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EAP Outline:

Introduction:
According to Huesmann (2007), media violence is defined as visual portrayals of acts
of physical aggression by one human or human-like character against another.
Violence is portrayed via the media in a wide range of forms such as movies, video
games, TV shows and newspaper reports. The issue of media violence has recently
become a matter for discussion in the community. This has become a significant
problem in this modern era because many studies suggest that exposure to media
violence has negative influences on individuals behaviors, in particular children. It
has been argued that exposure to violent imagery does not preordain violence as some
studies show that there is no causal relation between media violence and violent
behaviours. However, this essay will contend that media violence commits real-world
violence. This will be argued by considering the aspects of aggression, desensitisation
and mimicry.

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1. Increased aggression
Media violence causes real-world violence. The first and most important
aspect of this issue is aggression.
Freedman (1994, cited in Brown 1996) asserts that most of the studies there
is no evidence in the research to suggest that watching violent TV causes
aggression.
All violence is aggression but not all aggression is violence. Aggression does
not have to escalate into violence to be harmful and destructive. No aggression
researchers claim that media violence is the sole or even the most important
source of violent behaviour (Anderson 2012)
However, Paik and Comstock (1994) concluded from their meta-analysis of
217 studies, that there were sufficient evidence to suggest an association
between watching violence on TV and subsequent aggressive behaviour
In fact, according to the psychologists Craig A. Anderson and Brad J.
Bushman, in a meta-analysis of 42 studies involving nearly 5,000
participants, they found a statistically significant small-to-moderate-strength
relationship between watching violence media and acts of aggression or
violence later in life (Pozios 2013).
A cause-and-effect relationship between media violence and real-life
aggression has been consistently shown to exist (Argawal 2012)
Moreover, viewer is predisposed to aggression because the violent images
can act as a trigger to release these existing feelings (Brown 1996)
Too much exposure to violent video games increases the likelihood of
aggressive thoughts, feelings and behaviours (Huesmann 2010, cited in
Anderson et al, 2010).
Longitudinal studies validate that the interactive nature of these games
contributes to increasingly aggressive behaviours in children and that those
behaviours continue into adulthood (Hoffman 2011).

2. Desensitization to violence
Another area of contention is the desensitization to violence.
It has been argued that media violence can have a cathartic effect, enabling
people to release their tendencies for violence by releasing through imaginary
participation in acts of violence and aggression present on television (Maria
2013).
Video games also act as an outlet for frustration that does not involve actual
violence as killing characters in video games help them to release their anger
in a healthy way (Adam 2010).
Notwithstanding that media violence release anger, a viewer is more likely to
become desensitised to violence from watching episodes with repeated
graphic violent or a context of humour (Hoffman 2011).
Frequent viewing of media violence can cause extinction of fear or anxiety
reactions to violence as some people believe that violence is normative
(Brad & Craig 2009)
When people become hardened by media violence, their sympathy and
empathy for violence victims are decreased and the likelihood of intervening
in helping is lower (Brad & Craig 2009).

3. Mimicry
A further area of dispute is the issue of mimicry.
It has been claimed that children tend to mimic behaviors from TV. However,
is interesting to note that 87 percent of children are more likely to mimic
positive behaviors (MediaSmarts 2015).
Although children are more likely to imitate positive behaviours, there are
some children who imitate the violence they watch on television (Bayraktar
2014, p. 4). This is because the perpetrators of violence acts who are
rewarded or remain unpunished for their actions, viewers might interpret
that violent behaviour is acceptable or even desirable (Brown 1996).
Furthermore, children cannot discriminate between reality and fantasy.
They lack adult reasoning abilities and may perceive TV shows as being
realistic and shape their behaviours accordingly. They learn from TV that
the use of violence can achieve goals and settle conflicts (Argawal 2012).
L. Rowell Huesmann (1980) argues that children develop cognitive
scripts that guide their own behaviour by imitating the actions of media
heroes. As they watch violent shows, children learn to internalize scripts
that use violence as an appropriate method of problem-solving
(MediaSmarts 2015).
Besides that, the reporting of suicides, homicides and violent and criminal
events on the news, will result in imitation or Copy Cat action by some
individuals. Some studies show that the number of suicide deaths recorded
have increased after news reports of suicide (Hassan 1996), particularly
where the reports detailed the method used by the victim (Brown 1996).
The Copy Cat phenomenon also applies to videos. For example, the
killing of a toddler in England by two ten-year-olds, who had apparently
watched the movie Child's Play (Brown 1996).