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Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME: SAP2000


REVISION NO.: 0

EXAMPLE 6-009
LINK PLASTIC KINEMATIC LINK

PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
This example uses a single degree of freedom structure to test the behavior of a
plastic kinematic link element. Multi-linear force-deformation characteristics are
defined for the link element for both tension and compression behavior. The
force-deformation characteristics modeled for tension are different from those
modeled for compression. A nonlinear static analysis is used to push the link
element to a positive 12 inch displacement. Then, a second nonlinear load case is
started from the final conditions of the first load case and used to push the link
element to a negative 12 inch displacement, a 24 inch push. The resulting link
force at various deformations is compared with the defined link force-
deformation characteristics.

The SAP2000 model consists of a single joint, labeled joint 1, and one link
element. The model is created in the XZ plane. Only the Uz degree of freedom is
active for the analysis. The plastic kinematic link element is modeled as a single-
joint link element at joint 1. This means that one end of the link element is
connected to the ground and the other end is connected to joint 1. The link
element is oriented such that its positive local 1 axis is parallel to the positive
global Z axis. This is the default orientation of single joint link elements. Only
U1 degree of freedom properties are defined for the link element.

Only the nonlinear properties of the link element are relevant for this example
because the only load cases used are nonlinear load cases. The nonlinear force-
deformation characteristics of the link are defined in the table and chart on the
following page.

The weight of the link is 1 kip. This is the only load acting on the link, and it is
applied as a gravity load acting in the Z direction.

Two displacement-controlled nonlinear static load cases are used in this example.
They are named NLSTAT1 and NLSTAT2. NLSTAT1 starts from zero initial
conditions and pushes the link to a positive 12 inch deformation. NLSTAT2
starts from the conditions at the end of NLSTAT1 and pushes the link from a
positive 12 inch deformation to a negative 12 inch deformation.

EXAMPLE 6-009 - 1
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GEOMETRY, PROPERTIES AND LOADING

1 Loading
Plastic kinematic Self weight is applied as a
Z
link. Self weight of gravity load
link is 1 kip. Active Degrees of Freedom
Uz only
X

Link Properties (U1 DOF)


Linear Properties
Not used
80
G
Shear Distance
60 F Not used for zero length link
E Nonlinear Properties
40
Point Deformation (in) Force (kip)
Link Force (kip)

A -16 -55
20

0 B -6 -50
-16 -12 -8 -4 0 D 4 8 12 16
-20 C -1 -40
D 0 0
-40
A
B C E 2 50
-60 F 6 70
-80 G 16 80
Link Deformation (inch) See force-deformation chart to left

HYSTERETIC BEHAVIOR OF PLASTIC KINEMATIC LINKS


The hysteretic behavior for the plastic kinematic link element is described in
detail in the SAP2000 Analysis Reference Manual. This section describes the
hysteretic behavior as it relates to this X
example. G F
Consider the link force-deformation E
relationship shown in the figure to the
Link Force

right. Segments D-E and D-C


represent elastic deformation. D
Segments E-F, F-G, C-B and B-A
represent plastic deformation. For C
A B
elastic deformation, the loading and
Link Deformation

EXAMPLE 6-009 - 2
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unloading follow the same path. For plastic deformation, the unloading follows a
different path from the loading.

Assume that the loading is positive and starts from zero at point D and proceeds
along path D-E-F-G until it reaches point X. At point X the load reverses
direction.

As the load passes through point E X, E', F'


and proceeds to point F, point E is
pulled along with the load along F G
segment E-F such that when the load E
reaches point F, points E' and F are in
D'
the same location. Similarly, as the

Link Force
load passes through point F and
proceeds to point X, points E' and F D C
are pulled along with the load along C'
C
segment F-G such that when the load A B
reaches point X, points X, E' and F' B'
Link Deformation
are in the same location.

As point E is pulled, it pulls


points C and D along a similar path to
points C' and D', respectively. X, E', F'
Similarly, as point F is pulled, it G
F
pulls point B along a similar path to
E
point B'. This is illustrated in the first
figure to the right. D'
Link Force

When the load reverses, it follows D C


path X-D'-C'-B'-A and then continues C'
out on the slope defined by B-A. This C
A B
is illustrated in the second figure B'
shown to the right. Link Deformation

EXAMPLE 6-009 - 3
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TECHNICAL FEATURES OF SAP2000 TESTED


Plastic kinematic links
Displacement-controlled nonlinear static analysis
Link gravity load

RESULTS COMPARISON
Independent results are hand calculated from the defined link force-deformation
characteristics and hysteretic behavior.

Output Link Load Percent


Parameter Deformation Case SAP2000 Independent Difference

1.2 in NLSTAT1 30 30 0%

4.2 in NLSTAT1 61 61 0%
Link force at
specified 12 in NLSTAT1 76 76 0%
deformation
for specified 11.52 in NLSTAT2 64 64 0%
load case
9.6 in NLSTAT2 10 10 0%
kips
2.4 in NLSTAT2 -36 -36 0%

-12 in NLSTAT2 -52.25 -52.25 0%

The following figure shows a plot of the link force versus deformation results
obtained from SAP2000 for load cases NLSTAT1 and NLSTAT2.

EXAMPLE 6-009 - 4
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80

60

40
Force (kip)

20

0
-12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12

-20

-40
NLSTAT1
NLSTAT2

-60
Deformation (inch)

COMPUTER FILE: Example 6-009

CONCLUSION
The SAP2000 results show an exact comparison with the independent results.

EXAMPLE 6-009 - 5
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HAND CALCULATION

EXAMPLE 6-009 - 6
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EXAMPLE 6-009 - 7
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EXAMPLE 6-009 - 8
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EXAMPLE 6-009 - 9