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Migration Types, Causes and Consequences | Geography


21 MAR 2012 BY ADMIN

Migration has been an integral part and a very important factor in


redistributing population over time and space. India has witnessed the
waves of migrants coming to the country from Central and West Asia and
alsofromSoutheastAsia.Infact,thehistoryofIndiaisahistoryofwavesof
migrants coming and settling one after another in different parts of the
country. Similarly, large numbers of people from India too have been
migrating to places in search of better opportunities specially to the
countriesoftheMiddleEast,WesternEurope,America,AustraliaandEast
andSouthEastAsia.
IndianDiaspora
Duringcolonialperiod(Britishperiod)millionsoftheindenturedlabourersweresenttodifferentpartsofthe
worldtoworkasplantationworkers.Allsuchmigrationswerecoveredunderthetimeboundcontractknownas
GirmitAct(IndianEmigrationAct).However,thelivingconditionsoftheseindenturedlabourerswerenotbetter
thantheslaves.Thesecondwaveofmigrantsventuredoutintotheneighbouringcountriesinrecenttimesas
professionals,artisans,tradersandfactoryworkers,insearchofeconomicopportunitiestoThailand,Malaysia,
Singapore,Indonesia,BruneiandAfricancountries,etc.andthetrendstillcontinues.Therewasasteady
outflowofIndiassemiskilledandskilledlabourinthewakeoftheoilboominWestAsiainthe1970s.There
wasalsosomeoutflowofentrepreneurs,professionals,businessmentoWesternCountries.Thirdwave,of
migrantwascomprisedprofessionalslikedoctors,engineers(1960sonwards),softwareengineers,
managementconsultants,financialexperts,mediapersons(1980sonwards),andothersmigratedtocountries
suchasUSA,Canada,UK,Australia,NewZealandandGermany,etc.Theseprofessionalenjoythedistinction
ofbeingoneofhighlyeducated,thehighestearningandprosperinggroups.Afterliberalisation,inthe90s
educationandknowledgebasedIndianemigrationhasmadeIndianDiasporaoneofthemostpowerful
diasporasintheworld.Inallthesecountries,Indiandiasporahasbeenplayinganimportantroleinthe
developmentoftherespectivecountries.

Migration Search
MigrationwasrecordedbeginningfromthefirstCensusofIndiaconductedin1881.Thisdatawererecorded
CustomSearch
onthebasisofplaceofbirth.However,thefirstmajormodificationwasintroducedin1961Censusbybringing
intwoadditionalcomponentsvizplaceofbirthi.e.villageortownanddurationofresidence(ifborn
elsewhere).Furtherin1971,additionalinformationonplaceoflastresidenceanddurationofstayattheplace
ofenumerationwereincorporated.Informationonreasonsformigrationwereincorporatedin1981Census.

http://www.currentaffairsindia.info/2012/03/migrationtypescausesandconsequences.html Indian Polity and governance 1/5


8/7/2017 MigrationTypes,CausesandConsequences|Geography
Indian Polity and governance
StreamsofMigration MultipleChoiceQuestionsonPolity(6)

Afewfactspertainingtotheinternalmigration(withinthecountry)andinternationalmigration(outofthe NotesonPolity(27)

countryandintothecountryfromothercountries)arepresentedhere.Femalespredominatethestreamsof
shortdistanceruraltoruralmigrationinbothtypesofmigration.Contrarytothis,menpredominatetheruralto Economy - India and World
urbanstreamofinterstatemigrationduetoeconomicreasons.Apartfromthesestreamsofinternalmigration, MustReadArticlesonEconomy(1)

Indiaalsoexperiencesimmigrationfromandemigrationtotheneighbouringcountries. NewsonIndianandInternationalEconomy(9)

Indianmigration,fourstreamsareidentified: NotesonEconomics(38)

(a)ruraltorural
(b)ruraltourban India - World Geography
(c)urbantourbanand NotesonGeography(3)

(d)urbantorural. PlacesofInterest(2)

InIndia,during2001,outof315millionmigrants,enumeratedonthebasisofthelastresidence,98millionhad Indian History - Medieval and Modern


changedtheirplaceofresidenceinthelasttenyears.Outofthese,81millionwereintrastatemigrants.The IndiaafterIndependence(2)

streamwasdominatedbyfemalemigrants.Mostoftheseweremigrantsrelatedtomarriage.Census2001 IndianFreedomFighters(13)
IndianWomenFreedomFighters(3)
hasrecordedthatmorethan5millionpersonhavemigratedtoIndiafromothercountries.Outofthese,96per
NotesonIndianCulture(1)
centcamefromtheneighbouringcountries:Bangladesh(3.0million)followedbyPakistan(0.9million)and
NotesonIndianHistory(13)
Nepal(0.5million).Includedinthisare0.16millionrefugeesfromTibet,SriLanka,Bangladesh,Pakistan,
SocialReformersofIndia(10)
Afghanistan,Iran,andMyanmar.AsfarasemigrationfromIndiaisconcerneditisestimatedthatthereare
around20millionpeopleofIndianDiaspora,spreadacross110countries.
Environment,Science & Technology
NotesonEnvironment(17)
SpatialVariationinMigration
NotesonHealth(2)
SomestateslikeMaharashtra,Delhi,GujaratandHaryanaattractmigrantsfromotherstatessuchasUttar
Pradesh,Bihar,etc.Maharashtraoccupiedfirstplaceinthelistwith2.3millionnetinmigrants,followedby
Delhi,GujaratandHaryana.Ontheotherhand,UttarPradesh(2.6million)andBihar(1.7million)werethe Current Affairs in NutShell
NotesfromFrontline(4)
states,whichhadthelargestnumberofnetoutmigrantsfromthestate.
NotesfromYojana(2)
PIBReleases2011(25)
CausesofMigration
PIBReleases2012(10)
People,generallyareemotionallyattachedtotheirplaceofbirth.Butmillionsofpeopleleavetheirplacesof
PIBReleases2013(20)
birthandresidence.Therecouldbevarietyofreasons.Thesereasonscanbeputintotwobroadcategories:
PIBReleases2014(1)
(i)pushfactor,thesecausepeopletoleavetheirplaceofresidenceororiginand(ii)pullfactors,whichattract
thepeoplefromdifferentplaces.InIndiapeoplemigratefromruraltourbanareasmainlyduetopoverty,high
Also Have a Look At
populationpressureontheland,lackofbasicinfrastructuralfacilitieslikehealthcare,education,etc.Apart
DefenseNewsofIndia(1)
fromthesefactors,naturaldisasterssuchas,flood,drought,cyclonicstorms,earthquakealsoreasonsfor
FamousIndianWomen(5)
migration,
GovernmentProjects(14)
IndiaCorruptionAntiCorruption(6)
Ontheotherhand,therearepullfactorswhichattractpeoplefromruralareastocities.Themostimportant India'sForeignRelations(4)
pullfactorformajorityoftheruralmigrantstourbanareasisthebetteropportunities,availabilityofregular IndianAgriculture(4)
workandrelativelyhigherwages.Betteropportunitiesforeducation,betterhealthfacilitiesandsourcesof IndianNuclearEnergy(9)
entertainment,etc.arealsoquiteimportantpullfactors.Workandemploymenthaveremainedthemaincause SpaceNewsofIndia(3)
formalemigration(38percent)whileitisonlythreepercentforthefemales.Contrarytothis,about65per
centoffemalesmoveoutfromtheirparentalhousesfollowingtheirmarriage.Thisisthemostimportantcause Refresh Your School Lessons
intheruralareasofIndiaexceptinMeghalayawherereverseisthecase. NCERTBooksDownload(2)
NCERTStandard12(14)
ConsequencesofMigration NCERTStandard8(23)
Migrationisaresponsetotheunevendistributionofopportunitiesoverspace.Peopletendtomovefromplace
oflowopportunityandlowsafetytotheplaceofhigheropportunityandbettersafety.This,inturn,createsboth Popular Posts
benefitsandproblemsfortheareas,peoplemigratefromandmigrateto.Consequencescanbeobservedin 82.5ElongitudePassesthroughwhichIndian
economic,social,cultural,politicalanddemographicterms. Place
ThroughthisonlineGKquestionseries,
currentaffairsindia.infopresentsthemostrelevant
EconomicConsequences
modelquestionsonGeneralKnowledge.These
Amajorbenefitforthesourceregionistheremittancesentbymigrants.Remittancesfromtheinternational qu...
migrantsareoneofthemajorsourcesofforeignexchange.In2002,IndiareceivedUS$11billionas
remittancesfrominternationalmigrants.Punjab,KeralaandTamilNadureceiveverysignificantamountfrom IndiaAfterIndependence

theirinternationalmigrants.Theamountofremittancessentbytheinternalmigrantsisverymeagreas WhenIndiabecameindependentinAugust
1947,itfacedaseriesofverygreatchallenges.As
comparedtointernational
aresultofPartition,8millionrefugeeshad...
migrants,butitplaysanimportantroleinthegrowthofeconomyofthesourcearea.Remittancesaremainly
usedforfood,repaymentofdebts,treatment,marriages,childrenseducation,agriculturalinputs,construction CarnaticWars|FirstCarnaticWar|Second
ofhouses,etc.ForthousandsofthepoorvillagesofBihar,UttarPradesh,Orissa,AndhraPradesh,Himachal CarnaticWar|ThirdCarnaticWar

Pradesh,etc.remittanceworksaslifebloodfortheireconomy.MigrationfromruralareasofEasternUttar TheCarnaticWarswereaseriesofmilitary
conflictsinthemiddleofthe18thcenturybetween
Pradesh,Bihar,MadhyaPradeshandOrissatotheruralareasofPunjab,Haryana,WesternUttarPradesh
theFrenchEastIndiaCompanyandtheBriti...
accountedforthesuccessoftheirgreenrevolutionstrategyforagriculturaldevelopment.

http://www.currentaffairsindia.info/2012/03/migrationtypescausesandconsequences.html 2/5
8/7/2017 MigrationTypes,CausesandConsequences|Geography

RobertCliveinIndianHistory
Besidesthis,unregulatedmigrationtothemetropolitancitiesofIndiahascausedovercrowding.Development RobertClive(17251774),wasoneofthe
ofslumsinindustriallydevelopedstatessuchasMaharashtra,Gujarat,Karnataka,TamilNaduandDelhiisa creatorsofBritishpowerinIndia.Inhisfirst
negativeconsequenceofunregulatedmigrationwithinthecountry. governorship(175560)hewontheBattleof
Plasse...

DemographicConsequences
Migrationleadstotheredistributionofthepopulationwithinacountry.Ruralurbanmigrationisoneofthe Share Your Thoughts..
importantfactorscontributingtothepopulationgrowthofcities.Ageandskillselectiveoutmigrationfromthe aditimishra

ruralareahaveadverseeffectontheruraldemographicstructure.However,highoutmigrationfrom Steelwiresarealsousedinvarious
Uttaranchal,Rajasthan,MadhyaPradeshandEasternMaharashtrahavebroughtseriousimbalancesinage applicationslikecommercial,militaryand
andsexcompositioninthesestates. industrialuse....

IndustriesDifferentTypesBasedon
SocialConsequences Size,OwnershipandTechnology2weeksago
Migrantsactasagentsofsocialchange.Thenewideasrelatedtonewtechnologies,familyplanning,girls
aditimishra
education,etc.getdiffusedfromurbantoruralareasthroughthem.Migrationleadstointermixingofpeople
fromdiversecultures.Ithaspositivecontributionsuchasevolutionofcompositecultureandbreakingthrough Thanksforpost.ThePrecisionDrawellisto
thenarrowconsiderationsandwidensupthementalhorizonofthepeopleatlarge.Butitalsohasserious emergeasaleadingmanufacturerofhigh
quality...
negativeconsequencessuchasanonimity,whichcreatessocialvacuumandsenseofdejectionamong
individuals.Continuedfeelingofdejectionmaymotivatepeopletofallinthetrapofantisocialactivitieslike NavratnaCompaniesofIndia3weeksago
crimeanddrugabuse.
manalishroff

EnvironmentalConsequences DeccanRiotsof1875|DeccanRiots
Commission1monthago
Overcrowdingofpeopleduetoruralurbanmigrationhasputpressureontheexistingsocialandphysical
infrastructureintheurbanareas.Thisultimatelyleadstounplannedgrowthofurbansettlementandformation manalishroff
ofslumsshantycolonies.Apartfromthis,duetooverexploitationofnaturalresources,citiesarefacingthe
Thanksforthepost...
acuteproblemofdepletionofgroundwater,airpollution,disposalofsewageandmanagementofsolidwastes.
TransportandCommunicationinIndia1
monthago
Others
Migration(evenexcludingthemarriagemigration)affectsthestatusofwomendirectlyorindirectly.Intherural manalishroff
areas,maleselectiveoutmigrationleavingtheirwivesbehindputsextraphysicalaswellmentalpressureon
MigrationTypes,CausesandConsequences|
thewomen.Migrationofwomeneitherforeducationoremploymentenhancestheirautonomyandroleinthe
Geography1monthago
economybutalsoincreasestheirvulnerability.Ifremittancesarethemajorbenefitsofmigrationfromthepoint
ofviewofthesourceregion,thelossofhumanresourcesparticularlyhighlyskilledpeopleisthemostserious PoweredbyDisqus

cost.Themarketforadvancedskillshasbecometrulyaglobalmarketandthemostdynamicindustrial
economiesareadmittingandrecruitingsignificantproportionsofthehighlytrainedprofessionalsfrompoor
regions.Consequently,theexistingunderdevelopmentinthesourceregiongetsreinforced.

source:NCERTClass12Geography.UnitI,Chapter2

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