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ELECTROMAGNETICS I

EL 3001

Vector & Coordinate systems

SUWARNO

School of Electrical Engineering and Informatics


INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI BANDUNG
2006
Vector and Scalar
Scalar quantity : quantity that can be
explained by only its magnitude
Ex: length, temperature, height, area,
voltage, power
Vector quantity : quantity can only
explained by its magnitude and direction.
Ex: velocity, acceleration, force, electric
field, magnetic field
Vektor
Vector quantity : expressed by its magnitude and
direction. A Aa A

A
A A aA

A
aA
A Unit Vector
VECTOR AND VECTOR COMPONENTS
CARTESIAN

A A Ax2 Ay2 Az2

A Ax a x Ay a y Az a z
aA
A Ax2 Ay2 Az2
VEKTOR POSISI DAN VEKTOR JARAK
Position vector: R1 0 P1 x1 a x y1 a y z1 a z
R 2 0 P2 x2 a x y2 a y z2 a z

Distance Vector
R 12 P1 P2 R 2 R 1
-R1 ( x2 x1 ) a x ( y2 y1 ) a y ( z 2 z1 ) a z

Distance
d R 12

( x2 x1 ) 2 ( y2 y1 ) 2 ( z 2 z1 ) 2
1/ 2
VECTOR ADDITION

C= A + B=B+A
VECTOR SUBSTRACTION

B
A

-B
C=A-B

C= A-B= A +(- B)
VECTOR MULTIPLICATION
Multiplication by a scalar constant k
Same direction if k positive and opposite direction if k negative

Longer if the absolute value of k >1, and shorter if the


absolute value of k <1

kA

A
VECTOR PRODUCT
dot product: the product of magnitude of the two vectors and
cosine of the angle between the them.

A.B=B.A=AB cos qAB

Projection A on B
Length=A cos qAB
B B
Vektor : A cosq AB A.B 2
B B
DOT PRODUCT

A . B B . A(commutative)
A .(B C) A . B A . C(distributive)
2
A.A A A 2

Angle between tw o vectors


1 A . B
q AB cos
A B
CROSS PRODUCT
CROSS PRODUCT

AxB Bx A ( anticommut ative)


Ax(B C) AxB Ax C (distribut ive)
AxA 0
a x xa y a z ; a y xa z a x ; a z xa x a y
ax ay az
AxB Ax Ay Az
Bx By Bz
TRIPPLE PRODUCT
A .(B xC ) B .(C x A) C.(AxB)
Sequence is important !!
A.(BxC) meaningful l
Ax(B.C) no meaning

Ax Ay Az
A .(B xC ) Bx By Bz
Cx Cy Cz

Ax(BxC) (AxB) xC
B(A.C) - C(A.B)
Determine
a. Vector A, its magnitude and unit
vector of A
b. Angle that A makes with Y axis
c. Angle between A and B
d. Perpendicular distance from the
origin to vector B
a.Length A 2 2 32 32 22
2 a x 3a y 3az
Unit ve ctor A a A
22

b.Angle between A dan Y axis


-1 A .a y
cos1 3 50,2o
cos
A 22

c.Angle between A and B


-1 A . B 1 2 15 3
q cos cos 145,1o
AB 22 27

d. Distance from O to B
OP3 A sin (180 o q ) 2,68
COORDINATE SYSTEMS
Cartesian (x,y,z)
Cylindrical (r,q,z)
Spherical (r,f,q)
CARTESIAN
dSz=dx dy az
Z

dl dSy=dx dz ay
dz

dSx=dy dz ax
dv=dxdy dz
dy
dx
Y

X
CYLINDRICAL
CYLINDRICAL ELEMENTS
SPHERICAL
SPHERICAL ELEMENT

Area elements

dSR R sin d df a R
2

dSq R sin dR df a q
dSf R dR dq a f
Base Unit Vector
obey right hand cyclic relation

ax x ay az ay x az ax az x ax ay

a r x af a z af x a z a r a z x a r af

a r x aq a f aq x a f a r a f x a r aq