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Prenatal- Physical Development

Prenatal period is viewed from conception to birth. During the nine months many changes

take place. During physical development one celled organism is transformed into a human

baby (Beck, 2013). The second physical developmental milestones during prenatal is the

germinal stage. Germinal stage is viewed as the beginning of conception when the sperm and

egg cell unite in one of the two fallopian tubes.

Language Development

While babies are in the womb language is being learned. Babies begin absorbing language

while still in the womb of their mothers (McElroy, 2013). Babies have the ability to hear

while in the womb of their mother. In addition, McElroy explains newborns are born ready

to learn and begin to discriminate between language sounds within the first months of life.

Cognitive Development

During the prenatal stage the brain of the baby is developed. Throughout the fetal stage the

brain continues to grow and develop. In addition, the brain growth during this time allows the

fetus to develop new behaviors.

Atypical Development

The development of a fetus doing this stage is atypical. A mother could be faced with a

condition which results in preterm labor. Embryonic stage begins after implantation and last

until eight weeks after conception (Berk, 2013). During week 3 the brain, heart, blood cells,

circulatory system, spinal cord and digestive system starts. This time is extremely critical.

Strategy for families

One strategy families can use to influence their childrens learning and developmental during

prenatal stage would include avoiding prescription and nonprescription medications.

According to the text (2013), Many prescription and nonprescription medications can impair

embryonic and fetal development. Before taking any drugs, expecting mothers must seriously

consider its risks (Berk, 2013, pp.3.4). Women should try their best to have a drug free

Infancy and Toddlerhood

Infancy and Toddlerhood- Physical Development

During the infancy and toddlerhood stage physical development milestones, individuals

should note a great deal of changes within the body size during the first year of life. Infants

go from crawling to walking within the first year of infancy to toddlerhood. Also, the infant/

toddler birth weight doubled by 5 months of age. For instance, the end of the first year the

infants length is 50 percent greater than it was at birth (Beak, 2013). Growth is rapid for

infants and toddlers.

In addition, an infant/ toddler body size changes a great deal. Berk found (2013), During

infancy, these changes are rapid faster than at any other time after birth. By the end of the

first year, a typical infant height is 50 percent greater than birth by 2 years, it is 75 percent

greater (Berk, 2013,pp. 5.1). During the infant and toddler stage their physical growth is


Language Development

During infancy and toddlerhood children tend to develop language very rapid. Infancy

language development begins before birth. According to the Encyclopedia of Childrens

Health, towards the end of pregnancy a fetus begins to hear sounds and speech coming from
outside the mothers body. Receptive language development is viewed as the ability to

comprehend language, which may develop faster than expressive language, viewed as the

ability to communicate. Between birth and three months most infants have the ability to

recognize their mothers voice and make sounds indicating pleasure. Six to 12 months old

children tend to play with sounds and make long, more varied sounds. During toddlerhood 12

and 15 months young children tend to recognize names, use partial words according to the

Encyclopedia of Childrens Health.

Cognitive Development

During this stage, children tend to explore what is around them. As infants and toddlers

interact with others, their thinking skills grow. During the growth and development of an

infant at 2 months they will pay attention to faces and at 6 months they would bring things to

their mouth. Within cognitive development at 18 months toddlers would point to one body

part and point to get the attention of others. Many factors influence cognitive development

including genes, prenatal events and aspects of the childs environment (Berk, 2013). Overall

health and interactions among others influence childs cognitive development.

Atypical Development

During infancy and toddlerhood development could include Down syndrome. Children with

Down syndrome tend to have a specific impairment in short term memory for verbal

Strategy for Families

During this age it is vital parents pay attention to their childs development. If their child is in

need of any early intervention services, before the age of 3 it is necessary children are link to

the early intervention services.

Early Childhood

Physical Development

Physical develop within early childhood for typically developing is viewed as a physically

acting child. In addition, preschoolers see physical changes such as, losing their baby fat, or

chubbiness around 3 years old. Also, boys tend to have more muscle mass than girls. Gross

and fine motor development is a part of physical development is referred to physical skills

using large body movement (Berk, 2013). 3 to 4 years old can climb up stair, bringing both

feet together on each step before processing to the next step. Lastly, 3 and 4 year olds can jump

and hop higher due to their leg muscles grow stronger.

Language Development

Within language development for early childhood milestones will include for 3 to 4 years old

talk about activities at day care, preschool or their friends house and using sentences with four

or more words. According to the text (2013), All babbled around 6 months, said their first
words at about 1 years combined words at the end of the year, and had mastered a vast

vocabulary and most grammatical constructions by 4 to 5 years (Berk, 2013. pp. 9.2).

Children will go though the different stages of language.

Cognitive Development

Within cognitive development milestones for early childhood children are eager to be more

independent. Young children are interested in exploring the world around them. Most two year

olds have the ability to sort objects by category. In addition, imitate more complex adult

actions, such as, playing house, pretending to do laundry and washing dishes. As children

continue to observe things they begin to sort and categorize them.

Atypical Development

A child not engaging in pretend play by the age of 24 months it is a red flag in the area of

social, emotional, play skills; pretend play is a major part of development within children.

Strategy for Families

Parents/ caregivers should influence their childrens learning and development during the early

childhood stages. Parents will be encouraging their childrens intellectual abilities by helping

them make sense of what is around them. For instance, parents should help their child touch

and explore things around them by naming the objects around them.
Middle Childhood

Physical Developmental Milestones

Middle childhood age is viewed as 7 -11 years old. There is a great deal of physical changes

within the brain and nervous system for children during the middle childhood. During this

age children will experience a great deal of growth. A great deal of girls experience a

preadolescent growth spurt around 9 or 10 years old. However, boys experience their growth

spurt during the age of 11 or 12 (Berk, 2013). Girls and boys continue to have the similar

body shapes until they reach puberty. During this time period it is vital children receive good

nutrition due to major growth and development.

Language Development Milestones

Language development is well established during preschool and elementary years. According

to Blume (2010), A first grader may know the meaning of 8,000 to 14, 000 words, but a high

schooler knows 80,000 words (Blume, 2010). Middle childhood children have the ability to

know and understand the meaning of a great deal of words during this age. They understand

words have multiple meanings. In addition, during the middle childhood age, children have

the ability to grammatical understand information. Children begin to understand the

difference between active and passive voice (Blume, 2010). Children have the ability to act

out situations during this age. Children writing skills have improved during this time.

Cognitive Development Milestones

During the middle childhood age, childrens attention span has increased. They have the

ability to recall and sequence story overtime. Children have the skills to write and edit

information; in addition, they have the ability to think abstractly allowing them to develop

new stories (Blume, 2010). During this age children should have the ability to read and write.

Another milestone for middle childhood children would include the ability to be an effective

communicator. Children should have the ability to tell a story as they process their day or an

event that has happened. Children should have reasoning abilities.

Atypical development

Atypical development within this age group would include any learning disabilities. A child

struggling to keep up with their peers academically is a major sign of atypical development.

Strategy for Families

It is vital parents continue to watch the development of their child. If they are faced with any

concerns, parents should seek professional help from educators, medical professionals or a

therapy. Seeking professional help can provide support for the parent/ caregiver when they

are parenting their child.


Physical Development

According to the American Academy of Pediatrician the stages of adolescence is 10 to 19 year

old. During this time in the area of physical development puberty is taking place. Puberty is

viewed as the biological changes of a teenager. Teenagers will experience changes within

their growth. For instance, girls will develop breast, changes in their body shape and height.

Females will start their menstruation. Boys will experience changes starting at 11 or 12 years,

growing facial hair, changes within their voice and growth in their penis and testes (American

Academy of Pediatricians, 2017). Young people start to show physical change during

different times.

Language Development

According to Anthony (2016), In Piagetian terms, the have completed concrete operations

and have entered the forma operational stages. Unless there is another issue, they are strong

reads and have begun to use their language and literacy skills across the subject areas in

school, and as a tool in other areas of importance, teaching themselves to do magic tricks or

how to make duct tape projects (Anthony, 2016.pp1). Teenagers have the ability to teach

themselves how to do different things they may be interested in. In addition, high school

graduates may have 80,000 words in their vocabulary.

Cognitive Development

Adolescence is a time for fast cognitive growth. Jean Piaget describes adolescence as the stage

of life that individuals start taking more of an intellectual form and egocentric thoughts

decrease. Individuals gain the ability to think and reason with a wide ranging perspective.

Atypical Development

With teenagers atypical development can be noticed in their behaviors, emotions and thought.

It is vital parents monitor their children, so they can be sure to seek professional health if


Strategy for Families

Parents/ caregivers of teenagers, it is vital to be fully supportive of your young adult. Parents

should support their child through physical changes. Parents should treat their in a child age

appropriate. Although their child may look physically mature, it is important parents

understand they are still children. Teenagers continue to depend on their parents.

www.American Academy of Pediatricians, Retrieved July 22, 2017.

Berk, L. E. (2013). Child development (9th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.

Blume L.B (2009). Excerpt from Middle Childhood Development: A Contextual

edition, p. 19-20.

Encyclopedia of Childrens Health. Retrieved July 22, 2017.

McElroy, M. (2013). While in womb, babies being learning language from their mother. Institute

for Learning and Brain. University of Washington.

Fernald., L., Kagawa., R, Knaure, h., Schnaas., L, Guerra., A, and Neufeld, L. (2017). Promoting

Child Development through Group Based Programs: Experimental Effects on Childrens

Outcome. Developmental Psychology. American Psychological Association. 53 (20 222-