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Well Stimulation

Well, rw Damaged Zone, (rs, ks)


Reservoir, (re, k)

26 August 2008

ctanuwijaya@gmail.com
Syllabus
Stimulation technique introduction
Well acidizing
Acid-rock reaction
Sandstone rock acidizing
Carbonate rock acidizing
Acid Fracturing
Acid Additives
Well candidate selection
Acidizing project design
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Syllabus
Hydraulic fracturing
Rock Mechanic
Hydraulic fracturing fluid
Propant
Fractured geometry model
Fracturing pressure analysis
Fracturing evaluation

26 August 2008
Bibliography
Economides, M.J., Hill, A.D., and Ehlig-Economides, C.A:
Petroleum Production Systems, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood
Cliffs, NJ, 1994.
Economides, M.J. and Nolte, K.G.: Reservoir Stimulation, 2nd
Ed., Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1989.
Allen, T.O. and Roberst, A.P.: Production Operations, Vol. 2,
OGCI Publications, Tulsa, OK, 1982.
Tjondrodiputro, B.: Pengasaman dan Perekahan Hidraulik,
Catatan Pribadi, 1996.
King, G. E.: An Introduction to the Basics of Well Completions,
Stimulations, and Workovers, 2nd Ed., Class Notes, U. of Tulsa,
Tulsa, OK, 1996.

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IPR

IPR (Inflow Performance Relationship)


characterized the oil, gas, and water flow from
the reservoir to the well

Function of relation between flow rate and


bottom-hole pressure called as IPR. (Pwf vs. QL)

26 August 2008
IPR
(Darcy Law for cylinder flow-steady state)

0.00708 k h PR Pwf




qo
r
o Bo ln re S


w




P = pressure, psia
k = permeability, mD PI
re = drainage radius, ft
rw = well radius, ft
= viscosity of fluid, cp
h = thickness, ft S > 0 damage
q = liquid flow rate, bbl/d S < 0 stimulated
Bo = formation volume factor, RB/bbl S=0
S = skin
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IPR

PR

Pwf

qo AOF
S>0 S<0

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Skin
Hawkins Formula

k
S 1 ln r s











ks



w









where :
S = skin factor (dimensionless)
ks = skin permeability
rs = skin radius
rw = well radius

26 August 2008
DST

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DST

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DST

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DST

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DST

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DST

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Information Obtained from DST

Static reservoir pressure


(if the shut-in time is sufficiently long)

Flow rate

Fluid sample

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Information Mathematically
Derived

Effective permeability of the formation to the


flowing fluid
Transmissibility
Skin factor
Radius of investigation
Wellbore storage effects

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Production Test

Pwf

q konstan

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Pressure Drawdown Test
Producing
Rate, q

Shut - in
0

0 Time, t

Pws
BHP

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0 Time, t
Pressure Drawdown Test

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Pressure Build Up Test

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