefficient
of St. Clair river, Proc. of 11th Conf., Great Lake Research, Assoc. Great Lakes
Resea rc h, pp. 668-680, 1968.

23 1
40 (em) ./
Saru r.

/ Figure 1
'Tako ro r. 11 1

To koro r. [ 21 ;'0 :/ Change of water stage and

C h~nge 0 f I sh~ka r i r ,/ co:-'re s po nd i n g change of
ice co ve r el evation.
I ce co ver ,/
Eleva t i on 1/
- 40 20 0 20 40
* i ni tt 1
- 2U Lt.'a ct inq!; iu-e
/ 5 .. a~ ze ro.
V" - 40

Figure 2
Cr o ss-se ctional
0 Him LOrn ] (1 m
veloc jty distributio n
at Ka mi kawazoi ~agi nq
station of Takora
r iver.
0 .5

1. 0 1\ q . 3[ , 1977
V c.:m/ sec
1. 5 (m ) Q l 4 . 1 7 m /s

0 lU m 20m 30m 40m

0. 5


Jan. ]1 , 1978
V ern/sec
o = 1:1 .4] 10 /s
2 .0 (m)

0 .04

'n' by
met ho d ( 2 )

. .., ..

..-.. .
,...-.. -~

0 .0
0.0 0.0 2 0. 0 4
, fl' by me t hod (1)

Figure 3
Comparison of In' cal cu lated

'- _ __ _ _ _ 0::, ===f==:::::::,?c.tI

by method (1) and (2) .

Figu re 4 I ce ripples.

0 .04r---~-----r-----'------r-----'------,

flat and s mooth

ice c o ver .
o. q,
0. 03

.:0 x mean rippled ice cove r .

- -()"""""' -.t.~o~~ - o ' - a - ' [. ) frazil ice accumulat

ing und er the cover.
-- -- - ~ - -- - -- -~-o o-~ -- - - - - - ---~ [ 0 J
0. 02 .$B "". Erazil ice flowing
0..- 0 0(': 0 " under the cover .
~. d
o .)( ::....o.::..~ .;.!..--;-...- - - [ J
0 . 01 M:J /IC4I
:~ .....
<II., <11._x- , . .

0 .0 0.01 0. 0 2 0.03 0 .04 0. 05 0 . 06

Figure 5 Roughness coefficie nt n under various

ice conditions.


:V ll ' k
-v 2 2 1. 0
2 I

Vrnax I \


O. 0.5 1.0 1. 5 2.0

Pigure 6 Figure 8
Sche ma tic vie w of flow Relation s h.i p between nO/nl and n / n
2 l
und t-~ r ic e cover .

1. a r----r----,-----r---,

Figure 7
Relation s h ip be twee n Yl/Y
and n / n , and field data.
2 l

0.2 Symbo l s a r e c x p l.l ln['d

in f ig . 5 , sho wing
i. e c<,) nd i tion 5 ,
0 .0 ~ ____ ~ _______ L_ _ _ _ _ _ ~_ __ _~

o. 0. 5 1.5 2 .0

Author of discussed paper: Hirayama, Ken-ichi
Number of paper or of sess i on: 86
Discusser name and address: J. C. Tatinclaux, USACRREL, Hanover, NH

Discussion: A ~eneral comment. In a recent study (IIHR Report No. 233, Institute
of Hydraulic Research, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242) it was found that,
in case of asymmetric flow, the point of maximum velocity does not coincide with
the point of zero shear stress, the latter being closer to the smoother boundary.
This is because the shear stress, from the steady, one-dimensional Reynolds
equation where'the turbulent diffusion term is not ne~lected, can be expressed
T a ~ + b
(a, b = constants)
At u = umax ' au/ay = 0 but a 3 u/3y 3 f 0 for asymmetric flo\v. I also found that
dividing the flow at the point of zero shear stress, rather than at the point of
maximum velocity, led to an easier interpretation and presentation of the data.
From velocity distribution measurements near boundaries the wall shear stress
can be calculated since the shear stress distribution is linear across the flow,
the location of zero shear stress can then be determined. It is well known that
the location of maximum velocity is often difficult since the velocity profile
is quite flat over a sianificant heiaht near the maximum velocity.
Author's reply: Author appreciates this comment about a distribution of shear stress
and expects further study to confirm this comment.
Certainly it is a conventional way to assume an ordinary logarithmic velocity
distribution for each boundary of asymmetric flow.
From a present study a proportional relationship between t1anning's n for
river bed and rippled ice cover was found as shown in Fi9ure A, which indicates
an interaction of flow regions corresronding to both boundaries .

Discusser name and address: Hung Tao Shen, Clarkson College of Technology
Discussion : 1) In our study on the St . Lawrence River we found the position of the
maximum velocity, Y1 or Y2, cannot be precisely determined from the measured
velocity profile. Does the author have the same ex~erience?
2) In Larsen's paper (7), there is an equation (Eq . 18) that can be used
to determine n2 without knowina Y2'
Author's reply: 1) I agree tllat a position of the maximum velocity is sometimes
difficult to determine, esrecially in a flow of large derth.
Most of data presented in this paper were obtained in a flow whose derth is
less than 1.5 m, and therefore it was rather simple work to ~et the position.

Also, a larqe number of velocity distributions up to 300 were collected so
that a tendency in nature I,ould be attained firmly.
2) n can be obtained by Manning-Strickler's equation when ks (relative
rou ghness heiqht) is determined from velocity distribution. In this equation
ks 1/6 1 nlg is assumed constant for a range of u/ u* = 5 '" 30. This relationship
would be useful to obtain ~ when a velocity distribution is measured close to the
ice cover.

Discusser name and address: Sayed Ismail, New Brunswick Electric Power Comission,
130 Carleton Street, Fredericton, N.B., CANADA

Discussion: The assumption that energy ~radients are the same in the top and bottom
zones cannot be satisfied unless there is direct relation between the location of
ma ximum velocity and the ratio vl/v2' Such assumption also implies that the
composite ener~y ~radient is also the same which cannot be true if fl is different
than f 2.
Author's reply: Total energy for a flow is

E=~+r.+h see Figure B for notations

2~ I'
Assuming a uniform flow, the energy ~radient is therefore niven as
dE = d ( v + .2. + h ) = l 9 + dh = l .c!2. - 5
dx Ox 2g w w dx dx w dx 0

which is equal for both top and bottom zone .

And by usinq momentum equations, the followinn relationship can be obtained.
1 .9J2. 11 _ 12

wdx - So pqH l - pqH2

Discusser name and address: C. D. Smith, Saskatchewan, CANADA

Discussion: Author stated in presentation that n value decreased under ice cover as
winter progressed, This suggests bottom of cover becomes smoother , Would this
be caused by more rapid freezing at thin spot (recesses) where insulation is less
and velocity is lower, so that ice thickness tends to become more uniform over
the winter re9ardless of how rough it may be when initially formed?
Author's reply: Smoothing of ice cover is achieved by a procedure discussed above
or by freezing of deoosited frazil under the ice cover. Also, a local massive
accumulation of frazil ice at the early period of freezinn disappears when a
complete ice cover forms. This establishment of more uniform ice condition
results in a decrease of apparent /1anning's n .

0 .04

"- 0 . 03

0 e
OJ 0
0 . 02 <:9 00
c" 0
0 . 01 ' e

0 .01 ' 0 . 02 0 .03 0 . 04

"n," for ri ve r bed

Fi~ure A

Y. cos e +
dx dx


Fi aure B


Mogens Jensen Swedish State Power Board

Design Engineer Civil Engineering

Vittjarv Power Plant in the lower part of Lule River in the north of Sweden has
a head of 6 m. It was built during the years 1971-1975. There are three bulb units
utilizing a maximum total flow of 690 mJ/s. Two units were taken in operation at
the end of 1974. Early 1975 serious problems arose at the plant because of a mes s
of ice floes, frazil slush and also timber logs blocking the flow through the
trash racks. To a great extent water had to be discharged through the spillways,
of which the aprons are equipped with jet deflectors to improve on energy
dissipation . Additional frazil was produced in the spillways, enhanced by the
free jets, and in open water downstream from the plant. The downstream water level
rose 2.5 m due to ice i e 40 % of the plant's head was lost. The phenomenon
of ice production in the jet flow was examined and reported to the IAHR Symposium
on Ice Problems at LuleA, 1978, by L Billfalk and R M Desmond.

In the paper some measures are described - mainly excavations - carried out during
the years 1975 - 1978 in order to eliminate the problems. Serious ice problems were
not expected at that plant, so when they occured decisions had to be taken about
preventive measures without sufficient field studies. The design could therefore
not be supported by theoretical calculations or records from the ice regime of
the river, but had to be based mainly on general knowledge and judgements. The
following winters some features such as air and water temperatures, development
of ice covers, and headlosses were recorded. During intermediate summertimes
excavation works were carried out . Until this year it seemed as if the chosen
proportions of the works had given acceptable results.

The paper describes the measures taken and the results in terms of improved

winter condition s as far as they are known to date.

1. Introduction

A case history is presented of ice problems in a 10 km river section prior to,

during and after the construction of a hydro power station at the upstream end
of the section. The river section is situated in the lower part of the Lule
river in northern Sweden. It is bounded at its lower end of Boden hydro power
plant, situated 30 km upstream of the outfall in the Gulf of Bothnia at LuleA.
The annual average discharge is 500 m3 s -1, however, large upstream storage
reservoirs enable discharge greater than the average to be kept during the winter
season. Fig 1 shows an overall map of the Lule river.

The construction of Vittj~rv power

station started in 1971. It

NORWAY r utilizes a head of only 6 m through

three bulb units. Seven Tainter
....,! gated spillways supplied with jet
..... deflectors with a capacity of
.. ,
... 'r
2000 m'is are incorporated in the
' t~
,, low dam. The three units, each of
230 m)/s -1 capacity, were brought
on line during the winter of 1974/75:
Nov 1, Dec .19 and Feb 13.

, ,

Fig 1 Overall map of Lule River

2. River characteristics

Fig 2 is a map of the river from river station 33 km, 3 km upstream from

Boden pm"er plant, to river station 41 km, 1.5 km upstream from Vittj~rv

power plant. It is noted that the river is winding and contains islands

which divide the flow section into branches. Fig 3 shows that the river

bottom has a fairly gentle slope of order 10- 3 , but also that the bottom
Fig 2 Map of section of Lule River

Ri ver section 33 km - 41 km

contour is ir regular. This is further reflected in the area curve shown in Fig 3.
Cross sectional areas vary between roughly 3000 m' and 200 m<. This indicates
that ~Iater velocities with a flow of 500 m'/s vary from a couple of tenths to
2.5 m/s. (Not known before 1975).

T 6~~--~~C=~~-t--
m ____ -r______"I______ TI_______rl______1 ______r-____~_____

RIVER FLOW 530 m3/, WATER lEVEL 1975 JAN 29

500 1976 JAN 12
+1 o
565. 1979 JAN 3
550. 1979 OEC 12
1981 JAN 22


l000m 2


AT RIVER FLOW 500 m 3 /s

ST A TION 39 38 37 36
35 34
Killing Mannbergs
holmen holmen "

Fig 3 Highest water levels of five winters. Cross-sectional areas

River bottom elevation. (at deepest point )

Backwater effects from the dam at Boden are felt along the entire length
to Vittjarv although the stage there is little affected compared to natural
conditions. Fig 3 shows a water surface profile with a discharge of 500 m's -l
and ice-free river. The head loss with these conditions is approximately 0.7 m
or less than 10- 4 m/ m on average.

Table I
Cross-sectional Area (m' ) Width (m) Max of depth (m)

dimensions related

to the water level before after before after before after

at discharge 500 m'/s excav. excav. excav. excav. excav. excav.

Ri ver Branch

station of fl ow

40.4 km The river 1100 1100 300 300 3.5 3.5

The channel 365 70 6.5

38.1 km The ri ver 210 180 150 130 4.6 4.5

The channe 1 400 95 4.7

37.4 km Ri ght (main 1500 1480 230 230 8.2 8.1

Left 75 70 60 60 1.3 1.2

37 km. Left (main) 450 700 250 250 5.2 7.2

Right 220 220 100 100 4.1 4.1

36.7 km Left (main) 670 860 250 220 6.5 6.5

Ri ght 260 260 165 165 3.3 3.3

34.5 km 550 550 130 130 9.5 9.5

Table I summarizes some topographic and hydraulic data of cross sections which
are known to playa role in ice behavior.

Ice covering normally occurs in the middle of November where hydraulic conditions
so permi t.

3. Ice conditions prior to and during plant construction

Considerable surplus elevations due to ice jamming were known to occur both

upstream and downstream from the construction site. During the construction

trOUblesome, high water elevations were encountered in winter times. These

occurences were, however, not contemplated as potential operational problems

for the completed power station. Problems on the upstream side were difficult
to predict due to the favorable effects, hard to assess, of raising the water
level at the dam.

During the winter 1974/75, before all three units were commissioned, severe ice
problems were encountered at Vittjarv . While normally the Lule river becomes
ice covered in late November - where hydraulic conditions permit - considerable
areas remained open water adjacent to the station. As late as February 6, 1975,
aerial photographs revealed 0.25 km' open water immediately upstream from Vittjarv
and 0.30 km 2 downstream within a 3 km section of the river. Commencing mid
December large quantities of frazil and products thereof floated to and clogged
the intake of the only unit then being operational . Regular operation was not
possible. When unit No two was operational December 19 its operation was equally

Due to the restricted operation of the power plant a great part of the river flow
was discharged through the spillways. Ice production from upstream, probably
reinforced by ice production in the spillway jets (Billfalk and Desmond 1978) and
ice production in the open water downstream from Vittjarv caused clogging of the
waterway in the ice covered section. Velocities at the upstream edge were
sufficiently high that approaching ice was submerged and carried downstream . The
cover did not progress in the upstream direction further than to river station
36.5 . Water levels at Vittjarv rose as much as 2 m,thus further reducing the
station output. During three months of that winter power production was only
about half of expected.production.

4. Remedial measures

The problems encountered during the winter 1974/75 called for immediate decision
on measures that would improve on winter time operation. A method to prevent
frazil production is to provide conditions for an ice cover to form. In practice
two ways are possible or a combination of these . One is to reduce water velocities
by providing larger cross sectional areas. The other is to initiate cover
formation in sufficiently calm water upstream of high velocity sections, by
placing of ice booms. A combination of these measures was chosen. The aim was
to enable ice covering wi th flows in a range up to 500 m3 s - I Complete covering
would not b~ expected but frazil production in remaining leads was expected to
be of minor importance. It was hoped that additional head loss from frazil
accumulation would not exceed half a meter at Vittjarv.

It was obvious that large quantities would have to be dredged and it was deemed,
in order to save time, that lay-out of dredgings should be based on judgement and
experience. Model tests were not performed for the river downstream of river
station 38 but an existing model of the upstream area between that station and
river station 41 was consulted for guidance.

a) Measures upstream of Vittjarv

To provide reduced velocities a channel was excavated to the left of the main

channel along a shallow section between stations 40.1 km and 40.5 km. Selection

of the lay-out had the advantage, besides easy, land based dredging, of

straightening the approach flow to the station intakes.

The flow accelerates toward the intakes and reaches velocities too high for an
ice cover to form. It was doubtful whether velocities in the area of the smal
islands would be low enough for natural ice bridging . Therefore ice booms were
placed downstream of the islands as shown in Fig 2 which also shows the location
of the excavated channel. The hydraulic effects on flow distribution and velocities
was studied in the model which was also used to find the most favourable position
of the ice boom.

b) Meas ures downs tream of Vi ttjarv

The curvature of the river bet\~een stations 39 km and 38 km combined with shallow
cross sections caused flow concentrations with high velocities and strong
turbulence in the area adjacent to and downstream of river station 38.1, which
had the minimum effective wetted area downstream of Vittjarv. A channel was
proposed through the island as shown in Fig 2. A total of 230 000 mJ was excavated
at this location increasing the \~etted area as shown in Fig 3.

Around river station 37 km the main channel to the left of the island was very
irregular. Previous observations had shown that the most severe ice blockages
had occurred downstream of this section, and ice covers were not able to progress
upstream through it .

The extent of dredgings suggested in this part of the river, from station 37.4 km
to station 36.6 km, is shown in Fig 2 and in Fig 3.

In order to ensure ice cover progression upstream of the narrow section at the

bridge, station 34.5 km, an ice boom was suggested at a wide, spacious cross

section, see Fig 2.




:. . I

e /10


.~. /.ID

.~ /1-0
. i9f5 J: :...
... "1'" Secl ion between ,iver ,Ulions ; ;. :
... "- , : . !. . 1 i. 39.S.m - 42.0 km W.
i Are. 1.08 km 2 1:

Fig 4 Change of ice covered area in tenths of total river area during
winter seasons before and after completion of remedial measures.

The suggested measures comprised excavation and dredging of some 315 000 mJ , a
substantial part of it under difficult conditions. The works were completed
before the beginning of the 1978/79 winter season.

5. Observed effects of remedial measures

a. Upstream of Vi ttjarv
Experiences of four winter seasons after completion of the excavation indicate
that conditions are much better. In fact, due to improved velocity distribution
upstream of the small islands, used for anchoring the ice booms, it has become
debatable whether the boom is required. Ice bridging initiated by the islands
has been observed.

No severe problems of intake clogging have occurred at Vittjarv power station

after the channel was opened.

b. Downstream of Vittjarv
During the winter 1975/76 observations indicated that the ice boom at river
station 34.7 caused more problems than it solved. Although effective in
initiating an ice cover that could progress upstream its presence seemed to
prevent ice covering of downstream reaches. An approximately 2 km reach of
the river down to station 33.0 km maintained open water to very late in the
winter and became,in fact, only partly covered. Ice production in this reach
caused underhanging dams further downstream and partial clogging of the intakes
at Boden power plant (station 30 km) was reported. The cause of these problems
was attributed to the retaining effect of the ice boom and it was decided to
remove it.

As excavations and dredgings were completed before the beginning of the 1978/79
winter, thus at present three winter seasons with full effect of decided
measures have been reported. In terms of maximum observed head losses between
Boden and Vittjarv a comparison can be made between these three years and two
previous years (74/75 and 75/76), see Fig 3. It is noted that a considerable
reduction of water levels at Vittjarv has resulted, mainly due to partly removal
of obstructions at river station 37 km.

It is also noted that the behaviour is different between different winters after
completed improvements. In the 1979/80-winter considerable head losses

Fig 5 Graphs of records concerning water and weather during the
winters 1974/75 and 1975/ 76

developed in the reach between stations 33 km and 34.5 km. (This is downstream
of the previous boom location and the narrow passage adjacent to the bridge,

see Fig 2). With the raised water level upstream, the ice cover could form and

did so up to river station 37, however not up through the remaining reach to

Vittj~rv. Despite the open water the resulting head losses were small between

station 34.5 km and the power plant. The maximum head loss due to ice dams was
0.75 m that winter.

The win te r 1978/79 the ice cover upstream of river station 34.5 formed earlier

and only slight damming occurred at this location. Upstream of station 37

growing shore ice closed the lead during January. Maximum head loss due to ice

da ms was only 0.2 m.

The winter 1980/ 81 initial ice covering began at a water temperature of

0.2 0 e as early as the end of October, the temperatu re being measured at the lower
end of an open pipe installed in front of and close to one of the intake gates of
Boden power plant. This coincided with an incidental flow reduction to 100 m3 s- . On
No vember 6 the water temperature was down to DoC and ice covering progressed rapid
ly, even passing river station 37 km by approximately 500 m. That winter essentially
no head losses due to hanging dams were observed. The additional head loss due to
friction losses caused by the ice cover was estimated at 75 % of head losses under
ice-free conditions. (Head losses refer to the entire river section between
Vittj~rv and Boden power plants) .

Starting the winter of 1975/76 a number of surveys have been undertaken each winter.
These include mapping of ice covered areas and leveling of river stages at a number
of chara cteristic stations along the river. The rate of i ce covering, e xpressed as
area in tenths of total river area, is shown in Fig 4 for the winters 1975/76,

78/79, 79/ 80 and 80/81. For the winter 1974/75 only one survey was made, namely

on February 6.

6. Cli mat i c and hydrolo gi c observ_'!.tiy_n.s.

Climati c and hydrologic conditions, particularly air and water temperatures

and magnitude of discharge, are important fa ctors which influence the development
of ice production and formation.Continuous records and regular observations of
discha rge, water levels at Vittj~rv and Boden and water temperature at Boden
have been made since 1975.Meteorological data from a weather station in Boden
are available: Air temperatures, wind data, precipitation . For evaluating t he
effect of various of these factors on i ce conditions some data have been
compiled in Fig 5 and 6 and in Table II.
Fig 6 Graphs of records concerning water and weather during the
winters 1978/ 79 and 1979/80
Table 2
Before excavations After excavations
Winters 1974/75 1975/76 1978/79 1979/80 1980/81
Start of freeze-up Nov 21 Nov 21 Nov 26 Oct 31
Water temp. = zero on Nov 16 Nov 19 Nov 20 Jan 27 Nov 6
measured at increased
one of the to maximum 0.00 c 0.03 c 0.00 c 0.01 c 0.01 oC
intakes of withi n
Boden power 10 day pe
station riod

Rate of flow
at the start 500 m3 /s 475 m3 /s 360 m3 /s 500 m3 /s 300 m3 /s
increased during 10 days 8 days

to (m 3 /s) 550 450

decreased during 7 days

to (m 3 /s) 435
Varying during next 10 days 8 days 10 days 8 days 14 days
between (m /s) 480-520 400-500 530-580 400-500 360-450
and duri ng next 10 days 10 days
between (m'/s) 540-580 500-565

Maximum observed rise of

water level at Vittjarv
Power Station

total 2.42 m 2.38 m 0.58 m 1.18 m 0.43 m

due to ice cove r 0.52 m 0.53 m 0.43 m 0.43 m 0.38 m
(computed va 1ue)
due to ice dams 1.90 m 1.85 m 0.15 m 0.75 m 0.05 m
at rate of flow 480 m /s 500 3
m /s 600 m'/s 600 3
m /s 550 m3 /s
Loss of power production
during the winter due to GWh GWh GWh GWh GWh
ice dams

a) actual 7.6 11. 7 1.3 6.1 C.3

b) hypothetical at 8.0 11.5 1.0 5.5 0.8
constant discharge
500 m3 /s

Conc1usi ons
Since operational experience covers only three years after completion of
remedial measures no ~rm conclusions can be drawn as ye t . Varia tions in climatic
conditions may cause surprises by radically affecting a complex system which in
certain respects seems to operate near an unstable equilibrium .

Compar i so n of climatic conditions indicate s that the winters 1974( 75 and 1975(76
were less favorable in respect to i ce cover formation during the period of freeze
up, than three winters 1978-1981. However, compared to long term weather observations
the winters 1974-1976 were quite normal. Thus the three years after completion lIIay
have been "lucky years". With this in mind, and awaiting further experience, the
following conclustons are drawn.

a. The dredging s have had a marked bene fic ial effect on the possibility of
relieving ice problems. Dredged wet volumes of 133 000 m3 upstream of
Vittjarv and 285 000 m' downstream, besides having improved on ice
conditions, have improved the station output during i ce-f ree season by some
10 000 r-1Wh per year.

b. The goal set at the decision to perform dredgings, namel y to reduce head
los ses due to ice damming to less than 0.5 m, seems to have bee n reached.

c. When the discharge at initial freeze-up is reduced to less than 500 m1s-l
resulting ice dams also are reduced. A reduction to less than 300 m1s- l
seems to essentiall~ prevent ice dam formation, if the discharge is kept low
al so during the essential freeze-up period.

The author wants to than k Messrs Peter Larsen and Lennart Billfalk for their

help and advice concerning this report.


Fred E. Parkinson
Vice President Lasalle Hydraulic Laboratory Ltd Canada


Field studies have been carried out over the winters 1979-80 and 1980-81 to

define the winter regime in the lower Liard River and in the Mackenzie River

from their confluence at Fort Simpson downstream to the Beaufort Sea. The

total river length studied is 1320 km. 45 coloured slides were presented to

show the main characteristics of the ice covers that were observed over the

two winter seasons.

The commonest formation mechanism found during freeze-up was development of

vlide shorefast columnar ice sheets out from both shores. Final closure of
the remaining main channel was generally by build-up of an accumulation cover.
In steeper reaches, shore to shore accumulation covers \-Jere noted, and in
continuous rapids sections, anchor ice projections up from the riverbed
facilitated closure by accumulation.

Evolution of the cover during the coldest winter months was a gentle process

involving progressive thickening of the thermal cover. Only a few small open

water patches remained in locations with local high velocities.

Two completely different break-up sequences were observed. The first \,as a
low discharge case where the ice melted in situ, with virtually no ice jam
development. The second occurred as a result of a heavy storm in the head\,aters
that sent a rapid runoff wave through the whole system, creating near-flood
1eve 1 ice jams.

British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority is currently evaluating the

possibility of building a hydroelectric scheme on the Liard River in Northern
Br iti s h Columbia. The Lia rd River rises in the mountain s of the Yukon. flows
through part of British Columbia. and turns north before joining the tlac kenzie
River at Fort Simpson. The ~'acke nzie River then continues north-\>Iest to the
t1ackenzie Delta and the Beaufort Sea.

Operation of t he hydroe le c tric plant Itill modify the river flo./s during the
winter. The regulated discharges during the sensitive periods of freeze-up
and break-up will not be significantly different from the natura l discharges
which Vlould occur I"li thout the project. However, i ijlme diately follOl'/ing
freeze-up, the regulated discharges would remain high whereas the natural
flol,s would have a tendency to be gradually reduced. The final result of
this operation is that for the reMaining part of the winter, right through
to the last few days before break-up, the regulated discharges tn the rivers
will be higher, so will modify the ice regillle.

The present study l'las undertaken to define the winter regime along both
rivers in their natural state, then to develop a mathelllatical rlodel that
could predict the changes due to regulation by the hydroelectri c scheme in
terms of water levels over the full length of the rivers and the delta.
The model is just no\, being completed, so the discussion today I'lill be
limited to color slide descriptions of field observations. Surveys included
cover the complete winter seasons, 1979-80 and 1980-81.


The commonest cover formation mechanism obsel'ved \>las development of very

wide s horefa st i ce s heet s out fr om both shores. As this solid i ce buil !
out from each s ide, the ope n water channel ,.as progressively restricted.
However, the generation of ice pans continued and the amount of i ce coverage
on the open Hater in creased as ./ell. Final c losUl'e of the remaining main
c hannel normall y too k place as the open I"/ater became totally covered \>lith
s lu s h ice pans \Vhich ultimatel y bridged across the c hannel and built up an


accumulation cover. In reaches where the velocity was relatively higher,

this accumulation was often very rough, with projections of the harder ice
pans rising 1 to 2 metres above the general cover level. Upstream from
such a heavy accumulation cover, smoother zones occurred regularly where
the velocity had been sufficiently reduced by the rising headloss generated
by the accumulation cover, so that the main channel froze over with a smoo th
thermal cover. Only a few short reaches were noted where the accumulation
cover reached from shore to shore. flowever, in these cases, the cover \Vas
typically very much rougher than in the cases \vhere only the main channel was
closed by an accumulation cover.

Each of these different freeze-up processes \Vas accompanied by a characteri stic

series of water level fluctuations. Development of tfle I'lide shorefast ice
areas then gradual closure by a narrow accumulation cover in the main channel
was accompanied by a gradual but ste ady ,later level rise. The maximur.1 level
occurred at the time the accumulation cover pas sed the given section in its
progression upstream. Following this, as the natural river discharge
decreased, the water level dropped slowly.

Ca ses where there was the complete accumulation cover from shore to shore
resulted in far more dramatic water level rises. One example ohotographed
at Fort Good Hope in November 1980, showed that the vlater level had risen
1.7 metre s for a short while. Following thi s, the cover had released,

dropped partially, held for a day or so , then dropped again to its new

equilibrium level after the accumulation cover had been pushed further


In the steepest reaches on the Liard River, successive rapids continue for
as much as 10 kilometre s at a time . Anchor ice \Vas noted building up off
the rocks on the riverbed, passing the water surface, forming long snow
covered fingers across the river. These facilitated the accumulation closures
between the projections, allowing the river to be cut off at a lower level
and with a much smoother cover than would have been expected with an
accumulation cover extending over tile full width of the river.


In general, the evolution of the cover over the winter was a very gentle
process with virtually no evidence of any reaction visible on the surface.
The whole ice cover was more or less uniformly covered with snow, with only
occasional open water areas in the fastest flowing reaches. During this
period, the cold from the atmosphere was gradually penetrating the cover in
place, and increasing the depth by freezing onto the bottom surface.

One characteristic pattern that appeared in the ice covers on both rivers
started with the formation of generally circular slush ice pans during
freeze-up. These were carried downstream in the open water main channel
sections, and were ultimately frozen into place upstream of a bridging
section. The upturned edges of the pans re~ained in place as they were
frozen in, and the water between them began thickening under the effect of
the cold atmosphere. Once the snow melted off the cover in the spring, the
puttern outlining the individual original slush ice pans showed up distinctly
where tile pans were a light white color against the darker columnar thermal
ice that had formed in the original interstices.


The first indication of break-up along both rivers was the appearance of
narrow wet strips along each shore. These were caused by the gradually riSing
discharges lifting the covers, breaking the hinge cracks, and allowing the
wa ter to ri se through these to soak into the snoll. These long na rrow \;et
snow areas gradually widened as the centre ice cover lifted and the shorefast
ice remained at its original level frozen onto the shores, so \;ere covered
by tile water coming up through the broken hinges in the ice. Depending on
the rate of rise of the discharge and the \;ater temperature, these open
water shore leads widened to varying proportions of the total river width.
In some spectacular cases, the open vlater areas on each side of the remaining
ice cover down the centre of the river represented over 2/3 of the total
river width .

Ultimate break-up of the remainin g central cover from the shore lead situation
described above released large quantities of ice to move downstream. This
co uld be stopped at various points by either the in situ cover remaining, or
by larger pans which had keyed into restricted flow sections. An example of
SL;ch a case \"as that at IJorman Hells in the spring of 1981. The in situ cover
downstream from the set tlement remained in place and the broken ice from
upstream built up a large jam up stream of the solid ice. The maximum water
le ve l rose over 9 metres above tile mid-\'Iinter ice level and after the jam
broke and the water level went down, heavy ice deposits along the shores were
noted up to the same depth.

Similar heavy ice deposits rangin g from 5 to 8 metres in depth were noted at
For t Sinpson on the Mackenzie River and at a numbe r of places downstream
toward Norman Wells. An examole of the ice goug ing the soil on the river
bank was noted at Arctic Red River.


Striking examples of columnar i ce formations that had developed in the broad

shorefast ice covers were noted at many points along both rivers. These were
evident by their very smooth surfaces during the winter which were often
blown free of snow by the prevailing winds. In these reaches the ice appeared
as either crystal clear through Vlhich it \'laS possible to look right down into
the water below, or with some darker inclusions it appeared like the classical
black ice, During break-up, the clear section s when thrust up as blocks in
the air, remained either clear or appeared to be a rich blue co lor, The other
parts that were observed as blftck in places on the river appeared as dirty solid
ice wilen tilrust up into the air,

Later on, as the sun began degradin g both of these types of columnar ice , the
classical form of candling took place. The thickest block s of ice that were
noted which broke up producing intact candles, measured up to 80 centimetres,
Some cases were also noted "here the blocks had remained floating in the
'tlarm Vlater and their upper surfaces had an opaque snow cover still intact.

These were inspected when they were stranded on the shores following release
of a small ice jam, and found to be completely candled from beneath by the
warm water ef fects .

The second major type of i ce noted along the f1ackenzie River, and in
particular in the lower rea ches covering the last 400 kilometres before the
Delta, took the form of fine-grain-polycrystalline ice. It was noted
follOl;ing break-up during both springs that observations were made, and was
pushed up on the shores in the form of large massive blocks measuring up to
1.9 metres thick. Fo r the moment, neither a snow ice nor frazil ice origin
seems to provide a satisfactory description of how these heavy thicknesses
could be built up over such large areas of the river. The reaches involved
cover several hundred kilometres in length in which there is no open wate r
afte r the first freeze-up which takes place over a period of about 2 weeks.
Snowfa ll in the area is relati vely light, and certainly not as evenly
distributed as would be necessary to explain such even, heavy, fine grain
ice ge neration. Further surveys would certainly be required to define more
precisely the extent of the polycrystalline ice areas, since the present
program was far too limited in its scope to do so. With a better understanding
of the extent of these polycrystalline ice areas , it would be possible to
carry out deta i led research to provide a satisfactory explanation of their


The two spring break -ups that were observed, 1980 and 1931, exhibited two
comp letely different sets of th ermal conditions. The first year had a very
low break-up flow and resulted in very warm water breaking up the ice.
The combination of low flow and warm water meant that many parts of the ice
covers along both rivers did not break-up and flo~1 dowrstream to generate
ice jams, but rather stayed in generally l oca lized areas and melted in place.
Large blocks of ice that were pushed up on the shore during this break-up
in areas where some accumulation covers di d form, shol;ed that their under
surfaces had been actively eroded by the warm water, resulting in very rough

25 7
or wavy relief patterns. In the lower reaches of the rlackenzie River, where
the highly resistent polycrystalline ice blocks were found, a characteristic
mushroom shape was very common. This occurred as a result of the warm water
melting the ice at the surface and leaving a wider mushroom shape cap above.

In 1981, the rapid runoff wave that ran tllrough the sys tem did so very
quickly and did not allow time for the .Iater accompanying the break-up to
warm up. All water temneratures measured within the first tVIO day s following
break-up \~ere DoC . The ice blocks that I,ere nushed up on the shore und"r
these conditions exhibited bottom surfaces that were literally mirror smoo th,
indicating total absence of any thermal erosion.


The most spectacular topographic feature of the Mackenzie River is the

narrow section referred to as the Ramparts, I;hich is located 300 kilometres
upstream from the Delta. At this location, the river first goes through a
series of rapids which spread out to nearly 4 kilometres in width. Then it
encounters a 1imestone ri dge .,hich towers nearly 30 metres above the water
level and restricts the river width down to about 400 metres. Obviously,
this is one of the prime locations for major ice jam development along the
river, and each year the water level rises are spectacular. I!owever, even
more impressive than the vlater level rises themselve s , is the effect of the
push-up of the in situ ice cover just at the start of the break-up . In
both years observed, solid ice was seen to have been pushed up against these
limestone cliffs to heights of over 18 metres above the level of the winter
ice .


Freeze-up in the Delta takes place as two di st inct mechanis~s. The first i s
the straight fon~ard thermal freezing of the lakes and slow moving channels
that are far removed from the main inflow from the Mackenzie River up s tream.
Both of these types of via ter bod i es therefore do not rece i ve Mackenz i e .Ia ter
flow directly and thus their freezing procedures are influenced entirely
by the local atmospheric temperatures. They normally freeze-over solid from

2 to 3 weeks earlier than the Middle Channel, which discharges the major part
of the Mackenzie River flow.

The Middle Channel itself then freezes over later due to the latent heat that
is being brou9ht in by the water arriving from the Mackenzie River and its
sources much further south. This ~Iarm water is 9radually cooled and over the
lower 2/3 of the r1iddle Channel length within the Delta, the cover forms as a
shorefast sheet over the full channel \,idth. HOI,ever, in the upper 1/3 of the
Delta, there are irregular accumulation cover areas that develop in flow
concentratiop areas within Hiddle Channel.

First indications of break-up in the spring appear in the form of the wet snow
rings around lakes in the lower part of the Delta, as the water level rises
following the increasing discharges. These wet snow lines also appear along
the secondary and main channel edges, 9radually developing into open water
leads as the discharge rise continues. Back flooding from the channels into
the lakes occurs progressively from the furthest downstream lakes back up tOl'ard
the upstream end \Ihere the lakes are relatively higher t~an their supply
channels. Very wide open water leads develop along both sides of the in situ
ice cover along the main channels through the Delta, partially caused by the
flooding of sand bars on either side of the low flow channels.

Arrival of the broken ice mass from the main stern of the 11ackenzie River into
the Delta then breaks-up the in situ cover in the main channels and fills them
with the broken ice debris. As the water level rises in response to the
increased headlosses developed by this ice mass, more water is diverted into
the secondary channels, along with broken ice, which can develop ice jams in
these areas. Local short term flood levels occur at random locations along
the secondary channels flooding back into the lakes on either side. Cases
were noted where this ice arrival, jam formation, flooding into the lakes, and
jam release would occur over a period of only 2 or 3 hours. Communicatin9
lakes on these channels were seen over this period first to receive water and
broken ice in huge quantities so that their \,hole surfaces were ice covered
and then reverse their flow and return some of the ice back into the channels.
As the level dropped quickly in these lakes, most of the ice that had been
carried in originally was stranded along the shores, and as it melted provided
additional water supply to the lakes, in some cases after the connection to
the cOlTlTlunicating channel had been closed by the fall ing water level.



J.W. Kamphuis, Queen's University, Kingston

\,ith respect to the stability of the floating ice sheet: I investigated the
"shore 1eads" wi th a boat. There was ice on the bottom of the shore 1eads.
There was a clean bre ak behieen the floating ice and the shorefast i ce of
aboutl.S ~ (vertical) along the hinge cracks except at two location s where
the floating ice was still attached to the shorefast ice I found this local ly
ragged break easily recognizable later from the air. This was found to be
the main type of break or attachment bet~ieen shorefast ice and floating ice
in shallow water areas. Thus the main floating i ce sheet was held in place
along these ragged breaks which were more prevalent in shallow water areas.

I also have a question: What proportion of the ice was polycrystalline as

opposed to candled columnar ice and where along the river did this occur?



Fred E. Parkinson, Vice-president, Lasalle Hydraulic Laboratory Ltd.

Professor Kamphuis had added an intere sting piece of information describing

the vertical displacement of the floating ice that we did not include in our
survey program. In these reaches, the original shorefast ice was up to 1.9 m
thi ck, so the cases he noted \"ith 1 .5 m rise, "lOuld mean that the floating ice
wa s in fact supported by contact along the hinge crack. Once the water level
r i se exceeded 1.9 m, the centra l ice sheet would be free- floating.

Our surveys were not complete enough to answer Prof. Kamphu is' question
concern ing the distribution of polycrys talline and columnar ice forms. At
the three locati ons where the polycrys talline ice was observed, Fort Good Hope,
Little Chicago and Arctic Red River, it made up over 75% of the blocks pushed
up on the shores .



Derek Foulds, R.R.U4, Uxbridge, Ontario. LOC lKO

A possible explanation of the polycrystalline ice is heavy snow in the open

water area as it was about to freeze. tly experience on the St. Lawrence
indicates that such an event would change the ice cover thickness from 30 cms.
to 130 em. The frazil-snow-slush which result resists the melting process
in the manner described by the author.



Fred E. Parkinson, Vice-president, Lasalle Hydraulic Laboratory Ltd.

The rrechanism of snowfall on the freezing water surface described by I~r. Foulds
was one of the first possible explanations for the origin of the polycrystalline
ice that we considered. However, it was discounted since the sno~lfall in the
region is very light, and normally does not begin until after the rivers are
frozen. Also, over the winter 1980-81, the freeze-up process was observed in
these reaches, and the first ice forrred appeared to be columnar, or accumulated
slush pans which froze in place.




F. Clement, LHL, 110ntreal and S. Robert, S.E.B.J., 110ntreal.

First, I would like to congratulate Mr. Parkinson for the good show, with
very interesting slides of his intensive observations over the Liard River.
Among them, one is the aim of my questions, [ refer to the bottom ice
phenomenon which he observed and gave US a good example with typical finger
configuration of the very head of rapids. So, the question is:

a) Following his experiences, could a factor be related to that

bottom anchor ice?

b) For example, water temperature, supercooled or not, reach length

immediately upstream, air temperature turbulence of flow, rate of
suspended ice discharge, type and size of ice particles (if at
the origin of the phenomenon) flow depth, flow width ...

c) In the case of anchor ice formation, what would be the maximum

water level alteration to be expected

d) Can this be directly related to the degree-day number

e) Logically, ice frazil in suspension in the water is to be

expected in the upper part of the flow, how come those particles
could be fixed to the ground?

f) Can such a phenomenon be anticipated with a minimum of accuracy

and why



Fred E. Parkinson, Vice-president, Lasalle Hydraulic Laboratory Ltd .

Answers to t1essrs. Clerrent and Robert's questions must necessarilly remain

approximate since the reach of the Liard River I1here the anchor ice phenorrena
l1ere noted was inaccessible by land. Even by helicopter, it l1as not possible
to land so all observations were made from the air, many of them in heavy
ice crystal fog.

The water was certainly supercooled. Preceding the locations where the anchor
ice fingers were found, the river descended over virtually continuous rapids
for 5 to 10 Kms. Air temperatures on the t"IO days of observation were -45 0 C,
and the previous two weeks had seen temperatures betl1een -25 0 C and -35 0 C.
The water surface flowing between the anchor ice was covered by about 60%
broken up slush pans, none larger than 30 cm. diameter. The river at these
locations varies from 400 to 600 m. in l1idth, and the depth over the rocky
ledges forming the rapids appeared to be less than 1.0 m. The ri ver was
discharging about 1,000 m3 /s.

I do not think the phenomenon can be related to the degree-days of cold.

HOl1ever, there might be some relation l1ith the extrerre cold and wind, with
their ability to generate frazil nucleii. It would seem obvious that with
water as shallow as this over the ledges, the frazil could certainly reach
the bottom and adhere to any flow disturbance; i.e., rocks, etc ...

Forecasting the occurrence of such anchor ice structures on the basis of our
observations appears premature at this time. However, they should be
expected in reaches which combine the conditions rrentioned above; i.e.,
shallow, fast flowing water, a long reach of open water upstream, air
temperatures and l1ind conducive to frazil formation, and a riverbed that
offers convenient foundations on which the frazil can stick.


Nicolas K. Gidas, Dr . -Ing. Etudes hyd r auliq ues

Direction des Ouvra 'es flydrauliques
Mini ste r de l'En~lr onnement du Quebec Canada


Le probleme d r inonda tion ca us ec par les deba.cles d' une ri vier nordiq ue
a ete etudie . Les observations et les TIt8SUr e a lIin situ" ant pe rmi a d ' analyse r 10 me
canisme et la f orma tion d' emb,icles ainsi que Ie r egime des gl a ces dans Ie but de
chercher des solutions adequo. tcs '.t U probleme d'inondatlon. En t e nant compt e dos avan
tages et des inconveni en ts de chaque soluti on etudiee sinsi que des condi t ions loca
l es de I .. region affectee pa r les debacles , la solu tion des estacade s flo t t a ntes
avec des seuils e n enrochem ent a ate choisie.


The problem of floods caused by i ce break-up of a nordic rLve r lias been

studi ed. The observations and t he measur ements in situ have permited analyse of the
mechanism of the form ation of ice jams and th e evolution of rive r ice jams i n order
to inves ti gate t he adequats solutions. The advan tages and the disadvantages of each
solution have been studied with regard to l ocals conditions of the area af fe cted by
i ce break- up . The soluti on of floating breakwa te rs with a rock dam downstream has
been c hosen .


Le but de l a presente etude est de faire part de certains resultats des recher
ches re la ti ves aux inondations de l a munic ipalite de Matapedia (fig . l ) causecs par les
debac l es de la riviere Resti gouche (fi g . 2) e t de s es tributaires, d' a nalys e r l es
diff erentes solutions possibl es e t de prese nter une approche vi sant a soluti onner I e
probl eme de maniere r enta bl e SUT I e pl an te chni co-e conomi que et environneme nt a l.

La riviere Restigouche de uouche dans un estuaire qui se prolon ge jusqu'a l a Daie

des Chaleurs a environ 52 krn en aval de s on prin ci pal tributai r e l a riviere l1a t apedia .
Le bassin hydrographique de la riviere Resti gouche a Matapedia es t de ll702 km2 alors
que Ie bassin de la ri viere Ma tapedia est de 3650 km2 . Le sectell r d Is. muni cipali te
de Matapedi a affe c te par les dcbi'icles est situe sur la rive gauche (fi gures 3a et 4)
aI' embouchure de la ri viere Matapedia.

A la suite des dommages causes, en 1974, par les in ondations lors des deba cl es de
la riviere Restigouche, une recherche [lJ a ete ent ropr i se a ri n d' e tudier les possi
bilites et trouver des solutions pour prevenir les inondations futures.

Le present ~article vise les trois objectifs sui va nts;

definir l a freque nce des plus fortes debacles et eva l uer l es dommHge s causes a la
muni cipali te de l1atapedia a partir de l'h istorique sur la formation de s embacl es et
des debacles I e l ong de l a riviere Restigouche;
- presenter l a compilation des resultats a partir des releves hydrodynamiques, sedi
mentologiques, bathymetriques et cryogeniques perwett ant de definir I e mecanisme de la
formation des embacles sous des conditions spec ial es ainsi que I e regime des glaces
a la confluence de la riviere Restigouche et de la riviere Ma t apedia;
- concevoir, a part i r de certains critere s hydrotechniques locaux, des solutions glo
bales et partie lIes c~ntre les inondations causees par les debacles et s electionner
les meilleures solutions sur Ie plan technico- economique et environnemen tal .


Les plus fortes debacles connues sont celles des annees 1895, 1934 et 1974; Ie
debi t moyen journalier maximum au cours de 1974 est inferieur a celui d' autres annees
(figures 5 et 7) mais 1e niveau d'eau atteint (fig.6) au COurs de la debacle de 1974
correspond pratiquement a sa val eur maximale. La mun i cipa l ite de Hatapedia a connu au
printemps de 1974 des conditions d'embacles catas t r oph i ques qui n'avaient pas ete ob
serves depuis 1934. La debacle de 1895 est compa rab l e a ce lIe de 1934 . Les deba cl es
de 1936 et de 1976 ont causes des dommages importants mais l es n