Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 25



Navalur Kuttapattu, Srirangam (TK), Tiruchirapalli 620009, Tamil Nadu


India Pakisthan Relations



(Assistant Professor in Political Science)



I year B.com.LL.B (Hons)

(Reg No.BC0150028)

At the outset, I take this opportunity to thank my Professor Dr.SUBBA RAO from the bottom of my
heart who has been of immense help during moments of anxiety and torpidity while the project was
taking its crucial shape.

Secondly, I convey my deepest regards to the Vice Chancellor Arun Roy and the
administrative staff of TNNLS who held the project in high esteem by providing reliable information
in the form of library infrastructure and database connections in times of need.

Thirdly, the contribution made by my parents and friends by foregoing their precious time is
unforgettable and highly solicited. Their valuable advice and timely supervision paved the way for
the successful completion of this project.

Finally, I thank the Almighty who gave me the courage and stamina to confront all hurdles
during the making of this project. Words arent sufficient to acknowledge the tremendous
contributions of various people involved in this project, as I know Words are Poor Comforters. I
once again wholeheartedly and earnestly thank all the people who were involved directly or indirectly
during this project making which helped me to come out with flying colors.

I, R.subash (Reg No:- Bc0150028) do hereby declare that the project entitled indo Pakistan
relations submitted to Tamil Nadu National law school in partial fulfillment of requirement of
award of degree in undergraduate in law is a record of original work done by me under the
supervision and guidance of Professor Dr.SUBBA RAO, Department of Political science , Tamil
Nadu National law school and has not formed basis for award of any degree or diploma or fellowship
or any other title to any other candidate of any university.


1ST YEAR B.com., LL.B (Hons)

ROLL NO: - BC0150028


This project studies about the autonomous constitution body the election commission of India and
its role in upholding the free and fair elections across the country to maintain the democracy in India.
This project is done with the help of the secondary sources like newspapers, magazines, articles,
books and website sources.

My main objective behind taking up this project is due to the depth , controversial
nature and its day to day relation with my life . as a citizen of india im obliged to let
out my views as the issue has had a profound effect on my thought processa swell as
fellow citizens. I have taken up this project with a deeply affected mindset . this has
been due to the age old controversies and issue that have been continuing between the
two nations.i have seen the corrupt politicians with vested interests exploiting the
situation and misleading the people of both nations , I have seen my very own brothers
and sisters lose their dear ones as a result of this polarization and I sincerely hope this
ends one day.

5 WAR OF 1965

The name itself signifies the complexity of the topic this title has been defined as one of the most
controversial headings in the history of international relations. This complexity can be attributed
to various historical reasons and olitical events .though the two nations have a lot in common
considerig their linguistic, cultura, traditional, andeconomic aspects. The two nations havefought
three wars in total and their relations have been severely plagued by repeated breach of trust,
supporting and patronage of anti state elements in the respective states. There has been
continuousviolation and agreements by both the parties which have resulted in blame game with
each nation blaming the other. This has been very much used for the advantage of communal
forces in each of the nations.

The relations have been very much even before he birth of the two
nations , the seeds of the bitter rivalry and disdain arose during the partition of 1947 during
which the two nations where separated on communal lines which resulted in the horrific riots
which in turn lead to catastrophic destruction of men and property .this events sowed seeds for
the bitter rivalry that will continue grow in size without the possibility of a feasible ad reasonable
solution in the near future.in addition to the wars that were fought both the nations have been
accusing each other of acting as a breeding ground of anti-state actors of the other nation. Here
has been various terrorist attacks that have taken place in India primarily by Islamic
fundamentalist groups that the India intelligence communities have repeatedly blamed for
supporting and training these groups to case instability in the region. Therelation between
IndiaandPakistan have garnered worldwide attention owing to the geographical and strategic
concerns. never have any two nuclear powered nations faced such a bitter rivalry after the
infamous arms race during the cold war era between usa and ussr. After the partition India took
form as a secular nation with a secular constitution granting equal rights andopportunities to all.
The sache conflict, the Kashmir insurgency in 1989, India and Pakistan nuclear tests in 1998, the
kargil war in 1999 have been the cornerstones in the history of indo pak relations, these relations
have very muc contributed in the relations between the two nations turning from bad to worse.
The 2001 attacks on the Indian parliament and the 2007 samjauta express bombings have
brought the two nations almost to the brink of war. And recently the 26/11 Mumbai attacks and
pathankot attcks have been a shot in the arm for any idea of improving the ties.
But ever sincethe newly elected governments in both the nations have taken charge
people of both the nationshave began to see some light for rejuvenating the relationship between
the two nations. According to a 2014 BBC poll that was conducted 17% of Indians view the
Pakistan influence positively and similarly do 21% of Pakistan while 49%of Indian s and 58%
view it negatively.


The bitter relations between the two nations could be traced back to the events that took place
even before the birth of the two nations. It was mainly attributed to the partitions which has been
considered as largest exodus by date in the history of mankind. The people who until that time
had cohabitated as brothers in peace and harmony. the feelings of the people had been
manipulated by certain communal forces for their confined benefit and the people who fell
victims to the malicious traps of these forces. This resulted in widespread riots which resulted in
the death of about a million people which was severely condemned by human rights officials all-
round the world.at that point of time there where about 680 princely states in India which were
given the freedom to choose the nation which they wereplanning to join the home minister of
India at that time sardar valabhai patel took the herculean effort to unite all the princely states to
create a united India. With most of the Hindu dominated states joining India and Muslim
dominated states joining Pakistan except a few. The decisions which were taken by the rulers of
these states however insignificant they may seem at that point of time

At that point of time there existed a princely state of Junagarh which would play a
major role in the history of both the nations. Junagadh was a stat in present day Gujarat, though it
was ruled by a Muslim king the majority of the population was Hindu and India wasnt ready to
let Junagarh fall in the hands of Pakistanbecause it would be detrimental to Indias strategic
concerns. The reasons behind this was that the state of junagadh was deep inside the Indian
territory and it had a coastline which would make it possible to develop maritime links with
Pakistan which would be dangerous to Indiasinterests. But junagadhs ruler mahabat khan at that
point of time chose to join Pakistan which shoo the whole of India , the home minister of India at
that point of time sardar vvvallabhai patel foresaw that if this tiny state fell into the hands of the
Pakistan then it would incite communal tensions all over Gujarat and at the same point of time it
would be detrimental to the security interests of India in that region .so the government of India
decided to hold a plebiscite in junagadh to let the people decide the fate of their future
citizenship. But this was heavy opposed by the government of Pakistan and it rejected the idea of
voting. The government of India decided to cut off all the supply links of junagadh and the
Indian troops were sent to invade junagadh, in the course of action the ruler of junagadh fled to
Pakistan with his family fearing clashes with the Indian army, in the meantime the diwan of
junagadh decided to invite the government of India to take control of junagadh this though was
severely protested by the government of Pakistan was not severely considered by the government
of India. In 1948 a plebiscite was conducted in which it became true that the people of junagadh
wanted to join India.

Kashmir issue

Kashmir during the time of partition was a Muslim majority area that was actually ruled by a
hindu king named hari singh during the partition when hari singh was asked to join either of the
sides he refused because he wanted to be the ruler of an independent Kashmir that was
recognised by bot India as well as Pakistan, moreover he attempted genocidal activities against
Muslims by ordering his troops t massacre Muslimsindiscriminately so as to shift the population
ratio in favour of Hindus. This greatly shocked the Pakistanis who in response dispatched their
reinforcements in the guise of Pashtuntribal these reinforcements invaded vast tracts of and until
they were away from Srinagar by a distance of merely 50 mast this point of time the maharaja of
Kashmir understood that the his security was very much poorly equippedin order to fight the
invaders .fearing capture at the hands of the invaders hari singh turned to India for help and
requestedIndia to send troops in order to fight back the invaders ,while Nehru was ready to send
troops as he was already briefed about the status quo of the valley the then viceroy of India lord
Mountbatten advised hari Singh to accede Kashmir to India .on 26 October 1947 harisingh
signed the instrument of accession of Kashmir to the dominion of India. On 27 the October 1947
Indian troops were airlifted to Srinagar in order to fight the invading Pakistanitroops .the Indian
army very much successfully fought of the invaders

Within weeks of intense fighting the prime ministers of both the countries agreed on a ceasefire
with the prime minister of India Nehru requesting the United Nations to arbitrate in the issue
asking for a plebiscite to be conducted in order to let the Kashmiri people decide the future.
In 1957 the part Kashmir that was annexed by Pakistan during its invasion was fully integrated
as a part of pakisthan.in 1984 India launched operation mehdooth as a result of which India
regained 80%of the siachen glacier.

Pakistan right now maintains a stance in which it voices out for the right to self determination of
the people of Kashmir by which it demands a plebiscite which should determine the future nation
of Kashmiris, whereasIndia on the other hand maintains that Kashmir with the signing of the
instrument of accession to the Indian dominion by the maharaja ranjith singh has now become an
integral part of India.

However this issue concerning the accession of Kashmir has precipitated into a full scale
confrontation thrice in the years 1947,1965 and 1999 respectively and the line of control has
been agreed as the international border as per the simla agreement

Major wars and disputes

India and Pakistan have fought namely four major wars since their inception in the years 1947,
1965, 1971 and 1999 respectively, two major agreements namely the Agra and the simla have
concluded resulting in the alteration of borders leading to the birth of a new nation of Bangladesh
and creation of the internationalborder which is known by the name of line of control.

War of 1965

The war of 1965 code named operation Gibraltar by thePakistani forces was an
attempt to infiltrate insurgents across the border into Indiaignorer to create instability in India.
This war actually followed the Sino Indian war of 1962 in which India lost Pakistan thinking that
India would be very much weakened by its loss to china started this whole operation. The Indian
forces earning their lessons from their previous war rectified their mistakes and the war went on
for several weeks ad it soon grew into full scale conflict in which there was complete
coordination and involvement of the three divisions of the armed forces resulting in heavy
casualties on both sides. Though faced with lot of odds and the mounting pressure resulting
fromthe humiliating loss in the previous war the Indian armed forces made their way up against
the odds rectified their shortcomings anndproved to formidable fighting force. Despite having
the backing of America in terms of supplies and military hardware the Pakistani forces were no
match for the Indian armed forces and were quickly routed by the Indian forces . at that time of
raging cold war in which nations all around the world joinedthe power blocks inordrr to protect
their vested interests india proved tobe an exception by joining none of the bocs and starting the
non alignment movement (NAM),hence india was forced to fight wit the already crumbled and
battered force it had left after the end of the indo sino war. It is reported that the Americans
provided cutting edge military hardware in the for of a hundred pattn tanks whih were considered
to be the best of their times. But despite having all the odds stacked against them the Indian ared
forces proved that they werea force to be reckoned with.

Bangadesh liberation war of 1975

After partition as per the demands put forward by the muslim league the
two nation theory was adopted leading to the formation of east and west paisthan .bt after the
formation of the this geopolitically divided nation did its ruers come to know about the practical
implications and probems regarding the ruling of a geo politically divided state.moreover adding
to its woes was its intolerennce towards non muslims especially hindus ,with incressing cases of
religious persecution and hate crimes againnsthindus the political conditions and internal
stability of east paisthan reached an all time low with about a million refugees flooding into the
bordering states of india .eventhough the then prime minister of india Jawaharlal Nehru invited
the then prime minister of pakisthan for talks which are termed as liquat Nehru tlksthis
drastically changed the demographics of lot of Indian states leading drain in huge mount of
resources resulting from overpopulation. at this point of time the overnment of india under indira
Gandhi decided it was time to take the issue into their hands and provide a feasible solution. The
actual problem in the war arose when the pakisthani army launched the operation
searchlightagainst the people of eas akisthan on th night of 2narch 1971 which the pakisthani
state justified in the basis of anti bihari violence by the Bengalis.. it pursued the systematic
elimination of of nationalist Bengali ccitiens , intelligentsia , religious minorities and armed
personnel. The junta annued the results of the 1970 elections and arrested the prime minister
elect mujbhir rahman the rural areas of Bangladesh saw large scale military persecution in the
form of airstrikes and ethnic cleansing of the minorities. The pakisthani military personnel are
involved in large scale human rights violations including rape , massacre and ethnic cleansing .
the capital Dhaka was the place that borethe brunt of the violence with the mist atrocious
incidents of human killings taking place. This resulted in thirty million people getting displaced
and a minimum of ten million refugees crossing over into india borders.

In the due course of events the Bangladeshi declaration of independence

happened in Chittagong by the members of the mukthi bahini which was a revolutionary group
whos main aim was to ccreate a separate nation of Bangladesh. A few regiments of the pakisthani
army including the east Bengal rifles deflect towards the guerrillas . the guerrillas launch a
successful campaign against the paksithan popularl y kknown as operaion jackpot.the nwly
formd Bangladesh airforce even carried out raids on the pakisthani posts. By1971 the
[rovisionalgovernment of Bangladesh was formd and it moved to Calcutta as a overment in exile.

Inndia joined the war on 3 december 1971 after pakisthan launched airstrikes witin india
as measure to prevent india from invoving in the war. The pakisthani forces surrendered in dacca
on 16 december 1971. In the whole war however the us in a way acteda neutral observer to all
the atrocities ci=omitted by the pakisthanis or evn in a way encouraged them . it saw the
liberation of pakisthan and the invasion of pakisyhan by indiaa would lead to growth of soviet
influence n south east asia. It even sent military supplies to ppakisthan and even encouraged
china to mobilise its troops inorder to distract india from invading pakisthan . it is at this point of
time that the soviet union stepped inside and offered to help india in case us or china intervenes.
The blood telegram sent by archer blood who at that point of time was the American consul
general in Bangladesh showcases the attitude Americans had towards the liberation of banladesh.

The kargil war

After fighting two majr wars with india and having incureed repeated setbacks
in the past the pakisthan government was still not willing to give up its territorial claims over the
valley .in the period of 1998-99 the Indian army withdrew its positions from the highest peaks of
the kargil sector as it becomes increasingly inhospitable during the peak months of winter as they
usually do but this time when the Indian army returned back to its positions in the peaks it was
shocked to discover the presence of pakisthani outposts in the region. The discover was made in
may 1999 and this resulted in a intense fighting between the two sides in what is nw nown as the
kargil war the Indian army with its superior army and aeril prowess and unquestionable co
ordination between the two forces led to india taking back most of the areas lost while the
remaining pakisthani forces where forced to withdraw as a result of onternational pressure . but
even though the war ended years ago the issue remains pretty much alive with pakisthan still
claiming sovereignity over te siachen n kori regions of the valley.

Aftermath of the kargil war

After the kargil war it became very much cear to the two warring nations that
the strategic posts up in the hills were of utmost importance in times of war and that they coul
notbe neglected.learning lessons from the previous wars the government of india decided that it
was timefor them to increase the military presence in the siachen glacier which until that point
of time had beenconsidered tobe inhospitable and even an idea demilitarising that region wa
considered. So inhospitable is the trrain rthere in siachen that until 1972the two sides never
seriously thought of demarcating the international boundary in that region. The perception
changed and the issue garnered attention only during the early seventies when maps that were
printed by the united states of America began showing siachen as a part of pkisthn . not onlythis
but the pakisthani government tey themselves allowed the western mountaineers and adventurers
permission to trek the passess.

India later came to the cocusion that pakisthan was resorting to a

cartographic warfare to bolster its svereignity over siachen ,in addition to this the purchase of
high altitude war machinery by the pakisthanis rung the dangerbells louder for india to hear than
the pakisthanis intended to. Teh Indian government forseeing a possiblepakisthani occupation
began deloying two platoons on the saltoro ridge areat thereby successfully capturing the key
areas ofthe siachen glacier,

Since 1984 the siachen issue has been a raging debate in the relations
between india and oakisthan . pakisthan has made desperate attempts to wreste this region back
fro indiabut in vain . an effective ceasefire agreement has been put in place since the noember of
2003 in whichthe actual groung position line has been given much mire importance since there
has not been many casualities on both sides not of gunfirebut of natura calamities again stressing
the inhospitable conditions prevalent in siachen.

The weather conditions in siachen have always been hostile to human presence the temperature
drops tominus fifty degrees at tims and the avalanches, blizzards , snowstorms have been the
only frequent visitors to the inhospitable terrain of siachen.the quantity of oxygen in the
atmosphere is so very lowthat every breath is a herculean effort. Tis rugged terrain has had a
severe toll on the health of the soldiers patrolling thses regions. Mediacal conditions and
complexities sucha s depression , hallucinations , pulmonary and cerebral oedema , blurry
vision , loss of memory and sometimes even death might happen to the unfortunate soldiers of

Ever since the military occupation of the siachen about 2000 sodirs on bohnsides have lsot their
lives owing to inhospitable conditions in the glacier , the financial and the economic aspects of
military presence in the glacier has been severely criticised cause it is not ony the loss oflives
that the government ahs got t worry about but also the financial burden ahs also been to taxin for
bith the governments . repeated natural calamities eading to destruction of large number of ives
and property have stressed time and again that safeguarding th glacier was always a hard tas o

The need to demelitarize the siachen has been considered asthe need of the hour by many people
but and the pressure has been rising on this ever since the avalanche in 2012 which left about 129
pakisthani soldiers dead and a whole army base covered by snow.

But demilitarising siachen has got manu far reachin implications than it appears to
the eyes of a commoner. The intelligence community in india as well as the security
establishments have considered the demilitarisation of siachen to be ne of the mot hare brained
decisions a government would take as it is the siachenthat acts as a last blockade against
connecting pakisthan and china geographically.

In solving the siachen glacier issue both the shimla ccord as wellasthe Karachi agreement
have remained very vague in demarcating the actual boundary ines.

The strategic importance ofthe siachen from an Indian viewpont can be clearly xplained
by the following three grounds , namely

Firstly the saltaro ridge overlooks the area of gigit baltistan of po that is under dispute
with pakisthan. Secondly it gaurds the routes ;eading to leh the principle town and capital of
ladakh. Thirdly it overlooksand dominates the shaksgam valley , which was illegally cede by
pakisthan to china,fourthly it is close to karakoram pass through whichthe karakoram hgway
passes connecting gilgit baltistan to the xinjiang province of china

Afghanisthan :

After the Taliban defeated the northern alliance in much of afghanisthan in 1996in civil war
the Taliban regime was strongly supported by pakisthan oneof the three countries to do so efore
the 11 septemvber attacks india firmly criticised the Taliban and pakisthan for supporting it. India
established its links with northern alliance as india officially recognised their government , with
the united nations . indias relations with afanisthan , pakisthans neighbourad its increasing
influence there has irked pakisthan.

In2008indian embassy bombing inkabul was a suicide bomb terror attack on Indian
embassy in abul, afganistan on 7 uly 2008 at 830 am local time . us intelligence officials
sugesteed that the paisthans isi intelligence agency had planned the
inKabul, Afghanistanon7 July2008at8:30AMlocaltime.

Insurgent activities elsewhere

Intelligence ocials suggested that Pakistans ISI intelligence agency had planned the attack.
Pakistan tried to deny any responsibility,
hevidenceandwarnedhim that in the case of another such attack he would have to take serious
action. Pakistan has been accused by India, Afghanistan, the UnitedStates, theUnitedKingdom,
of involvement in terrorism in Kashmir and Afghanistan. InJuly 2009,current President oPakistan
Asif Ali Zardari admitted that the Pakistani government had created and nurtured terrorist
groups to achieve its short-term foreign policy goals. According to an analysis published by
Saban Centre for Middle East Policy at Brookings Institution in 2008 Pakistan was the worlds
most active state sponsor of terrorism including aiding groups and Pakistan has long aided a
range of terrorist groups ghting against India in Kashmir and is a major sponsor of Taliban
forces ghting the U.S.-backed government in Afghanistan.
Insurgency in Kashmir

According to some reports published by the Council of Foreign Relations, the Pakistan military
and the ISI have provided covert support to terrorist groups active in Kashmir, including the al-
Qaeda aliate Jaishe-Mohammed. Pakistan has denied any involvement in terrorist activities in
Kashmir ,arguing that it only provides political and moral support to the secessionist groups who
wish to escape Indian rule. Many Kashmiri militant groups also maintain their headquarters in
Pakistan-administered Kashmir ,which is cited as further proof by the Indian government. Author
Gordon Thomas stated that Pakistan still sponsored terrorist groups in the state of Kashmir,
funding, training and arming them in their war on attrition against India. Journalist Stephen
Suleyman Schwartz notes that several militant and criminal groups are backed by senior ocers
in the Pakistani army, the countrys ISI intelligence establishment and other armed bodies of the

List of some insurgent attacks

Insurgents attack on Jammu and Kashmir State Assembly: A car bomb exploded near the Jammu
and Kashmir State Assembly on 1October 2001 ,killing 27 people on an attack that was blamed
on Kashmiri separatists. It was one of the most prominent attacks against India apart from on the
Indian Parliament in December 2001. The dead bodies of the terrorists and the data recovered

Them revealed that Pakistan was solely responsible for the activity.

1997 Sangrampora massacre: On 21 March 1997, 7KashmiriPanditswerekilledinSangrampora

village in the Budgam district. Wandhama Massacre: In January 1998, 24 Kashmiri Pandits
living in the city Wandhama were killed by nonsense Islamic terrorists

. Qasim Nagar Attack: On 13 July 2003, armed men believed to be a part of the Lashkar-e-
Toiba threw hand grenades at the Qasim Nagar market in Srinagar and then red on civilians
standing nearby killing twenty-seven and injuring manymore.

Assassination of Abdul Ghani Lone: Abdul Ghani Lone, a prominent All Party Hurriyat
Conference leader,was assassinated by an unidentied gunmen during a memorial rally in
Srinagar. The assassination resulted in wide-scale demonstrations against the Indian occupied-
forces for failing to provide enough security cover for Mr. Lone.

20 July 2005 Srinagar Bombing: A car bomb exploded near anarmoured Indian Army vehicle
in the famous Church Lane area in Srinagar killing four Indian Army personnel, one civilian and
the suicide bomber. Terrorist group Hizbul Mujahideen, claimed responsibility for the attack.

Budshah Chowk attack: A terrorist attack on 29 July2005atSrinigar'scitycentre,Budshah

Chowk, killed two and left more than 17 people injured. Most of those injured were media

Murder of Ghulam Nabi Lone: On18October2005 suspected man killed JammuandKashmirs

theneducation minister Ghulam Nabi Lone. No Terrorist groupclaimedresponsibilityfortheattack.


dramaticattackcarriedoutallegedlybyPakistaniterrorists. India blamed Pakistan for carrying out
the attacks, anallegationwhichPakistanstrongly denied donethat
broughtbothnationstothebrinkofanunclearconfrontation in 200102. However, international peace
eorts ensuredthecoolingoftensionsbetweenthetwonuclearcapablenations. Apart from this, the
most notable was the hijacking of Indian Airlines Flight IC 814 en route New Delhi from
Kathmandu, Nepal. The plane was hijacked on 24 December 1999 approximately one hour after
take o and wastakentoAmritsarairportandthentoLahoreinPakistan. After refueling the plane took
o for Dubai and

ThennallylandedinKandahar,Afghanistan. Underintense media pressure, New Delhi complied

with the hijackersdemandandfreedMaulanaMasoodAzharfrom
itscaptivityinreturnforthefreedomoftheIndianpassengers on the ight. The decision, however, cost
New Delhi dearly. Maulana, who is believed to be hiding in
anorganisationwhichhascarriedoutseveralterroristacts againstIndiansecurityforcesinKashmir. On
22 December 2000, a group of terrorists belonging totheLashkar-e-
ToibastormedthefamousRedFortin NewDelhi. TheForthousesanIndianmilitaryunitanda high-
securityinterrogationcellusedbothbytheCentral BureauofInvestigationandtheIndianArmy.
Theterrorists successfully breached the security cover around the
RedFortandopenedreattheIndianmilitarypersonnel ondutykillingtwoofthemonspot. The attack
assignicantbecauseitwascarriedoutjusttwodaysafterthe declarationofthecease-
rebetweenIndiaandPakistan. In2002,IndiaclaimedagainthatterroristsfromJammu and Kashmir
were inltrating into India, a claim denied by Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf, who claimed
that such inltration had stoppedIndias spokesperson
fortheExternalAairsMinistrydidawaywithPakistans claim, calling it terminological
inexactitude.[37] Only two months later, two Kashmiri terrorists belonging to Jaish-e-
Mohammed raided the Swami Narayan temple complex in Ahmedabad, Gujarat killing 30
people, including18womenandvechildren.
Theattackwascarriedouton25September2002,justfewdaysafterstate elections were held in Jammu
and Kashmir. Two identicallettersfoundonboththeterrorists claimed hatthe
attackwasdoneinretaliationforthedeathsofthousands ofMuslimsduringtheGujaratriots. Two car
bombs exploded in south Mumbai on 25 August2003;oneneartheGatewayofIndiaandtheotherat
thefamousZaveriBazaar,killingatleast48andinjuring 150people.
Lashkar-e-Toiba'shandinthetwinblasts. In an unsuccessful attempt, six terrorists belonging to
Lashkar-e-Toiba,stormedtheAyodhyaRamJanmbhomi complexon5July2005.
Beforetheterroristscouldreach themaindisputedsite,theywereshotdownbyIndiansecurityforces.
OneHinduworshipperandtwopolicemen wereinjuredduringtheincident. The Indian intelligence
agency RAW is claimed to be workingincovertomalignPakistanandtrain&support
insurgentsforBalochistan conict.

3.9.1 2007SamjhautaExpressbombings


TheSamjhautaExpressisaninternationaltrainthat runs from New Delhi, India to Lahore, Pakistan,
and is one of twotrainstocrosstheIndia-Pakistanborder. At
least68peoplewerekilled,mostlyPakistaniciviliansbut alsosomeIndiansecurity personnel and

3.9.2 2008Mumbaiattacks

The 2008 Mumbai attacks by ten Pakistani terrorists killed over 173 and wounded 308. The sole
surviving gunman Ajmal Kasab who was arrested during the
attackswasfoundtobeaPakistaninational. Thisfactwas acknowledgedbyPakistani authorities.
InMay2010, anIndiancourtconvictedhimonfourcountsofmurder, waging war against India,
conspiracy and terrorism offences,andsentencedhimtodeath.[44] IndiablamedtheLashkar-e-
Taiba,aPakistan-basedmilitantgroup,forplanningandexecutingtheattacks. Islamabad resisted the
claims and demanded evidence. India providedevidenceintheformofinterrogationsweapons,
candywrappers,PakistaniBrandMilkPackets,andtelephone sets.
IndianocialsdemandedPakistanextradite suspects for trial. They also said that, given the
sophistication of the attacks, the perpetrators must have hadthesupportofsomeocialagenciesin

4 Technologyandeducation

See also: Asian space race, India and weapons of mass destruction, Pakistan and weapons of
mass destruction andnuclearrace

mation technology and scientic applications relating to computerscience.
Sincetheearly1990s,theeconomicliberalisationandprivatisationpolicymeasuresandprograms led to
a boom in information technology in both countries. The scientic competition in the 1970s led
to increasedfundingforscienceandtechnologydevelopment from primary education through the
post-graduate level in Indian and Pakistani school systems. Pakistan annually
seminar,tosupportjointdevelopmentofandbenetscienceandtechnology. India has a long history of
development of nuclear weapons. Origins of Indias nuclear program dates
backto1944,whenstarteditsnuclearprogram soon after its independence. Inthe1940s

Aryabhata satellite launched in 1975.

expanded the nuclear power infrastructure throughout the country.

Decisionsonthedevelopmentofnuclear weapons were made by Indian political leaders after the
Chinese invasion and territorial annexation of northern India. In 1967, Indias nuclear program
was aimed at thedevelopmentofnuclearweapons,withIndiraGandhi carefully overseeing the
development of weapons. In 1971,Indiagainedmilitaryandpoliticalmomentumover Pakistan after
a successful military campaign against Pakistan. Startingpreparationsforanucleartestin1972, India
nally exploded its rst nuclear bomb in Pokhran testrange,codename Smiling Buddha,in1974.

Badr-1 satellite launched in 1990.

After the successionbyEast-Pakistan,Pakistanlaunched its own nuclear bomb program in 1972,

and accelerated its eorts in 1974.[49] This large-scale nuclear
bombprogramwasdirectlyinresponsetoIndias nuclear program. In 1983, Pakistan achieved a
major milstone in its eorts after it covertly performed a series of non-ssion tests, codename
Kirana-I. No ocial announcements of such cold tests were made by Pakistan governmentOver
the nextseveralyears,Pakistanexpanded and modernized nuclear power projects around
thecountrytosupplyitselectricitysectorandtoprovide back-up support and benet to its national
economy. In 1988, a mutual understanding was reached between the

facilities. Agreementsonculturalexchangesandcivilaviationwe real so initiated, also in

1988.Finally,in1998, India exploded its second nuclear test (see: Pokhran-II)
IandChagai-II). Pakistan pursued its research and development in space
ledbySpaceResearchCommission(SUPARCO).Its unmanned ight test program launched its rst
rocket into orbit, Rehbar-I.[51] By 1969, India had an active andlarge-
scalespaceprogramdirectedbyISRO.Development towards launching satellites began in the
1970s; in1975, Indiasspaceprogramrecordeditsrstsuccess when Indian ISRO put the countrys
rst articial satellite,Aryabhatainorbit. Pakistaniconcernsthattheyhad fallen behind India in the
race to space led quickly to a push by legislators and educators for greater emphasis on
mathematics and the physical sciences in Pakistans schools and universities. (see: Pakistan
inventions and discoveriesandSRCscienticmissions)
Finallyin1990,Pakistanputitsownrstarticialsatellite, Badr-1, in orbit. During the 1980s90s,
India began development of space and nuclear rockets, which marked Pakistans eorts to
engage in the space race with India.Pakistans own program developed space and nuclear
missiles and began unmanned ight tests of its space vehicles in the mid-1990s, which continues
in the present In 2008, Indias ISRO scored a
greatinternationalsuccessbylaunchingitsmoonprobe, Chandrayaan-1 in 2008, and continues to
advance its spaceprogramandenhancementofscience and technology in India. With technical
assistance from China, Pakistanlauncheditsrstgeostationarysatellite,Paksat1Rin2011.

5 Talksandothercondencebuildingmeasures

After the 1971 war, Pakistan and India made slow progress towards the normalisation of
relations. In July 1972,IndianPrimeMinisterIndiraGandhiandPakistani
PresidentZulkarAliBhuttometintheIndianhillstation of Simla. They signed the Simla
Agreement, by which IndiawouldreturnallPakistanipersonnel(over90,000) and captured territory
in the west, and the two countries would settle their dierences by peaceful means

5.1 1990s In 1997, high-level Indo-Pakistan talks resumed after a three-year pause. The Prime
Ministers of Pakistan and India met twice and the foreign secretaries conducted


three rounds of talks. In June 1997, the foreign

secretariesidentiedeightoutstandingissuesaroundwhich continuing talks would be focused.
The conict over the status of Kashmir, (referred by India as Jammu and
Kashmir),anissuesinceIndependence,remainsthemajor stumbling block in their dialogue. India
maintains that the entireformerprincelystateisanintegralpartof the Indian union, while Pakistan
insists that UN resolutions calling for self-determination of the people of the state/province must
be taken into account. It however refuses to abide by the previous part of the resolution,
ace andsecurity. Pakistanadvocatedthattheissuesbetreated byseparateworkinggroups.
Indiarespondedthatthetwo issuesbetakenupalongwithsixothersonasimultaneous basis.
Attemptstorestartdialoguebetweenthetwonationswere given a major boost by the February 1999
meeting of bothPrimeMinistersinLahoreandtheirsigningofthree agreements. A subsequent
military coup in Pakistan that overturned the democratically elected Nawaz Sharif government in
October of the same year also proved a setback to relations


PervezMusharrafturneduptomeetIndianPrimeMinisterAtalBehariVajpayee. Thetalksfellthrough.
On20June2004,with a
newgovernmentinplaceinIndia,bothcountriesagreedtoextendanucleartestingban and to set up a
hotline between their foreign secretaries aimedatpreventingmisunderstandings that might lead to
a nuclear war. BagliharDamissuewasanewissueraisedbyPakistanin 2005. After Dr. Manmohan
Singh become prime minister of
amodel village in his honour and name a school after him. There is also a village in India named
Pakistan, despite occasionalpressureovertheyearstochangeitsname the villagers have resisted.
Violentactivitiesintheregion declined in 2004. There are two main reasons for this: warmingof0
relationsbetweenNewDelhiandIslamabad which consequently lead to a ceasere between the two
countriesin2003andthefencingoftheLOCbeingcarried out by the Indian Army. Moreover, coming
under intenseinternationalpressure,Islamabadwascompelled
totakeactionsagainstthemilitantstrainincampsonits territory. In 2004, the two countries also
agreed upon decreasingthenumberoftroopspresentintheregion.

Underpressure,Kashmirimilitantorganisationsmadean oer for talks and negotiations with New

Delhi, which Indiawelcomed. IndiasBorderSecurityForceblamedthePakistanimilitary for
providing cover-re for the terrorists whenever theyinltratedintoIndianterritoryfromPakistan.
toterroristorganisationsoperatinginPakistansuchasthe BLA.
wasallegedtohaverunaterroristtrainingcampin1990 in N.W. Frontier, Pakistan. The Pakistani
government dismissed the charges against its minister as an attempt to hamper the ongoing peace
process between the two neighbours. Both India and Pakistan have launched several mutual
condence-building measures (CBMs) to ease tensions between the two. These include more
high-level talks, easingvisarestrictions,andrestartingofcricketmatches betweenthetwo. The new
busservicebetweenSrinagar and Muzaarabad has also helped bring the two sides closer.
PakistanandIndiahavealsodecidedtoco-operate oneconomicfronts.
Someimprovementsintherelationsareseenwiththereopening of a series of transportation networks
near the IndiaPakistanborder,withthemostimportantbeingbus routesandrailwaylines. A major
clash between Indian security forces and militants occurred when a group of insurgents tried to
inltrateintoKashmir fromPakistaninJuly2005. Thesame month also saw a Kashmiri militant
attack on Ayodhya andSrinagar. However,thesedevelopmentshadlittleimpactonthepeaceprocess.
accusedspywalkedacrossthebordertofreedom3March 2008, an unconditional release that
Pakisthan said was donetoimproverelationsbetweenthetwocountries.
[In2006,aFriendsWithoutBordersschemebeganwith thehelpoftwoBritishtourists.
TheideawasthatIndian and Pakistani children would make pen pals and write
friendlyletterstoeachother. Theideawassosuccessful in both countries that the organisation found
it impossibletokeepup. TheWorldsLargestLoveLetterwas recently sent from India to Pakistan.


In December 2010, several Pakistani newspapers published stories about Indias leadership and
relationship with militants in Pakistan that the papers claimed were found in the United States
diplomatic cables leak. A British newspaper, The Guardian, which had the Wikileaks cables in its
possession reviewed the cables and concluded that the Pakistani claims were not accurate

and that WikiLeaks [was] being exploited for propagandapurposes.On 10 February 2011, India
agreed to resume talks with Pakistan which were suspended after 26/11 Mumbai Attacks. India
had put on hold all the diplomatic relations saying it will only continue if Pakistan will act
againsttheaccusedofMumbaiattacks. On13April2012followingathawinrelationswhereby
inPnomPenhthathercountryiswillingtoresolvesome of the disputes like, Sir Creek and Siachan on
the basis ofagreementsreachedin past. On7September2012,
Pakistantoreviewtheprogressofbilateraldialoguewith hisPakistanicounterpart.


India and pakisthan these two nations have been of the worst enemies in the history of
international relations each trying to stab each other plotting and waiting for the op[portune
moment to destabilise each other internal peace and harmony . this particular episode has
occupied the limelight in stage of international relations with almost no feasible solutions it is
the complexity of the relations between these two neighbours that has been the distinct feature in
this case. Almost every peacemaking effect which starts with much expectations goes down
sooner than we expect due to the vested interests of certain anti social elements. The two nations
have failed to realise that the instablility prevalent withn their neighbours border wont take much
time to cross in to theirs. Vengeance and misrepresentation between the two nations have taken
the center stage in their relations. The fake sense of nationalism and the technique of diverting
internal issues with a fake sense of nationalism against the other nation can be claimed as one of
the driving forces in catalising the animosity between the two nations. The garnering of anti state
actors , providing them with asylum and nurturing their ideologies which may be detrimental to
the intersts of the other. Though there has been numerous instances where friendship has been
exhibited all these have remained largely superficial and cosmetic in nature. It has become
inevitable and every politician across the two border to take up the issue of nationalism and
degrade his neighbouring country inorder to rise his ranks and also to establish himself as a
patriot among the masses. Though there a multitude of areas where the two nations can come
together and nurture their relationship for a better future the presence of an overwhelming
majority of communal forces, anti-state actors , vested interests and the fake sense of patriotism
have driven the relations beyond a point of no return. This has resulted in even the citizens of
each nations viewing each other with suspicion and contempt