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Question 1: Review the various sources of aircraft noise.


Aircraft noise is a type of air pollution which is produced by an aircraft or its components.
Aircraft noise can happen during various phases of the flight such as on the ground when it is
parked, while taxing, during run-up from propeller and the exhausts, during takeoff, during
flying while to the route, or during landing.

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A moving aircraft, jet engine or propeller causes compression and rarefaction of the air which
produce motion of air molecules. This compression and rarefaction travels through the air as
pressure waves. So, the noise originates from following sources:

a) Aerodynamic noise: This noise originates from the airflow which is around fuselage and
control surfaces. This noise is directly proportional to the speed of the aircraft. This noise
is also more at lower height since air is denser at less altitude. The shape of the aircrafts
nose, windshield or canopy also have an impact on the produced sound. In case of
propeller aircraft, this noise originates due to flow of air from the blades. There are two
types of airframe noise:
i. Bluff body noise: This noise is due to the alternating vortex shedding from either
side of a bluff body. This result in low pressure region which result in sound.
ii. Edge noise: This occurs when turbulent flow passes the end of an object. The
variations in pressure are heard as the sound travels from the edge of the object.
b) Engine and other mechanical noise: A large amount of the noise in propeller aircraft
originates from propellers and aerodynamic. Much of the engine noise is due to jet noise.
Since jet have high velocity which is leaving at the back of the engine, it results in shear
layer instability which rolls up into ring vortices and this get broken into turbulence.
c) Noise from aircraft systems: Since cockpit and cabin both are pressurized and air-
conditioned, this results in large amount of noise inside. However, much of the cabin
noise is from auxiliary power unit which is a generator used in aircraft used to start the
main engine.

Question 2: Discuss what air-traffic control measures can be taken to reduce aircraft
emissions at and near airports.


There are various points which need to be considered for the reduction in emissions near the
airports. There are some activities which result in significant emissions at and near the airport.
Following measures can be taken to air-traffic which can reduce aircraft emissions at and near
the airports:
Image Source: https://phys.org/news/2016-09-air-traffic-shifting-text-messaging.html

There should be enhanced efficiency for taxi and take off. In most of the cases, aircrafts
need to wait at ground for longer duration before take-off which result in significant
emissions. Also, sometimes during landing, landing strips are not available which result
in aircraft revolves around the airport for considerable time. This result in significant
pollution near the airport.
Guidelines for the aircraft emissions can be made stricter. Although most of the airlines
have started adding sustainability in their vision, but stricter guidelines will help in
reducing emission near the airport. So, ICAO should put tighter certification limits for the
Ground handling procedures should be improved so that taxiing and ground holding
times can be reduced to decrease the emissions.
More efficient use of energy should be encouraged by incentives to the aircraft
Research and test programs should be undertaken so as to have alternative cleaner fuel
for the aircrafts.
Aircraft uses more fuels in the air than the ground. So, the departing aircraft should not
be given priority over the aircraft which is approaching on the same runway.
Gate to Gate flow of aircrafts should be emphasized which result in minimizing the
waiting and queuing.
Air-traffic control should consider about climbing of the aircraft in such a way that
aircraft reaches sufficient height near the airport only. This will result in lessening of the
emissions at the ground level.
Positioning of the aircraft on the final approach should be continuous descent which
result in maximum efficiency and decreased emissions.
In current practice, aircraft is maintained at shallow angle for several minutes. It was
acceptable earlier because of the technology at that time. However, for current aircrafts, it
waste fuel and increase emissions over the wider area.
Research should be done so that aircrafts can land in a steep manner or two stage final
approach which will result in reduced emissions.
Above can be done by significant procedural and coordinated software updates. This will
result in coordination between air-traffic controllers and airlines in a better way to reduce
the ground and landing time.
Airport itself should be efficient in design and operation. These should be designed so
that these use heating, lighting, cleaning and other emissions in a sustainable way. Energy
or carbon emissions from the airport infrastructure itself should be minimized

In addition to above, following points will also be helpful in reducing the emissions near the
airport. Although these are not directly related to air-traffic control but these can also have
positive impact on reducing the emissions.

Improving the public transport (including rail and road) to the airports. This also include
improving frequency and operational hours.
Providing park and ride facilities near the airport and connection to the airport by electric
powered buses or trains.
There should be access to airport from the nearest major train stations so that passengers
coming from other places can conveniently reach those stations and further take public
transport to reach the airport.
Private vehicles need to be discouraged to enter the airports.
Financial incentives can be provided to the people using public transport.
Encouraging the taxi or car sharing.
Allocation of public vehicles to dedicated lanes so that passengers can reach earlier by
public transport.
Question 3: Plot the variations of temperature, pressure and density in the troposphere and
stratosphere in the Standard Atmosphere.


Image source: http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7b.html

Image source:

Image Source:

1. http://www.dlr.de/as/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-192/402_read-1633/
2. http://stopstanstedexpansion.com/photos_hatfield_heath_noise_meeting.html
3. https://phys.org/news/2016-09-air-traffic-shifting-text-messaging.html
4. http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7b.html
5. http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/students/courselinks/fall12/atmo336/lectures/sec1/structure.
6. https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/253089/does-density-of-air-decrease-or-
7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_noise