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Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000


REVISION NO.: 7

EXAMPLE 6-012
LINK FREQUENCY DEPENDENT LINK

PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
This example uses a single degree of freedom structure to test the behavior of a
frequency dependent link element. A steady state analysis is performed for
various loading frequencies. The resulting link deformations obtained for the
various loading frequencies are compared with independent hand calculated
results based on theory presented in Chopra 1995.

The SAP2000 model consists of a single joint, labeled joint 1, and one link
element. The model is created in the XZ plane. Only the Uz degree of freedom is
active for the analysis. The frequency dependent link element is modeled as a
single-joint link element at joint 1. This means that one end of the link element is
connected to the ground and the other end is connected to joint 1. The link
element is oriented such that its positive local 1 axis is parallel to the positive
global Z axis. This is the default orientation of single joint link elements. Only
U1 degree of freedom properties are defined for the link element.

The link stiffness varies linearly from 80 k/in at a frequency of 0 Hz to 200 k/in
at a frequency of 1 Hz. The link hysteretic damping property varies linearly from
0 k/in at a frequency of 0 Hz to 5 k/in at a frequency of 1 Hz.

A 0.03 kip-sec2/in translational mass in the Uz direction is assigned to joint 1.


Also a 100 kip point load is assigned to joint 1 in the positive Uz direction.

A single steady state load case named SS1 is created. Results are obtained at
loading frequencies, fL, of 0.12, 0.39 and 0.77 Hz.

The following table defines the frequency dependent link properties as they are
input into SAP2000.

f (Hz) k (kip/in) ch (kip/in)


0.12 94.4 0.6
0.39 126.8 1.95
0.77 172.4 3.85

EXAMPLE 6-012 - 1
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

GEOMETRY, PROPERTIES AND LOADING

Harmonic load, p(t), is


p(t) = pocoswLt applied with a circular
frequency of wL = 2fL Joint Mass
m = 0.03 k-sec2/in
u(t) Loading
m
po = 100 k
Frequency dependent link
fL = Varies: 0.12, 0.39 and
element with stiffness
0.77 rad/sec are
versus frequency and
ks considered in this
hysteretic damping
Z example
coefficient versus frequency
as defined in the charts Active Degrees of Freedom
below Uz only
X

200 5

180

160 4
Stiffness (kips/inch)

140
ch (kips/inch)

120 3

100

80 2

60

40 1

20

0 0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

EXAMPLE 6-012 - 2
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

DISCUSSION OF INDEPENDENT HAND SOLUTION TECHNIQUE


The independent hand solution for this example is calculated using equivalent
viscous damping. The damping specified for the frequency dependent links and
used in the SAP2000 analysis is rate independent hysteretic damping. Thus, as
part of the hand solution, the rate independent hysteretic damping must be
converted to equivalent viscous damping.

The equation of motion for this single degree of freedom steady state analysis
example using rate independent hysteretic damping is similar to that shown in
equation 3.10.3 on page 102 of Chopra 1995:

ch
mu u ku po cos L t Eqn. 1
L

where ch is the hysteretic damping coefficient and L is the loading frequency.

The equation of motion for this example with equivalent viscous damping is:

mu cv u ku p o cos L t Eqn. 2

where cv is the viscous damping coefficient. The viscous damping coefficient cv


is defined as:

cv 2 n m 2 km Eqn. 3

where is the equivalent viscous damping ratio (fraction of critical damping), n


is the natural frequency of the system, m is the mass and k is the stiffness.

From equations 1 and 2 it is apparent that:

ch cv L Eqn. 4

and thus,

c h 2 L km Eqn. 5

Rearranging equation 5 leads to an expression for the equivalent viscous


damping ratio, , in terms of the hysteretic damping coefficient and frequency:

EXAMPLE 6-012 - 3
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

ch ch
Eqn. 6
2 L km 4 f L km

Equation 6 is used in the hand solution and is plotted in the chart below for
frequencies ranging from fL = 0.01 to fL= 1.

0.30
Viscous damping ratio, ,
versus loading frequency, fL
0.25
Viscous Damping Ratio

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Frequency (Hz)

TECHNICAL FEATURES OF SAP2000 TESTED


Frequency dependent links
Steady state analysis

EXAMPLE 6-012 - 4
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

RESULTS COMPARISON
Independent results are hand calculated using formulas and theory presented in
Section 3.2 on pages 68 through 69 of Chopra 1995. In particular, equation 3.2.4
is used to calculate the real (in phase with load) and imaginary (out of phase with
load) components of the response. The magnitude is calculated as the square root
of the sum of the squares of the real and imaginary components.

Loading Link Percent


Freq. Deformation SAP2000 Independent Difference

U1 Real (in) 1.05947 1.05947 0%

0.12 Hz U1 Imaginary (in) -0.00674 -0.00674 0%

U1 Magnitude (in) 1.05949 1.05949 0%

U1 Real (in) 0.78958 0.78958 0%

0.39 Hz U1 Imaginary (in) -0.01216 -0.01216 0%

U1 Magnitude (in) 0.78967 0.78967 0%

U1 Real (in) 0.58213 0.58213 0%

0.77 Hz U1 Imaginary (in) -0.01305 -0.01305 0%

U1 Magnitude (in) 0.58227 0.58227 0%

COMPUTER FILE: Example 6-012

CONCLUSION
The SAP2000 results show an exact comparison with the independent results.

EXAMPLE 6-012 - 5
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

HAND CALCULATION

EXAMPLE 6-012 - 6
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PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

EXAMPLE 6-012 - 7
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

EXAMPLE 6-012 - 8
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

EXAMPLE 6-012 - 9
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

EXAMPLE 6-012 - 10
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

EXAMPLE 6-012 - 11
Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000
REVISION NO.: 7

EXAMPLE 6-012 - 12