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Fluid Mechanics

Assignment 3

Answer all the questions


a. Explain different types of heads (or energies) of a liquid in motion.
b. An oil of RD 0.9 is flowing in a pipe of 10 cm diameter with an average
velocity of 3 m/s. At a particular section 1 the pressure is measured to be 300
kN/m2. If the section 1 is 6 m above the datum, determine the total head of
c. A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of water in a pipe. The
stagnation pressure head is 8 m and static pressure head is 6 m. Calculate the
velocity of flow, assuming the coefficient of the tube equal to 0.98.
d. Water flows through a triangular right angled weir. The coefficient of
discharge for the weir is 0.62. If the depth of water over the weir is 0.2 m, find
the discharge of the weir.
e. Expalin the differences between a venturimeter and an orifice meter.
f. Find the discharge through a totally drowned orifice 1.5 m wide and 1 m
deep, if the difference of water levels on both the sides of the orifice be 2.5
m. Take Cd = 0.62.
g. What is an orifice? How are orifices classified? Define a mouthpiece.
h. How is vena contracta defined?. What are the different types of weirs?
i. Explain bernoulis theorem with practical applications.
j. A 45 m long broad crested weir has 0.5 m of water above its crest. Find the
maximum discharge over the weir. Take Cd = 0.62. Neglect velocity of


2. An oil of density 850 kg/m3 is flowing through a pipe having diameter 30 cm

and 15 cm at the bottom and upper end respectively. The intensity of
pressure at the bottom end is 200 kN/m2 and the upper end is 98 kN/m2. If
the rate of flow through pipe is 50 litres per second, find the difference in
datum head. Neglect friction.
3. A 450 reducing pipe bend in a horizontal plane has an inlet diameter of 300
mm and outlet diameter of 150 mm. The pressure at the outlet is 20kPa
gauge and rate of flow of water through the bend is 0.09 m3/s. Neglecting
friction, determine and direction of force required to keep the bend in
position. Neglect the weight of the water in the bend.

4. An oil of RD 0.8 flows through a vertical pipe of diameter 24 cm. The flow is
measured by a 24 cm x 12 cm venturimeter. The throat is 30 cm above the
inlet section. A differential mercury U-tube manometer is connected t othe
inlet and throat. The manometer shows a deflection of 12 cm. Calculate the
flow rate through the pipe. Conside Cd for venturimeter = 0.98.
5. The quantity of water flowing through a chaneel is measured by notch. The
water head over the notch is thrice the breadth of the rectangular notch. If
the rectangular notch is replaced by a V-notch, calculate the angle of V-notch,
other conditions remaining the same. The coefficient of discharge for a
rectangular notch is 0.66 and for a V-notch is 0.62.

6. A verical venturimeter carries a liquid of RD 0.8 and has inlet and throat
diameters of 150 mm and 75 mm respectively. The pressure connection at
the throat is 150 mm above that at the inlet. If the actual rate of flow is 40
litres per second and the Cd = 0.96, calculate the pressure difference
between inlet and throat in N/m2.
7. The head lost in flow through a 50 mm diameter orifice under a certain head
is 160 mm of water and the velocity of water in the jet is 7.0 m/s. If the Cd is
0.61, determine
(i) head on the orifice causing flow; (ii) Cv; (iii) the diameter of the jet.

8. Water flows over a rectangular sharp crested weir 1 m long, the head over
the sill of the weir being 0.66 m. The approach channel is 1.4 m wide and
depth of flow in the channel is 1.2 m. Starting from the first principles,
determine the rate of discharge over the weir. Consider also the velocity of
approach and the effect of end contarctions. Cd = 0.6.
9. Water is flowing through a pipe having diameters 600 mm and 400 mm at the
bottom and upper end respectively. The intensity of pressure at the bottom
end is 350 kN/m2 and the pressure at the upper end is 100 kN/m2. Determine
the difference in datum head if the rate of flow through the pipe is 60 lites
per second.

10. A pump is 2.2 m above the water level in the sump and has a pressure of -20
cm of mercury at the suction side. The suction pipe is of 20 cm diamter and
the delievery pipe is short 25 cm diameter pipe ending in a nozzle of 8 cm
diameter. If the nozzle is directe vertically upwards at an elevation of 4.2 m
above the water sump level, determine:
(i) the discharge
(ii) the power input into the flow by the pump
(iii) the elevation, above the water sump level, to which the jet would reach.
Neglect all losses.
11. Petroleum oil (SG = 0.9 and viscocity of 13 centi poise) flows isothermally
(a) through a horizontal 5 cm pipe. A pitot tube is inserted at the centre of a pipe
and its leads are filled with the same oil and attached to a U-tube containg
water. The reading on the manometer is 10 cm. Calculate the volumetric flow
of oil in m3/s. Cd = 0.98.
(b) Explain momentum equation with applications.