© All Rights Reserved

6 vues

© All Rights Reserved

- Mining Weather Data Using Rattle
- Sihem Thesis
- Value at Risk Intro
- Pca - Making Sense of Principal Component Analysis, Eigenvectors & Eigenvalues - Cross Validated
- tmpEC2F.tmp
- DM 5210T_V1 0706
- The Evolution of Popular Music- USA 1960–2010
- Manual Usuario Maxflo Fr en Es Pt de Nl It 2SIN
- Identification of Myocardial Infarction from Multi-Lead ECG signal
- Social Network Aggregation Using
- 968
- Frei Shaver 2002
- neural network stocks
- 18. Engagement, satisfaction, and belonging of international undergraduates at U.S. research universities. Sam Van Horne, Shuhui Lin, Matthew Anson, & Wayne Jacobson, University of Iowa, United States; pp. 351-374
- 01658299.pdf
- Revision Lecture
- Smart Grid Comm
- Tulsa 15125
- Multi WayPCA
- editd eee

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 10

Residential LoadsPart I: Methodology

Diogo Salles, Student Member, IEEE, Chen Jiang, Student Member, IEEE, Wilsun Xu, Fellow, IEEE,

Walmir Freitas, Member, IEEE, and Hooman Erfanian Mazin, Student Member, IEEE

AbstractThe proliferation of power-electronic-based residen- harmonic control measures. One such measure is to adopt the

tial loads has resulted in significant harmonic distortion in the IEC device level limits in North America [4].

voltages and currents of residential distribution systems. There is The main challenge to developing the above-mentioned tech-

an urgent need for techniques that can determine the collective

harmonic impact of these modern residential loads. These tech- niques is how to model the random nature of the harmonic cur-

niques can be used, for example, to predict the harmonic effects rents produced by residential loads. Over the past many years,

of mass adoption of compact fluorescent lights. In response to the some researchers have investigated the summation of random

need, this paper proposes a bottom-up, probabilistic harmonic harmonic phasors [5], [6], the algorithms of stochastic harmonic

assessment technique for residential feeders. The method models power flows [7], [8], and methods to predict the mean values

the random harmonic injections of residential loads by simulating

their random operating states. This is performed by determining of harmonic indices [9]. All of these works have greatly con-

the switching-on probability of a residential load based on the tributed to our understanding on the modeling and analysis of

load research results. The result is a randomly varying harmonic systems with randomly varying harmonic loads. Unfortunately,

equivalent circuit representing a residential house. By combining the available techniques are still not in a shape to fulfill the needs

multiple residential houses supplied with a service transformer, of predicting harmonic distortions caused by consumer behavior

a probabilistic model for service transformers is also derived.

Measurement results have confirmed the validity of the proposed or regulatory policy changes.

technique. The proposed model is ideally suited for studying the The objective of this paper is to present a systematic, versa-

consequences of consumer behavior or regulatory policy changes. tile technique based on Monte Carlo simulation to study the har-

Index TermsHarmonic analysis, residential loads, statistical monic impact of residential loads. The main idea is originated

analysis, time-varying harmonics. from the following observation: the random harmonic genera-

tion of residential loads is almost exclusively due to the random

on/off states of the loads. For example, a CFL can be in an ON

I. INTRODUCTION or OFF state randomly at any given time. But once it is turned

HE proliferation of power-electronic-based modern resi- on, its harmonic currents essentially follow a known, determin-

T dential loads has resulted in significant harmonic distor-

tions in the voltages and currents of residential power distri-

istic spectrum. Therefore, the key to develop the aforementioned

harmonic assessment technique is to model the random ON/OFF

bution systems. These new harmonic sources have comparable state change events of residential loads properly. Once the states

sizes and are distributed all over a network. Although they pro- of all residential loads are known, the problem becomes a de-

duce insignificant amount harmonic currents individually, the terministic harmonic power flow problem. Fortunately, a body

collective effect of a large number of such loads can be substan- of knowledge on residential load behaviors has been developed

tial [1][3]. At present, there is an urgent need for techniques for load research purposes [10][13]. These techniques can be

that can determine the collective harmonic impact of modern adapted to solve the problem of predicting the operating states

residential loads. Such techniques can be used, for example, to of residential loads. The result is a bottom-up-based harmonic

predict the harmonic effects of mass adoption of compact fluo- analysis technique ideally suited for studying the consequences

rescent lights (CFLs) and to quantify the effectiveness of certain of consumer behavior or regulatory policy changes.

The aforementioned idea has been applied to create a simula-

tion technique for predicting the harmonic impacts in secondary

Manuscript received August 26, 2011; revised March 24, 2012; accepted distribution systems. Such a system typically consists of 520

May 19, 2012. Date of publication August 14, 2012; date of current ver-

sion September 19, 2012. This work was supported in part by the National single-detached houses in North America. An aggregate model

Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, in part by the Al- for service transformers is also derived with the technique. The

berta Power Industry Consortium, and in part by FAPESP, Brazil. Paper no.

TPWRD-00718-2011.

model can help to determine the harmonic conditions in primary

D. Salles and W. Freitas are with the Department of Electrical Energy distribution systems. Field measurement results taken from a

Systems, University of Campinas, Campinas 13083-852, Brazil (e-mail: dozen of service transformers in Canada have validated the pro-

dsalles@ieee.org; walmir@ieee.org).

C. Jiang, W. Xu, and H. E. Mazin are with the Department of Electrical and

posed modeling technique.

Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V4 Canada The paper is organized as follows. Section II describes

(e-mail: cjiang3@ece.ualberta.ca; wxu@ece.ualberta.ca; herfania@ece.ual- the electrical models of typical residential loads. Section III

berta.ca). presents a procedure to determine the ON/OFF state of a res-

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. idential load based on the behaviors of inhabitants and the

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2012.2207132 usage characteristics of the residential load. Build on the above

0885-8977/$31.00 2012 IEEE

1938 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 27, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2012

Section IV. Section V derives a service transformer model.

Verification results are also presented. Section VI summarizes

the conclusions.

There are two aspects to model a residential load. One is its

electrical model and the other is its operating state model. This

section is focused on the electrical model.

Residential loads can be divided into linear and nonlinear Fig. 1. Correlation between instantaneous voltage and current of a load. (a)

loads. In this paper, linear loads are modeled as constant power V I plot of the dryer (linear). (b) V I plot of microwave (nonlinear).

loads at the fundamental frequency (60 Hz) and as impedance

at harmonic frequencies (h) [14]. The model parameters can be

obtained from the measurements or derived from the loads elec-

tric characteristics. The nonlinear residential loads are modeled

as constant power loads at the fundamental frequency (60 Hz)

and as current sources at harmonic frequencies [14]. The mag-

nitude and phase of the source is calculated from the harmonic

current spectrum of the residential load using the well-known

procedure recommended in [14] as follows.

1) The harmonic-producing load is treated as a constant

Fig. 2. Current waveform measured from CFLs of different vendors.

power load at the fundamental frequency, and the funda-

mental frequency power flow of the system is solved.

2) The current injected from the load to the system is then

from simulation results. So the attenuation effect is omitted from

calculated and is denoted as .

the model proposed at present. This will lead to slightly higher

3) The magnitude and phase angle of the harmonic current

harmonic levels in the system. If the need to include the effect

source representing the load are determined as follows:

arises, iterative harmonic power-flow algorithms can be used

- [14], [17].

(1)

- The diversity effect refers to the differences of harmonic cur-

- - (2) rent phase angles associated with a residential load [14], [15]. It

is common knowledge that a residential load always produces

where the subscript spectrum stands for the typical harmonic harmonic currents at the same phase angle with respect to its

current spectrum of the residential load. In this study, harmonic supply voltage (if given in the same operating condition). This

spectra of more than 20 types of residential loads (which adds is why typical spectrum can be used to model a harmonic-pro-

up to about 100 individual loads) have been measured. ducing load. Fig. 2 shows the waveforms of multiple CFLs from

The measurement activities have identified a need to deter- different vendors. It can be seen that the waveforms are similar,

mine which residential loads are linear or nonlinear. In a dis- meaning the harmonic angle (and magnitude) differences are

torted supply voltage scenario, even a resistive load could have small. As a result, the random variation of phase angles from

a distorted current waveform, appearing as a nonlinear source. their mean values is not included in the electrical model. The

In this paper, the correlation of the instantaneous current and variation due to different brands can be included in the Monte

voltage waveforms ( plot) are used to separate linear loads Carlo sampling explained later. It is important to note that the

from nonlinear loads. The method is illustrated in Fig. 1 for two variation of phase angles caused by the variation of the phase an-

residential loads. If the load is linear, the - plot is shaped ei- gles of supply voltages is included through (2). The harmonic

ther as a straight line (resistive load) or as a ring (reactive load). cancellation effect caused by voltage phase differences at dif-

The voltage versus current plots for nonlinear residential loads ferent points of a feeder because of the branch impedances is

are neither a straight line nor a ring, for example, the microwave also modeled in the simulation through (2) and the multiphase

oven in Fig. 1. network model.

When adopting the current source model for nonlinear loads,

the issue of whether to include the attenuation and diversity ef- III. MODELING OF RESIDENTIAL HOUSES

fects has been examined. Attenuation refers to the reduction of This section develops a probabilistic bottom-up model that

the magnitude of harmonic currents produced by a residential provides the time distribution of the ON/OFF state of linear and

load when its supply voltage is distorted [15]. Based on the pub- nonlinear residential loads during the course of the day. It is

lished research works [8], [14], [15] and extensive lab tests con- useful to note that each load may switch ON/OFF randomly. But

ducted by the authors [16], we concluded that the attenuation the switching activities of all types of loads follow some statis-

effect becomes significant only when the voltage distortion is tical distributions. These distributions are used to determine the

quite high (for example, THD above 10%). We have not ob- ON/OFF states of the loads. From this perspective, the loads do

served such a high-voltage distortion level in the field nor found not operate in random completely.

SALLES et al.: ASSESSING COLLECTIVE HARMONIC IMPACT OF MODERN RESIDENTIAL LOADSPART I 1939

TABLE I

USAGE PATTERN FOR MAJOR RESIDENTIAL LOADS

TABLE II

AVERAGE USAGE PATTERN FOR OTHER RESIDENTIAL LOADS

TABLE III

OCCUPANCY PATTERN FOR A TYPICAL HOUSEHOLD

Considerable research efforts have been made in the past on

the subject of developing detailed residential electrical load pro- collected from [12] and [18], which uses the survey data pro-

files (i.e., reconstructing the expected daily electrical loads of a vided by [19]. For the sake of space, the probability profile of a

household based on residential load sets, occupancy patterns, few activities is discussed and illustrated as follows.

and statistical data). Based on the published works [10][13], Most of the kitchen loads are related to cooking activities.

the basic idea of home load profile modeling is to address three They share the same probability of switching on at a given

factors: time of the day. As shown in Fig. 3, the curves are applied to

1) When a residential load will be turned on. This can be predict the occupants cooking-related actions and to establish

simulated using the Daily Time of Use Probability Profiles the probability of a load switch-on event, such as using mi-

of the residential loads. crowave, blender or griddle, etc. The probability profile is given

2) How long a residential load will stay on (i.e., working cycle with 1-min resolution. The higher the value in the profile, the

duration). The duration can be determined from measured higher the probability that the load switches on. For example, a

data and from understanding the purpose of the residential microwave switch-on event would be far more likely to occur

loads involved. at 17:00 than at 4:00. The profile on weekends is flatter than

3) How to include the impact of the habits and population of the profile for weekdays because people tend to cook at more

a household. random times on weekends.

A load profile is created by combining these factors. Each In addition, people are more likely to use a toaster and waffle

factor is presented in detail in the following subsections. iron in the morning, and stove at noon and in the evening. Spe-

1) Daily Time of Use Probability Profiles: In [10], electric cific profiles for these residential loads are also considered in

load profiles are constructed from individual residential loads to the proposed method.

predict the tendency of the occupants to switch on a residential Daily time of use of washer machines is determined by the

load at any given time. Since then, many researchers [11][13] laundry activity profile shown in Fig. 4. The time-of-use pro-

have investigated how to quantify the probability of the speci- file for dryers is generally the same shape as the washer profile,

fied activity being undertaken as a function of time of day, which and is offset from the washer profile in time [13]. People usu-

is called the Time of Use Probability Profiles. It represents the ally turn on dryers between 10 and 30 min following the end

probability of a household performing a specific activity during of the washer cycle. The time-of-use probability profile associ-

a 24-h period. In this paper, each activity profile data is mainly ated with other activities is also included in the methodology,

1940 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 27, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2012

including TVs, computers, lighting, house cleaning, and occa- Step 2) When the simulation starts, the probability of load

sional switch-on events (garage door and furnace). activation (Pr) can be read from its activity profile.

2) Residential Load Duration Characteristics: For major Step 3) The number of residential load switch-on events (m)

residential loads, the cycle duration can be established ac- are modified to consider household size

cording to the measurement data from the Canadian Center for , where is the household size factor.

Housing Technology (CCHT) [20]. At the CCHT, a simulated Step 4) The probability ( ) of a residential load to switch

occupancy system triggers daily residential load ON/OFF state on at the present instant in time ( ) is equal to the

change events in a real single detached home. The average previous probability Pr multiplied by the modified

cycles per year is derived from standard residential load test number of load switch-ons in the simulation time

methods of the Canadian Standards Association [21], [22]. period and a calibration scalar ( ),

Details of some major residential loads and working cycle . A discussion of how the calibration scalar

durations are presented in Table I. is derived is presented below.

Information regarding other residential loads was extracted Step 5) The calculated probability is compared to a nor-

from buyers guides [23], [24] and from field measurements. mally distributed random number ( ) between 0 and

Several other residential loads were surveyed and a partial list 1. If is larger than , go to Step 6); otherwise, go

of the expected hours that each residential load remains on to Step 7).

per month is presented in Table II. The data in the table below Step 6) The residential load is switched on and the present

only include the total working hours per month. The number of simulation time step is updated to , where

switch-on events per day is determined as follows: the average is the load working cycle duration. After that, go

working hours for an electric kettle is 15 per month per Table II. back to Step 2).

If the average working cycle duration of a kettle is 3 min, one can Step 7) The load remains off and the present simulation time

obtain 15 60 30 3 10 switch-on events per day. step is updated to . is the simulation res-

3) Size and Occupancy Pattern of the Household: The size of olution (e.g., 1 min). After that, go back to Step 2).

household has a significant impact on daily electricity demand. The calibration scalar (c) is introduced to reflect the influence

In order to include the impact of different household sizes, a of the household occupancy pattern [12]. This paper uses the oc-

household size factor is introduced. When modeling a residen- cupancy function, as follows, to represent the occupancy pattern

tial house with a specified number of occupants, is equal to

the ratio between and the average number of people per house- when house is actively occupied

hold (assumed to be 2.5 in this paper based on [25]). The value (e.g., morning, evening)

of average hours per month for each residential load provided when house is inactively occupied

in Table II cannot be used directly for different household sizes (e.g., daytime, midnight)

since, for example, a house with more people will lead to an in- where inactively occupied refers to the scenario where no-

crease in load usage. In order to take this into account, the usage body is at home or awake.

times provided in Table II will be multiplied by the household

If , the calibration scalar c is made 0 for most

size factor .

residential loads, which makes the probability of certain load

An occupancy pattern (i.e., when occupants of a residence are switch-on to be zero when nobody is at home or awake.

at home, and using residential loads) affects the ON/OFF state If , the calibration scalar c is introduced in order

of the loads. The common factors influencing the occupancy

to make the mean probability of an activity taking place, when

pattern are as follows [12]: (a) the time of the first person getting

multiplied by the calibration scalar, equal to the mean proba-

up in the morning and the last person to go to sleep and (b) the bility of a load switch-on event. As shown in Fig. 6, before cal-

period of inactive house occupancy during working hours. Due ibration, we have

to a lack of information about the house occupancy pattern, the

five most typical scenarios of the household occupancy pattern

in Canada are proposed. Table III lists these possible scenarios.

4) Probabilistic Model of Residential Load Switching-On:

Based on the usage pattern of residential loads discussed in the

previous sections and the method of [12], a procedure to deter- After introducing the occupancy function and calibration

scalar c

mine load switch-on events at a given time of a day (which is also

called a simulation step) has been established. The procedure is a

form of Monte Carlo simulation and implemented in a computer

program. At each simulation step, a list of residential loads that

are on is generated, which forms the load profile at that step. The

simulation procedure is shown Fig. 5 and explained as follows.

Step 1) The time-of-use probability profile is selected ac-

cording to the chosen load and whether it is a

(n) = 0

weekend or not; the occupancy pattern is also se-

(n)= 1.

lected according to the working type and whether it

is a weekend or not.

SALLES et al.: ASSESSING COLLECTIVE HARMONIC IMPACT OF MODERN RESIDENTIAL LOADSPART I 1941

Some residential loads, such as fridge, freezer, and furnace, domly generated instance. If the simulation runs to the first step

etc. are independent of household occupancy, so the calibration (00:01), the value of occupancy function is 0, and calibration

scalar is always made equal to 1. scalar 0, the resulting probability of microwave switch-on

The simulation of microwave usage is used as an example to ( ) at this time step is 0, which means the microwave has no

illustrate the aforementioned procedure Fig. 7. The simulated chance to switch on. However, if the time step is equal to 1200

household is set to have an average size and is full-time work (20:00), the value of occupancy function is 1, and the calibra-

type. The day of interest is weekday. The simulation resolution tion scalar is

is 1 min, which means 1440 steps in one day. As can be

seen from Fig. 7, the time of the first person waking up is 05:40,

the inactive occupancy period during work is 7:2816:58, and

the time of the last person going to sleep is 22:36 for this ran-

1942 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 27, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2012

0.0552%. According to the residential load usage characteristic, 0.64% which means the probability of microwave switch-on at

the average working cycle duration and the average working the current time step is 0.64%. When the simulation finishes

hours per month of a microwave are equal to 4 min and 10 h the 1440 steps (i.e., covering the 24-h period, results like those

(Table II). So the number of switch-on events per day of the shown in Fig. 7 will be obtained. For this day of simulation, the

microwave is equal to . Hence, microwave is used five times, two usages are at around 17:00,

SALLES et al.: ASSESSING COLLECTIVE HARMONIC IMPACT OF MODERN RESIDENTIAL LOADSPART I 1943

min, and total usage time is 21 min/day.

The same procedure is conducted for each installed residen-

tial load at each simulation step. An example use pattern of some

loads as simulated by the procedure is shown in Fig. 8. One can

observe that the PC is used between 17:00 and 24:00 and the

washer and dryer are not used throughout the day. Televisions

Fig. 9. Equivalent circuit model to represent a residential house.

and PCs are used for a relatively long period throughout the day,

while cooking loads are used for much shorter periods but mul-

tiple times.

At the bottom of Fig. 8, the refrigerator and freezer are acti-

vated periodically throughout the entire day and not associated

with household occupancy pattern.

Once the residential load usage time information is derived, a

load with ON state will be represented with its electrical model

and be connected to the electric circuit of a house. Note that

there could be different electrical models of the same load if

one wants to consider different brands or consumer trends. A

particular model is obtained by drawing randomly from a data-

base of residential loads.

In North America, residential customers are usually supplied

through three-wire single-phase distribution transformers. The

secondary of these transformers has a neutral and two hot phases

carrying 120 V with respect to the neutral. In a residence, resi-

dential loads are connected in an essentially indeterminate way

with respect to the circuits, and this arrangement makes it diffi-

cult to electrically model a residence. Since the objective of the

proposed technique is to predict the harmonic impact on power

systems, an equivalent circuit can be developed for a house.

Based on the theoretical analysis presented in [26], the model

of Fig. 9 has been established.

In each simulation step, the house impedance and

current source are established randomly based on the

procedure described earlier. Impedance represents

Fig. 10. Simulation output I (h) of a house during one day. (a) Funda-

the linear loads in a house, and current source represents mental component. (b) Third harmonic component. (c) Fifth harmonic compo-

the nonlinear loads. An example simulation output is shown nent.

in Fig. 10, for only the fundamental, third, and fifth harmonic

components.

The results of seven days simulation, which contains 5 week- the mean value and standard deviation of the total house funda-

days and 2 weekend days, are shown in Table IV. The table lists mental, 3rd, and 5th harmonic currents for each day.

1944 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 27, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2012

TABLE IV

SIMULATION RESULTS OF A RESIDENTIAL HOUSE (I (h))

Fig. 11. Equivalent service transformer circuit model. (a) Service transformer

circuit model. (b) Equivalent model.

TABLE V

MEASUREMENTS RESULTS OF A RESIDENTIAL HOUSE (I (h))

were conducted for typical residential houses and the results are Fig. 12. Example of the transformer current output during one weekday ob-

shown in Table V. The measured sample house has some occu- tained from real field measurements. (a) Fundamental component. (b) Third har-

pants that do not need to go to work, so no working-type oc- monic component.

cupancy pattern is chosen for simulation. Comparing Table IV

TABLE VI

against Table V, the mean values of the fundamental and each PERCENTAGE OF VARIANCE OF THE FIRST PRINCIPAL

harmonic current matched quite well. COMPONENT OF THE TRANSFORMER CURRENT

Residential houses are supplied through single-phase ser-

vice transformers connecting the primary to the secondary

system. The secondary is a 120/240-V three-wire service.

Each distribution transformer normally supplies 1020 houses.

The loads are modeled collectively as one load connected to unique, so it is not easy to compare the results with those ob-

the secondary side of the service transformer (the service tained from simulation which also exhibit random characteris-

transformer model). This model is needed for studying the tics. The approach implemented in this paper is to extract and

harmonic impact on primary distribution systems. compare the principal components of the current profiles.

The steps for constructing such a model are as follows. The principal component analysis (PCA) is a mathematical

1) Generate harmonic models of 1020 houses according to procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated

the proposed approach presented in Section IV. variables of the original data into a smaller number of uncor-

2) Connect the house models as shown in Fig. 11(a). related variables called principal components. Mathematically,

3) Build the equivalent circuit as shown in Fig. 11(b). PCA is a linear transformation that converts the data to a

The aforementioned service transformer model has been ver- new coordinate system so that the greatest variance by any

ified by comparing its results against those from field measure- projection of the data comes to lie on the first coordinate, the

ments. Field measurements of harmonic currents in a sample second greatest variance on the second coordinate, and so on.

service transformer are shown in Fig. 12 (only the 1st and 3rd This way, one can choose not to use all of the components and

harmonic components are illustrated). These data were collected still capture the most important part of the data. More details

from ten different transformers serving residential loads in Ed- can be found in [27].

monton, AB, Canada, in Winter 2008. There is a total of 55 days Table VI lists the variance given by the first principal com-

measurement data. The current variation of each transformer is ponents for the magnitudes of measured transformers. Data are

SALLES et al.: ASSESSING COLLECTIVE HARMONIC IMPACT OF MODERN RESIDENTIAL LOADSPART I 1945

fundamental and third harmonic current, first principal compo-

nents can represent almost 60% of the original data; however, Fig. 14. Probability distribution of measured and simulated residue part for a

weekday.

for higher harmonics, these percentages drop to 20%30%. The

reason is that higher harmonics are more difficult to predict and

do not seem to show similar trends.

Based on the aforementioned analysis, two methods are pro-

posed for the transformer model verification as follows.

1) For fundamental and third harmonic current, the verifica-

tion method is to extract the first principal components

from the measurement data and the simulation results, re-

spectively. The components are then correlated to verify

their consistency.

2) For higher order harmonic currents, the verification is to

compare the normalized probability distribution of the

measured and calculated data.

Fig. 13 shows the daily variation of the first components of

the fundamental and third harmonic currents from both mea-

surement and simulation on weekdays. The first component of

the simulated fundamental current fits quite well with that of

the measured one. The correlation factor is 0.94. There is an

acceptable difference between the first components of the third

harmonic current from simulation and measurements. The cor- Fig. 15. Probability distribution function (PDF) curves of higher harmonics.

relation factor is 0.7.

The remaining part of the fundamental and 3rd harmonic TABLE VII

components contains almost 40% of the original data. A STANDARD DEVIATION OF HIGHER ORDER HARMONIC CURRENTS

comparison is made in the form of statistical distributions in

Fig. 14. The distributions exhibit similar characteristics. For

higher order harmonics, their random variation is too strong

for the principal components to yield meaningful results. So

the components are not used for verification. Instead, normal-

ized harmonic distributions are used for comparison. Fig. 15

shows the results for a weekday. Table VII shows the standard

deviation of the harmonics for both measurements (Meas.) VI. CONCLUSION

and simulation (Sim.) results. The results show some form A probabilistic method to determine the harmonic impact of

of consistency for weekdays and weekends. Based on this residential loads and houses has been presented in this paper.

verification analysis, it can be concluded that the proposed The method models the random harmonic generations of resi-

probabilistic residential house model is accurate and can be dential loads by simulating the random operating states of the

included in the modeling of distribution systems for harmonic loads. This is done through determining the switching-on prob-

impact assessment. ability of a residential load based on the load research results.

1946 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 27, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2012

The result is a randomly varying harmonic equivalent circuit [17] B. C. Smith, N. R. Watson, A. R. Wood, and J. Arrillaga, A newton

representing a residential house. By combining multiple resi- solution for the harmonic phasor analysis of AC/DC converters, IEEE

Trans. Power Del., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 96597, Apr. 1996.

dential houses served by a service transformer, a model for ser- [18] R. Hendron, Building America Research Benchmark Definition,

vice transformers is also derived. PCA and statistical analysis Golden, CO, Tech. Rep. NREL/TP-550-40968, 2007.

on the simulated and measurement results have confirmed the [19] IPSOS-RSL and Office for National Statistics, United Kingdom Time

validity of the proposed modeling approach. Use Survey, 2000 (computer file), 3rd ed. Colchester, Essex, U.K.,

U.K. Data Archive (distributor), 2003.

One of the attractive characteristics of the proposed method is [20] M. Bell, M. Swinton, E. Entchev, J. Gusdorf, W. Kalbfleisch, R.

its bottom-up approach. As a result, one can simulate the effect Marchand, and F. Szadkowski, Development of micro combined heat

of market trends and policy changes. For example, the harmonic and power technology assessment capability at the Canadian centre for

housing technology, Ottawa, ON, Canada, Tech. Rep. B-6010, 2003.

impact of CFLs can be studied by adjusting the composition of [21] CSA, Energy Consumption Test Methods for Household Dishwashers,

lighting fixtures in the residential load database. An example CSA Standard CAN/CSA-C37392, 1992.

application of the proposed method, assessing the harmonic im- [22] CSA, Energy Performance, Water Consumption and Capacity of

pact of residential loads on secondary distribution systems, is Automatic Household Clothes Washers, CSA Standard CAN/CSA-

C36098, 1998.

described in a companion paper. [23] Natural Resources Canada, Photovoltaic SystemsA Buyers

Guide, 2002.

REFERENCES [24] Natural Resources Canada, Micro-Hydropower SystemsA Buyers

[1] A. E. Emanuel, J. Janczak, D. J. Pileggi, E. M. Gulachenski, C. E. Root, Guide, 2004.

M. Breen, and T. J. Gentile, Voltage distortion in distribution feeders [25] Statistics Canada, Dwelling Characteristics and Household Equipment.

with nonlinear loads, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 7987, Tech. rep. 62F0041XDB, 2010. [Online]. Available: http://www5.

Jan. 1994. statcan.gc.cabsolc/olc-cel/olc-cel?catno=62F0041X & lang=eng

[2] N. R. Watson, T. L. Scott, and S. Hirsch, Implications for distribu- [26] H. E. Mazin, E. E. Nino, W. Xu, and J. Yong, A study on the harmonic

tion networks of high penetration of compact fluorescent lamps, IEEE contributions of residential loads, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 26, no.

Trans. Power Del., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 15211528, Jul. 2009. 3, pp. 15921599, Jul. 2011.

[3] R. Dwyer et al., Evaluation of harmonic impacts from compact fluo- [27] I. T. Jolliffe, Principal Component Analysis. Berlin, Germany:

rescent lights on distribution systems, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. Springer-Verlag, 1986, vol. I.

10, no. 4, pp. 17721779, Nov. 1995.

[4] Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)Part 32: LimitsLimits for

Harmonic Current Emissions (Equipment Input Current 16 A per

phase), IEC Int. Standard 610003-2, 2005. Diogo Salles (S04) received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in electrical engi-

[5] Probabilistic aspects task force of the harmonics working group, time- neering from the University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil, in 2006 and 2008,

varying harmonics: Part II harmonic summation and propagation, respectively, where he is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree in electrical engi-

IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 279285, Jan. 2002. neering.

[6] M. Lehtonen, A general solution to the harmonics summation From 2010 to 2011, he was a Visiting Doctoral Scholar at the University of

problem, Eur. Trans. Elect. Power Eng., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 293297, Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. His research interests focus on power quality

Jul./Aug. 1993. and analysis of distribution systems.

[7] A. Cavallini and G. C. Montanari, A deterministic/stochastic frame-

work for power system harmonics modeling, IEEE Trans. Power Syst.,

vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 407415, Feb. 1997.

[8] S. R. Kaprielian, A. E. Emanuel, R. V. Dwyer, and H. Mehta, Pre- Chen Jiang (S09) received the B.Eng. degree in electric engineering and au-

diction voltage distortion in a system with multiple random harmonic tomation from the Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST),

sources, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 16321638, Jul. Wuhan, China, in 2008, and is currently pursuing the M.Sc degree in electrical

1994. engineering at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

[9] G. Zhang and W. Xu, Estimating harmonic distortion levels for sys- His main research interests are power quality and smart-grid technology of

tems with random-varying distributed harmonic-producing loads, Inst. distribution systems.

Eng. Technol. Gen., Transm. Distrib., vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 847855, Nov.

2008.

[10] C. Walker and J. Pokoski, Residential load shape modelling based on

customer behavior, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-104, no. Wilsun Xu (M90SM95F05) received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engi-

7, pp. 17031711, Jul. 1985. neering from the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, in

[11] A. Capasso, W. Grattieri, R. Lamedica, and A. Prudenzi, A bottom-up 1989.

approach to residential load modeling, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. Currently, he is a Professor and an NSERC/iCORE Industrial Research Chair

9, no. 2, pp. 957964, May 1994. in Power Quality at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. His cur-

[12] I. Richardson, M. Thomson, D. Infield, and C. Clifford, Domestic rent research interests are power quality, harmonics, and information extraction

electricity use: A high-resolution energy demand model, Energy from power disturbances.

Buildings, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 18781887, 2010.

[13] M. Armstrong, M. Swinton, H. Ribberink, I. Beausoleil-Morrison, and

J. Millette, Synthetically derived profiles for representing occupant

driven electric loads in canadian housing, Building Perform. Simul., Walmir Freitas (M02) received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from

vol. 2, pp. 1530, 2009. the University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil, in 2001.

[14] Task force on harmonics modeling and simulation, modeling and Currently he is an Associate Professor at the University of Campinas. His

simulation of the propagation of harmonics in electric power net- areas of research interest are the analysis of distribution systems and distributed

workspart I: concepts, models, and simulation techniques, IEEE generation.

Trans. Power Del., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 452465, Jan. 1996.

[15] A. Mansoor, W. M. Grady, A. H. Chowdhury, and M. J. Samotyj, An

investigation of harmonics attenuation and diversity among distributed

single-phase power electronic loads, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 10, Hooman Erfanian Mazin (S08) was born in Tehran, Iran, in 1981. He received

no. 1, pp. 467473, Jan. 1995. the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering from the Amirkabir Uni-

[16] A. B. Nassif and W. Xu, Characterizing the harmonic attenuation ef- versity of Technology, Tehran, Iran, in 2004 and 2006, respectively, and is cur-

fect of compact fluorescent lamps, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 24, rently pursuing the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering at the University of

no. 3, pp. 17481749, Jul. 2009. Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

- Mining Weather Data Using RattleTransféré parijcsn
- Sihem ThesisTransféré parMario Whoever
- Value at Risk IntroTransféré parJuhani Huopainen
- Pca - Making Sense of Principal Component Analysis, Eigenvectors & Eigenvalues - Cross ValidatedTransféré parsharmi
- tmpEC2F.tmpTransféré parFrontiers
- DM 5210T_V1 0706Transféré parjaikolangaraparambil
- The Evolution of Popular Music- USA 1960–2010Transféré pardollagio
- Manual Usuario Maxflo Fr en Es Pt de Nl It 2SINTransféré parMarioAugustoFloresPalmer
- Identification of Myocardial Infarction from Multi-Lead ECG signalTransféré parAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Social Network Aggregation UsingTransféré parAndrei Essence
- 968Transféré partufan85
- Frei Shaver 2002Transféré parIka Hana
- neural network stocksTransféré parSerag El-Deen
- 18. Engagement, satisfaction, and belonging of international undergraduates at U.S. research universities. Sam Van Horne, Shuhui Lin, Matthew Anson, & Wayne Jacobson, University of Iowa, United States; pp. 351-374Transféré parJournal of International Students (http://jistudents.org/)
- 01658299.pdfTransféré parJoyce George
- Revision LectureTransféré parMichael Benhamou
- Smart Grid CommTransféré parjbsimha3629
- Tulsa 15125Transféré parmoonrock1
- Multi WayPCATransféré parAlex Ikeda
- editd eeeTransféré parPraveen Chand
- 15. Schmidtlein t AlTransféré parHamza Butt
- 1111_10 Gabor FilterTransféré parprabhavathysund8763
- Careda Et AlTransféré parNaldi Sinaga
- Ica Image HyperspectraleTransféré parClity15
- Artigo Panel CheckTransféré pargutrunks
- Identification Source of Variation on Regional Impact of Air Quality Pattern Using ChemometricTransféré parIoana Marcu
- 14_appendices 1 to 4Transféré parSuresh Kumar R
- DSM 5th Amendment.pptxTransféré parmanish kumar
- Smc Ieee 2013Transféré parbinuq8usa
- Geochemistry of SoilTransféré parsumanpunia

- rula.pptTransféré parSuraj Singh
- Numerical Modeling of Mud Volcanoes and Their FlowsTransféré parNur Rochman Muh
- Stability Analysis of the Extended State Observers by Popov CriterionTransféré parקיל קאַץ
- 62932201-4-Week-RuleTransféré partoughnedglass
- Surds and IndicesTransféré parravi98195
- HIMAP A1 Communication ETransféré parmaronnam
- Technical Specfication for Tr 500.pdfTransféré parMahmoud Abuziad
- depak.docxTransféré parnagaraju
- GraftedTransféré parkristian
- Gettysburg the Turning PointTransféré parremow
- CV Dr. Hisham Bin Mohamad Oct 2011Transféré parHOSAM HUSSEIN
- TRMTransféré parshahhoney
- Dttl Refinery Service Market EnTransféré parIsabel Baud
- Cyberspace and the Future of MemoryTransféré parfprietoster
- Rieju RS3 50 2010 2011Transféré paravista123
- MBA3MB0034- Research MethodologyTransféré parkapil3518
- Calculation of Stress Time Signals of Multi-bolted JointsTransféré pardemercato
- ECE Lab 2 102Transféré parazimylabs
- u Graduation RulesTransféré parain_mmc
- M100.01 Magnetic Level GagesTransféré parariffstudio
- EvennessTransféré parpareshhadkar
- 00260786_0Transféré parJustin Reyes
- DissertationTransféré parAbhishek Singh Ujjwal
- LP Gas Basic Filling Procedures Gen Info 1Transféré parhandoyo_eko20017573
- Mel J-31 ,32 Rev 03 Mmel Rev 15Transféré parHonorio Perez M
- MANAGEMENT CLIENT RELATIONSHIP.pptxTransféré parSheena Marie Añonuevo Domingo
- Manual Adjustment Elex - 4FTransféré parBagus Trilaksono
- Aerobic Degradation of Formaldehyde in Wastewater from the production of Melamine ResinsTransféré parAG-Metal /Tretman Otpadnih Voda/Wastewater Treatment
- Significance of CsrTransféré parDinesh Kumar
- (Ocean Engineering & Oceanography 1) Edmund Wittbrodt, Marek Szczotka, Andrzej Maczyński, Stanisław Wojciech (auth.)-Rigid Finite Element Method in Analysis of Dynamics of Offshore Structures-Spri.pdfTransféré parAveek Girigoswami