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INJECTOARE GPL

General description
Injectors are electrically operated valves which accurately control the quantity of fuel
delivered. By adding the fuel to the air sucked in by the engine, a mixture is created
with the required fuel/air ratio.

Injectoarele sunt supape actionate electric cu o precizie foarte mare ce


controleaza cantitatea de combistibil injectate. Prin adaugarea de combustibil in
aerul ce urmeaza sa intre in cilindru se creeaza amestecul de aer/combustibil.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and CNG (compressed natural gas) have become
one of the most important alternative fuels in the automotive world sector, and it is
also becoming one of the most important in the conversions of internal fuel engines.

Principle of operation of the LPG/CNG system and injectors

Fig. Injector de GPL


Injectors have two ends, both connected to the engine controller. Output signal is a
series of pulses with a specific shape. There are two types of LPG/CNG injectors:

Injectoarele sunt conectate la calculatorul de injectie al carui semnal de iesire


este o pulsatie de o anumita amplitudine si forma.Exista doua tipuri de
injectoare pentru GPL:

De impedanta joasa ce au rezistenta cuprinsa intre 1-3 ohm;


De impedenta ridicata ce au rezistenta cuprinsa intre 11-15 ohm;

low impedance type with resistance between 1 and 3 ohms;


high impedance type with resistance between 11 and 15 ohms.

Each fuel injector has a supply passage and a return passage. The fuel injector rails
have the same concentric design as the fuel lines. The passage in the injector from
the supply section to the return section is restricted by a cooling bushing.

Fiecare injector are conducte de tur si de retur.Exista doua tipuri de injectoare


din punct de vedere al principiului de functionare:

There are two types of LPG injection: vapor and liquid.

Vapor injection operation principle:


As liquid propane passes through the cooling bushing, a pressure reduction takes
place, which causes the propane to vaporize and effectively cools the area around
the supply section. This is called a refrigeration cycle and aids in maintaining the fuel
in a liquid state for all driving conditions, regardless of the outside temperature. The
injector delivers propane in a liquid state into the intake port. It vaporizes
immediately upon exiting the injector. This rapidly expanding liquid cools the
incoming air to the engine often resulting in a little more horsepower than the
gasoline system could achieve, not to mention the inherently improved exhaust
emissions that propane is known for.

Principiul funcionrii injeciei de vapori:


Cand propanul lichid trece prin buca de rcire, are loc o reducere a presiunii,
ceea ce determin vaporizarea propanului i rcirea eficient a zonei din jurul
seciunii de alimentare. Aceasta se numete ciclu de rcire i ajut la
meninerea combustibilului n stare lichid in toate situatiile, indiferent de
temperatura exterioar. Injectorul livreaz propanul ntr-o stare lichid n
orificiul de admisie, iar acesta vaporizeaz imediat la ieirea din injector.
Acest lichid care se extinde rapid rcete aerul care intr n motor, rezultnd
adesea o putere mai mic dect puterea sistemului de benzin.
Liquid injection operation principle and advantages:
The LPG-Liquid-Inject System shows an increase, typically 10%, over that
obtainable from the same engine using petrol as a fuel. The balance in favor of LPG
can be increased by increasing the compression ratio or adding boost pressure to
optimize the higher octane rating of LPG. Vaporizer systems are normally 15% down
on power versus petrol. Liquid Injection is far superior to vaporizer or gas injection
systems - 5% to 20% better. Great advantage of the liquid injection is that the
embarrassing backfires as on gaseous systems are eliminated. Multi-point, liquid
LPG injection sharply reduces accelerator lag. Spark timing can be adjusted to give
optimum performance with Liquid Injection. Liquid Injection does not need to start or
stop on petrol, or need petrol to offset higher combustion temperatures. The LPG is
kept in the liquid state and injected in the multi-point petrol fashion, hence engine
starting at low temperatures is assisted (to around minus 40 degrees Celsius). There
is no vaporizer to freeze the moisture present and hence the system.

Principiul funcionrii injeciei cu lichid i avantaje:


Sistemul de injecie cu lichid (GPL) indic o cretere, de obicei de 10%, fa de
cea obinut de la acelai motor care utilizeaz benzin ca i combustibil.
Avantajul n favoarea GPL-ului poate fi mrit prin creterea raportului de
compresie sau prin marirea presiunii pentru a optimiza cifra octanica a GPL-
ului. Sistemele pe baza de vaporizare sunt, n mod normal, cu 15% mai putin
eficiente n comparaie cu benzina. Injecia lichid este cu mult superioar
sistemelor de vaporizator sau de injecie cu gaz - cu 5% pn la 20% mai bune..
Injecia lichida de GPL, reduce intarzierea care apare in timpul accelerari.
Timpul de aprindere poate fi reglat pentru a obine o performan optim. Atunci
cand se foloseste acest tip de injectie pornirea si oprirea motorului nu este
obligatoriu facuta folosind benzina. GPL-ul este meninut n stare lichid i este
injectat n sistemul de injectie multipunct,astfel motorul pornind la temperaturi
sczute (pn la minus 40 de grade Celsius). La acest tip de injectie nu exist
vaporizator.

Posibile defectari ale sistemului:


-un scurtcircut la sistemul electric
-conexiuni defectuoase
-defectiuni mecanice ale componentelor
-cablul de masa este interrupt

Possible damage to the LPG/CNG injectors:


Open circuit or short to positive or to ground in wire(s);
No or poor plug connection conduction;
Ground connection is loose or corroded;
Mechanical fault in component.