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NS 102

Reproductive System
A Functions:
1. Duplication of species 2. Insures continuity of the species

B 2 major types of reproduction

1. Asexual reproduction involves no exchange of genetic material between organisms; reproduce by

a. binary fission the organism divides both nuclear material and cytoplasm to produce 2 daughter organisms
b. budding the organism forms buds, which then break away from the parent organism
c. fragmentation a piece of organism breaks off; then through mitosis it develops into an independent adult
d. regeneration a modification of fragmentation, by which some animals regenerate lost parts

2. Sexual reproduction this involves an exchange of genetic material between 2 organisms

a. conjugation occurs when 2 individuals fuse and exchange genetic material
b. hermaphrodittism both sexes are found in one individual
c. parthenogenesis a modification in sexual reproduction in which an unfertilized egg develops by itself, without the sperm

C anatomy of the male reproductive system

1. testes (male gonad) are small almond shape organs contained within the scrotum
Semineferous tubule functional unit; where the sperms develop
Interstitial cells secretes the hormone testosterone
2. epididymis maturation and storage of sperm
3. vas deferens conduct and store sperm
4. seminal vesicles contribute nutrients and fluid to semen
5. prostate gland contribute basic fluid o semen
6. urethra conducts the semen
7. bulbourethral gland contribute mucoid fluid to semen
8. penis organ of copulation
- composed of erectile tissue called corpus spongiosum and corpora cavernosa
glans swollen head
prepuce / foreskin skin covering the glans
semen seminal fluid composed of the sperms and secretions of the glands

male hormones collectively called androgens

a. testosterone secreted by the interstitial endocrinocytes
b. FSH follicle stimulating hormone

E anatomy of female reproductive system

1. ovaries produce egg and female hormones;
estrogen - causes the lining of the uterus to grow and prepares the lining of the uterus (womb) to receive
the fertilized egg.
Progesterone - blocks the release of more hormones (L.H. and F.S.H.) from the pituitary gland so that
further ovulation does not occur during pregnancy
2. genetal ducts
a. fallopian tube where fertilization take place
b. uterus (womb) houses the developing tissues
c. vagina receives the penis during sexual intercourse and serves as the birth canal
d. external genetalia (vulva) functions in sexual arousal

gametogenesis the development or maturation of gametes or sex cells

spermatogenesis - the development or maturation of sperm cells

oogenesis - the development or maturation of egg cells / ovum