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CHAPTER 3: One-Dimensional Steady-State Conduction

one primary direction in which heat transfers (generally the smallest


dimension)
simple model
good representation for solving engineering problems

3.1 Plane Wall


3.1.1

hot fluid cold fluid


T,1 h1 T,2 h2

x1=0 x2=L
x
For one-dimensional steady state conduction with no energy generation, the
heat equation reduces to:
E& in E& out + E& g = E& st
14 24 3

T T
k + q& = c p
x x t
Assume an isotropic medium (k = constant) and integrate to determine the
temperature distribution T(x):

d dT
k =0
dx dx
dT
= C1
dx
T ( x) = C1 x + C 2

3.1
Apply boundary conditions to solve for constants: T(0)=Ts1 ; T(L)=Ts2

T (0) = Ts1 = C 2
Ts 2 Ts1
T ( L) = Ts 2 = C1 L + Ts1 C1 =
L

The resulting temperature distribution is:

T ( x) = (Ts 2 Ts1 ) + Ts1


x
L

and varies linearly with x.

Applying Fouriers law:

dT T Ts1
heat transfer rate: q x = q x A = kA = kA s 2
dx L
dT T Ts1
heat flux: qx = k = k s 2
dx L

Therefore, both the heat transfer rate and heat flux are independent of x.

Note: Alternative boundary conditions might involve convection if surface


temperatures are unknown.

e.g., T (0) = Ts1 = C 2

= h[T ( L) T , 2 ]
dT
k
dx x= L

and T(L) = C1L + C2 ; solve for C1

3.2
3.1.2 Thermal Resistance

A resistance can be defined as the ratio of a driving potential to a


corresponding transfer rate.

e.g.,

Analogy:
electrical resistance is to conduction of electricity as thermal
resistance is to conduction of heat

T Ts1
thermal resistance for conduction: qcond = kA s 2
L

thermal resistance for convection: qconv = hA(Ts T )

thermal resistance for radiation exchange: (


qrad = A Ts4 Tsur
4
)
(
qrad = A Ts4 Tsur
4
)
= A(T s
2
Tsur
2
)(T
s
2
+ Tsur
2
)
= A(Ts Tsur )(Ts + Tsur )(T s
2
+ Tsur
2
)
= hr A(Ts Tsur )
where (
hr = (Ts + Tsur ) Ts2 + Tsur
2
)

3.3
The equivalent thermal circuit for a plane wall

The total rate of heat transfer is:

3.1.3 The Composite Wall

Equivalent thermal circuit analysis can also be used for complex systems
such as composite walls
Often, it is convenient to define an overall heat transfer coefficient, U:

where T is the overall temperature difference, such that:

3.4
3.1.4 Contact Resistance

Realistically, the heat flux at the interface of two solid surfaces is continuous
but the temperature is not. Temperature varies at the interface of two
surfaces because of imperfect contact between the solids.

The temperature difference is attributed to a thermal contact resistance:


T TB
Rt,c = A
q x

The equivalent thermal circuit for imperfect contact:

Thermal contact resistance can be reduced by (e.g.)

(Omit 3.2, An Alternative Conduction Analysis)

3.5
3.3 Radial Systems
cold fluid
3.3.1 T,2 , h ,2

L
hot fluid
T,1 , h ,1

For one-dimensional, steady-state conditions with no energy generation, the


heat equation reduces to:
1 d dT
kr =0
r dr dr

Assume an isotropic medium and integrate to determine the temperature


distribution, T(r):
k d dT
r =0
r dr dr
dT
r = C1
dr
T (r ) = C1 ln r + C 2

Apply boundary conditions to solve for constants C1 and C2:

T(r1) = Ts1 = C1ln r1 + C2


T(r2) = Ts2 = C1ln r2 + C2
Ts , 2 Ts ,1
subtracting Ts2 Ts1 : C1 =
ln(r2 r1 )
T Ts ,1
substitute C1 into T(r1): C 2 = Ts ,1 s , 2 ln r1
ln(r2 r1 )

Note: The values of C1 and C2 can have other formulations, depending on


the boundary conditions used to solve for T(r).

3.6
The resulting temperature distribution is:

Ts,1 Ts, 2 r
T (r ) = ln + Ts, 2
ln (r1 r2 ) r1

and varies logarithmically with r.

Applying Fouriers law:


heat transfer rate:
T Ts ,1 1 1
= k (2rL ) s , 2
dT
qr = kA
dr ln(r2 r1 ) (r r1 ) r1
T Ts ,1
qr = 2Lk s , 2
ln(r2 r1 )
heat flux:
qr 2Lk (Ts , 2 Ts ,1 ) k T Ts ,1
qr = = = s,2
A (2rL )ln(r2 r1 ) r ln(r2 r1 )

Thus, the heat transfer rate qr is constant and independent of r.


The heat flux qr is a function of the radius.

The equivalent thermal circuit for a cylinder

T Ts , 2
thermal resistance for conduction: qcond = 2Lk s ,1
ln(r1 r2 )

thermal resistance for convection: qconv = 2rLh(Ts T )

3.7
3.3.2 Sphere (assume hollow center)

r1

r2

For one-dimensional, steady-state conditions with no energy generation, the


heat equation reduces to:
1 d 2 dT
kr =0
r 2 dr dr
Assume an isotropic medium and integrate to determine the temperature
difference T(r):
k d 2 dT
r =0
r 2 dr dr
dT
r2 = C1
dr
C
T (r ) = C 2 1
r
Apply boundary conditions: T(r1)=Ts1 and T(r2)=Ts2
The resulting temperature distribution is:

1 (r1 r )
T (r ) = Ts ,1 (Ts ,1 Ts , 2 )
1 (r1 r2 )
The corresponding heat transfer rate is:
4k (Ts ,1 Ts , 2 )
qr =
1 1

r1 r2
thermal resistance for conduction:
1 1 1
Rt ,cond =
4k r1 r2

3.8
3.5 Conduction with Thermal Energy Generation

Consider the effect of a process occurring within a medium such as thermal


energy generation, E& g , e.g., conversion of electrical to thermal energy

3.5.1 Plane Wall

Ts,1 Ts,2

T,1 , h1 T,2 , h2
q&

-L x L

For one-dimensional, steady-state conduction in an isotropic medium:


d dT
k + q& = 0
dx dx
q&
T ( x) = x 2 + C1 x + C2 1
2k
Note: The temperature distribution is parabolic in x.

Applying Fouriers law:


dT q&
heat transfer rate: q x = qx A = kA = kA x + C1
dx k
dT q&
heat flux: qx = k = k x + C1
dx k

Thus, dT/dx is a function of x, and therefore both the heat transfer rate and
heat flux are dependent on x for a medium with energy generation.

3.9
Case #1:
Ts,1 > Ts,2
T,1 > T,2
h1 h2
T,1 , h1 T,2 , h2
boundary conditions: q&
T(-L) = Ts,1
T(L) = Ts,2 -L x L

From 1 and the above boundary conditions:

q&L2 x 2 Ts , 2 Ts ,1 x Ts ,1 + Ts , 2
T ( x) = 1 2 + +
2k L 2 L 2

To determine where the temperature is a maximum:

Case #2:
Ts,1 = Ts,2 = Ts
T,1 = T,2 = T
h1 = h2 = h
T,1 , h1 T,2 , h2
boundary conditions:
T(-L) = Ts = T(L) q&

-L x L

From 1 and the above boundary conditions:

q&L2 x2
T ( x) = 1 2 + Ts
2k L

3.10
Case #3:
at x = 0, adiabatic surface
at x = L, T = Ts

boundary conditions: T , , h
q&
dT
=0 (i.e., q = 0)
dx x L
x =0
T ( L) = Ts

The insulated wall is analogous to a symmetric wall, and the same


temperature distribution is found as Case #2:

q&L2 x2
T ( x) = 1 2 + Ts
2k L

3.11
3.5.2 Radial Systems
T , h Ts

ro q&

For one-dimensional, steady-state conduction in an isotropic medium:


k d dT
r + q& = 0
r dr dr
q&
T (r ) = r 2 + C1 ln r + C2
4k

Apply boundary conditions to solve for the constants C1 and C2:

dT
=0 C1 = 0
dr ro = 0

q& 2
T (ro ) = Ts C2 =
ro + Ts
4k
The resulting temperature distribution is:

q&ro2 r 2
T (r ) = 1 + Ts
4k ro2

and varies parabolically in r.

Caution. Note that it is incorrect to use thermal resistance concepts within


a medium when the heat transfer rate is NOT constant (energy generation).

3.12
3.6 Heat Transfer from Extended Surfaces

involves conduction through a solid medium as well as convection and/or


radiation energy transfer
goal is to enhance heat transfer between a solid and a fluid
qconv = hA(Ts T )

Possibilities:
- increase heat transfer coefficient
- increase surface temperature
- decrease fluid temperature
- increase surface area
The most common way to enhance heat transfer is by increasing the surface
area for convection via an extension from a solid medium: fins

Consider a long, slender pin fin attached to a base:

T , h

Tb x L

3.13
3.6.1 General Conduction Analysis

Assume one-dimensional conditions in xdirection, i.e., the fin is thin, thus

Assume steady-state conditions, isotropic medium, neglect radiation, and


there is no energy generation

E& st = E& in + E& g E& out


0 = q x [q x+ dx + dqconv ]

dT
qx = kAc ( x )
dx
dq dT d dT
qx + dx = qx + x dx = kAc ( x ) k Ac ( x ) dx
dx dx dx dx
dqconv = hdAs [T ( x ) T ]

then,
d dT h dAs
Ac (T T ) = 0
dx dx k dx
finally,

where, Ac, As, and T can be functions of x.

3.14
3.6.2 Fins of Uniform Cross-Sectional Area

Consider a straight fin:

at the base (x = 0), T(0)=Tb


Ac is constant
As = Px, P is the perimeter

canceling and rearranging appropriate terms from the general equation:

d 2T hP
(T T ) = 0
dx 2 Ac k
define

then,

Boundary conditions:

at x = 0; T(0)=Tb
at x = L (refer to each case, A.-D.; same as Table 3.4):

A. Convection at tip; qcond = qconv

= hAc [T ( L) T ]
dT
kAc
dx x=L

final solution is:

T T cosh[m(L x )] + (h mk ) sinh[m(L x )]
=
b Tb T cosh (mL ) + (h mk ) sinh (mL )

3.15
B. Adiabatic fin tip;

dT
=0
dx x =L

final solution is:

cosh[m(L x )]
=
b cosh (mL )

C. Fixed temperature at tip;

T(x=L) = TL

final solution is:

( L b ) sinh (mx ) + sinh [m(L x )]


=
b sinh (mL )

D. Infinitely long fin;

T(x) = T

final solution is:


= e mx
b

3.16
Analyze Case B (adiabatic tip) to determine other information about the fin:

total heat transfer from the fin:

dT d
q f = kAc = kAc
dx x =0 dx x =0

Note: the same solution can be obtained by:

q f = h[T ( x) T ]dA f
Af

where Af is the surface area of the fin.

fin effectiveness:

qf
f = =
qb

fin efficiency, f : ratio of the actual fin heat transfer rate to the rate
predicted for an isothermal fin

qf
f = =
qb iso

3.17
Regardless of the tip boundary condition, the solution will provide the
temperature distribution through the fin, /b.

Due to the decreasing temperature through the fin, the conduction heat
transfer (locally) decreases as a result of continuous convection losses

The total heat transfer by the fin:

T , h
tip
Tb

base

3.18