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Ff - 2.
jehL muR gahs njthiza nj
bghJj - yfz - bkh g

 iz vgjF xGf vgJ bghU


iz : caid, m~iz vd U tifgL.
 kf - caiz
kf myhj cUs, cuw bghUf midJ m~iz
m~iz - m + iz = myhj iz
 "caiz vkdh kfRnl" - bjhfha. kf caiz
vgJ j bghU
 kf, njt, euf caiz kW c cs y m~iz - e}
 caiz : - mur, bghd, fz, Ma, kUJt
m~iz :- ku, f, rF, wh,
 gh 5 tifgL
Mgh - mt, fz, fj, ntiyfhu
bggh - mt, yR, jh, jif
gygh - mtf, isPf, uf
xwgh - mJ, Fiu, gR
gy gh - mit, khLf, fWf
 caizFa ghf : 3
Mgh, bggh, gygh
 m~izFa ghf : 2
xwgh, gygh
 ghntWghL cUs bghUfSF kLnk caJ
 izbrhf : 3 tifgL - neiz, viz, briz
 uL brhf xnubghU jJ fUij tWJtJ - neiz
uho ghuho , x caJ
 vbrhf izJ W fUij tWJtJ - viz
xghU fhU, mW W
 tz mlit (brit) tYgLJ brh briz
brf brnt, btis btns
 e vGJfis dbtGJf vd kuyfz TWwJ.
 j Kj vGJf : 30 - cbuGJ : 12, bkbaGJ : 18

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www.tnpsctamil.in 2 of 44.

 cbk vGJf : 216 (12 x 18 = 216)


 Mj vGJ : ~
 bkhj j vGJf : 247 (30 + 216 + 1 = 247)
 j vGJl kL nrU vGJf cliy bkkaf :
 gf, mr, mg
 w vGJfnshL nrJ tUtJ ntWiy bkkaf : rh, thif
 vGJfis xf MF fhyms - khiu
 xU khiu neu - f ikF neu, u brhLF neu
 vGJfSfhd khiu ms
cF, cbk F - 1 khiu
c beo, cbk beo - 2 khiu
bkbaGJ, Mj vGJ - akhiu
 v - Utif - xUik, gik
xiw FgJ - xUik (khzt, ku)
gybghUfis FgJ - gik (khLf, kf)
 l : 3 - jik, Kiy, glif
jik - eh, eh, ehf
Kiy - ,
glif - mt, mt
 rhbgGJf - 10 tifgL.
cbk, Mj, cusbgil, xwsbgil, Fafu, FaYfu,
IfhuFWf, xsfhuFWf, kfuFWf, MjFWf
 cbk :
cbuGJ, bkbaGJ nrJ cbkbaGJf cUthwd. c
guLl bk gbdL jjna nrJ, 216 cbkbaGJf
wwd.
 cbkbaGJf : + m = k, + < = , + c = F, + I = ir
cbkbaG <bwh cbuh
 Mj :
~ - J K, Kgh m~nfd, Mj vd tHfgLwJ.
 Mj vGJ brh il kLnk tU. Mj vG K
FY, mj td cbk FY tU.
m~J. v~F, f~R

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 msbgil :
br Xir FiwnghJ xU brh Kj, il, fil F beo
vGJf jkFa msUJ L xF. ~J msbgil vdgL.
 msbgil 2 tifgL.
cusbgil, xwsbgil
 cusbgil : br Fiw Xiria iw bra, c beo
vGJf VG msbgLgJ cusbgil.
 cusbgil 3 tifgL.
1. iriw msbgil (brir msbgil)
2. irasbgil
3. brhirasbgil
 br Xir FiwlJ iw bra c beo vGJf
msbgLgJ ir iw msbgil - bjhHhm, bflhm
 iriwasbgil <uir f kL tU : cHh/m, glh/m
 br Xir Fiwahj lJ, a Xirfhf msbgLgJ
irasbgil - bfLgc, cLgc
 irasbgil F beoyh, beo nkY msbgLF. J
_tir f tU
cgJ  cg  cgc
(F) (beo) (msbgLjJ)
 brhirasbgil : br Xir Fiwahj lJ bgabrh
idbar bghU jU bghUL msbgLgJ brhirasbgil.
Foj  Foj, moj  moj
 xwsbgil : br Xir FiwlJ bkbaGJfS Mj
vGJ msbgLgJ xwsbgil
viwt bdgh
bt~~ Fth iy
 xwsbgil , , , , , , , , , Ma gJ bkbaGJfS
MjK Mf 11 vGJf msbgLF.
 j gbdhU vGJfS brh xU Fiy mLJ, U Ffis
mLJ msbgLF. viwt, yF
 FaYfu :
jFiy rhuhJ, w vGJfnshL nrJ, brh < F
tdbk J VtU cfu ms FiwJ xF. J FaYfu vdgL
ghL, kh, MW, NL, gJ

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 FaYfu xU khiuUJ FiwJ miu khiuahf xF.


 gR - "R" FaYfukW. Vbd btGJ "g" vD j
FiyaLJ tJsJ. J KaYfu
 FaYfu vG K vGij bfhL mjid MW tifgLJt.
1. beo bjhl FaYfu, 2. Mjbjhl FaYfu.
3. tbjhl FaYfu. 4. bk bjhlFaYfu.
5. ilbjhlFaYfu. 6. cbjhl FaYfu
 beo bjhl FaYfu :
fhR, ML, L, NJ - t FaYfu vG KbdGJ
beo (fh, M, , N) vdnt J beo bjhl FaYfu.
 beo bjhl FaYfu <buGJ brhyhf tU. Kj vGJ
beoyhf, ulhtJ vGJ FaYfukhf UF.
ghL
 Mjbjhl FaYfu :
v~F, m~J - t F, J vD FaYfu vG K Mj
vGJ tJsJ. vdnt J Mj bjhl FaYfu.
 tbjhl FaYfu :
RF, gL, KWF - brhf FaYfu KvGJ
td. vdnt J tbjhl FaYfukhF.
 bkbjhl FaYfu :
rF, eL, gJ - t FaYfu KbdGJ (, , )
bkd. vdnt J bkbjhl FaYfu.
 ilbjhl FaYfu :
rh, _F - t FaYfu KbdGJ (, ) ild
vGJ. vdnt J ilbjhl FaYfukhW.
 cbjhl FaYfu :
muR, mHF, ghyhW - t FaYfu KbdGJ (u, H, yh) cbk
vGJf. t <bwh ( + m, +m, + m) cbuhahF. vdnt <wa
vGij cbuGjhf bfhL jid cbjhl FaYfu vg.
 cbjhl FaYfu, gyvGJfis bgWtU. <wa vGJ
cbk beoyhfnth, Fyhfnth UF.
 Fafu : iybkhp FaYfu UJ, tUbkh Kj
afu tjh cfu fukhf J ms FiwJ xF - J Fafu
MF.
tL + ahJ  toahJ

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www.tnpsctamil.in 5 of 44.

 nfah, brah - t ah vD mirbrh tU fu,


FafukhF.
 KaYfu : jdFa xU khiu msUJ FiwahJ xF
cfu KaYfu
gR, vG, jS, fj, vU
 Ifhu FWf : I - J cbeo vGJ. J xF ms
2 khiu. j "I" vD vGJ brh Kj, il, < W xFnghJ,
ms FiwJ xF. J Ifhu FWf.
IgJ, jiyt, fliy
 xs - ~J cbeo vGJ , 2 khiu xF jikaJ.
 xsfhu FWf
xs vD cbeo vGJ, xU brh Kj W xF
nghJ, ms FiwJ xF. ~J xsfhuFWf vdgL.
xsitah, btsth
xsfhu FWf - brh Kj kLnk lbgW. ilY WY thuh
 - J bkbaGJ. ~J miu khiu xfToaJ.
 kfuFWf :
br lbgW nghY, kUS vD brhf ngh, kU
vwh, ngh, kU vd. iy <Ys kfubk ()
miukhiuUJ FiwJ fh khiuas xF. J kfu FWf
vdgL.
nghY  ngh  ngh
kUS  kU  kU
 kfu <W brh K tfu tJ nrUnghJ iybkh kfu FiwJ
xJ, kfuFWf ML.
tU  to  tU to
kfuFWf
 ~ - Mj vGJ
~J miu khiuas xF
 MjFWf :
iybkh jFiy mLJtU yfu, sf, bkbaGJf,
tUbkhYs jfunjhL nrUnghJ, Mjkhf . thW j Mj
FW fhkhiuas xF. ~J Mj FWf MF.
f + J  f~J
 ehtifbrhf : (ya tif)
ya tifah brhfis abrh, brh, tlbrh, irbrh
vd ehF tiffshf TWt.

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www.tnpsctamil.in 6 of 44.

 abrh :
vyhUF bghU sF tif aghf mikj brh abrh.
fhL, ku, , kj
 abrh bgaiu Fjh bga abrh - fhW, PhW, gyif.
 abrh idia Fjh idabrh - gojh, dh, clh.
 brh : fwtfSF kLnk bghU sf Toa brh brh
(knjhif) c (ef)
 tlbrh : j tHfgL tlbkh brhf. vGJf khw
bgW tUtJ cL. - l, Zg - l, fky, Uja
 irbrh :
jehil NJs w gFfUJ j tJ fyJ tHfgL brh -
irbrh
nf (zW), bgw (gR)
wbkh brhfSnfw j brhf
rkUj j
mffhu - brUF
mZl - engW
muha - fUJ
mt - Jik
Muhjid - tghL
Mdj - k
rgj - NSiu
dr - ehnjhW
ija - J
nghJa j
mykh - beLngiH
uh - ytf
rh - wnfh
rd - gyf
mu - j
jft - br
t - tHFiuP
gh - Yit
lh - fo

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www.tnpsctamil.in 7 of 44.

kuh - j
fhj - jh
ngil - wef
mghl - g
mltiz - goa
 ehtif brhf : (yfz tif)
yfz tifah brhfis ehF tifgLJt. bgabrh,
idbrh, ilbrh, cbrh.
  bgaiu FgJ - bgabrh (L, , nk, fkh)
 braiy FgJ - idbrh (Tdh, Modh)
 bgabrh, idbrhf izghf tUtJ - ilbrh
(fzD - c, ntia - I)
 bgabrh, id brhf bghUis wJ mtnf cik
bfhL tUtJ - cbrh (khef, engdh, fokz.)
 LFbga :
vjfhuzK fUjhJ, xU bghUSF Fplhf L tHF bga
LFbga - ( eh, nfh, k )
 fhuzbga :
VnjD xU fhuz fU, xU bghUSF tHF bga
fhuzbga. (ehfh, gwit, brf.)
 gytiffis csla, bghJthd LFbgaf LF
bghJbga vdgL. (ku)
 LFbga gytW xwid Fghf RLkhdh -
LFwbga (bjid, thiH)
 gytiffis csla bghJthd fhuzbga - fhuz bghJbga
(gwit)
 fhuzbga gytW xwid kL Fghf RLkhdh -
fhuzwbga (wh, tisa)
 mWtif bga brhf :
bghUbga, lbga, fhybga, idbga, Fzbga, bjhbga.
  bghUbga : cUs, cuw KGbghUis FgJ - Fku,
btshL, jL, ku.
 lbga : lij FgJ -njhl, kiy, tFgiw

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www.tnpsctamil.in 8 of 44.

 fhybga : fhyij FgJ - neW, 2007 M ML, khiy


 idbga : xU KG bghU cWig FgJ. id - cW
f, , myF, jiy
 Fzbga : (gbga) w, Rit, tot ms g FgJ.
brky, eWRit, Kj, tlghij
 bjhbga : bjhiy FgJ, J fhy fhlhJ.
fj, goj, tiuj
 idKW :
bra KW bgwij FF brh idKW. jid KWid
vW TWt.
tjh
J Kfhyij fhL
gojh - wjfhy
MLwh - ffhy
nghth - vfhy
 idKW fhy, iz, gh, v, l Matiw fhL
tiujh - wjfhy
tiujh - caiz
tiujh - Mgh
tiujh - glif
tiujh - xUik
 bgabur : vrid bgaiu bfhL KotJ.
gGj gH - gGj - vrid
gH - bgabrh
 idbar : vrid idia bfhL KotJ.
ghJ kjh - ghJ - vrid
kjh - idbrh
 idbar Kfhyij fhL.
vLJ bfhLjh - wjfhy
vLJ bfhLwh - ffhy
vLJ bfhLgh - vfhy
 ngh : xU brh vGJ ntWglhY bghU khWglhJ UgJ
 ngh. J Kjngh, ilngh, filngh (<Wngh) vd _tifgL.
 Kjngh : brh Kj vGJ khdhY bghU khWglhJ UgJ.
ka - ika, kR - ikR
ilngh : brh il cs vGJ khD bghU khWglhJ UgJ.
KuR - KiuR, mua - miua

www.tnpsctamil.in 8 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 9 of 44.

filngh : brh <bwGJ khD bghU ntWglhJ UgJ.


mw - mw, gj - gj
KWngh : xU brh cs midJ vGJfS khdhY bghU
khWglhJ miktJ - IJ - mR
 MFbga :
xw abga, jid Ffhk jndhL bjhlila ntbwhU bghUSF
bjhW bjhL MtUtJ MFbga.
 bghUshF bga :
jhkiu kyjJ. jhkiu KGbfho bga. kyjJ vgJ it FjJ.
bghU bga mj cWgha it Fjjh bghUshFbga. jid
KjyhFbga vW TWt.
 lthF bga :
ngho brid btwJ. brid lbga - J mUJ brw
m ufis FjJ. lbga mF MtjJ lthF bga.
 fhythF bga :
nt rg Nodh. rg fhybga. Nodh vD Fgh rg vgJ
it FjJ. fhybga mfhynj kyj it FjJ - fhythFbga.
 idahFbga :
btiy elh. btiy vgJ idbga. Jelh vD
Fdh btiyia Ffhk, mj Kj bghUsha bfhoF MtjJ -
idahF bga (id - cW)
 bghUshFbga
 bghUshF bga KGbghU bga idF (cWF)
MtU. idahF bga idbga KGbghUSF MtU.
 FzthFbga : btis mojd
btis vgJ wg. mJ wij Ffhk, Rzhig Fjjh,
FzthF bga. jid gghF bga vW TWt.
 bjhyhF bga : bghf clh
bghf - bjhbga. J bjhiy Ffhk, mjdh isj czit
Fjjh bjhyhFbga.
 vz msitahFbga : xW bgwh xka
xW - vQbga. J jDl bjhlila FHijF M tjjh
vz msitahFbga.
 vLj msitahFbga : IJ nyh vd iy?
nyh - vLj (Wj) msitbga. J bjhlila tif m, gU
Matiw Fjjh vLj msitahFbga.

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www.tnpsctamil.in 10 of 44.

 Kfj msitahFbga : ehF l njit


l - Kfj msitbga. J gh, be Matiw Fjjh Kfj
msitahF bga.
 l msitahFbga : _W l bfhL
l - l msitbga. lJ J JF Mtjjh l
msitahFbga.
 xU khgH bfhL, uL nyh be bfhL - t vQ
bgaf MFbgauhfkhlh.
 brhyhFbga : tSt brh aJ
brh vgJ brhiy (thij) Ffhk bghUSF bgauhtjjh
brhyhFbga.
 jhahF bga: ghiy w it
gh bga ghiy Ffhk ghYs ghuij FjJ. ghu - jhd.
gh - jh. jh bga mij jhs jhdF Mtjjh jhahF
bga.
 lbga bghUSF MtUtJ lthF bga. bghU (jh) lF
MtUtJ jhahFbga.
 fUahF bga : ah nfL knj.
ah - fU - mJ mfUjU irF Mtjjh fUahF bga.
 fhathFbga : eh rika fnw.
rika vgJ fha (bra) bga. J fhuzF (fUF) bgauh
tUtjh fhathFbga.
 fUjhthFbga : UtStiu go
UtSt - fUjhbga. J mtuh vGjgl YF Mtjjh
fUjhthFbga.
 ctikahF bga : fhis eljh.
fhis - uDF TwgL ctik. tik ctikia Ffhk fhis
nghw uid Fjjh ctikahF bga.
ntWik
 g bfhLjh - bfhLjt g
gF bfhLjh - bgW bfhlt g
 bga brh bghU ntWgLtij ntWik vg. ntWik vL
tifgL.

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www.tnpsctamil.in 11 of 44.

 Kj ntWik :
 Ky gojh - Ky - vGth;
 gojh - gaiy (idbrh)
 bgabrh vGthahf W, gaiyia bfhL KoJ aghf
mikJsJ. J Kj ntWik. jid vGth ntWik
vW TWt.
 ulh ntWik : (cU :I)
 Rlk ghiyFojh - Rlk - vGth
 gh vgJ bgabrhjh - ~J I vD cUig VW
bragLbghUis czJwJ.
 bgabrh bghUis bragLbghUshf ntWgLJtJ
 ulh ntWik. jid bragLbghU ntWik vW TWt.
 ulh ntWik : Mf, mj, milj, j, xj, cilik
vd MW bghUf tU.
mHf iyia brjh - Mf
tst giftiu btwh - mj
stu il miljh - milj
fz dij Ljh - j
vy fhisia nghwt - xj
fhnkf brtij cilat - cilik
 _wh ntWik : (cUf - M, M, xL, XL)
fz Cah ijjh.
M, M, xL, XL vD _wh ntWik cUf bgabrhnyhL nrJ
mj bghUis fUbghUshf, fUjhbghUshf, clf bghUshf
ntWgLJwd.
 fUbghU : 2
~J U tifgL. KjfU, JizfU
ehuh fW jh - eh KjfU - bghU miktJ.
ifah fW jh - if - fha bragL tiu Jizahf UgJ
if - JizfU
 fUjhbghU : 2
brtjuh L flglJ - Vj fUjh.
(brtj Mfis itJ ilfo Kojh)

www.tnpsctamil.in 11 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 12 of 44.

jruh fo braglJ - aWj fUjh


(jr jhnk, fUfis bfhL brJ KoJsh)
 clf bghU :
X vGth braYl, bjh braY clftJ - clf
bghU
fojbjhL gzK tjJ.
jhnahL FHij brwJ
brhYUf : 2 (bfhL, cl)
fUbghU bfhL vD brhtU. bfhL ijjh
clf bghU cl vD brh tU. dYl kiH bghjJ.

ehfh ntWik ( cU - F)
jh FHijF cz Codh.
ehfh ntWik bfhil, gif, e, jF, mJthj, bghUL, Kiw, viy vd gy
bghU tU.
gh ytF gR bfhLjh - bfhil
nehF kUJ - gif
fQF mfy fnzhl - jF
jUF gh thdh - mJthj
TF ntiy - bghUL
tstDF jif tsk - Kiw
gHF hf Lf - viy

brhYUf : .(bghUL, j, Mf)


T bghUL ntiy brjh
ntiy j bt brwh.
 efhf gz jjh - Mf vD brhYU F cl nrJ tU.
Ijh ntWik ( cU - , )
bfhil wjt Fkz
J f, x, viy, VJ(fhuz) vD ehF bghU tU.
jiy j k - f
fl j fGilah - x
U nkF gH - viy
m ft xsitah - VJ
brhYUf ; (UJ, W, l, fhoY)
nty CUJ tjh
btyh nkfW btglJ.
jHur vidl _jt
 jiH fhoY wj bkh ntiy
 Mwh ntWik : (cU : mJ, MJ, m)
Mwh ntWik cUf cik (Hik) bghU tU

www.tnpsctamil.in 12 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 13 of 44.

vdJ L mJ, MJ - xUikF tU


vdhJ ril m - gikF tU
ij, kh vd j khjf guL
Mwh ntWik brhYU - cila. vDila jf
 VHh ntWik : cUf - f, l, , c, ntWik lbghUis
czJ.
o nrhiy csJ.
kiy fL
wl gif bfhshnj
jiynk cs Rik
"" vD ntWik cU Ijh ntWik x, VJ, f Ma bghU
tU. Mdh VHh ntWik "" lbghU tU.
 vlh ntWik ( ntWik)
glif bgaiu Kiy bgauh miHf ntWik gagLwJ.
vdnt J (miHj) ntWik vdgLwJ.
nty - ntyh, j - j
z
 KUf tjh - KUf - iybkh
tjh - tUbkh
iybkh tUbkh iztJ z
 z - a z, fhu z vd UtifgL.
a z :
bgh + kiy
thiH + ku
gid + ku
vdnt ~J a z vdgL.
 fl + miy = flyiy
J a zna. iybkh < cs "" vD bkbaGnjhL,
tUbkh Kj cs "m" vD cbuGJ nrJ "y" vD cbkahsJ.
bkl c nrtJ ang. vdnt z a zna
 fhuz :
iybkh, tUbkh nrUlJ jhf X vGJ njhW myJ X
vGJ ntnwh vGjhf khW. iyna Uw vGJbfLzU. tif
khwfSF fhu vW bga. fhuz njhw, j, bfLj vd _W
tifgL.
 njhw fhu :
kh + fh = khfh

www.tnpsctamil.in 13 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 14 of 44.

thiH + gH = thiHgH
gyh + Ris = gyhRis
z U brhfSFilna , , vD vGJf jhf
njhsd vdnt J njhw fhu..
 j fhu :
g + bgho = gbgho - iybkh <bwGJ "", "" Mf khaJ.
f + = f - iybkh "", "", MdJ tUbkh
"" MdJ. vdnt J j fhu.
 bfLj fhu :
ku + nt = kunt - iybkh <W "" bflJ.
ehF + kiw = ehkiw - iybkh <W "F" bflJ. vdnt J
bfLj fhu.
 c Kj brhf :
miy, Mil, iy, C, x, Xiy brhf c vGij Kjyhf
bfhLsd. vdnt it c Kjbrhf vdgL.
 c <W brhf :
- gid - miy - x - brhf <bwGJf cbk vGJf.
btGJf <bwh ( = + ) cbuhna MF. vdnt brhf
cW brhfshF.
 bk Kj brhf :
fl, nt, gh, j, k, g - brhf Kj vGJf (f, nt, gh, j)
cbk vGJf. t Kj x (f = + m, nt = + nu) bkvGJ xna.
vdnt brhf bk Kj brhf vdgL.
 bkpW brhf :
fl, u, gh, ntH - brhf <bwGJ bkbaGJf. vdnt
brhf bkpW brhf vdgL.
 bk<W z
nt + vjh = ntbyjh
gh + Mil = ghyhil
iybkhp "" vD bkbaGJ f, tUbkh Kj v. M
vD c vGJ tJ cbk vGjh zjJ.
e} :
"cl nk ctJ xWtJ ang"

 k + mHF = kzHF
g + mHF = gyHF
iybkh jFiy mLJ bkbaGJf csd. tUbkh Kj
c vGJf tJsd. zU nghJ iybkhpW bk uoJ tUbkh
cUl nrwJ.

www.tnpsctamil.in 14 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 15 of 44.

g + mHF = g + mHF = gyHF


e} :
"jF K xW ct uL"
 cLgLbk z
iybkhpY tUbkh KjY cvGJf U mit xWnruh.
mtiw xWgLj , vD UbkbaGJf il njh xwhF.
bkbaGJfSF clgLbkbaGJf vW bga.
+ mizjJ = aizjJ
gid + Xiy = gidnahiy
+ mHF = aHF
thW iybkhp , <, I vD cvGJf Ujh afu
clgLbk njhzU
gid + + Xiy = gidnahiy
 iybkh < m, M, c, C, V, X vD c vGJf
Ujh tfu, clgL bknjh zU.
+ + mHF = tHF, U + + M% = Uth%, nfh + + = nfh
 iybkh < "V" vD cvGJ Ujh , vD
uL njh zU.
nr + mo - nr + + mo = nrto
nr + mo - nr + + mo = nrao
 FaYfu z
khL + iy = khoiy
iy bkhp FaYfu f, tUbkh Kj c vGJ tjh,
FaYfu cs cfu bkbaGij L L. v F bkl tUbkh
Kj cvGJ nrJ zU.
bfhF + mHF = bfh + mHF = bfhfHF
bjhif iybjhl
 brhf bjhluhF nghJ, UbrhfSilna VnjD X cU
kiwJtU. bjhl bjhif iybjhl vdgL.
 bjhif iybjhl MW tifgL.
ntWik bjhif, idbjhif, gbjhif, ctikbjhif, cik
bjhif, mbkh bjhif
 ntWik bjhif
gh gUdh - bjhl ghiy gUdh vD bghUis jUwJ.
"I" vD ulh ntWik cU kiwJ W bghU jUwJ. J ulh
ntWik bjhifahF (nj nghW w ntWik bjhiff mjj ntWik
cUf bjhtU)

www.tnpsctamil.in 15 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 16 of 44.

 idbjhif
cfy - ~J xU tif bgaburnk. J fhy fhliy. vdnt J
clfy, cw fy, cQ fy vd KfhyF bghUJgo J
bghU jUwJ.
 fhy fhL iliy, bgabur F uL kiwJtU bgabur
idbjhif
 fhy fuj bgabur idbjhif - e}
 gbjhif
fUFtis - bjhl fUikaha Ftis vdbghU jUwJ.
fUFtis - fUik + Ftis - fUik - gbga, Ftis g bfh bga.
uoF ilna ik vD gF Ma vD cU kiwJ
tJsjh J gbjhif MF.
 cU gaD cl bjhf bjhif
Fl - iu cila Fl. "I" vD ntWik cU cila vD
gaD kiwJ tUtjh ~J cU gaD cl bjhf bjhifahF. uL
Kj VG ntWik tiu bjhif mik.
kghid - _wh ntWik cU gaD cl bjhf bjhif.
 UbgabuhL gbjhif
gid ku - gidaha ku vgJ j bghU
gid - w bga, ku - bghJbga. w bga KD, bghJbga
D W il "Ma" vD g cU bjh tUtJ UbgabuhL
g bjhif.
 ctikbjhif :
kyif - ky nghwif vgJ j bghU. ky - ctik, if - ctnka.
ctikF ctnkaF ilna nghw, nghy vD ctk cU bjh tUtJ
ctik bjhif.
 cikbjhif :
cwh, cwd - cwhU cwdU vgJ jbghU. U brhf
ilY WY "c" vD ilbrh bjh tUtJ cikbjhif.
 mbkhbjhif
fa tjh - fa nghw vgJ jbghU. J ctikbjhif. J
tjh vD idbrhiy jG wjh, fa nghw ia cila bg
tjh vdbghU jUwJ. bjhl bg vD myhj bkh bjh tjjh,
~J mbkh bjhifahF. ~J ctik bjhifwJ wj mbkhbjhif.
ijnghW ntWik, id, g, ctik, cik Ma bjhifiy bjhlfSF
wnj myhj brhf bjh W mjdj mbkhbjhifahf tU.

www.tnpsctamil.in 16 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 17 of 44.

bjhfh iybjhl
 xU bjhl bkh Ubrhf UJ, mt il brhnyh
cUngh kiwahJ bghUis czJtJ bjhfh iybjhl vdgL.
 bjhfh iybjhl 9 tifgL
vGthbjhl, bjhl, idKWbjhl, bgabur bjhl,
idbar bjhl, ntWik bjhfh iybjhl, ilbrh bjhl, cbrh
bjhl, mLFbjhl.
 vGth bjhl
fy tjh - fy - vGth, tjh - gaiy. vGthia
bjhlJ gaiy tJ bghU jUwJ. vGthbjhl.
 egh, go - egh brh (miHj)
go - gaiy - vdnt J bjhl MF.
 idKW bjhl
brwd u - brwd vD idKiw bjhlJ, u vD bga brh
W bghU jUwJ. J id KW bjhl
 bgabur bjhl :
goj ghl - goj vD vrid ghl vD bga brhiy bfhL
KoJsjh bgaburbjhl.
 idbarbjhl :
njo ghjh- njo vD vrid, ghjh vD idKW bfhL
KoJsjh, J idbarbjhl.
 ntWik bjhfh iybjhl :
il fodh - L vD brhYl "I" vD ulh ntWik
cU btgl tJ bghU jUtjh ntWik bjhfh iybjhl MW
 ilbrh bjhl :
kWw - kW vD il brhiy bjhlJ, w vD brh W
bghU jUtjh ilbrh bjhl.
 cbrh bjhl :
khKt - kh - cbrh. J Kt vD brhnyhL nrJ bghU
jUwJ - cbrhbjhl.
 mLFbjhl :
eW eW eW - xnu brh gyKiw mL tJ bghU jUtJ mLF
bjhl MF.
 a tHF :
xU bghUis RLtjF vj brh aghf csnjh, mjdh tHFtJ
a tHF

www.tnpsctamil.in 17 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 18 of 44.

 a tHF - yfzKilaJ, yfz ngh, k%c vd _W


tifgL.
 yfz cilaJ :
ah ghl gojh - bjhl brhf yfz Kiwgo W bghU
jUwd.
 yfzngh
efw , fhth - it yfz cila brhf. tiw wef, thfh
vd kh yfz cilaJ nghy bjhW bjhL tH tUnwh. vdnt it
yfz ngh
 k%c :
jrh, nfha - bgafis jir, nfhit vd RU
tHFnwh. ijJ tJs it k%c vdgL.
 jFtHF :
ngRnghJ, vGJnghJ jFahd brhfis gagLJtJ jF tHF.
 jF tHF - Jlfulf, kfy, FGcF vd _W tifgL.
lfulf : kyfGj vD luhd brhiy jJ, fh fGj
vd tHFtJ lfulf. (lf + mlf)
 kfy :
mkfykhd brhiy , kfykhd brhfsh bghUis sFtJ.
brjh - Jdh, RLfhL - efhL
 F>cF :
xU FGd, jkF kL tif gagLJ brh F>cF
bghbfhy bghdd g vg.
 <Wbfl vkiw bgabur :
thlh ky - thlhj ky vgJ jbghU thlh vD brh "j"
vD <bwGJ iy. vkiwbghUis jUwJ - bgaburkhf csJ.
vdnt ~J <Wbfl vkiw bgaburkhF.
 vQik :
murU ytU - bjhl "c" vD ilbrh btgl W,
vif bghU tJsJ - vdnt ~J vQik.
 uil s
flfl, ryry - xU brh uL Kiw kLnk mLtU - bghUsw brh -
mirbrhyhtU - jh bghU juhJ.
 brh vgjF gj, bkh, s vd gybgaf cL.
 XbuGnjh, gy vGJfnsh jnjh bjhlnjh bghU czJkhdh
mJ brh vdgL.

www.tnpsctamil.in 18 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 19 of 44.

 gj - gfhgj, gFgj vd U tifgL.


 jh bghU juhj brh gfhgj. J bga gfhgj, id
gfhgj, il gfhgj, c gfhgj vd ehF tifgL.
ku, eh - c, vL, - k, w - rhy, cW
 gFfToa gj gFgj - J bgagFgj, id gFgj vd UtifgL.
fz, brjh
 bghU, l, fhy, id, Fz, bjh vD M mogilahf
njhWtJ bgagFgj. bghd - Cu - Miuah - fz -
fa - eof
 gF, F, iliy, r, rhia, fhu vD MW gFgj
cWf MF.
 brh Kj W bghU jUtij gF vg. gF Vt
idahf tU.
gojh - go, tjh - th, Xodh - XL.
 F : gFgj W gJ F.
eljh - M, eljJ - J, eljd - m
 iliy : gFF FF il gJ iliy. J fhy fhL.
 ffhy iliyf - W, W, MW
cwh - W, cwh - W, czhwh - MW.
 wjfhy iliyf - , , ,
ghjh - , clh - , btwh - , ghodh -
 vfhy iliyf - ,
cgh - , tUth -
 vkiw iliyf - , M, M
coy - , fhzy - m, ghuh - M
 r : gFF iliyF il gJ r
ghwh - gh + + W + M
 rhia : bga, id brhfis rhJ tUtJ - J iliyF
FF il tU.
cld - c + + m + m
 m, M, , m, RW, W, mJ, m Kjad rhiafshf tU.
 fhu : khw - tjh vD brh gF th - J FW t vd
MW - j khwnk fhu vdgL.
brhdh - brh, flh - fh - fhu
 ilbrhfS cbrhfS vnghJ gfhgjfns

www.tnpsctamil.in 19 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 20 of 44.

 gFgj Fiwjs gF, F vD uL cWf Uf ntL.


tHhiy, tG, tGtik
 yfz iH ngRtJ, vGJtJ tHhiy vdgL.
brt gojh.
 tHhiy MW tifgL.
iz tHh iy - khL tjJ,
gh tHh iy - fz tjh
l tHh iy - eh tnj, tjh
fhy tHh iy - ehis tUnt, neW tjh
dh tHh iy - j yfz vjid tifgL?
il tHh iy - jHf jiy efu vJ? vD dhF
brid vd ilaj.
 tG - yfz Kiw ngRtJ vGJtJ tG vdgL. (tG - Fw)
~J VG tifgL.
iz tG - v khkh tjJ.
ca izF m~iz idKW tjJ
gh tG - fztjh.
MghYF bggh idKW tjJ.
ltG - ehf tjhf - jikF glif idKW
tjJ.
fhytG - ghY ehis tjh - vfhyF wjfhy
idKW tjJ
dh tG - KillJ nrtyh bgilah? bghUjkw dh
il tG - ehis g wfgLkh? vD dhF
mijF cl eyiy vd il jUj
 tGtik : yfz Kiwgo FwKilajhD fwtfsh
Fwkwjhf VW bfhsgLtJ tGtik.
 ctif, w, ca, cW, d fhuzkhf iz tG gh tG
fhy tG tGtikahf VW bfhsgL.
gR - m~iz - mij ghJ, "v yR tJ lh" vd
TWtJ - iz tGtik.
FoauRjiyt ehis jHf tUwh - cWjik
fhuzkhf vfhy - ffhy TwgLsJ - fhy tGtik.
M FHijia "tho, v fnz" vd TWtJ gh tGtik.

www.tnpsctamil.in 20 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 21 of 44.

bghUnfh (RUfkhf)
 br cs fisnah mofisnah bghUSnfg mikJ
bghU bfhS Kiw bghUnfh.
 bghUnfh - vL tifgL - MW bghUnfh, bkh khW
bghUnfh, uiu bghUnfh, L bghUnfh, jhirbghUnfh,
miskgh bghUnfh, bfhL TLbghUnfh, mok khW
bghUnfh.
 MW bghUnfh :
M brtJ nghy, ghl brhf K khwhJ nenu W bghU
jUtJ MW bghUnfh.
bghth Ijjh bgh xGf
be wh Lth th.
 bkh khW bghU nfh :
Xuo cs brhfis bghUSnfg kh itJ bghU bfhtJ -
bkhkhW bghUnfh.
Riu ahH m jg - jid
Riu jg m MH vd bghU khbfhtJ.
 u iu bghUnfh :
br brhfis tirgL mikJ bghU bfhtJ u iu
bghUnfh.
m mwD ciljh thif
g gaD mJ.
thif g - m, ga - mw. Kjyo UbrhfS
ulhko UbrhfS tirahf mikfgLsd.
 L bghUnfh :
UKidfS yh izfgoUjnghy, br
KjbrhY WbrhY bghUgl bghUJtJ L (L)
bghUnfh.
beUe csxUt iy vD
bgUik cil yF
 jhir bghUnfh :
Cr eLwfW KD, D brW tUtJ nghy - ghl eLF
brh KdhY WY cs brhfnshL nrJ bghU jUtJ jhir
bghUnfh (jhir - jh + ir = Cr fW)
czhik csJ ciy Ccz
mzhj brahJ msW.
C vD brh KD Dkhf brW nrJ bghU jUwJ.

www.tnpsctamil.in 21 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 22 of 44.

 misk gh bghUnfh :
gh jiyitJ EiHnghJ, jiynkyhf cl mLJ brtJ nghy
- br WUJ brhfis vLJ Kj itJ To bghU bfhtJ
misk gh bghUnfh.
 bfhL TLbghUnfh :
br gy mofY TwgLs brhfis bghUSnfg To
bghUbfhtJ bfhL TL bghUnfh.
fo fU frF f fj
vo fF v} - gos
fhis gogh fwFnk ey gR
ntis juhJ cG.
fU F vW vo frF vW fhis cG, gR gogh
fwF vd brhfis bghUSnfg bfhL Tl ntL.
 mok khW bghUnfh :
br mofis Kdhf kh itD, bghUS Xir ijahJ
tUtJ mok khW bghUnfh.

dh, il tiff,
 dh tif
dh mWtifgL. mit : mdh, mahdh, Iadh, bfhsdh,
bfhildh, Vtdh vgd.
1. mdh
jh xU bghUis efUJ mbghU wF bjkh vgjid
mbghUL dhtgL dh mdh.
(v-L) UFwis aat ah? vd Ma khztl dtJ.
2. mahdh
jh mahj xU bghUis mJbfhtjfhf wl dtJ mahdh
(v-L) vLbjhif fS w gad vit? vd khzt
Mal dtJ.
3. Iadh
jdF Iakhf Uw xU bghU FJ, Iaid ngh bfhtjfhf
dtgL dh, Iadh.
(v-L) mnf lgJ ghngh? fnwh?
4. bfhsdh
jh xU bghUis th bfhS bghUL filfhul d dh,
bfhsdh.
(v-L) Iah, gU csjh? vd tfl dtJ

www.tnpsctamil.in 22 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 23 of 44.

5. bfhildh
jh xU bghUis bfhLgjfhf, mbghU Ujiyg wl
dtJ, bfhil dh.
(v-L) khztfns! cfSF Uil iynah?
6. Vtdh
xU bjhiy brgo V dh, Vt dh.
(v-L) kdghl bris gojhah?
KUfh rhlhah?
(it go, rhL vW Vt bghUis jUwd)
m, mahik, Iw, bfhs, bfhil,
Vt jU dh, MW Gfh - e} 385
 il tif
dhF Vg ilagJ jh bkheil w.
nj, ehis eilbgWkh? vd nfl xUtl, "v jif vHh tF
gowh" vd TWtJ jtW. dh il iH mikjny Kiw.
iw, br, g vgd il ntWbgaf. il vL tifgL. mit :
RL, kiw, ne, Vt, dh vdhj, cwJiuj, cWtJ Tw, dbkh
vgd.
1. RL il :
"bridF t ahJ?" vW ddh
"J" vgJnghy Ro TW il, RLil.
2. kiwil (vkWJ Tw il) :
"J brthah?" vW danghJ, brna vgJ nghy vkWJ TW
il, vkiwil.
3. neil (clgL TWj) :
"J brthah?" vW danghJ brnt vW clgL TW il,
neil.
4. Vtil :
"J brthah?" vW danghJ "na br" vW VTWtJ Vtil.
5. dh vdhj il
"J brthah?" vW danghJ, "brahkUngndh?" vW dhitna
ilahf TWtJ, dhvdhj il.

www.tnpsctamil.in 23 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 24 of 44.

6. cwJiuj il
"J brthah?" vW danghJ, "cl behjJ" vW jdF cwjid
ilahf TWtJ, cwJiuj il.
7. cWtJ Tw il
"brthah?" vD dhF "if tF" vd jdF neu nghtij
ilahf TWtJ, cWtJ Twil.
8. dbkhil
"MLthah?" vW danghJ, "ghLnt" vd MLtjF dkhd ghLtij
ilahf TWtJ, dbkhil..
RL, kiw, ne Ma _W btgil. Vt, dh vdhj, cwJ
ciuj, cWtJ Tw, dbkh Ma IJ dhfSF ca ilia
Fgh czJtd. J iwgagd vdgL.
ah : br cWf
 br, ghL, F, fij vgd xU bghU Fj gybrhf.
 ah - bris fLj - cUthFj.
 br cWf : 6 - vGJ, mir, , jis, mo, bjhil.
 vGJ : j vGJf midJ brSFadnt, cF,
cbeo, cbk F, cbk beo, bkbaGJf, Mj vgdah
ahFa vGJfshF. bkbaGJf xbwGJf vdgL. Mj bkahf
fUjgL.
 mir : vGJ jnjh, gynrnjh Xirgl gJ mir, ~J
UtifgL. neuir, iuair
 neuir : F jJ, xwLJ, beo jJ, xwLJ tUtJ
neuir. f, f, fh, fh
 iuair : F izJ, F izJ xwLJ, F beo
izJ, F beo xwLJ tUtJ iuair.
gl, gl, glh, glh
 : mirf jJ izJ moF cWghf miktJ vdgL.
 ehF tifgL - Xuir, <uir, _tir, ehyir.
 Xuir : (2) btgh <wo < neuir, iuair VnjD
xW jJ F. mJl tirf FaYfuij < bgW tU.
thW mik mir Xuir. it eh (ne) ky(iu) fhR (ne) w (iu)
vD thghLfS xid bgW
 mD thD v - eh thghL
 tWF <a gL - ky

www.tnpsctamil.in 24 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 25 of 44.

 ehl tsjU ehL - fhR (ne)


 gft Kjnw yF - w (iu)
 <uir - 4 : uL mirf nrJ xU MtJ <uir. J
a, Ma c vd tHfgL.
ne + ne - njkh kh - 2
iu + ne - kh
ne + iu - Ts s - 2
iu + iu - fUs
 _tir - 8 : _W mirf nrJ xU uhtJ _tir MF.
 _tir neuir KotJ fh - 4. J btgh c vd
tHfgL.
ne ne ne - njkhfh
iu ne ne - khfh
ne iu ne - Tsfh fh 4
iu iu ne - fUsfh
 _tir iuair KotJ f-4. jF t c vgJ bga
ne ne iu - njkhf
iu ne iu - khf f
ne iu iu - Tsf
iu iu iu - fUsf
 ehyir :16 _tir vLl, neuir, iuairfis
jjahf nrjh ehyir 16 ilF. jid bghJ vg.
 jis :
w <wir, tU Kjyir bghUJtJ jis.
 jis 7 tifgL. nebuhwhajis, iubahwhajis,
a btlis, bt btlis, fjis, xa tjis,
xwhj tjis.
 nebuhwhajis : w kh tU Kjyir neuir
tUtJ nebuhwha jisahF. ne K ne F.
vW cDl
 iubahwhajis :
s K iu tUtJ.
gyf fy - sK iu - iu K iu tjJ
Ujis MaghF
ca jisf

www.tnpsctamil.in 25 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 26 of 44.

 a btlis :
1. w kh - tU Kjyir iuair.
mf/u Kj/y
kh iu
2. w s - tU Kjyir neuir.
y / tiu / f
fUs ne
 bt btlis :
fh K ne tUtJ
ah/jh/D eh/lhkh
njkhfh ne
 a btlis, bt btlis btghFad.
 fjis : fh K iutUtJ. J fghF caJ
 xa tjis : f K iu tUtJ
 xwhj tjis : f K ne tUtJ
 mo :
f gy mLJ elgJ mo vdgL. Fwso, jo, msto, beoyo, fbeoyo
vd mo ItifgL.
1. Fwso : monjhW Ufis bgW tUtJ Fwso vdgL.
(v-L) K ntLnk
g ntLkh
r aJ
bernk.
2. jo : monjhW Kfis bgW tUtJ jo vdgL.
(v-L) gG yhj gbjh
gG yhJ gwnt
gG yhJ gybjh
gG yhJ gd
3. msto : monjhW ehF fis bgW tUtJ msto myJ
neuo vdgL.
(v-L) jhbkh jhD jf nghWt
Mbkh ahsj mF Vwt
fhbkh ahtJ foJ khWt
thbkh jlh tif MWt
4. beoyo : monjhW IJ fis bgW tUtJ beoyo vdgL.
(v-L) ML filk ehmir ahk mybkF
L Filia jj uhj y

www.tnpsctamil.in 26 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 27 of 44.

ghL ty fXl Tj gjhaij


NL FnyhJf nrhHbd nwbaid brhYtnu!
5. fbeoyo : monjhW MW myJ mjFnk gy fis
bgw tUtij fbeoyo vd TWt.
(v-L) th brik ntL
thikna ngr ntL
ghbra yf ntL
gid fhj ntL
jhid mfw ntL
jUid Lj ntL
Niy czj ntL
nrhgiy nghf ntL
gho monjhW MWf bgWsjh, jid fbeoyo vg.
ghlYs fis v, jid mWfbeoyo vg. Jngh VGf
Ujh vGfbeoyo vW, vL f Ujh vfbeoyo vW
TWt.
 bjhil :
kyfis bjhLgJnghynt fY mofY nkhid Kjad mika
bjhLgJ bjhil vdgL. (bjhil - bjhLfgLtJ; bjhil - khiy). gh
XirgF wF bjhil ntLtjhF. bjhilaw ghL eilaW
nghF vgJ gHbkh.
bjhil vL tifgL. mit : 1. nkhidbjhil, 2. vJifbjhil, 3.
Kubjhil, 4. iabjhil, 5. msbgilbjhil, 6. uilbjhil. 7. mjh
bjhil. 8. brbjhil.
1. nkhidbjhil : br monjhW Kj vGJ xtu
bjhLgJ monkhid bjhil vdgL.
v Jf fUk Jj
vQt vg GF. - Fw, 468
Fwgh Kj mo KjYs Kj vGJ (v) ulh
mo KjYs Kj vGJ (v) x tJsjh, J nkhidbjhil.
2. vJif bjhil : monjhW KjbyGJ msbthJ (Xir)
f, ulh vGJ xtu bjhLgJ mobaJifbjhil
vdgL.
mfu Kjy vGbjyh M
gft Kjnw cyf. -Fw, 1
Fwgh Kj moY ulh moY f vD ulh vGJ
xJ tJsJ. vdnt, ~J mobaJifbjhil vdgL.

www.tnpsctamil.in 27 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 28 of 44.

3. Ku bjhil : monjhW Kj bghUsh Kugl bjhLgJ


moKubjhil vdgL.
g iHah Lig abggh
Jg cWj y. - Fw, 615
ghl Kjyo g vW, ulh mo Jg
vW Kugl brhf tJsd. vdnt, ~J moKubjhil vdgL.
4. iabjhil : monjhW W xtu bjhLgJ
moia bjhil vdgL.
bfhl nfhu mil TL
bfhof thd goju _L
fl ngul jliy ehL
fdf K mdis ahL.
ghl monjhW W x (xJ) tJsjh moia
bjhil MW.
5. msbgil bjhil : monjhW Kj msbgLJ tUtJ
moasbgil bjhil vdgL.
bfLgc bflhF rhthk whnf
vLgc vyh kiH. - Fw, 15
ghl bfLgc, vLgc vd ulofY msbgLJ
tJsikah, moasbgil bjhil vdgL.
 bjhil fgf :
ehFfisila Xuo iz, bgh, x%c, TiH, nkfJth,
fJth, KW Mad tubjhLgJ bjhil fg vdgL. ntG nkhid,
vJif, ia, Ku, msbgil Ma IJ bghUj bjhil fg KgijJ
tifgL.
 nkhid :
1. iznkhid (1, 2) :
ehF fis bfhl Xuo KjU f KjbyGJ xtu
bjhLgJ iznkhid vdgL.
brh w fhgh vtbfhnyh
tbrh tHF tJ?
2. bgh nkhid (1, 3) :
X mo KjY _wh Y KjbyGJ xJ tUtJ bgh
nkhid vdgL.
Jwjh bgUik JizT ita
wjhiu vbfh lW.

www.tnpsctamil.in 28 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 29 of 44.

3. x%c nkhid(1, 4) :
X mo KjY ehfh Y KjbyGJ xtu bjhLgJ,
x%c nkhid vdgL.
iwbkh khj bgUik yJ
kiwbkh fho L
4. TiHnkhid (1, 2, 3) :
X mo Kj, uL, _wh f KjbyGJ x tUtJ
TiHnkhid vdgL.
jhd jtuL jfh aDyf
thd tHfh bj
5. nkfJth nkhid (1, 3, 4) :
X mo Kj, _W, ehfh f KjbyGJ xtu bjhLgJ
nkfJth nkhid vdgL.
W bgh aDyf
JW lW g.
6. fJthnkhid (1, 2, 4) :
Xuo Kj, uL, ehfh f Kj vGJ xtu bjhLgJ
fJth nkhid vdgL.
Unr Uid nruh iwt
bghUnr fjh khL.
7. KWnkhid (1, 2, 3, 4) :
X mo ehF fY KjbyGJ xtu bjhLgJ KWnkhid
vdgL.
ff frlw fgit fw
f mjF jf.
F : ehF f nkhidFa fgf iz, bgh, x%c, TiH,
nkfJth, fJth, KW vd VF Kj vGJ xtu bjhLgJ nghynt
vJif tU.
 vJif :
1. iz vJif (1, 2) :
Kjyo KjU f KjbyGJ msbthJ f (Xiras)
ulh vGJ xtu bjhLgJ izvJif vdgL.
MWth Mw gahw mgia
khWth Mw .
2. bgh vJif (1, 3) :
X mo Kj Y _wh Y KjbyGJ msbthJ f,
ulh vGJ xtu bjhLgJ bgh vJif vdgL.

www.tnpsctamil.in 29 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 30 of 44.

(v-L) my mUshth iy ttHF


kykh Phy f.
3. x%c vJif (1, 4) :
X mo Kj Y ehyh Y KjbyGJ msbthJ f,
ulh vGJ x tUtJ x%c vJif vdgL.
mUyh fyf iy bghUyh
yf yh ahF
4. TiH vJif (1, 2, 3) :
X mo Kj, uL, _wh f KjbyGJ msbthJ f,
ulh vGJ xtu bjhLgJ TiH vJif vdgL.
gWf gwwh gid mgiw
gWf gW lF.
5. nkfJth vJif (1, 3, 4) :
X mo Kj, _W, ehfh f KjbyGJ msbthJ f,
ulh vGJ xtu bjhLgJ nkfJth vJif vdgL.
mHbfhl vyh mHngh, HD
gaF egh yit.
6. fJth vJif (1, 2, 4) :
X mo Kj, uL, ehfh f KjbyGJ msbthJ f,
ulh vGJ xtu bjhLgJ fJth vJif vdgL.
gJ g iHahjh JgJ
Jg cWj y. - Fw, 629
7. KbwJif (1, 2, 3, 4) :
X mo cs ehfY KjbyGJ msbthJ f, ulh
vGJ xtu bjhLgJ KbwJif vdgL.
JghF Jgha Jgh JghF
Jgha c kiH.

 ia :
ia bjhilfgij Xuo ehyhtJ UJ fzl
ntL.
1. izia : (4,3)
Xuo ehfhtJ _whtJ f <bwh xnu khahf Ujyh ~J
iz ia vdgL.
bkhJl jtG Kny bghny

www.tnpsctamil.in 30 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 31 of 44.

2. bgh ia : (4,2)
Xuo ehfhtJ ulhtJ f <bwh xnu khahf Ujyh
~J bgh ia vdgL.
kwj many KJw kzny
3. x%c ia : (4,1)
Xuo ehfhtJY Kj Y <bwh xnu khahf Ujyh ~J
x%c ia vdgL.
Hny aj mayJ flny
4. TiH ia : (4,3,2)
Xuo ehfhtJ _whtJ ulhtJ f <bwh xnu khahf
Ujyh ~J TiH ia vdgL.
khj eny tny any
5. nkfJth ia : (4,2,1)
Xuo ehfhtJ ulhtJ fY KjY <bwh xnu khahf
Ujyh ~J nkfJth ia vdgL.
ny Ejny ntf fany
6. fJth ia : (4,3,1)
Xuo ehfhtJ _whtJ fY KjY <bwh xnu khahf
Ujyh ~J fJth ia vdgL.
gny jts ghny brhny
7. KW ia : (4,3,2,1)
Xuo ehF f <bwh xnu khahf Ujyh ~J KW ia
vdgL.
any FHny kny any
gh tiff
 gh ehF tifgL : btgh, Magh, fgh, tgh
 btgh bghJ yfz :
<wo K - Vida mof ehF - a, bt tU - w f thuh.
a btlis, bt btlis kL tU - <wo <W eh, ky,
fhR, w vD thghLfS xid bgWtU - brgnyhir bgWtU - 2
mo Kj 12 mo tiu bgWtU.
 btgh tiff : Fw btgh, neir btgh, ir
btgh, g~bwhilbtgh, a btgh.
 Fw btgh : btgh bghJ yfz bgW - uL
mofis bfhljh xU fgjhY U fgjhY tUtJ (fg -
ntWghL)

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www.tnpsctamil.in 32 of 44.

mfu Kjy vGbjyh M


gft Kjnw cyF.
 neir btgh : btgh bghJ yfz - ehF mof -
ulhko W jbrh - xU fgfkhf, Ufgkhf tUtJ.
 ir btgh : btgh bghJ yfz- ehfof cilajh
- ulhko W jbrh bgW _W fgjhD - _wh mo
W jbrh bgW UfgjhD tUtJ.
 g~bwhil btgh : btgh bghJ yfz - Ijo Kj
guL motiu bgWtUtJ.
 a btgh : btgh bghJyfz - _wofis
cilajh tUtJ. ulhko jbrh bgW tjh neir a btgh
- jbrh tjh ir a btgh.
 Magh bghJ yfz.
msto bgW tU - a gW tU - wfS tU - Ma
jistU - w jisf fyJ tU - 3 mo bwiy - ghL yt
fUnfg gy mofis bgW tU - mftnyhir bgWtU
 Magh - neir Magh, izFw Magh, iykoy
Magh, mok koy Magh vd ehF tifgL.
 neir Magh :
Magh bghJ yfzJl <wayo Kuh - wmof ehFf
bgW tUtJ.
gh gh vW gynt
xUt ft breh yt
gh xUtD my
kh cO LyF ugJnt.
 izFw Magh :
Magh bghJ yfzJl - Kjyo fil mo eh mofsh
- il cs mof U mofshf (Fwso) K mofshf (jo)
tUtJ.
 iy koy Magh :
Magh bghJ yfzJl vyh mofS eh mofsh (msto)
tUtJ.
 mok koy Magh :
Magh bghJ yfzJl - vj moia vj l itJ
gojhY bghUS Xir khwhJ tUtJ.

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www.tnpsctamil.in 33 of 44.

bghU yfz
mfbghU
 bghUyfz mf, w vd UtifgL.
 mfbghU
mila jiyt jiy ga xGfid TWtJ mfiz vdgL.
F, Kiy, kUj, bej, ghiy, ifis, bgUiz vd mfizf
VGtifgL.
mtW KjiyJ m Iiz vW tHfgL.
mfbghUSFa bghUf KjbghU, fUbghU, cbghU vgd.
 KjbghU
mfbthGf ftjF fhuzkhd yK bghGJ KjbghU vdgL.
y ItifgL
 Itif yf
1. F - kiy kiyrhj lK
2. Kiy - fhL fhL rhj lK
3. kUj - taY tarhj lK
4. bej - flY flrhj lK
5. ghiy - kzY kzrhj lK
bghGJ bgUbghGJ, WbghGJ vd UtifgL.
 bgUbghGJ (Xuho MW TWf)
1. fhfhy - Mt, ulh
2. Ffhy - Ig, fhif
3. Kgfhy - khf, ij
4. gfhy - kh, gF
5. sntfhy - iu, itfh
6. KJntfhy - M, Mo.
 WbghGJ (xUeh MW TWf)
1. fhiy - fhiy 6 k Kj 10 k tiu
2. egf - fhiy 10 k Kj 2 k tiu
3. vghL - gf 2 k Kj 6 k tiu
4. khiy - khiy 6 k Kj u 10 k tiu
5. ahk - u 10 k Kj u 2 k tiu
6. itfiw - u 2 k Kj fhiy 6 k tiu
(vghL - v + ghL. v - PhW, ghL - kiw neu.)

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www.tnpsctamil.in 34 of 44.

 iz bghGJ
iz bgUbghGJ WbghGJ
F Ffhy, Kgfhy ahk
Kiy fhfhy ahk
kUj MW bgUbghGJf itfiw
bej MW bgU bghGJf vghL
ghiy snt, KJnt, g egf
 fUbghU
mjj yFa bjt, kf, cz, yF Kjad bghUf
fUbghU vdgL.
fUbghU F Kiy kUj bej ghiy
bjt KUf Ukh u tUz
bfhwit
kf btg njhw Cu nrg vd
Fwt Ma cHt guj
va
Fwa Ma cHa gua
cz kiybe tuF brbe ,cF Niwahl
id rhik btbz bgwbghUbghU
yF Ka vUik Kjiy tHj
fuo,f kh, eh Rwh ahid
F Kiy brfG jhiH Fut
fhj njh jhkiu bej gh
ku m bfhiw fh id Yig
ntif fhah kUj PhH ghiy
gwit fhdnfh ehiu flfhf wh
k k nfh,md --- gUJ
C WFo gho,nr ng%,_ god,ghf FW
mU fhlhW kidzWkzzW ta
Rid bghif ctf Rid,zW
giw bjhlfVWnfhgiw kzKHh nfhgiw Jo
beyiz
ah Fah Kiyah kUjah sah ghiyah
g Fg Kiyg kUjg brtg gRug
bjh njbdLj VWjGj beyj oj tg
Hffj iunkjfisgj cisj iuftj

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www.tnpsctamil.in 35 of 44.
 wbghU
wbghU vdgLtJ, thifF Jiz f, brt, f, u,
mua Kja bghUfis g TWtJ. mfbghU tha v, wbghU
cya MF. wga befis TWtJ wiz. wizf bt
Kjyhf guL tifgL.
1. btiz : gif eho J ngh bjhlFK, mehoYs
MiufSF F neuTlhJ vd fUJ kd, j ufis mD
mtiw ftJ tubrtJ btiz. muf btit No
brthf.
2. fuij iz : bt ufsh ftJ brygl j
Miufis fuij it NobrW gJ, fuijiz.
3. tiz : kzhir fhuzkhf gift ehil ifgw
fU tit No nghUF brtJ, tiz.
4. fhiz : j ehil ifgw tj khwurndhL fhit
No vJ gJ fhiz.
5. behiz : gifaurdh KWiflgl j kiy fhj
nto, cUnj, btna UF gifaurndhL behit No
nghL, mkiy fhgJ behiz.
6. ciPiz : ciP it Noa j ufSl khwur
nfhilF FJ kiy R tisj ciPiz.
7. Jig iz : gifntj UtU bt xiwna Fnfhshf
bfhL, j ufSl nghLtJ Jig iz. uf Jig
itNo nghLt.
8. thifiz : btbgw kd thif No ktJ,
thifiz.
9. ghlhiz : ghLjF jFila X Mkf f, u,
brt, f, fUiz Kjatiw ngh ghLtJ, ghlhiz. (ghL + M
+ iz = ghlhiz)
10. bghJa iz : btKj ghlhtiu cs wizf
bghJthdtiw, mtW Twglhjdtiw TWtJ, bghJa iz.
11. ifisiz : ifis vgJ xUjiy fhk. ~J
Mgh TW, bggh TW vd UtifgL.
12. bgUiz : bgUiz vgJ bghUjh fhk. J M
ghTW, bggh TW vd UtifgL.

bt iuftj, l fuijah,
tfhnk brtJ tah - cfh(J)

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www.tnpsctamil.in 36 of 44.
v%w fh, vfhj beh,
mJtisj yhF ciP, - mu
bghUtJ Jigah, nghfsJ fh
brUbt wJthif ah.
m yfz
 a em :
csij csthW aghd Kiw mHFglbghU sFkhW TWtJ.
Ka Uid MF Kaik
ik F L.
 ca e m :
xU bghU cait, f cath wJ TWtJ.
th f bfhl jehL
 ctik m :
xU bghUnshL kbwhU bghUis xikgL TWtJ. ctk cU btgl
gJ.
cLif Hjt ifngh Mnf
Lf fistjh e.
 vLJfhLtik m :
ctik xU bjhluhf ctnka xU bjhluhf f - il ctk cU
btgilahf yhk miktJ.
wik uh mik mfik
thikah fhzgL.
 cUtf m :
ctik ntW ctnka ntW vgJ njhwhj tif ctik jikia
ctnkank V TWtJ.
 Vfnjr cUtf m :
xiw cUtfgL, mjndhL bjhlila kbwhiw cUtfgLjhJ
LtJ.
w bghUfl Jt jh
iwtdonruh jh.
w bgUfl cUtf. iwtdo cUtfgLjgliy.
 bghU ctika :
cy yhj bghUis ctikah TWtJ.
mgfyh cthif tghf
tw kuj jW

 J bkhj m :

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www.tnpsctamil.in 37 of 44.
yt, jh fUa bghUis neuoahf Twhk, mjndhL bjhliladtiw
T sFtJ.
bg rhfhL mW mgl
rhy FJ bg
 ntWika :
br UbghUfSF ilnas xWikia T d mtiw
ntWgL fhLtJ.
dh Rl cshW Mwhnj
ehdh Rl tL.
 u iu m :
brhiy, bghUis tirahf (uyhf) W, nenu bghU bfhSkhW
TWtJ.
m mwD ciljh thif
g gaD mJ.
 jFngw m :
aghf fG f J, yt j Fig V TWtJ.
nghUs bjLj Mbu beLbfho
thu vgdngh kJ iffhl
 tr f m :
ftJ nghy ggJ, ggJ nghy ftJ.
njt mida fat mtUjh
nktd brbjhGf yh.
 uLw bkhj m
U bghUgl ghLtJ - nyil vW TWt. brbkh nyil, bkh
nyil vd UtifgL.
 brbkh nyil:
br xU brh glhk W xWF nkgl bghUis jUtJ.
 bkh nyil :
xU brh jJ W xU bghUis mJnt J W ntbwhU
bghUis jUtJ.
gyif - kugyif
gy if - gy fuf
 brh tU iy m :
br Kd tj brh L L tJ ntW ntW bghUis jUtJ.
JghF Jgha Jgh JghF
Jgha c kiH.

 bghU tU iy m :

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www.tnpsctamil.in 38 of 44.
br xnu bghU jU gybrhf gW tUtJ
mjd njh myjd fhah
bejd neKif Kiy.
mjd, myjd, bejd vD brhf kyj vD xU
bghUis jjJ.
 brhbghU tUiy m :
br Kd tj brh, L L tJ xnu bghUis jUtJ.
ait a gajyh ait
D mr gL.
brhbwhl tiff
 brbjhl
m) gkh fiyP kJiufU cs shnr wjh.
M) UtSt UFwis adh.
U bjhlfS brfis bjthf vLJ TWwd. thW, xU
fUid brahf bjgJ brbjhl vdgL.
 dhbjhl
m) v, vd rhlh?
M) mgu, neW V gF tuiy?
) vnf brwh?
thW dhbghUis jU bjhl, dhbjhl vdgL. vd? V?
vnf? vgo? Kja dhbrhf dhbjhl mik.
 czbjhl
"mnlagh! vts bga V!
"Inah, K Flnj!"
thW eh ngR brf czia btgLJ bjhlfshf mikjh,
mtiw cz bjhlf vnwh.
k, a, Jg Kja czf btgLkhW miktJ,
cz bjhl.
(v-L) vnd, kakiy cau!
mnjh, eh to mogL lnj!
 flisbjhl
eFgo, bjthf vGJ, cj br. thW braiy brgo
MizLTWtJ flisbjhl

 jiybjhl

www.tnpsctamil.in 38 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 39 of 44.
1. mHf ghl vGJwh.
2. kh, gyh, thiH Mad Kff.
Kj bjhl mHf vgJ vGth, ulh bjhl kh, gyh, thiH vgd
vGthf.
thwhf, X vGth myJ xWF nkgl vGthf xU gaiyia
bfhL KotJ, jiybjhl.
 bjhliy bjhl
mikr tjh; gRfis tHdh; ghuho ngdh.
neW kiH bgjJ; mjdh, V Fsf ud.
thW, X vGth gy gaiyfis bfhL KotJ
bjhliybjhl. bjhliybjhlf mjdh, Mifah , Vbd Kja
iz brhfis bgW tU.
 fyitbjhl
1. neW, a ajh, gF LKiw.
2. KUf, u, gfY mauhJ gojjh TLj kbgf
bgwh.
thW, xU jbrhbwhl xW myJ mjFnkgl Jiz
bjhlfSl fyJ tUtJ, fyitbjhl.
 bridbjhl
"FoauR jiyt cyf j khehil bjhlitjh." bjhl
FoauR jiyt - vGth
cyf j khehL - bragLbghU
bjhlitjh - gaiy
thwhf vGth, br idia bfhL Ko bjhl brid
bjhl vdgL. bragLbghUnshL ulh ntWik cU (I) btgL tU.
y bjhlf kiwJ tU.
(v-L) khtl Ma bfho Vdh.
 braghL idbjhl (bragLbghU idbrhiy bfhL KotJ)
cyf j khehL FoauR jiytuh bjhl itfbgwJ. bjhl
brhf bragLbghU, vGth, gaiy vD tir mikJsd.
vGthnahL "M" vD _wh ntWikcU csJ. tif bjhlf
gaiynahL gL, glJ, bgW, bgwJ vD JizidfS xW nrJ tU.
 jidbjhl
vGth, jhnd br bjhiy czJtJ
ghkh UFw fwh.

www.tnpsctamil.in 39 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 40 of 44.
bjhlYs ghkh vD vGth, xU braiy jhnd brtjdh J
jidbjhluhF.
 widbjhl
vGth, xU braiy wiubfhL brgJ myJ wUfhf
brtJ.
ghkh UFw fjh.
J widbjhl. ghkh vD vGth, wUfhf mbraiy
brtjh, J widbjhluhF.
 neTWbjhl (xUt ngRtij, mt ngagona TWtJ)
Ma, "khztfns, ehis xGfKilik Fwf Ijid goJ tUf",
vwh. thW Ma, khztfl Ta bjhl neTW bjhluhF.
nknfh Ff lbgW; jik, Kiy bgaf lbgW; F,
nghJ, it vd RLbgaf tU; neW, W, ehis vd fhybgafS
tU.
(v-L) njbkh bghl, "eh, ehis kJiuF brnt" vwh.
 maTWbjhl
xUt myJ gy ciuahlfis mayh TWtJngh mikgJ,
maTWbjhl. bghl njbkh, jh kWeh kJiuF brtjhf
Tdh.
maT nknfh Ff thuh; T jik, Kiy bgaf, glif
bgafshf khW; RLbgaf mJ, mit, mnf vd khW; fhybgaf meh,
kWeh vd khW; vW, Mf vD iz brhfS lbgW.
 clghLbjhl
bra myJ bjh ftij nekiwahf czJtJ, clghL bjhl.
fiybr fLiu vGdh.
 vkiwbjhl
fiybr fLiu vGy.
bjhl, fiybr fLiu vGjiy vd bra fHhikia
TWtjdh, ~J vkiwbjhl.
 bghUkhwh vkiwbjhl
fiybr fLiu vGjhk uh.
fiybr fLiu vGdh vD bjhl clghLbjhl. fiybr
fLiu vGjiy vgJ jfhd vkiwbjhl.

nkny cs clghLbjhliu bghUkhwh vkiwbjhluhf khw ntLkhdh,


mjid uL vkiwfis bfhl bjhluhf, fiybr fLiu vGjhk
www.tnpsctamil.in 40 of 44.
www.tnpsctamil.in 41 of 44.
uh vd khWj ntL. jF fiybr fLiu vGdh vgnj bghU
vgjdh, J bghUkhwh vkiwbjhl vdgLwJ.
uL vkiwbrhf nrJ tjh, m~J clghL bghUisjU.
 td F lf
1. m, , c vD RblGJfis mLJ v vD dhit
mLJ tU tdfsha f, r, j, g F.
m + iga = miga
+ bro = bro
v + g = vg
2. mj, j, vj, mF, F, vF, mgo, go, vgo vw RL,
dhbrhfis mLJ td F.
mj + nfh = mjnfh
mF + brwh = mFbrwh
vF + nghdh = vFnghdh
3. ulh ntWik td F.
iy + go = iygo
ghiy + Fo = ghiyFo
4. ehfh ntWik td F.
mtDF + bfhLjh = mtDFbfhLjh
gF + brwh = gFbrwh
5. uL, _W, ehF, Ijh ntWik cU gaD clbjhf
bjhif td F.
j + Fl = jFl
L + rh = Lrh
ku + bgo = kubgo
+ d = d.
6. gbjhif td F.
gir + gL = girgL
gir + = gir
7. UbgabuhL gbjhif td F.
rhiu + gh = rhiugh
kif + = kif

8. ctikbjhif td F.

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www.tnpsctamil.in 42 of 44.
ky + f = kyf
jhkiu + if = jhkiuif
9. XbuGJ xU bkh td F.
+ Rl = Rl
+ Til = Til
10. <Wbfl vkiwbgabur td F.
mah + f mahf
Xlh + Fiu XlhFiu
11. tbjhl FaYfu td F.
gJ + ghL = gJghL
vL + bjhif = vLbjhif
12. l, w xW uoF c, beo bjhlFaYfuf
td F.
ehL + gW = ehLgW
jL + ghid = jLghid
13. KaYfu td F.
bghJ + nj = bghJnj
U + Fw = UFw
14. rhy, jt Kja cbrhf td F.
rhy + ngdh = rhyngdh
jt + J = jtJ
15. M, vd, , Mf Kja ilbrhf td F.
vd + Tdh = vdTdh
+ fhngh = fhngh.
 td fh lf
1. mJ, J, mit, it vD RL brhf D vJ, vit
vD dhbrhf D td fhJ.
mJ + gwjJ = mJ gwjJ
mit + gwjd = mit gwjd
vJ + jf = vJ jf
vit + brwd = vit brwd
2. M, V, X vD dh vGJf td fhJ.
mtdh + brwh = mtdh brwh
mtndh + ngdh = mtndh ngdh
mtnd + jh = mtnd jh

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3. vGthbjhl td fhJ.
ky + jJ = kyjJ
tL + gwjJ = tLgwjJ
4. mjid, jid, vjid vD brhfSF td fhJ.
mjid + glf = mjid glf
jid + gwitf = jid gwitf
vjid + fhiff = vjid fhiff
5. idbjhif td fhJ.
CW + fh = CWfh
RL + nrhW = RLnrhW
6. cikbjhif td fhJ.
fyguz
ugf
7. ulh ntWikbjhif td fhJ.
j + fwh = jfwh
fl + fljh = flfljh
8. _wh ntWik cUf (XL, XL) td fhJ
nthL + nrj = nthLnrj
fynuhL + guz = fynuhLguz
9. vL, gJ ju w vfSF td fhJ.
xW + bfhL = xWbfhL
uL + ng = uLng
10. anfh idKWF td fhJ
thf + j = thfj
tha + gyhL = thfgyhL
11. uils, mLFbjhl td fhJ.
ry + ry = ryry
gh + gh = ghgh
12. <Wbfl vkiw bgabur ju wbgaburf
td fhJ.
fw + Wt = fwWt
a + bg = abg
kubrhf
 ahidFo, ahidfW
ahidFo vgJ ku wj brh. ahidfW vgnj bkheilF Vw
brh. Kndh vbrhiy vgo tHdnuh mbrhiy mgona VW tHFj
ku.

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 yFf sikbgaf
mis is gFo MLFo
FiuFo
gw vUikfW fFUis idFo
vFR
ehFo khfW fGijFo FuFFo ahidfW
 yFf thlf :
MLgo nfhgiz ahidTl
Fiubfho khLbjhGt thJgiz
 yF gwit df xku
Mij myW Fiu fidF e CisL
fGij fJ F T cWK
fhif fiu nfh bfhfF k mf
bfhR f KHF ahid W
 jhtu cW bgaf
<r Xiy jhiH kl gidnahiy
nrhsjil bjidnahiy gyhiy
khiy _ iy thiHiy
ntgjiH fKfTj bewh
 fhf siy
mtiuR khtL KUifR
bjdFUig thiHfr btsR
 bro bfho kuf bjhFl
MyfhL rFnjh bjdnjh
fgbfhiy nrhsbfhiy njiynjhl
gdnjh gyhnjh nrhiy
 bghUf bjhF
MLkij fFa rhbfhJ
uhirFiy ntyfhL gRiu
khLkij ahidTl itnfhngh
 bghUSnfg idku
nrhW c Fo gh gUF
gH ghLghL fij aW
nfhy L j fil sif VW
_L gl tiu Tiu nt

Ia bjbgw
jbgarh bjh.ng. 9994104166

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