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Addendum to "Propagation in an inversion and reflection

at the.ground"
Soc.Am.59, 278-282
T. F. W. Embleton, G. J. Thiessen, and J. Piercy
Divisionof Physics,National ResearchCouncil, Ottawa, Canada
(Received30 June 1976)

The relevanceof someearlier work in underwateracousticsto the subjectpaper is noted. Similar basic
theory has been appliedin underwateracousticsto the study of the location and shapeof causticscaused
be bundles of ray pathss, and in the air acousticsto calculation of sound levels resulting from
propagationvia multiple paths that have a degreeof coherence,in a turbulent medium, which dependson
their separation.


It has recently been brought to our attention that Eq. levels, either by pressure or intensity summation, de-
(2) of our paper, consisting of a quartic equation for n pending on the separation and hence degree of coher- ,
surface reflections, is the same as Eq. (46) of an ence between the contributing ray paths in a turbulent
earlier paperz by Raphael, exceptfor the notationused. medium. Because of this difference in the purpose of
We showed that the equation becomes a cubic for the the two papers we had overlooked the relevance of
case of a single reflection between source and receiver Raphael's paper to our own work and had not noticed the
when propagation takes place in a temperature inversion earlier derivation of our basic equation. There are
in air; likewise, Raphael had discussed the same cubic many similarities between atmospheric and underwater
equation for one reflection in a constant-gradient under- acoustics and it is useful to have had this particular
water medium. similaritybrought to our notice.
Raphael's work dealt mainly with the position and
shape of caustic curves formed by bundles of ray paths, tD. T. Raphael,"Ray CausticsandPassiveDetectionSolu-
and relatively little with intensity considerations. The tions for Boundary Reflections in a Constant-Gradient Medi-
major thrust of our paper was the calculating of sound um," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 54, 1316-1330 (1973).

Flow excitation and coupling of acoustic modes of a side-

branch gravity in a duct*
Uno Ingard
Departmentsof Physicsand Aeronauticsand Astronauticsand ResearchLaboratory of Electronics,
Institute of Technology,Cambridge,Massachusetts

Vijay K. Singhal
Department of Aeronauticsand Astronauticsand ResearchLaboratory of Electronics,Massachusetts
Institute of Technology,Cambridge,Massachusetts
(Received20 July 1976]

As part of a broaderstudy of flow noisein ducts, we have investigatedthe flow excitationof the acoustic
modesof a side-branchcavity in a duct and report on evidenceof coupling between the different cavity
modesand betweenthe cavity modesand the axial modesin the main duct.

Subject Classification: [43] 28.65; [43] 20.45.

Flow noise in ducts is of interest in several areas of generated primarily in the exit and inlet flow regions,
noise control engineering and in the broad fields of is important inasmuch as it sets an upper limit to the
aeroacoustics and hydroacoustics, and has been the sub- effective attenuation (insertion loss) that can be
ject of many experimental and theoretical studies during achieved by the silencer.
the last twenty years. The dominant contributions to
the flow noise in ducts come from the turbulent flow re- Although the flow noise usually has a broadband spec-
gionsin thevicinityof obstructions,
valves, bends, trum, pure tones dominate under certain conditions.
side-branchcavities,a'4andotherduct This can be the case, for example, if the Karman vor-
irregularities. The flow noise in duct silencers,5,6 tex frequency in the wake of an object in the duct hap-

1213 J. Acoust.Soc.Am., Vol. 60, No. 5, November1976 Copyright(D 1976 by the Acoustical
Society(f America 1213

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1214 Lettersto the Editor 1214




:50 [,
-. 7
- I'-----
L xx

,o 2 3 4 5 6
u_ 3 _

FIG. 1. Typical noise spectrum of a flow-excited side-branch

cavity. Flow Mach number M 0.22. Two cavity modes are 2

excited at frequencies f- 1.200 and 3100 Hz.


O. I 0.2 03 0.4 0.5 0.6

pens to couple strongly to one of the lateral acoustic
modesof the duct. More often, however,as in musi-
cal instruments, it is the axial duct modes that are ex- FIG. 2. Screech frequency f of a side-branch cavity in a duct
as a function of the fi,ow Mach number M in the duct. Cavity
cited. This is generally the case, for example, in side-
depthd =3 in., cavitywidthw = in., ductcross sectionis
branchducts,s,9in corrugatedtubes,0in tubeswith in.xin. DL=7.6cm, L-1.5.2 cm, oL-27.3 cm, andxL
orifice plates, andso forth. - 60.7 cm.

We shall only be concerned here with a side-branch

cavity in a duct. Several experimentala,4,sand theoret-
mode was higher than that of the first. At a somewhat
ical9 studiesof the excitationof acousticcavitymodes
lower flow speed, M= 0. 2, the levels of these modes
have been reported, but to our knowledge the question
were about the same, but at a still lower speed the lev-
of mode coupling has not been considered.
el of the first mode was higher. In the opposite direc-
In our experimentsone endof the "main duct," -x- tion, toward higher flow speeds, the level of the first
in. in cross section, was inserted into a plenum cham- mode decreased and the level of the second mode in-
ber which in turn was connected to a steam ejector creased until, at a Mach number of about 0.3, the third
pump. A duct section of the same cross section, closed mode began to be excited, etc. Similar behavior was
at one end, was used as a side-branch cavity. Three found with the side branch located in the two other po-
different locations of the side-branch cavity were con- sitions.
sidered, at the center of the duct and approximately 11
in. from each end of the duct. It should be mentioned The observed frequencies were found to depend on the
in this context that when the side-branch cavity was
flow speed, as shownin Fig. 2. The experimental
points are bunched around the values that correspond
placed much closer to the ends, flow excitation of the
to the various cavity resonances corresponding to
acoustic cavity modes did not occur.

With a microphone placed at a distance of 12 in. in

front of the entrance of the duct, the flow noise spec- 6O
tram was determined for several flow velocities in the
duct up to 0. 6 times the sound speed,
5O - f f. f3f3-
[ d M
This flow duct system produced intense screech in al- f3+, '-LF-- L2 "
most the entire flow range considered, corresponding f5-
to Mach numbers up to 0. 6 in the duct. The frequency 50
at which maximum sound pressure level was obtained
generally increased with the flow speed, corresponding 2O
to the excitation of cavity modes of successively higher
order. The maximum sound pressure level, measured I0

at a position 12 in. in front of the entrance of the duct,

was found to be about 125 dB.
I 2 5 4 5 6 7 8 9

A typicalnoisespectrum,
withtheside FREQUENCY f (kHz)

branch located approximately 11 in. from the duct en- FIG. 3. Coupling between modes of a flow-excited side-branch
trance, is shown in Fig. 1. Two pronounced frequen- cavity in a duct. Peaks in the spectrum fl, f3, andf5 are
cies are present, at1 1200 and 3100 Hz, with wavelengths resonances corresponding to cavity depth d of approximately 1,
3, and 5 quarter wavelengths, respectively. L1--27.3 cm, L 2
k and k suchthat and- are within 10%of the ---121.6 cm, M-0.21, w=in., d=3 in. Duct cross section
depth d (3 in. ) of the side-branchtube. Thesewave- is in. x in. Evidenceof couplingis thepresenceof "com-
lengths are dharacteristic of the first and second modes binationtones" with frequenciesf3+l, f3-1, etc., which respec-
of the side branch. At the particular flow Mach number tively are the sum and difference and other linear combinations
in this case, M= 0. 22, the level of the second cavity off 3 andfl

J. Acoust.Soc. Am., Vol. 60, No. 5, November1976

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1215 Letters to the Editor 1215

appearance of the satellite frequenciesf, + rnfa (where

rn is a positive or negative integer) about a cavity res-
onance frequency fc is taken, therefore, as an indica-
tion of a coupling between the cavity mode and the axial
modes of the main duct. It is also most interesting to
note that the satellites disappear at higher flow speeds.
This is consistent with the known flow-induced damping
of the axial acoustic modes of an open-ended duct,
through which in effect the resonances are "washed out"
at higherflow speeds.ta


*This work was'supported in part by the U.S. Navy (ONR) and

2O in part by Research. Grant NGR 22-009-805 with NASA Lewis
Research Center.
10 ilSAHandbook
of ControlValves, editedby J. W. Hutchinson
(Instrument Society of America, Pittsburgh, 1971), pp. 68-
I I 70, 156-1.67.
0 2.5 5. O 7.5 2U. Ingard, A. Oppenheim,andM. Hirschorn, "NoiseGener-
FREQUENCY (kHz) ation in Ducts," ASHRAE Trans. No. 2068, Vol. 74, Pt. I,
FIG. 4. Occurrence of satellite frequencies in the vicintiy of a pp. V. 1. 1-V. 1.1.0 (1968).
cavity resonance is consistent with the assumption of a non- 3K. Krishnamurty, "AcousticRadiationfrom Two-Dimensional
linear coupling between the axial modes of the duct and the Rectangular Cutouts in Aerodynamic Surfaces, "NACA TN
modes of a flow-excited side branch in the duct. d =3 in., 3487 (1955) (unpublished).
w = in., ductcross section= in. x in., L - 3 ft, M- 0.21. 4U. IngardandL. W. Dean, III, "Excitationof AcousticReso-
Cavity roodeft is at 3150 Hz, the "satellites" that are due to nators by Flow," in SecondSymposiumon Naval Hydrody-
the coupling are at fc + m180 Hz, where m is an integer and namics, edited by Ralph D. Cooper, ACR-38 (ONR--Depart-
180 Hz is the frequency of the axial duct mode, which corre- merit of the Navy, Washington, D.C., 1.958), pp. 1.37-1.50.
sponds to a wavelength 2L. 5U. Ingard, "AttenuationandRegenerationof Soundin Ducts
and Jet Diffusers," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 31, 1.202-1.21.2
a etc. , where d is the cavity depthd 6M. Hirschorn,"TheAeroacoustic
Ratingof Silencersfor
plus a length end correction that is of the order of the 'Forward' and 'Reverse' Flow of Air and Sound," Noise Con-
duct radius. These results are consistent with the trol Eng. 2, No. 1, 25-29 (1974).
model that shear flow over the opening of the side 7H. J. Connors,Jr., "Fluid Elastic Vibrationof TubeArrays
Excited by Cross Flow," in Flow Induced Vibrations in Heat
branch has a characteristic frequency fs increasing
Exchangers (American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
with the flow speed and an acoustic excitation occurring New York, 1.970), pp. 42-56; also Wallace Manheimer,
whenrs, or (approximately) a multiple thereof, comes "Radiation, Resonances, and Instabilities of Aeolian Tones,"
withina certainrangeof a cavityresonance
s S. B. thesis, (Dept. of Physics, /KIT, 1963)and U. Ingard
and V. K. Singhal, "Acoustically Stimulated Karman Vortex
Under certain conditions, anomalous frequencies oc- Shedding in a Tube," in Q. Prog. Report No. 114, Research
curred that were not odd multiples of the quarter-wave- Laboratory of Electronics, /KIT, Cambridge, MA (July 15,
length cavity resonance frequency. An example is 1974), pp. 96-98 (unpublished).
shown in Fig. 3. The peaks labeled f, fa, and f are 8F. C. DeMetz and T. M. Farabee, "Water Flow Induced
the side-branch resonance frequencies referred to Cavity Resonances," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 58, S21. (A) (1.975).
above, corresponding
to dt - X, X, and- X. The 9A. J. Bilanin andE. E. Covert, "Estimationof PossibleEx-
citation Frequencies for Shallow Rectangular Cavities," AIAA
anomalous peaks labeled fa. and fa+t turn out to have J. 11, 347-352 (1.973).
frequencies fa -f and fa+f, respectively. Similarly, lA. M. Binnie, "Self-InducedWavesin a Conduitwith Cor-
the peaks f+ andfa+ahave frequencies 2f and 2fa. rugated Walls," Proc. R. Soc. London259A, 1.8-27 (1960);
These and other similar combination tones are inter- 262A, 179-191 (1961).
preted as resulting from coupling of the cavity modes llF. Mechelet al., "ResearchonSound
in Sound-
in the highly nonlinear flow region in the vicinity of the Absorbent Ducts with Superimposed Air Streams," Vols. I-
openingof the side-branchcavity. IV, AMRL-TDR-62-140 (1962-1.963) (unpublished).
12Ina separateexperiment
to checkpossibledistor-
With the side-branch cavity located at the midpoint of tion at the acoustic sensor, we exposed the microphone to
the main duct, the noise spectra at low flow Mach num- two intense pure ones with frequencies and sound pressure
bers, (<0. 3), containeda large number of "satellites" levels equal to those observed for the side-branch cavity
(frequencies of 1200 and 3100 Hz at 100 dB SPL). No sum
in the vicinity of the cavity resonance frequencies, as
and difference frequencies were observed in the microphone
can be seen in Fig. 4. The satellite frequencies are output.
separated by 180 Hz, which is close to the frequency laU. IngardandV. K. Singhal,"Effectof Flow onthe Acous-
fa, at which the wavelength is approximately equal to tic Resonances of an Open-Ended Duct," J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
the length of the open-endedmain duct (72 in. ). The 58, 788-793 (1975).

J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 60, No. 5, November 1976

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