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PRIMERONSTRIKE,PICKETINGANDLOCKOUT

1. WHATISSTRIKE,PICKETINGANDLOCKOUT?

A. 1. STRIKE–meansanytemporarystoppageofworkbytheconcertedactionofthe employeesasaresultofanindustrial orlabordispute. (Art. 212(o), Labor Code, as

amendedbySec.4,R.A.6715)

2.

PEACEFULPICKETING–therightofworkersduringstrikesconsistingofthemarching toandfrobeforethepremisesofanestablishmentinvolvedinalabordispute,generally accompaniedbythecarryinganddisplayofsigns,placardsorbannerswithstatements

relatingtothedispute.(GuidelinesGoverningLaborRelations,October19,1987)

3.

LOCKOUT–meansthetemporaryrefusalofanemployertofurnishworkasaresultof anindustrialorlabordispute. (Article212(p)LaborCode,asamendedbySection4,R.A.

2.

6715).

WHATARETHEDIFFERENTFORMSOFSTRIKES?

A. 1. LEGALSTRIKE–onecalledforavalidpurposeandconductedthroughmeans allowed bylaw.

2. ILLEGALSTRIKE–onestagedforapurposenotrecognizedbylaw,oriffora

validpurpose,conductedthroughmeansnotsanctionedbylaw.

3. ECONOMICSTRIKE–onestagedbyworkerstoforcewageorothereconomic concessionsfromtheemployerwhichheisnotrequiredbylawtogrant (ConsolidatedLaborAssociationofthePhil.vs. MarsmanandCompany, 11

SCRA589)

4. ULPSTRIKE–onecalledtoprotestagainsttheemployer’sactsofunfair

laborpracticeenumeratedinArticle248oftheLaborCode,asamended,

includinggrossviolationofthecollectivebargainingagreement(CBA) and unionbusting.

5. SLOWDOWNSTRIKE–onestagedwithouttheworkersquittingtheir workbutmerelyslackeningorbyreducingtheirnormalworkoutput.

6. WILD­CATSTRIKE–onedeclaredandstagedwithoutfilingtherequired notice of strike and without the majority approval of the recognized bargainingagent.

7. SITDOWNSTRIKE–onewheretheworkersstopworkingbutdonotleave

theirplaceofwork.

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3.

WHATISANINDUSTRIALDISPUTE?

A. Anindustrialorlabordisputeincludesanycontroversyormatterconcerning termsorconditionsofemploymentortheassociationorrepresentationofpersons in negotiating, fixing, maintaining, changing or arranging the terms and conditions of employment regardless of whether the disputants stand in the proximaterelationof employerandemployee. (Article212(1)LaborCode,as

amendedbySection4,R.A.6715)

4. WHAT IS THE NATURE OF THE RIGHT TO STRIKE AND LOCKOUT?

A. Therighttostrikeisaconstitutionalandlegalrightoftheworkersasthe employershavetheinherentandstatutoryrighttolockout,allwithinthecontext of labor relations and collective bargaining. It is a means of last resort and presupposesthatthedutytobargainingoodfaith has been fulfilled and other voluntary modesof disputesettlementhavebeentriedandexhausted. (GuidelinesGoverningLaborRelations).

5. WHOMAYDECLAREASTRIKEORLOCKOUT?

Anycertifiedordulyrecognizedbargainingrepresentativemaydeclareastrikein casesofbargainingdeadlockandunfairlaborpractice. Likewise,theemployer maydeclare alockoutinthesamecases.

Intheabsenceofacertifiedordulyrecognizedbargainingrepresentative,any legitimatelabororganizationintheestablishmentmaydeclareastrikebutonly onthe groundofunfairlaborpractice.(Section2,RuleXIII,BookV,Omnibus RulesImplementingTheLaborCode,asamended).

6. WHATARETHEREQUISITESOFALAWFULSTRIKEORLOCKOUT?

A.

Therequirementsforavalidstrikeorlockoutareas

follows:

Itmustbebasedonavalidandfactualground;

AstrikeorlockoutNOTICEshallbefiledwiththeNationalConciliationand MediationBoard(NCMB)atleast15days beforetheintendeddateofthe

strikeorlockoutiftheissuesraisedareunfairlaborpractices,oratleast30

days before the intended date thereof if the issue involves bargaining deadlock.

In cases of dismissal from employment of union officers duly elected in accordancewiththeunionconstitutionandby­laws,whichmayconstitute UNIONBUSTINGwheretheexistenceoftheunionisthreatened, the15­ day cooling­off period shall not apply and the union may take action immediately after the strike vote is conducted and the result thereof submittedtotheDepartmentofLaborandEmployment.

1. Astrikemustbeapprovedbyamajorityvoteofthemembersofthe Unionandalockoutmustbeapprovedbyamajorityvoteofthemembers of the Board of Directors of the Corporation or Association or of the

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partnersinapartnership,obtained bysecretballotinameetingcalledfor thatpurpose.

2.

AstrikeorlockoutVOTEshallbereportedtotheNCMB­DOLERegional

Branchatleast7daysbeforetheintendedstrikeorlockoutsubjecttothe

cooling­off period.

Intheeventtheresultofthestrike/lockout ballotisfiledwithinthecooling­ offperiod,the7­day requirementshallbecountedfromthedayfollowing theexpirationofthecooling­offperiod.(NSFWvs.Ovejera,G.R. No.

59743,May31,1982)

In case of dismissal from employment of union officers which may constituteunion busting,thetimerequirementforthefilingoftheNoticeof Strike shall be dispensed with but the strike vote requirement being mandatoryincharacter,shall“ineverycase”becompliedwith.

Thedisputemustnotbethesubjectofanassumptionofjurisdictionbythe President or the Secretary of Labor and Employment, a certification for compulsory or voluntary arbitration nor a subject of a pending case involvingthesamegroundsforthestrikeorlockout.

7.

WHATARETHEVALIDGROUNDSFORDECLARINGASTRIKEOR

LOCKOUT?

Thelawrecognizestwogroundsforthevalidexerciseoftherighttostrikeorlockout,

namely:

CollectiveBargainingDeadlock(CBD)and/or

UnfairLaborPractice(ULP)

8.

MAYAUNIONFILEANOTICEOFSTRIKE ORTHE EMPLOYERFILEANOTICE OFLOCKOUTIFTHELABORDISPUTEISBASEDONAGROUNDOTHERTHAN ULPANDCBD?

A. No. Theunion/employermaynotfileanoticebasedongroundsotherthanULP andCBD. ViolationsofCollectiveBargainingAgreements, exceptflagrantand/or maliciousrefusaltocomplywithitseconomicprovisions,shallnotbeconsidered unfairlaborpracticeandshallnotbestrikeableandnostrikeorlockoutmaybe declaredongroundsinvolvinginter­unionandinternaluniondisputesoronissues broughttovoluntaryorcompulsoryarbitrationincludinglegislatedwageorders andlaborstandardcases.

However,ifimprovidentlyfiledanditappearsonthefaceofthenoticethatthe issuesraisedarenon­strikeableortherealissuesdiscoveredduringconciliation proceedingsarenotpropersubjectsofaNoticeofStrikeorLockout,TheNCMB Regional Branchshalldismissmotupropiothenoticewithoutprejudicetofurther conciliation,oruponrequestofeitherorbothpartiesinwhichcase,theNoticeof StrikeorLockoutistreatedasaPreventiveMediationCase. (SeeDefinitionof

PreventiveMediationCaseunderAppendix3,DefinitionofTerms).

9. WHATARETHECONTENTSOFANOTICEOFSTRIKEORLOCKOUT?

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A. Thenoticeshallstate,amongothers,thenamesandaddressesoftheemployer and the union involved, the nature of the industry to which the employer belongs,thenumberofunionmembersandoftheworkersinthebargainingunit, andsuchotherrelevantdataasmayfacilitatethesettlementofthedispute,such asabriefstatementorenumerationofallpendinglabordisputesinvolvingthe sameparties.

Incasesofbargainingdeadlocks,thenoticeshall,asfaraspracticable,further statetheunresolvedissuesinthebargainingnegotiations and be accompanied by the written proposals of theunion,thecounter­proposalsoftheemployer andtheproofofarequestforconferencetosettlethedifferences.

Incasesofunfairlaborpractice, thenoticeshall,asfaraspracticable,statethe actscomplainedofandtheeffortstakentoresolvethedisputeamicably.

10. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE NCMB IN CASE A NOTICE OF STRIKE OR LOCKOUTISFILED?

A. Upon receipt of a valid notice of strike or lockout, the NCMB, through its Conciliator­Mediators,shallcallthepartiestoaconferencethesoonestpossible time in order to actively assist them to explore all possibilities for amicable settlement. Tothisend,theConciliator­Mediatormaysuggest/offerproposalsas analternativeavenuefortheresolutionoftheirdisagreement/conflictwhichmay notnecessarilybindtheparties. In theeventoffailureinconciliation/mediation thepartiesshallbeencouragedtosubmittheirdisputeforvoluntaryarbitration.

11. WHATISTHELEGALIMPLICATIONIFTHECONTENT­REQUIREMENTOFTHE

COMPLIED

WITH? A. Anynoticewhichdoesnotconformwiththeforegoingrequirementsshallbe deemednothavingbeenfiled.

12. WHATISTHEPURPOSEOFTHESTRIKEVOTE?

NOTICE

OF

STRIKE OR

LOCKOUT

HAS

NOT

BEEN

A.

ToensurethatthedecisiontostrikebroadlyrestswiththemajorityoftheUnion membersin generalandnotwithamereminority,atthesametime,discourage wildcatstrikes,unionbossismandevencorruption.

13. WHATISTHEPURPOSEOFTHESTRIKEVOTEREPORT?

A. Toensurethatastrikevotewasindeedtakenandintheeventthatthereportis false, to afford the members an opportunity to take the appropriate remedy beforeitistoolate.

14. WHATIS PURPOSEOFTHETIMEREQUIREMENTINTHENOTICEOF STRIKE/LOCKOUT?

A. The15and30daysrequirementisknownastheCooling­OffPerioddesignedto

affordpartiestheopportunitytoamicableresolvethedisputewiththeassistance oftheNCMBConciliator/Mediator. Shouldthedisputeremainunsettleduntilthe lapseoftherequirednumberofdaysfromthemandatoryfilingofthenotice,the laborunionmaystrikeortheemployermaycommencealockoutafterhaving compliedwiththe7­dayrequirementforthefilingofthe strikeorlockoutvote, asthecasemaybe.

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15. WHATISTHECORRECTINTERPRETATIONOFTHE REQUIREMENTTO OBSERVETHECOOLING­OFFPERIODSAND THESTRIKEBAN?

A.

Theprescribedcooling­offperiodandthe7­daystrikebanaftersubmissionof

reportofstrikevotearemandatory. Theobservanceofbothperiodsmustbe compliedwith,althoughalaborunionmaytakeastrikevoteandreportthesame withinthestatutorycooling­offperiod. Theavowedintentofthelawistoprovide anopportunityformediationandconciliation. Thewaitingperiod,ontheother hand,isintendedtoprovideopportunity forthemembersoftheunionorthe managementtotaketheappropriateremedyincasethestrikeorlockoutvote reportisfalseorinaccurate. Moreover,thecooling­offand 7­day strike ban provisionsoflawarereasonableandvalidrestrictionsontherighttostrikeand theserestrictionsconstituteavalidexerciseofpolicepoweroftheState. Ifonly the filing of the strike notice and the strike vote report would be deemed mandatory,butnotthewaitingperiodssospecificallyandemphaticallyprescribed bylaw,thepurposesforwhichthefilingofthe strikenoticeand strikevote report is required cannot be achieved. The submission of the report gives assurancethatastrikevotehasbeentakenandthat,ifthereportconcerningitis false,themajorityofthememberscantakeappropriateremedybeforeitistoo late. (NationalFederationofSugarWorkersvs.Ovejera,114SCRA354)

Theseven(7)dayswaitingperiodisintendedtogive theDepartmentofLabor and Employment an opportunity to verify whether the projected strike really carriestheimprimaturofthemajorityoftheunionmembers.

Theneedforassurancethatthemajorityoftheunionmemberssupportthestrike cannotbegainsaid. Strikeisusuallythelastweaponoflabortocompelcapitalto concede to its bargaining demands or to defend itself against unfair labor practicesofmanagement. Itisaweaponthatcaneitherbreathelifetoordestroy the union and its members in their struggle with management for a more equitabledueof theirlabors. Thedecisiontowieldtheweaponofstrikemust, therefore,restonarationalbasis,free fromemotionalism,unswayedbythe tempersandtantrumsofafewhotheads,andfirmlyfocusedonthelegitimate interest of the union which should not, however, be antithetical to the public welfare.

Thus,ourlawsrequirethe decisiontostriketobetheconsensusofthemajority forwhilethemajorityisnotinfallible,still,itisthebesthedgeagainsthasteand error. Inaddition,amajorityvoteassurestheunionitwillgotowaragainst managementwiththestrengthderivedfromunityandhence,withbetterchance tosucceed. (LapandayWorkersUnion,TomasN.Basco vs. NLRCandLapanday AgriculturalDevelopmentCorporation,G.R.Nos.95494­97, 7September1995)

16.WHATARETHEPROHIBITEDACTSANDPRACTICES?

A.

1.

Declaringastrikeorlockoutongroundsinvolvinginter­unionandintra­

uniondisputesoronissuesbroughttovoluntaryorcompulsoryarbitration.

2. Declaringastrikeorlockoutwithoutfirsthavingbargainedcollectivelyor withoutfirsthavingfiledtherequirednoticeorwithoutthenecessarystrike or lockout vote first having been obtained and reported to the Regional BranchoftheNCMB.

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Declaringastrikeorlockoutindefianceofacease­and­desistorder,or anorderforthestrikingemployeestoreturntoworkandfortheemployer toaccepttheworkersafterassumptionofjurisdictionby thePresidentor SecretaryofLaborandEmployment,oraftercertificationorsubmissionof thedisputetocompulsoryorvoluntaryarbitration,orduringthependency ofacaseinvolvingtheauthorizedgroundsforthestrikeorlockout.

4. Obstructing,impendingorinterferingwithbyforce,violence,coercion, threats or intimidation any peaceful picketing by employees during any laborcontroversyorintheexerciseoftheirrighttoself­organizationor collectivebargaining,oraidingorabettingsuchobstructionorinterference.

5. Employinganystrikebreakerorbeingemployedasastrike­breaker.

6. Nopublicofficialoremployee,includingofficersandpersonnelofthe ArmedForcesofthePhilippines,ofthePhilippineNationalPolice,orany armed person shall bring in, introduce or escort, in any manner, any individualwhoseekstoreplacestrikersinenteringorleavingthepremises ofastrikearea,orworkinplaceofstrikers.

Nothinghereinshallbeinterpretedtopreventtheaforementionedofficials,

employeesorpeaceofficersfromtakinganymeasurenecessarytomaintain

peaceandorderand/ortoprotectlifeandproperty.

7. Stationary picket and the use of means like placing of objects to constitutepermanentblockadeortoeffectivelyclosepointsofentryorexit incompanypremises.

8. Anyactofviolence,coercionorintimidationbyanypicketer.

9. Theobstructionofthefreeingresstooregressfromtheemployer’s

premisesforlawfulpurposes.

10. Obstructionofpublicthoroughfareswhileengagedinpicketing.

17.

WHATARETHELEGALIMPLICATIONSFORNON­COMPLIANCEWITHTHE

REQUIREMENTS

FOR

A

VALID

STRIKE

OR

LOCKOUT?

 

A.

Therequirementsforavalidstrikeorlockoutaremandatoryincharacterand

 
 

non­compliancetherewithissufficientgroundtodeclarethestrikeorlockout

illegal.

Ifastrikeisdeclaredillegal,theemployermaybeauthorizedtoterminatethe employment of union officials who knowingly participated in the illegal strike and/oranyworkerorunionofficerwhoknowinglyparticipatedinthecommission ofotherillegalactsduringthestrike.

Incasethelockoutisdeclaredillegal,anyworkerwhoseemploymenthasbeen

terminatedasaconsequencethereofmaybeentitledtore­instatementincluding

paymentoffullbackwagesandotherbenefits.

 

18.

WHEN A DISPUTE SUBJECT OF A NOTICE OF STRIKE IS FORTHWITH TREATED AS A PREVENTIVE MEDIATION CASE, MAY THE UNION LATER ON

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STAGEASTRIKEONACCOUNTOFTHESAMEDISPUTE?

A. No.Oncethedisputehasbeenconvertedintoapreventivemediationcase,the noticeofstrikeisdeemeddroppedfromthedocketsasifnonoticeofstrikehas beenfiled. Sincethereisnomorenoticeofstriketospeakabout,anystrike subsequently staged by the Union is deemed not to have complied with the requirementsofavalidstrike. Thesameruleappliesinthecaseoflockoutbyan employer,(PALvs.Sec.ofLabor)

19.

WHOHASTHEDUTYTODECLARETHATTHENOTICEOFSTRIKE/LOCKOUT

 

HAS

BEEN

CONVERTED

INTO

PREVENTIVE

MEDIATION

CASE?

 

A.

Upon the recommendation of the Conciliator/Mediator handling the labor dispute,theDirectoroftheRegionalBranchoftheNCMBwhichhasjurisdiction overthelabordisputehasthedutytodeclareandinformthepartiesthatthe issuesraisedortheactualissuesinvolvedarenotpropersubjectsofaNoticeof StrikeorLockoutand thattheNoticeofStrikeorLockouthasbeenconverted intoaPreventiveMediationCasewithoutprejudicetofurtherconciliationorupon therequestofeitherorbothparties.

20.

MAYALABORDISPUTESUBJECTOFANOTICEOFSTRIKEORLOCKOUT,

 

MATUREINTOAVOLUNTARYARBITRATIONCASE?

 

A.

Yes. Bymutualagreement,thepartiesmaydecidetobringthematterfor resolutionbeforeanaccreditedvoluntaryarbitratoroftheirchoice,inwhichcase theNoticeisdeemedautomaticallywithdrawnanddroppedfromthedockets.

21.

WHEN MAY A STRIKE OR LOCKOUT BE DECLARED

 

ILLEGAL?

 

A.

Astrikeorlockoutmaybedeclaredillegalifanyoftherequirementsforavalid

 

strikeorlockoutisnotcompliedwith.

 

Itmayalsobedeclaredillegalifitisbasedonnon­strikeableissuesorifthe issuesinvolvedarealreadythesubject ofarbitration.

Duringastrikeorlockout,wheneitherofthepartiescommitprohibitedactsor

practices,thestrikeorlockoutmaybedeclaredillegal.

 

22.

WHOHAS JURISDICTIONTODETERMINETHELEGALITYOFSTRIKEAND LOCKOUT?

A. Ingeneral, theLaborArbiterintheappropriateArbitrationBranchofthe National Labor Relations Commission has the power to determine questions involvingthelegalityortheillegalityofastrikeorlockoutuponthefilingofa propercomplaintandafterduehearing.

Wherethematteroflegalityorillegalityofstrikeisraisedinthedisputeover whichtheSecretaryassumedjurisdictionorindisputescertifiedbytheSecretary totheCommissionforcompulsoryarbitration,thesamemayberesolvedbythe SecretaryortheCommission,respectively. (InternationalPharmaceuticals,Inc. vs. SecretaryofLaborandAssociatedLaborUnion,G.R.No.92981­83,January

9,1992.)

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23. MAYAVOLUNTARYARBITRATORDETERMINETHELEGALITYOFA STRIKE?

A. Iftheissueisvoluntaryandjointlysubmittedby thepartiestovoluntary arbitration,thequestionmayberesolvedbythevoluntaryarbitratororpanelof voluntaryarbitrators.

24. CANANYPERSONPERFORMINGANYOFTHEPROHIBITEDACTIVITIES MENTIONED IN THE PROCEEDING PARAGRAPH BE CHARGED BEFORE THE COURT?

Yes. Theymaybechargedbeforetheappropriatecivilandcriminalcourts.

25.WHATISTHEPENALTYIMPOSABLE?

A.

AnypersonviolatinganyoftheprovisionsofArticle265oftheLaborCode

(performinganyoftheaboveprohibitedactivities)shallbepunishedbyafineof

notexceedingP500.00and/orimprisonmentfornotlessthanone(1)daynor

morethansix(6)months.

Ifthepersonsoconvictedisaforeigner,heshallbesubjectedtoimmediate

andsummarydeportationandwillbepermanentlybarredfromre­enteringthe

countrywithoutthespecialpermissionofthePresident.

IftheactisatthesametimeaviolationoftheRevisedPenalCode(RPC),a prosecution under the Labor Code will preclude prosecution for the same act undertheRPCorvice­versa.

26.

ISANEMPLOYEEWHOPARTICIPATESINALAWFUL STRIKEDEEMEDTO HAVEABANDONEDHIS EMPLOYMENT?

No. An employee who goes on strike is not deemed to have abandoned his employmentbutismerelyexercisinghisrighttoself­organizationpreciselyto protecthisrightsasanemployeeand/ortoobtainbetterworkingconditions.

27.

ISPARTICIPATIONBYANEMPLOYEEINASTRIKESUFFICIENTGROUND

 

FORANEMPLOYERTOTERMINATEHISEMPLOYMENT?

A.

No. Themereparticipationofaworkerinlawfulstrikeshallnotconstitute sufficientgroundfortheterminationofhisemploymentevenifareplacementhas beenhiredbytheemployerduring suchlawfulstrike. However,anyunionofficer whoknowinglyparticipatesinanillegalstrikeandanyworkerorunionofficerwho knowinglyparticipatesinthecommissionofillegalactsduringastrikemaybe declaredtohavelosthisemploymentstatus.

28.

ARETHESTRIKERSENTITLEDTOPAYMENTOFWAGESDURINGTHEPERIOD

OFALAWFULSTRIKE?

A.

Asageneralrule,strikingemployeesarenotentitledtothepaymentofwages forunworkeddaysduringtheperiodofthestrikepursuanttotheprincipleof“No work­Nopay”. However,thisdoesnotprecludethepartiesfromenteringintoan agreementtothecontrary.

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Ontheotherhand,whenstrikersabandonthestrikeandapplyforreinstatement despitetheexistenceofvalidgroundsbuttheemployereitherrefusestoreinstate themorimposesupon theirreinstatementnewconditionsthatconstituteunfair laborpractices,thestrikers,whorefusetoacceptthenewconditionsandare consequentlyrefusedreinstatement,areentitledtothelossesofpaytheymay havesufferedbyreasonoftheemployer’sdiscriminatoryactsfromthetime they wererefusedreinstatement.

29.

MAY A STRIKE/LOCKOUT BE ENJOINED/PREVENTED BY LEGAL

 

PROCESS?

A.

Asageneralrule,strikesandlockoutsvalidlydeclaredenjoytheprotectionof lawandcannotbeenjoinedunlessillegalactsarecommittedinthecourseofsuch strikesorlockouts. Ordinarily,thelawvestsintheNLRCtheauthoritytoissue injunctionstorestrainthecommissionofillegalactsduringstrikesandpickets.

 

Inthenationalinterestcases,thecertificationorassumptionofjurisdictionbythe

SecretaryofLaboroverthedisputeunderArticle263(g)oftheLaborCode,asa

amended,hastheeffectofautomaticallyenjoiningtheintendedstrikeorlockout whetheror not a corresponding return to work order has been issued. The workers shall immediately return to work and the employer shall immediately resumeoperationsandre­admitallworkersunder thesametermsandconditions ofemploymentprevailingbeforethestrike.

30.

WHATISTHEEXTENTOFTHEPOWEROFTHE PRESIDENTORTHE

SECRETARY OF LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT TO ISSUE ASSUMPTION AND CERTIFICATIONORDERS?

Thepowertoissueassumptionandcertificationordersisanextraordinary

authoritystrictlylimitedtonationalinterestcasesandgrantedtothePresidentor

totheSecretaryofLabor,“whichcanjustifiablyrestonhisownconsiderationof

A.

theexigencyofthesituationinrelationtothenationalinterest”.

PursuanttotheprovisionsofArticle263(g)oftheLaborCode,asamended,the

SecretaryofLaborisvestedwiththediscretionarypowertodecidenotonlythe

questionofwhethertoassumejurisdictionoveragivenlabordisputeorcertify

thesametotheNLRC,butalsothedeterminationoftheindustryindispensableto

nationalinterest.

ThePresidentofthePhilippinesshallnotbeprecludedfrominterveningatany time and assuming jurisdiction over any labor dispute involving industries indispensabletonationalinterestinordertosettleorterminatethesame.

Under Article 277(b) of the Labor Code, as amended, the Secretary of the DepartmentofLaborandEmploymentmaysuspendtheeffectsofthetermination pendingresolutionofthedisputeintheeventofaprimafaciefindingbythe appropriateofficialoftheDepartmentofLaborandEmploymentbeforewhom suchdisputeispendingthattheterminationmaycauseaseriouslabordisputeor isintheimplementationofamasslay­off.

31. WHENADISPUTEISASSUMEDBYTHEPRESIDENTORSECRETARYOF LABOR,ORCERTIFIEDTOTHENLRCFORCOMPULSORYARBITRATION, MAYA STRIKE OR LOCKOUT BE VALIDLY DECLARED ON ACCOUNT OF THE SAME DISPUTE?

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A. No. Theassumptionorcertificationshallhavetheeffectofautomatically enjoiningtheintendedorimpendingstrikeorlockout.

32.

WHAT IS THE NATURE OF THE RETURN­TO­WORK

ORDER?

A. Thereturn­to­workorderisavalidstatutorypartandparcelof theassumption andcertificationordersgiventhepredictableprejudicethestrikecouldcausenot onlytothepartiesbutmoreespeciallytothenationalinterest. Statedotherwise, theassumptionofjurisdictionandthecertificationto theNLRChastheeffectof automaticallyenjoiningthestrikeorlockout,whetheractualorintended,evenif thesamehasnotbeencategoricallystatedordoesnotappearintheassumption orcertificationorder. It is not a matter of option or voluntariness but of obligation. Itmustbedischargedasadutyevenagainsttheworker’swill. The workermustreturntohisjobtogetherwithhisco­workerssothattheoperation of the company can be resumed and it can continue serving the public and promotingitsinterest.xxx. Itisexecutoryincharacterandshallbestrictly compliedwithbythepartiesevenduringthependencyofanypetitionquestioning theirvalidityxxxpreciselytomaintainthestatusquowhilethedeterminationis beingmade. (UnionofFiliproEmployeesvs. NestlePhilippines,Inc., GRNo.

88710­13,December19,1990).

33. WHATARETHELEGALCONSEQUENCESINCASEOFDEFIANCEOFTHE

THE

RETURN­TO­WORK

EMPLOYEES?

ORDER

BY

THE EMPLOYER

AND

BY

A. Incaseofnon­compliancewiththereturn­to­workorderinconnectionwiththe certification or assumption of jurisdiction by the Secretary of Labor, the employees concerned may be subjected to immediate disciplinary action, includingdismissalorlossofemploymentstatusorpaymentbythelocking­out employer of backwages, damages and other affirmative relief even criminal prosecutionagainsteitherorbothof them.

TheSecretaryofLabormaycitethedefiantpartyincontemptpursuanttothe

powervestedinhimundertheprovisionsoftheLaborCode.

34.

CANTHEPHILIPPINENATIONALPOLICE(PNP)BEDEPUTIZEDTOENFORCE

 

ORDERSFROMTHEDEPARTMENTOFLABORANDEMPLOYMENT?

A.

Yes.TheSecretaryofLaborandEmployment,theNationalLaborRelations

 

Commission(NLRC)oranyLaborArbitermaydeputizethePNPtoenforceanyof

itsorder,awardordecision.

35.

IN CASE THE PNP IS DEPUTIZED TO ENFORCE ORDERS FROM THE DEPARTMENTOFLABOR,WHATWILLBEITSROLE?

 

Insuchacase,theroleofthePNPismerelytoassistthesheriffortheappropriateDOLEOfficers inenforcingthedecision,awardororder. Itshallmaintainpeaceandorderandpublicsafetyin theareawhere thedecision,awardororderistobeenforced. Itshallalsogivesecuritytothe officersenforcingthedecision,awardororder. (PleaseseealsoArticle264(d),Article266ofthe Labor Code,asamended,andGuidelinesfor theConductof PNPDuringStrikes,Lockoutsand

LaborDisputesinGeneral,Oct.22,1987).

36.

WHATISASTRIKEAREA?

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A. Astrikeareaincludes: (a) theestablishmentoftheemployerstruckagainst including run­away shops, factories or warehouses and other premises where members of the bargaining unit carry out the operations and business of the employer,and(b) theareaimmediatelybeforepointsofentranceandexitof establishmentstruckagainst.

37. ISTHEINGRESSANDEGRESSOFTHEESTABLISHMENTPARTOFTHESTRIKE

AREA?

A.

No.Sinceitisnotpartofthestrikearea,thesamecouldnotbeblockedor

picketed.

38. WHOISASTRIKE­BREAKER?

A.

Astrike­breakermeansanypersonwhoobstructs,impedesorinterfereswithby

force,violence,coercion,threatsorintimidationanypeacefulpicketbyemployees

duringanylaborcontroversy.

APPENDIX1

APPENDIX2

DEFINITIONOFTERMS

1. NATIONALCONCILIATIONANDMEDIATIONBOARD–orNCMB,forshort, refers to the agency attached to the Department of Labor and Employment principally in charge of the settlement of labor disputes through conciliation, mediationand thepromotionofvoluntaryapproachestolabordisputeprevention andsettlement.

2.

CONCILIATOR­MEDIATOR–officialoftheNCMBwhoseprincipalfunctionis

tosettleanddisposepotentialandactuallabordisputesthroughconciliationand

preventivemediationincludingthepromotionandencouragementofvoluntary

approachestolabordisputepreventionandsettlement.

3.

NATIONALLABORRELATIONSCOMMISSION–NLRC,forshort,refersto theagencyattachedtotheDepartmentofLaborandEmploymentin chargeof decidinglaborcasesthroughcompulsoryarbitration.

4.

BARGAININGDEADLOCK–failuretoagreeontheterms andconditionsof theCollectiveBargainingAgreementbetweenthemanagementandtheunion.

5.

UNFAIRLABORPRACTICE­eitherbyemployersorlabororganizationsas

enumeratedunderArticle248and249oftheLaborCode,asamended.

6.

PREVENTIVEMEDIATIONCASE–referstothepotentialorbrewinglabor

disputewhichisthesubjectofaformalorinformalrequestforconciliationand

mediationassistancesoughtbyeitherorbothpartiesinordertoremedy,contain

orpreventitsdegenerationintoafullblowndisputethroughamicablesettlement.

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7.

INTRA­UNIONDISPUTE–referstoacaseinvolvingthecontrol,supervision andmanagementoftheinternalaffairsofadulyregisteredlaborunionsuchas thoserelatingto specificviolationsoftheunion’sconstitutionandby­laws.

8.

INTER­UNIONDISPUTE ­ referstocasesinvolvingapetitionfor certification election and direct certification filed by a duly registered labor organization which is seeking to be recognized as the sole and exclusive bargainingagentoftherankandfileemployeesintheappropriatebargainingunit ofacompany,firmorestablishment.

9.

VOLUNTARYARBITRATION–athirdpartysettlementofalabordispute involvingthemutualconsentbytherepresentativeofthecompanyand thelabor unioninvolvedinalabordisputetosubmittheircaseforarbitration.

APPENDIX3

RELATEDCONSTITUTIONALANDSTATUTORYPROVISIONS

I.

RELATEDCONSTITUTIONALPROVISIONS

Sec.18ArticleII. –TheStateaffirmslaborasaprimesocialeconomicforce. Itshallprotecttherightofworkersandpromotetheirwelfare.

Sec.3ArticleXIII–TheStateshallaffordfullprotectiontolabor,localand

overseas,organizedandunorganized,andpromotefullemploymentandequality

ofemploymentopportunitiesforall.

Itshallguaranteetherightsofallworkerstoself­organization,collective bargaining and negotiations, and peaceful concerted activities, including the righttostrikeinaccordancewithlaw. Theyshallbeentitledtosecurityoftenure, humaneconditionsofworkandlivingwage. Theyshallparticipateinpolicyand decision­makingprocessaffectingtheirrightsandbenefitsasmaybeprovidedby law.

The State shall promote the principle of shared responsibility between workersandemployersandthepreferentialuseofvoluntarymodesinsettling disputes, including conciliation, and shall enforce their mutual compliance therewithtofosterindustrialpeace.

TheStateshallregulatetherelationsbetweentheworkersandemployers,

recognizingtherightoflabortoitsjustshareinthefruitsofproductionandthe

rightofenterprisestoreasonablereturnoninvestments,andtoexpansionand

growth.

II. PROVISIONSFROMTHELABOR CODE

Art.211DeclarationofPolicy

A.

a.

ItisthepolicyoftheState:

Topromoteandemphasizetheprimacyoffreecollective

bargainingandnegotiations,includingvoluntaryarbitration,mediation

andconciliation,asmodesofsettlinglabororindustrialdisputes;

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b.

Topromotefreetradeunionismasaninstrumentforthe

enhancementofdemocracyandthepromotionofsocialjusticeand

developments;

c.

Tofosterthefreeand voluntaryorganizationofastrongand unitedlabormovement;

d.

Topromotetheenlightenmentofworkersconcerningtheirrights

andobligationsasunionmembersandasemployees;

e.

Toprovideanadequateadministrativemachineryforthe

expeditioussettlementoflabororindustrialdispute;

f.

Toensureastablebutdynamicandjustindustrialpeace; and

g.

Toensuretheparticipationofworkersindecisionandpolicy­ making processesaffectingtheirrights,dutiesandwelfare.

B. Toencourageatrulydemocraticmethodofregulatingtherelations between the employers and employees by means of agreement freely

entered into through collective bargaining, no court or administrative agencyorofficialshallhavethepowertosetorfixwages,ratesofpay, hoursofworkorothertermsandconditionsofemployment,exceptas

otherwiseprovidedunderthisCode.

Art.248.

UnfairLaborPracticesof Employers.

Itshallbeunlawfulforanemployertocommitanyofthefollowingunfair

laborpractice:

a.

Tointerferewithrestrainorcoerceemployeesintheexerciseof

theirrighttoself­organization;

b.

Torequireasaconditionof employment thatapersonoran employeeshallnotjoinalabororganizationorshallwithdrawfrom onetowhichhebelongs;

c.

Tocontractoutservicesorfunctionsbeingperformedbyunion

memberswhensuchwillinterferewith,restrainorcoerceemployees

intheexerciseoftheirrightstoself­organization;

d.

Toinitiate,dominate,assistorotherwiseinterferewith,restrainor

coerceemployeesintheexerciseoftheirrightstoself­organization;

e.

Todiscriminateinregardtowages,hoursorworkandotherterms andconditionsofemploymentinordertoencourageordiscourage membershipinanylabororganization. NothinginthisCodeorinany other law shall stop the parties from requiring membership in a recognizedcollectivebargainingagent. Employeesofanappropriate collective bargaining unit who are not members of the recognized collective bargaining agent may be assessed a reasonable fee equivalent to the dues and other fees paid by members of the recognized collective bargaining agent, if such non­union members

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acceptthebenefitsunderthecollectiveagreement. Provided, that

theindividualauthorizationrequiredunderArt.242,paragraph(o)of

this Code shall not apply to the non­members of the recognized collectivebargainingagent;

f. Todismiss,discharge,orotherwiseprejudiceordiscriminate against an employee for having given or being about to give testimonyunderthisCode;

g.

Toviolatethedutytobargaincollectivelyasprescribedbythis

Code;

h.

Topaynegotiationorattorney’sfeestotheunionoritsofficersor

agentsaspartofthesettlementofanyissueincollectivebargaining

oranyotherdispute;or

i.

Toviolateacollectivebargainingagreement.

Theprovisionoftheprecedingparagraphnotwithstanding,onlytheofficers and agents of corporation, association or partnership who have actually participatedin,authorizedorratifiedunfairlaborpracticeshallbeheldcriminally liable.

Art.249.

UnfairLaborPracticesofLaborOrganizations.

Itshallbeunlawfulforalabororganization,itsofficers,agentsor

representativestocommitanyofthefollowingunfairlaborpractices:

a.

Torestrainorcoerceemployeesintheexerciseoftheirrighttoself­ organization:Provided,thatlabororganizationshallhavethe rightto prescribeitsownruleswithrespecttotheacquisitionorretentionof membership;

b.

To causeorattempttocauseanemployertodiscriminateagainst an employee, including discrimination against an employee with respecttowhommembershipinsuchorganizationhasbeendeniedto orterminateanemployeeonanygroundotherthantheusualterms and conditions under which membership or continuation of membershipismadeavailabletoothermembers;

c.

Toviolatethedutyorrefusetobargaincollectivelywiththe

employer,provideditistherepresentativeoftheemployees;

d.

Tocauseorattempttocauseanemployertopayoragreetopayor

deliver any money or other things of value, in the nature of an

exaction, for services which are not performed or not

to be

performedincludingthedemandforafeeforunionnegotiations;

e.

Toaskfororacceptnegotiationorattorney’sfeesfromemployers aspartofthesettlementofanyissueincollectivebargainingorany otherdispute; or

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f.

Toviolateacollectivebargainingagreement.

Theprovisionsoftheprecedingparagraphnotwithstanding,only

theofficers,membersofgoverningboards,representativesoragents

ormembersoflaborassociationsororganizationswhohaveactually

participatedin,authorizedorratifiedunfairlaborpracticesshallbe

heldcriminallyliable.

Art.263.

Strikes,PicketingandLockouts

a. ItisthepolicyoftheStatetoencouragefreetradeunionismand

freecollectivebargaining;

b. Workersshallhavetherighttoengageinconcertedactivitiesfor purposes of collective bargaining or for their mutual benefit and protection. Therightoflegitimatelabororganizationtostrikeand picket and of employers to lockout, consistent with the national interest,shallcontinuetoberecognizedandrespected. However,no laborunionmaystrikeandnoemployermaydeclarealockouton groundsinvolvinginter­unionandintra­uniondisputes;

c. In casesofbargainingdeadlocks,thedulycertifiedorrecognized bargainingagentmayfileanoticeofstrikeortheemployermayfilea noticeoflockoutwiththeDepartmentatleast30days beforethe intendeddate thereof. Incasesofunfairlaborpractice,theperiodof notice shall be 15 days and in the absence of duly certified or recognizedbargainingagent,thenoticeofstrikemaybefiledbyany legitimatelabororganizationinbehalfofitsmembers. However,in caseofdismissalfromemploymentofunionofficersdulyelectedin accordance with the union constitution and by­laws, which may constitute union busting where the existence of the union is threatened, the15­daycooling­off periodshallnotapplyandthe unionmay takeactionimmediately;

d. Thenoticemustbeinaccordancewithsuchimplementingrulesand regulations as the Secretary of Labor and Employment may promulgate;

e. Duringthecooling­offperiod,itshallbethedutyoftheDepartment toexertalleffortsatmediationandconciliationtoeffectavoluntary settlement. Shouldthedisputeremainunsettleduntilthelapseofthe requisitenumberofdaysfromthemandatoryfilingofthenoticethe laborunionmaydeclareastrike.

f. Adecisiontodeclareastrikemustbeapprovedbyamajorityofthe totalunionmembershipinthebargainingunitconcerned,obtainedby asecretballotinmeetingsorreferendacalledforthatpurpose. A decisiontodeclarealockoutmustbeapprovedby themajorityofthe boardofdirectorsofthecorporationorassociationorofthepartners inapartnership,obtainedbyasecretballotinameetingcalledfor that purpose. The decision shall be valid for the duration of the disputesbasedonsubstantiallythesamegroundsconsideredwhen thestrikeorlockoutvotewastaken. TheDepartmentmay,atitsown

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initiative or upon the request of any affected party, supervise the conductofthesecretballoting. Ineverycase,theunionoremployer shallfurnishtheDepartmenttheresultsofthevotingatleastseven days beforetheintendedstrikeorlockout,subjecttothecooling­off periodhereinprovided.

g. When,inhisopinion,thereexistsalabordisputecausingorlikely to cause a strike or lockout in an industry indispensable to the national interest, the Secretary of Labor and Employment may assumejurisdictionoverthedisputeanddecide it or certify the same to the Commission(National

Labor Relations Commission) for compulsory arbitration. Such assumption or certification shall have the effect of automatically enjoiningtheintendedorimpendingstrikeorlockoutasspecifiedin theassumptionorcertificationorder. Ifonehasalreadytakenplace atthetimeof assumptionofcertification,allstrikingorlockedout employeesshallimmediatelyreturntoworkandtheemployershall immediately resume operations and readmit all workers under the sametermsandconditionprevailingbeforethestrikeorlockout. The Secretary of Labor and Employment or the Commission may seek assistanceoflawenforcementagenciestoensurecompliancewiththis provisionaswellaswithsuchorderashemayissuetoenforcethe same.

Inlinewiththenationalconcernforandthehighestrespectaccorded to the right of patients to life and health, strikes and lockouts in hospitals,clinicsandsimilarmedicalinstitutionsshall,toeveryextent possible,beavoided,andallseriousefforts,notonlybylaborand managementbutgovernmentaswell,beexhaustedtosubstantially minimize, ifnotprevent,theiradverseeffectsonsuchlifeandhealth, throughtheexercise,howeverlegitimate,bylaborofitsrighttostrike andbymanagementtolockout. Inlabordisputesadverselyaffecting

the continued operation

institutions,itshallbethedutyofthestrikingunionorlocking­out employertoprovideandmaintainaneffectiveskeletalworkforceof medicalandotherhealthpersonnel,whosemovementandservices shallbeunhamperedandunrestricted,asarenecessarytoinsurethe proper and adequate protection of the life of its patients, most especiallyemergencycases,forthedurationofthestrikeorlockout.

of such hospitals, clinics or medical

Insuchcases,therefore,theSecretaryofLaborandEmploymentmay

immediatelyassume,withintwenty­four(24)hoursfromknowledge

oftheoccurrenceofsuchastrikeorlockout,jurisdictionoverthe sameorcertifyittotheCommissionforcompulsoryarbitration. For thispurpose,thecontendingpartiesarestrictlyenjoinedtocomply withsuchorders,prohibitionsand/orinjunctionsasareissuedbythe SecretaryofLaborandEmploymentor theCommission,underpain of immediate disciplinary action, including dismissal or loss of employment status or payment by the locking­out employer or backwages, damages and other affirmative relief, even criminal prosecutionagainsteitherorbothofthem.

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Theforegoingnotwithstanding,thePresidentofthePhilippinesshall

notbeprecludedfromdeterminingtheindustriesthat,inhisopinion,

areindispensabletothenationalinterest,andfrominterveningatany

timeandassumingjurisdictionoveranysuchlabordisputeinorderto

settleorterminatethesame.

h. TheSecretaryofLaborandEmployment,theCommissionorthe voluntaryarbitratorshalldecideorresolvethedispute,asthecase maybe. ThedecisionofthePresident,theSecretaryofLaborand Employment,theCommissionorthevoluntaryarbitratorshallbefinal and executoryten(10)calendardaysafterreceiptthereof bythe parties.

APPENDIX4

GUIDELINESGOVERNINGLABORRELATIONS

Inlinewiththeprogramtopromoteindustrialpeaceasanessentialrequirementto achievenationaleconomicandsocialprograms,the followingguidelinesshallbeobservedin theconduct anddispositionoflabordisputesbyallconcerned.

Rightto StrikeorLockout

1. Therighttostrikeisaconstitutionalandlegalrightoftheworkersasemployers have the right to lockout, all within the context of labor relations and collective bargaining. SubjecttotheenactmentbyCongressofamendmentsoranewlawon laborrelations,theprovisionsofexistinglawsshallgoverntheexerciseofthoserights.

LegalRequirements

2. Theexerciseof the right to strike or lockout shall be subject to the following requirements:

a.

astrikeorlockoutshallbefiledwiththelabordepartmentatleast15daysif

theissuesraisedareunfairlaborpracticeoratleast30daysiftheissueinvolved

bargainingdeadlock;

b.

thestrikeorlockoutshallbesupportedbyamajorityvoteofthemembersof theunionorthemembersoftheboardofdirectorsofcorporationsorassociations orpartnership,obtainedbysecretballotinameetingcalledforthepurpose; and

c.

strikeorlockoutvoteshallbereportedtothelabordepartmentatleast7days

beforetheintendedstrikeorlockout.

3. Incaseof dismissalfromemploymentofunionofficersdulyelectedinaccordance withtheunionconstitutionandby­laws,whichmayconstitute unionbustingwherethe

existenceoftheunionisthreatened,the15­daycooling­offperiodshallnotapplyand

theunionmaytakeactionimmediately.

4. Therequirementsforvalidstrikeorlockoutaremandatory incharacterandnon­ compliancetherewithissufficientgroundtodeclarethestrikeorlockoutillegal,upon filingofaproperpetitionandafterduehearingwiththeappropriateArbitrationBranch oftheNationalLaborRelationsCommission.

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ValidGroundsforStrikeorLockout

5. Thelawrecognizestwogroundsforthevalidexerciseoftherighttostrikeorlockout,

namely:

a.

unfairlaborpractice

b.

bargainingdeadlock

6. Inordertobevalid,thenoticeofstrikeorlockoutongroundsofunfairlaborpractice,

shallstatethespecificactscomplainedof. Incaseofbargainingdeadlock,thenotice must specify the unresolved issues and must show proof that the parties have

exhaustedalleffortstoresolvethedeadlock.

7. Ifonthefaceofthenotice,theissuesraisedarenon­strikeable,theRegionalOffice shalldismissmotu­propriothenoticewithoutprejudicetoconciliationuponrequestof

eitherorbothparties.

CONCILIATION

8. Uponreceiptofavalidnoticeofstrikeorlockout,itshallbethedutyoflabor

conciliatorstocallthepartiestoaconferenceimmediatelywithinaperiodnotexceeding 48 hours. Notices of conference to the parties shall be done through the fastest

availablemeansofcommunicationsuchastelephonesandtelegrams.

9. Duringtheinitialconference,itshallbethedutyoftheconciliatortoseetoitthatthe issuesraisedinthenotice areproperlyidentified.

Iftheissueinvolvesallegedunfairlaborpractice,theconciliatorshouldclarifywiththe partiesthespecific actsofunfairlaborpractice. Iftheactscomplainedofinvolved dismissalofdulyelectedunionofficerswhichmayconstituteunionbustingandwhere theexistenceoftheunionisthreatened, the

conciliatorshallconductmarathonconferencesandexerteffortstohelpthepartiessettletheissue.

10.

IftheunfairlaborpracticeactscomplainedofinvolvesallegedviolationofCBAand

questionsofinterpretationsorimplementationoftheagreement,theConciliatorshall

encouragethepartiestorespecttheprovisionsofthecollectivebargainingagreement

andtoavailoftheestablishedgrievancemachineryincludingvoluntaryarbitration. If the parties decide to designate the conciliator as voluntary arbitrator, his or her

acceptanceofsuchdesignationshallbesubjecttoDepartmentOrderNo.10,Seriesof

1987.

11.

Incasesofbargainingdeadlocks, theconciliatorshallconductmarathonorseriesof conferencestoenablethepartiestoreachanagreementbeforetheexpirationofthe

30­daycooling­offperiod.

12. Iftheissuesinvolvesallegedviolationoflaborstandards,theconciliatorshall immediatelyassignalaborinspectortoactonthereportedviolation andtosubmita

reportofhisfindingswithin24hours,copyfurnishedtheconciliatorconcerned. The labor inspector and the Regional director shall effect immediate compliance by the

employerwiththelaborstandardsviolated.

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13. Iftheissueinvolvesinter­uniondisputes,theconciliatorshallexertalleffortsto enablethepartiestosettletheissueeitherthroughvoluntaryrecognitionorconsent election. Otherwise,theconciliatorshallimmediatelyinformtheRegionalDirectoror BLRC Director as the case may be, in order that a Med­Arbiter can be directed to

resolvethecasewithinaperiodoffive(5)days.

14. ItshallbethedutyoftheConciliatortorecordintheminuteseverypointof agreementaswellastheunresolvedissues. Referralsofrepresentationcasesandlabor standardsviolationsincludingthosethataregrievableundertheCBA,shallbeduly noted in the minutes of the conference. The conciliator shall actively monitor the progressanddevelopmentsonthesecaseswithconcernedlaborofficials.

PICKETING

Duringstrikes,workersenjoytherighttopeacefulpicketingwhichisthemarchingtoandfro

beforethepremisesofanestablishmentinvolvedinalabordispute,generallyaccompanied

bythecarryinganddisplayofsigns,placardsorbannerswithstatementsrelatingtothe

dispute.

15. Therighttopeacefulpicketingshallbeexercisedbytheworkerswithduerespectfor therightsofothers. Nopersonengagedinpicketingshallcommitanyactofviolence, coercionorintimidation. Stationarypicket,theuseofmeanslikeplacingofobjectsto constitutepermanentblockadeor toeffectivelyclosepointsofentryorexitincompany premisesareprohibitedbylaw.

INJUNCTIONS

16. Nocourtorentityshallenjoinanypicketing,strikeorlockoutexceptasprovidedin Article218and263oftheLaborCode,asamended. TheNationalLaborRelations Commissionpropershallhavethepowertoissuetemporaryinjunctionsbutonlyafter duenoticeandhearing andinaccordancewithitsrules. Itmayalsoissuerestraining orderstoappropriatecasessubjectas ageneralruletotherequirementsofduenotice andhearing.

17.

Petitionsforinjunctionsorrestrainingordersshallbehandledorresolvedwith extremecareandcaution. Alleffortstoconciliateorsettleamicablytheissuesinthe main dispute and those involved in petitions for injunctions shall be exhausted. Injunctionsandrestrainingordersthereforemaybeissuedonlyincaseofextreme necessitybasedonlegalgroundsclearlyestablished,afterdueconsultationsorhearing andwhenalleffortsatconciliationareexhausted.

19.

Injunctionordersshallbeenforcedonlytotheextentnecessarytocorrectviolations oflawandshallnotpreventtheworkersfromexercisingtherighttopeacefulpicketing. Therighttoingressor egressmaybeexercisedonlyforlawfulpurposesasmaybe indicatedintheinjunctiveordersinlinewithestablishedjurisprudence.

20.

Injunction ordersissuedunderArticle218and263oftheLaborCode,asamended, shallbeservedandenforcedbyappropriateofficialsoremployeesoftheNationalLabor RelationsCommissionorbysuchofficialsoremployeesoftheDepartmentofLaborand Employmentwhomaybedesignedbythelaborsecretary.

21.

Theassistanceofothercivilianauthoritieslikenational,localorcityofficialsmaybe sought,ifnecessary. Onlyunderextremecircumstancesshalltheassistanceofthe PC/INP be enlisted and in such cases, the police authorities shall also serve on a

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supportivecapacitytothelabordepartmentofficialsoremployees. Alleffortsmustbe exertedinallcasestobringaboutvoluntaryandpeacefulcompliancewithinjunctive orders. PC/INPrepresentativesshallbeguidedbydulypromulgatedguidelines.

RETURNTOWORKORDERS

22. Thepowertoissueassumptionand certification ordersisanextraordinaryauthority grantedtothePresidentortheSecretaryofLabor,theexerciseofwhichshallbestrictly limitedtothenationalinterestcases.

23. Theissuanceofassumptionorcertificationordersautomaticallyenjoinstheintended orimpendingstrikeorlockoutandifonehasalreadytakenplace,allstrikingorlocked outemployeesshallimmediatelyreturntoworkandtheemployershallimmediately resume operations and re­admit all workers under the same terms and conditions prevailing before the strike or lockout. Assumption and certification orders are executoryincharacterandshallbestrictlycompliedwithbythepartiesevenduringthe pendencyofanypetitionquestioningtheirvalidity.

24. In case of non­compliance with return­to­work­orders, in connection with the certification and assumption of jurisdiction by the Secretary of Labor, the party concernedmaybesubjectedtothesanctionsprovidedbylaw. Employerswhorefuseto re­admit returning workers may be liable, upon filing of proper petition, for the paymentofwagesandotherbenefitsfromthedateofactualrefusaluntiltheworkers arere­admitted.

REMEDIES

25.

Astrikeorlockoutmaybedeclaredillegalifany oftherequirementsforavalid strikeorlockoutisnotcompliedwithorifdeclaredbasedonnon­strikeableissues,or whentheissuesinvolvedarealreadythesubjectofarbitration. Duringastrikeor lockout,eitherofthepartiesareadditionallyprohibitedfromcommittingillegalacts.

26.

TheemployerortheunionmayfiletheproperpetitiontotheappropriateArbitration BranchoftheNLRCtoseekadeclarationoftheillegalityofthestrikeorlockoutsubject totheprovisionofArticle263(g). ItshallbethedutyoftheLaborArbiterconcernedto actonthecaseimmediatelyanddisposeofthesamesubjectonlytotherequirements ofdueprocess.

27.

Ifastrikeisdeclaredtobeillegal,theemployermaybeauthorizedtoterminatethe

employmentofunionofficialswhoknowinglyparticipateintheillegalstrikeandany

workerorunionofficerwhoknowinglyparticipatesinthecommissionofillegalacts

duringthestrikeorlockout.

28.

Incaseofanillegallockout,anyworkerwhoseemploymenthasbeenterminatedas

aconsequencethereof,shallbereinstatedwithpaymentoffullbackwagesandother

benefits.

DEPARTMENTORDERNO.7

29. Employers,workersandconcernedlabordepartmentofficialsareenjoinedto

faithfullyobservetheprinciplescontainedinDepartmentOrderNo.7issuedon7May

1987 which were based on the agreement reached during the National Tripartite

ConferenceheldonApril10­11,1987inTagaytayCity.

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19October1987.

(Sgd.)FRANKLINM.DRILON

SecretaryofLaborandEmployment

APPENDIX5

DEPARTMENTOFLABORAND

EMPLOYMENT

RepublicofthePhilippines

NATIONALPOLICE

COMMISSION

GUIDELINESINTHE CONDUCTOFPNPPERSONNEL,PRIVATESECURITYGUARDS ANDCOMPANYGUARDFORCESDURINGSTRIKES,LOCKOUTSANDLABORDISPUTES INGENERAL

Inordertopromotepublicinterestandsafety,industrialpeaceandstability,and

peaceandorder,thefollowingguidelinesareherebyprescribedtogoverntheofficialconduct

ofallmembersofthePHILIPPINENATIONALPOLICE(PNP)duringstrikes,lockoutandlabor

disputesingeneral:

GENERALPOLICY

1. Itistheessenceoftheseguidelinesthatlabordisputesarewithinthesole

jurisdiction of the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) and/or through its appropriate agencies while matters involving peace and order, are under the exclusive jurisdictionoftheNationalPoliceCommission (NAPOLCOM) throughthePhilippine National Police (PNP); but as labor disputes involving strikes and lockouts have peace and order implications,closecoordinationbetweenthetwodepartmentsisnecessary.

TheinvolvementofthePNPduringstrikes,lockoutsandlabordisputesin

generalshallbelimitedtothemaintenanceofpeaceandorder,enforcementoflawsandlegal

ordersofdulyconstitutedauthorities.

2.

3. Anyrequestforpoliceassistanceissuedbydulyconstitutedauthoritiesshall

specifytheactstobeperformedorconductedbyPNPpersonnel.

WhenevertheassistanceofthePNPisnecessary,elementsofthelocalpolice

force should be called upon to render assistance. Such request for assistance shall be addressedtotheRegionalDirector,NationalCapitalRegionalCommand(NCRC),ortheCity Directorinthecaseofcities,ortheProvincialDirectorinthecaseofprovincesorcitiesnot under the City Police Command. Unless directed by the President or personally by the ChairmanoftheNationalPoliceCommissionuponconsultationwiththeSecretaryofLabor andEmploymentorwhenrequestedbythelatter,personnelfromtheArmedForcesofthe Philippinesshallnotintervenenorbeutilizedinanylabordispute.

4.

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5. Insofaraspracticable,noofficerofthelawshallbeallowed torenderservices

in connection with a strike or lockout if there is question or complaint as regards his

relationshipbyaffinityorconsanguinitytoanyofficial/leaderofthepartiesinthecontroversy

orifhehasfinancialorpecuniaryinteresttherein.

6. Apeacekeepingdetailshallbeestablishedinastrikeorlockoutareawhen requestedbyDOLEorastheRegionalDirector,NationalCapitalRegionalCommand,City Police Command/Provincial Director may deem necessary for the purpose of maintaining peaceandorderinthearea.

7. Personneldetailedaspeacekeepingforce inastrikeorlockoutareasshallbe

inuniform,withpropernameplateatalltimes. Theyshallexercisemaximumtoleranceand shall observe courtesy and strict neutrality in their dealings with both parties to the controversybearinginmindthatthepartiestothelabordisputearenottheiradversariesbut theirpartnersinthequestforindustrialpeaceandhumandignity. Asmuchaspossible,they shallnotinflictanyphysicalharmuponstrikersand/orpicketersoranypersoninvolvedinthe strike/lockout. Whencalledforbythesituationorwhenallotherpeacefulandnon­violent meanshavebeenexhausted,lawenforcersmayemploy,asa lastresortonlysuchforceas maybenecessaryandreasonabletopreventorrepelanaggression.

PEACEKEEPINGDETAILS

8. Thepeacekeepingdetailshallnotbestationedinthepicket(orconfrontation

line)butshouldbestationedsuch thattheirpresencemaydeterthecommissionofcriminal actsoranyuntowardincidentfromeitherside. Themembersofthepeacekeepingdetail

shallstayoutsidea50meterradiusfromthepicketline,except,ifthe50meterradius

includesapublicthoroughfare,theymaystationthemselvesinsuchpublicthoroughfarefor

thepurposeofinsuringthefreeflowoftraffic.

ARRESTS/SEARCHESANDSEIZURES

9. Arrestsandsearchesinstrike/lockoutareasshallbeeffectedonlyonthebasis

ofanexistingandvalidWarrantofArrest/SearchandSeizureorinaccordancewithSection

5, Rule 113 of the Rules of Court.

laborers/workers) or management representatives (for management personnel) shall be requestedtofacilitatetheserviceoftheWarrantofArrest/SearchandSeizureOrder.

Whenever possible, union representatives (for

10. Anypersonwho,duringthestrike/lockout,violatesanylaw,statute,ordinance

oranyprovisionofBatasPambansaBlg.880orthePublicAssemblyActmaybearrestedand

chargedaccordinglyincourt.

11. Anypersonwhoobstructsthefreeandlawfulingresstoandegressfromthe

employer’spremisesincontemplationofArticle264,par.(e)oftheLaborCode,asamended,

orwhoobstructspublicthoroughfaresmaybearrestedandaccordinglychargedincourt.

12. TheDOLEshallimmediatelybeinformedbythePNPunitconcernedincasesof

violence in the picket line. When arrests are made pursuant to a warrant issued by

the arresting officers shall coordinate with the Leaders/

competent authorities,

Representativesoftheunionandmanagement, asthecasemaybe,andalsoinformthemof

thearrestandthereasonthereof.

SERVICEOFDOLE,COURTORLAWFULORDERS/WRITS

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13. The serviceofDOLE,courtorlawfulorder/writsistheprimaryconcernofthe

DOLE representative, sheriff, representative of the government agency issuing the order respectively. BeforeserviceoftheOrder,theDOLE representative,sherifforrepresentative oftheagencyissuingtheordershallcoordinateanddialoguewiththeleadersofthestriking group and the representatives of management and shall inform them of the nature and contentoftheOrdertobeenforcedincludingpossibleconsequencesofanydefiancethereto. Whenevernecessary,coordinationwith thelocalgovernmentunitsshallbemadebythe DOLEandtheotherconcernedagenciesissuing theOrdertofacilitatetheserviceofOrder andtopreventunnecessaryintervention.

14. Ordersenjoininganypicketing,strike,orlockout areenforceablestrictlyin

accordancewithArticles218and263oftheLaborCode,asamended.

15.Anypersonwhoisnotalaborer/workerofthecompany/businessestablishmenton

strikebuthasjoinedthestrikinglaborers/workersintheirpicketorstrike,shallbetreatedby thelawenforcersinthesamemannerasthestrikers/picketers. Ifsuchperson’spresencein thestrikeareaobstructsthepeacefulpicketing,thelawenforcersshallcompelhimtoleave thearea. Theconductofralliesandmarchesonissuesnotrelationtothelabordisputeshall

bedealtwithinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofBatasPambansa880.

ADMINISTRATIVEJURISDICTION

Exceptasprovidedintheseguidelinesthematterofdeterminingwhethera

strike,picketorlockoutislegalornotshouldbelefttoDOLEanditsappropriateagencies.

PNPelementsareenjoinedfrominterferinginastrike,picketorlockout,exceptasherein

provided,forthesolereasonthatisillegal.

16.

Picketingaspartofthefreedomofexpressionduringthestrikesshallbe

respectedprovideditispeaceful. Shantiesandstructuresset­uptoeffectivelyblocklawful ingresstoandegressfromcompanypremisesforlegalpurposesandthefreepassagein

publicthoroughfaresshallbesummarilydemolishedinaccordancewithArticle694oftheCivil

CodeofthePhilippines.

17.

18. Nopersonalescortshallbeprovidedtoanyofthepartiestothecontroversy

unlesssodirectedbythecompetentauthority. Wheneverescortsaretobeprovidedtoany, theotherpartyshallbeinformedaccordingly. Allescortsshallbeinuniformatalltimes.

SOCIALIZING

19. Duringthependencyofastrike/lockout,thepoliceand themilitarypersonnel

concerned are discouraged from socializing with any of the parties involved in the controversy. These personnel shall not, under any pretext, accept an invitation from managementpersonnelorunionofficials/personnelinvolvedinthecontroversy.

LIAISON

20. LiaisonshallbeestablishedandmaintainedwiththerepresentativesofDOLE,

managementandtheunioninthestrike/lockoutareforthepurposeofmaintainingpeaceand order as well as to maintain a continuing peaceful dialogue between the parties to the strike/lockout. If possible, a monthly meeting between the representatives of the PNP,

http://ncmb.ph/Publications/Manual%20on%20Strike/MOS.HTM

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PrimeronStrike,PicketingandLockout

NAPOLCOM and the DOLE concerned sectors shall be conducted to assess and monitor compliancewithandimplementationoftheguidelines.

ADMINISTRATIVEACTION

21. Allcomplaints/reportsleveledagainstanypersonnelofthePNPontheoccasion ofstrike/lockoutshallbepossessedandresolvedinaccordancewiththePNPAdministrative DisciplinaryMachinerypursuanttoChapterIII,paragraph (c)ofRepublicAct6975. For DOLEpersonnel, thecomplaintsshallbeprocessedinaccordancewiththeDOLEManualon the Disposition of Administrative Cases. Whenever applicable, and if the evidence so warrants,appropriatedisciplinaryactionshallbetakenagainsttheerringpersonnel.

22.

ROLEOFSECURITYGUARDS

Conductofsecurityguardsduringstrikesandlockoutsshallbeinaccordance

withRule18oftheImplementingRulesofRepublicAct5487.

EFFECTIVITY

23. Theseguidelinesshalltakeeffectimmediately.

Manila,1996

FORTHEDEPARTMENTOFLABOR

ANDEMPLOYMENT

(SGD.)LEONARDOA.QUISUMBING

WITNESSES:

Secretary

(SGD.) ROSALINDAD.BALDOZ ActingExecutiveDirectorIV NationalConciliationand MediationBoard

REFERENCES

ExecutiveOrderNo.11

http://ncmb.ph/Publications/Manual%20on%20Strike/MOS.HTM

FORTHENATIONAL

POLICECOMMISSION

(SGD.)ROBERTZ.BARBERS

Chairman

(SGD.)RECAREDOSARMIENTOII

DirectorGeneral

PhilippineNationalPolice

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