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# Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering

Introducto

## An electric circuit is an interconnection of electrical elements.

Charge
The most basic quantity in an electric circuit is the electric c

## Charge is an electrical property of the atomic particles of which

matter consists, measured in coulombs (C). Charge, positive or
negative, is denoted by the letter q or Q.

## The charge e on an electron is negative and equal in magnitude to

1.602x10-19 C, while a proton carries a positive charge of the same magnitude
as the electron. he presence of equal numbers of protons and electrons
leaves an atom neutrally charged.
Current

## Current can be defined as the motion of charge through a conducting

material, measured in Ampere (A). Electric current, is denoted by the letter i or I.

## The unit of current is the ampere abbreviated as (A) and corresponds to

the quantity of total charge that passes through an arbitrary cross section of a
conducting material per unit second . (The name of the unit is a tribute to the
French scientist Andre Marie Ampere.)
Current
Math matically,

Or

Q == I
Where Q is the symbo l of charg m asur d in Coulombs (C), I is th curr nt in
amp res (A) and tis th time in s cond (s).

## Th curr nt can also b d fin d as th rat of charg passing through a point

in an el ctric circuit i.e.

. dq
i == -
d
Current

## A constant curr nt (a lso known as a

dir ct curr nt or DC) is denot d by
symbo l I wher as a tim -varying curr nt
1 (also known as alternat ing current or AC)
is r pres nt d by th symbol i or i( ).
Voltage

It must tak,e som,e, work, or energy,, fo r the charge to move betw,e,en two
po'inits i'n .a circuit, say, from point a to p oi'nt b. The total wo r k p,e,r unit charg,e,
1

associ.a t,ed w 'i th t he motion of charg,e, betw,e,en two poi'nts is call,ed voltag,e. Th us,
the units of voltag,e, are thos,e, of ,e nergy p,e,r un it charge; they hav,e bee n called
volts i'n ho nor of Alessandro Volta.

Vo,ltag e (,o r pote,ntia l d 'i ff,e rence,) is t he ,e nergy r,e ,q u ir,e d to,
1

mo,v ,e charge fr,o m o,ne, p,,o int t ,o the, o,t he,r, m ,eas.ured in vo,llts (V) .
V ,o ltag,e is. deno,t ed by the l,e tte,r v o,r V .
Vo tage

Mathematica Ily

dw
V ,a b- = -d.q

## Uke ellectric current,, a constant vo lt age is ca lled a DC volltage an d it is

rep resented by v, whereas a sin usoidall time-va rying volt age is ca Ued an AC
vo ltage an d it is re present ed by v . The ellectro motive force (e..1
m.f) provid ed by a
source of energy .such as batt ery (DC voltage) o r an electric generator (AC vo ltage)
is 1
measured in vo l ts.
Power and E

## Fo r pract ical purposes, we need to know how much power an

electric device can han dle. We also know th at when we pay our bill s to
t he ellectric utUity co1
m1pan ~es, we are paying fo r the e~ectric energy
consum1ed over a certa in penod of t ime.

## P' 0 we1r i's the tim,e, rate ofex1pe1nding 0 1r albso1rbi'1ng en1,ergy,

1 1 1 1

m1easured i1 n w atts (W) . P'ow,e,1r, i's ,de,no ted by the, l ett,e,r p, 0,r P' .
1 1
Power and E
We write th is relat1onship as:
1

dw
P - -d ,

Where p is p ower in watts 1(W), w is energy 1n j oules 1(J)1, and t is tim1,e, in seconds (s).
1

## From volltage and current equations, 1t foll lows that:

dw dw dq .
p -- dt
. -- dq
. . dt. -- Vl

Or

p = vi

The, power pi in this equation is a t ime-varying quantity and is ,ca l lied the instantaneous
power. Thus, the pow e,r absorbed or supp l1ed by an e,lement is the product of the voltage
1 1 1

## across the element and the current th rough 1t.

Circuit Eleme

there are two types of elements found in electric circuits: passive elements
and active elements. An active element is capable of generating energy while a
passive element is not
Passive Elem
A load genera llly refers to a component or a piece of equ ipment to the output
of an electric circuit. I n its funda menta I fo rm, the load is rep resented by one or a
com bi nation of the fo llowing circu it ellements:

1. Resisto r (IR)1..
2. Inductor (IL).
3. Capacitor (C).

## A ~oad can eithe r be resiistive, inductive or capacitive nature or a bllend of

them . For examp le, a llight bullb is a pu rely res istive load whe reas a transforrme r is
both inductive and res istive ..
Actve Eleme
(Sources)
Tlhe 1
m ost impo rtant active elle ments are volt age o r current sou rces that
generaIlly deliver powe r to t lhe circu it connect ed to them. There are two kinds of
sources : iindependent and depen dent sources.

## An idea I independent sou rce is an active ellement tlhat provides a specified

vo l tage or current that is complete ly independent of other circu it variabiles.

An idea l dependent (or controll ed) source i.s an active element in wh iclh th e
sou rce quantity is controlled by a not her vo ltage o r current.
Circuit E eme
Circuit Element Symbol

R
Resistor R
~
Inductor L

Capacitor C
C

## Independent voltage source V -4 - v41l t=Y

Independent current source

## Dependent current source

I
M at erials in gen ral hav a characteristic b havior of resisting th flow of
electric charge. This physical property, or ability to r sist current, is known as
resistanc and is re prese nt d by th sym bol R.

## The resistance R of an element denotes its ability to resist the flow of

electric current, it is measured in ohms (fl). The circuit element used
to model the current- resisting b avior of a material is the resistor.
Resisto

## Ohm's law states that the voltage v across a resistor is directly

proportiona to the current flowing through the resistor.

Mathematica Ily

Val

V = RI
V
l=-
R
Where the constant of proportionality R is called the resistance or electrical
resistanc , measured in ohms (D.).
Resistor

## An open circuit is a circuit element with resistance approaching infinity.

A capacitor is a pass ive elemen t designed to store energy in its lectric field.
Besid s r sistors, capacitors are the most common lectrical components.

## A capacitor consists of two conducting plates separated by an

insulator (or dielectric).
The a1m1ount of charge stored,. represented by q,
voltag, v so tlhat:

q = Cv
where C, the ,c onstant ,o f pr,o portiona Iity-1 is known ,as the capa,cita1nce of the ca pa1dtor. The
unit of cap,a citance is the fa rad 1(F),. in honor of the Engllish physicist Michael Faraday.

The relati,ons.hip, between v,olta,ge and current f,o r ,a cap,,a citor is governed by the foll,o wing
equation:

. ,dv
,t =C -
- dt
1 t
v =- [ idt + v(O)
C o
where C is the cap,acitance measured in Fair.ads. (F)1and v1(0)1is the initi.al v,olta1,ge or initi.al
charge stored in the capa1citor.
When v = V (,c,onstant DC v,o lta1ge)/dv
.t
= 0 a1ndi = 0. Henc,e a cap,, adtor acts as ain open circuit to, DC .
The I1ns.ta1ntane,ous, power dell1v,e red t ,o the caipac1tor 1s:

dv
P, = vi = cv -
. dt

w = l.
t
-oo,
p. dt = C . .
lt
v
dv
- -oo, dt- dt-
-.
,
It
= C- .
-oo
1
v dv = --=-
2 Cv
-
2
t
- .
t -- oo

We note that v(- ,co) = 0,. because the capacitor was unchang,e d at t = - oo . Thus)'
q2
w = 1 Cv 2 w =--
2 2C

This energy is stoir,ed in the el,e ctric field of the capa,citor which is s,uppll ied lb.ack to, the circu1
1t when
the a1c:tual source is removed.
An inductor 1s a p,assive elle,ment designed to stor,e energy In its m1agn,etic f 1el,d . nductors
find num,erous applications in ,electronic and power syst,ems. They are used m power

Any conductor of ,electric curre,nt has indluctiv,e prop,e rti,es and may be regarded as an
inductor .. But m ordl@r to enhance the 1nduct1ve ,effect, a pract ca l inductor 1s usuall ly
form,ed into a cyllin drical coill of a ferromagne,t ic material with many turns of conducting
wire.

## .An inductor ci0nsists of a1coi'II of conducting w ire.

1 1
Inductor
In an inductor~ the relationship between voltage and c
differential equation:

di
=L-
dt
Or

i = -1 ft dt + i(
l 0

where L is the constant of proportionality cal led the inductan ce of the inductor. The unit of
inductance is th e henry (H), named in honor of the American inventor Joseph Henry, and i( ) is th e
initial current stored in the magnetic field of th e inductor.

## Inductance is the property whereby an inductor exhibits opposition to

the change of current flowing through it, measured in henrys (H).
ductor
Wh en i = I (con stant DC current L :: = 0, v =0. Hence an inductor a
Th e inductor is desi gned to store ene rgy in its magnetic fi eld. Th e energy stored ca n be obtai ned from
previous equations. Th e power delivered to th e indu ctor is:

## Th e energy stored is:

w = it it
- oo
p dt =
- oo
d'
( Ld L) i dt
t

w =L i t

- oo
1 1
idt =-Li 2 (t) --Li (- oo)
2 2
Since, i(- oo) =0
1
w =-L i
2
Elect ric INetworlk: a conn e,c tion of varii ou s ciiircui t ellem ents can be t ,e rmed
electr ic network. The circuit diag ram sh own i n Figure is an electric network.

## .A. l oop is any dosed p,ath in a1circuit..

Two or 1m ore ell,e 1mem1ts a1re, in seri,es if they are cascaded or co,n nec,ted
se,q uentia1llly and c,o nse,q uently cairry the sa1m1,e current .

Two, or m1or,e ,e l e m ents ,a re i n pa1ra1lllle,I if t hey ar,e ,c onne,c ted t ,o the same, tw,o
nodes and c,o nsequently ha1ve the sa1m e, v,o ltage acro,ss them1.
Ohm's Law

## Ohms law states that the current I flowing in a circuit is

directly Proportional to the applied voltage V and inversely
proportional to the resistance R, provided the temperature
remains constant.

## vilher . R i the r . si 1u:u1c of 1rh . d1 . uiu

e ~p, essed in Ohm:n s a.
irchhoff's Law
(KCL) Kiirchhoff s cu11rent law
(KVL) Kirchhoff s voltage llaw

KCL is based on the, law ,o f ,co,n se1rvati,o n ,o f ,c harge,, wlhi l,e KVL is based on
the p1ri nci pie o,f conservation o,f ene,rgy,.

Kirchlhoffs curr,e nt law (K Cl) state,s that the, alg,e brai,c sum of ,cu I1rr,e nts
1 1

,e nte,nng a node, (,o r a ,d lo,sed bounda ry), is ze,ro,.. In ,o ther wo,rds; the, suIm
of the curre,nts e,nt,e n ng a nod,e 1 ms ,e qual to, the, sum ,o f the, curr,e nts
l e,a ving the no,d e,.
irchhoff's Law

N

~ i n =O
L
n- 1

## m ber of branches connect ed t o the node an d in is the nt lh

whe re IN is th e nu1
current ente ri ng (or leaving) the node. By thi s l aw, cu rrents enteri ng a node may
be regarded as pos it ~ve,, wh il e cu rrents leaving the node may be taken as
negative o r vice ve rsa. Fro m IKCL and we can wr"t e::

I i entering L i /'ving
hoff's Law

## For example consider the node in Figure.

Applying KCL gives

i1 + (-i 2 ) + i3 + i4 + (-i 5 == 0

Thus,

## Currents at a node illustrating KCL.

off's La
Expressed mathematica lly, KVL st at es th at:
M

m -
1n=l

Where M is th e num be r o voltages in th e loop (or th e number of bra nch es in th e loop} and Vm is
th mth voltage.
To illustrate KVL, consider th e circuit in Figure. The sign on eac h voltage is th e po larity of th e
t ermina l encou nt ered fi rst as we trave l around th e loop. We can st art w ith any bra nch and go around
th e loop eith er clockwise or counterclockwi~

## Thus, KVL yields:

- 1 + 2 + V3 - V4 + 5 =Q
Rearranging t erm s gives:

Vt + 4 = 2 + 3 + 5
P wer re 1st rs.

a lot rnal r; slstor arrangeme nt b Integra l ct resist r n twork. (Courtesy of B ourns, I nc.)
a E t ma! vi w f va1iable r slst rs. b) ln t mal , 'ew of variable resist r.
Bru1d 2
ign ifi ant ur;
Bru1d l

od .
Resistor Color Codes

## Band 1 B nd 2 Band 3 Band 4 Ba nc1 5

Color lg. Fig. g. Fig. M ultl[l lle r Tolerance Rell blllt.y
Black 0 ],Q = 1
Brown l ]01= W ]%
Red 2 2 w2 = mo 0.1 %
Orange 3 ]03 = 1 ,000 0 .0] %
Yi low 4 4 W 4 = WO 0 0 .001 %
Ore n 5 5 105 = moo o
Blue 6 6 l (f = 1 0000 0
Violet 7 7 101 = mo 0000
Gray 8 8
Wl:lite 9 9
Gold 0 .1 -%
Silver 0.Q] 10%
No color 20%
1% 6B
2%
5 OK , %

0.5%

0.1
.01

Dicrit
7

t r"il r:
1
Single Muni eU AC Cur 1u Fi.xedl.
T AJ:r
I
]ir, .fll. ]Fe1rr:t!te
en V, ]ta e _1 :ce Care Cm Core
Sm.1:rce
Capacj Ind.net ,

___/ 0--

PT
l
+ _L

Eal!itll

. PDT
\ Vire
J, ,}DJin:g
+ GfOJJ.lllcJI
--ID]-

Fm

V, ]tmet 1'

-----'10 d
i.-- -
:
.
.
][ .
J.[. ].:I .[
_:: -'-
__ ::: '~ kV

## Cbrcui:tt --0 -:--

Breai!k:e Anmrrer. 1' Trant fonue.
Conductor

Two conductors
crossing but not
l
Two conductors
jo ined together
joined

L
Flxed reslsto r
~
Alterna.tlve symbol >2 '
Variab le resistor
for fixed resistor

. . I -1,11J1 --11--~11
Cell Battery o'f 3 cells Alterna:tive symbol
for battery

___/'
Switch 6
ilament lamp Fuse,

0
Ammeter
0
Voltmeter .Alternative fuse
symbol
Components R,C, diode, IC
witcll

Battei'y 1 _ L,Ul.11!)

## LamlP a cil ematl.c u ug lamlf) s mlb l

]orul

wHcl1

i
Ioterr: ime !:lug wiffi
Battei'y

s ThfC