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Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 3 (4): 711-717

Scholarlink Research Institute Journals, 2012 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 3(4) 711-717 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

Euler 3-D Deconvolution of Analytical Signal of Magnetic

Anomalies over Iron Ore deposit in Okene, Nigeria
J.O. Amigun, 2O. Afolabi and 2B.D. Ako
Department of Applied Geophysics,
Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
Department of Geology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Corresponding Author: J.O. Amigun
The Euler deconvolution of analytical signal of the magnetic field data over the iron ore deposit in Okene, North
central Nigeria has been carried out to determine the locations and depths of the iron ore bodies and other
geologic sources in the area. The methodology adopted was obtaining solutions by inverting Euler homogeneity
equation which relates the magnetic field and its gradient components to the location of the source of an
anomaly and with the degree of homogeneity expressed as structural index. The Euler deconvolution process
was carried out on the analytical grid of aeromagnetic data of the study area using a structural index of 1.0, 2.0
and 3.0 respectively. The Euler solutions for structural index of 1.0 have their depths ranges from 11 to 120m.
For the Euler solutions S.I = 2.0, cluster solutions of relatively deep depth of between 234 to 242m are obtained.
Their anomalous source location and pattern (Northeast Southwest) coincides with the outcropped iron ore
bodies at the central ore zone of the study area. The estimated depths and geometries provided by the Euler
deconvolution result will aid the mine design and the economic exploitation of the iron ore deposit in the study
Keywords: Euler deconvolution, iron ore deposit, analytic signal, magnetic field, homogeneity.
INTRODUCTION field data (Figure1) was acquired at a mean terrain
The Euler deconvolution is an interpretation tool in clearance of 152.4 m with flight line separation of
potential field for locating anomalous sources and the about 400m along a NW SE direction.
determination of their depths by deconvolution using
Eulers homogeneity relation (Reid et al., 1990). The LOCATION AND GEOLOGIC SETTING OF
methods preference over the profile techniques such STUDY AREA
as Peters (1949) method (half slope) is that it The iron ore deposit lies between latitude 70 37' 22"
requires no prior knowledge of the source N and 70 39' 17" N and longitudes 60 15' 55" E and 60
magnetization direction, does not assume any 17' 15" E (Fig.2). This area falls within the 1:50,000
particular interpretation models and the process can standard topographic map of Kabba sheet 246 S.E of
be applied directly to large gridded data sets. Geological Survey of Nigeria (GSN). The study area
is underlain by rocks belonging to the
The Eulers homogeneity equation (Euler Metasedimentary and Metavolcanic rocks of the
deconvolution) relates the magnetic field and its Nigerian Basement Complex which falls within the
gradient components to the location of the source of Igarra Kabba Jakura metasedimentary region in
an anomaly, with the degree of homogeneity the south western part of Nigeria (Olade and
expressed as a structural index (Yaghoobian et al., Elueze, 1979). The deposit forms a prominent ridge,
1992). In interpreting magnetic survey in grid form, like the Itakpe iron ore deposit currently mined to
the preference of using the analytical signal of the feed the National Steel Complex at Ajaokuta and
magnetic anomalies over the conventional standard Aladja and its dominant lithologic units are gneisses
Euler is that with the analytical signal far fewer (which are regionally emplaced), ferruginous
solutions are generated from the Eulers homogeneity quartzites, granites and pegmatite. The ferruginous
equation, hence few extraneous depth estimates are quartzite is the source of the iron ore mineralization
retained. in the area (Fadare, 1983; Annor and Freeth, 1985).
The patterns of the iron ore mineralization in the area
In this study, we will present the results from the as shown in Figure 2 have been discussed by
application of Euler 3-D deconvolution in the Adeyemo et al (1984) and NSRMEA (1994).
interpretation of magnetic anomalies over an iron ore Structurally, the metamorphic rocks of the study area
deposit for its source locations and depths using the consists of three sets of closely related hills of
gridded magnetic map in Figure1. The total magnetic basement rocks marked as the northern, central and

Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 3(4) 711-717 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

southern ore zones (Figure 2) and made up mainly of In this study, the Euler deconvolution algorithm in
migmatite and biotite gneisses that trend in a Oasis montajTM (geophysical package) for location
northeast southwest direction while the iron ore and depth determination of causative anomalous
bodies in these gneisses are thick and strike northeast bodies from gridded potential field data was used.
southwest. The method starts by calculating the analytic signal
grid, finds peaks in the grid, then use these peak
METHOD OF STUDY locations for Euler deconvolution. The Euler
The methodology as described by Reid, (1980) and deconvolution as applied at each solution involves
Thompson, (1982) in obtaining solutions by inverting setting an appropriate structural index , SI value and
Euler homogeneity equation was adopted in this using least squares inversion to solve the equation
study. According to Yaghoobian et al., (1992), the for an optimum X0, Y0, Z0, and total magnetic field
Eulers homogeneity equation relates the magnetic intensity (B). The window size and the respective
field and its gradient components to the location of number of the observation points, for which the
the source of an anomaly, with the degree of system of linear equations is formed are also
homogeneity expressed as a structural index. Eulers parameters in solving the inverse magnetic problem.
homogeneity relationship can be written (Reid et al., Window of 10 x 10m data points prove most suitable
1990) for magnetic data in the form: in this study and were used. Solutions with depths to
source above the error tolerance levels were rejected.
(x x0) T/ x + (y y0) T/ y + (z z0)
where (x, y, z) are the coordinates of the observation RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
point, N=-n, where n is degree of homogeneity, and N Figures 3a - 3c show the maps of the x, y and z
is a coefficient, called structural index (Thompson derivative grids of the aeromagnetic data of the study
1982). The structural index depends on the geometry area in Figure 1 These maps are required for the
of the source. For a homogeneous point source N = 3, calculation and subsequent display of the analytical
a linear source (line of dipoles or poles, and for a signal grids (map) shown in Figure 4 which is needed
homogeneous cylinder, rod, etc.) N = 2, for extrusive to perform the located Euler deconvolution adopted
bodies (thin layer, dike, etc.) N = 1, for a contact, for this study. The analytical signal map (Fig. 5) is
vertex of a block and a pyramid with a big height N = also useful in the location of edges of magnetic
0. The unknown coordinates (x0, y0, z0) are estimated source bodies particularly were remanence and / or
by solving a determined system of linear low magnetic latitude complicates interpretation
equations (1.0) using a prescribed value for N with (Thompson, 1982 and Reid et al, 1990).
the least squares method. And a solution with a
minimum standard deviation is found through using In Tables 1 are some of the solutions obtained for
different tentative values for N. In equation (1.0) B operating Euler deconvolution on the analytical grid
denote the base level of the observed field i.e. of the studied area aeromagnetic data (upward
background field. continued to 400 m above ground) using a structural
index of 2.0. The solutions that have passed the
The structural index is a measure of the fall-off rate specified acceptable tolerance levels are presented in
of the field with distance from the source. The choice plan form in Figures 5 - 7. These figures show the
of a proper S.I is a function of the geometry of estimated source positions and depths for structural
causative bodies. Estimation of the correct structural index of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 in the study area. Apparent
index is crucial for the successful application of the in the figures are the few solutions shown because the
Euler deconvolution method (Reid et al, 1990). And Euler method adopted in this study typically produces
this is achieved by using the index that produces the far fewer solutions than the conventional standard
best clustering of solutions (Reid, 1995). Incorrect Euler method i.e. many extraneous depth estimates
choice of structural index leads to errors in estimated have been removed. The centre of the plotted circles
source depths (Ravart, 1996). Euler deconvolution represents the plan location (x0 and y0) of the
used the magnetic field and its three orthogonal interpreted source and the diameter is the depth
gradients (two horizontal and one vertical) to estimator that is depth is proportional to diameter.
compute anomaly source locations (Keating and Also, the depths are displayed using colour variation
Pilkington, 2004). The three dimensional (3D) to represent different ranges.
analytical signal is calculated from the three
orthogonal gradients of the magnetic field (Roest et Based on the maximum amplitudes of the analytic
al, 1992). For a function homogeneous of degree N, signal in Figure 4, the spatial distributions of
Huang et al (1995) denotes the Eulers equation in causative magnetic sources in the area were clearly
terms of analytic signal as: recognized. And the solutions from the Euler
deconvolution in Figures 5, 6 and 7 are generally
(x x0) A/ x + (y y0) A/ y + (z z0) located around the maximum amplitudes of the
where A denote the analytic signal of the magnetic analytic signal.

Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 3(4) 711-717 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

The Euler solutions for structural index of 1.0 of the the ore bodies patterns and the estimated depths
magnetic anomalies over the iron ore deposit as determined from the spectral analysis of the
shown in Figure 5, have their depths ranges from 11 aeromagnetic data over the deposit. Therefore, the
to 120m. The clusters of solutions (circles) produced structural index of 1.0 and 2.0 are assumed the
over anomalies for S.I = 1.0 as observed are not too acceptable structural indices for the study area.
sparely diffuse. The solutions for relatively deep
depths i.e. from green (45m) to red (77m) are located CONCLUSIONS
in the northeastern part and coincide with the The Euler deconvolution of the analytical signal of
northern ore zone in the study area in Figure 2. At the magnetic field data over the iron ore deposit has
this region, the analytic signal map displays served as a recent improvement over techniques such
maximum amplitudes. Another cluster of solution at as Peters method (half slope) because the result from
the southern part, trending in a northeast - southwest its interpretation has enabled a rapid determination of
direction relates well in orientation with the southern the locations and depths of the iron ore mineralization
ore zone where magnetic anomalies of low and other geologic sources in the area without prior
intensiveness are observed in Figure 4. Here, the knowledge of the source geometry and magnetization
depths z0 are considerably shallower i.e. from 11 to direction. The method has provided insights into the
45m. It can therefore be deduced that the clustering deposits ore geometry and structural setting. And the
pattern of S.I = 1.0 Euler solutions correlate with the estimated source depths and geometries provided by
anomaly patterns interpreted as iron ore the Euler deconvolution method can effectively serve
mineralization. The value of the structural index, 1.0 as approximation for the construction of magnetic
is typical for a sill or dyke (Yaghoobian et al, 1992) models of iron ore bodies in the studied area.
The Figure 6 represents the structural interpretation
for Euler solutions for S.I = 2.0. Three linear features ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
marked (A A1, B - B1 and C - C1) were delineated The authors are grateful to the Management of
as faults. The delineated faults A A1 and B - B1 National Iron Ore Mining Company Limited
have trend and spatial location similar to the faults (NIOMCO), Itakpe for granting access to the
delineated on the aeromagnetic and derivative maps Ajabanoko deposit for the data collection. We
of the study area (Amigun et al, 2012). Also, cluster acknowledge with immense gratitude the contribution
solutions of relatively deep depth of between 234 to of Late Prof. S.L. Folami. Our gratitude also goes to
242m are obtained at the centre of the map. These the Department of Geology, Obafemi Awolowo
solutions both in location and pattern (Northeast University, for permitting the use of Oasis Montaj
Southwest direction) coincides with the iron ore work station.
bodies at the central ore zone in Figure 2. Again on
the S.I = 2.0 map is another cluster of solutions in the REFERENCES
Northeastern area with depth range of 223 to 231m. Adeyemo B., Williams F.O and Adegbuyi O., 1984.
These solutions are related to the iron ore bodies of Geological Exploration of Ajabanoko Hill Deposit,
Northern ore zone. Okene, Nigeria. Technical Report of National Steel
Council Explo. Div., Kaduna, Nigeria. 14pp.
The Euler solution map for the calculated structural
index of 3.0 is shown in Figure 7. This map however Amigun J.O, Afolabi O. and Ako B.D., 2012
does not give a satisfactory result because its Application of Airborne Magnetic Data to Mineral
solutions are complex and unrelated in pattern to the Exploration in the Okene Iron Ore Province of
anomalies of the aeromagnetic map and the known Nigeria. International Research Journal of Geology
geology of the area. For further establishment, the and Mining. Accepted for Publication, July, 2012.
result of the Euler deconvolution depths was
compared with those determined by power spectrum Annor A.E and Freeth S.J., 1985. Thermotectonic
of the Fourier transformation of the aeromagnetic Evolution of the Basement Complex around Okene,
data over the deposit. Figure 8 shows the calculated Nigeria with special reference to Deformation
spectral analysis of the aeromagnetic data. The radial Mechanism. Precamb. Res. 28, p. 269-281.
average power spectrum plot in Figure 8b represents
the computed amplitude spectrum of the Fourier Fadare V.O., 1983. Iron Ore Formations The
transformation of the study area aeromagnetic data Okene Ajaokuta Lokoja Areas of Kwara State. A
plotted on a logarithm scale against wave-number Potential Supply Base for the Steel Plant at
(frequency). On the depth curve in Figure 8b, the Ajaokuta. Journal of Mining and Geology, Vol. 20,
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solutions patterns and depths obtained for operating 1995. Combined study of Eulers homogeneity
Euler deconvolution on the deposits magnetic field equation for gravity and magnetic field. 57th EAGE
data using structural index of 1.0 and 2.0 agrees with conference, Glasgow, UK, Extended Abstracts, p144

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Keating P. and Pilkington M., 2004. Euler Reid A.B., 1980. Aeromagnetic Survey design,
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Table 2: Some Results of Euler Deconvolution Analysis of S.I = 2 for the Study Area
X_Window Y_Window X_Euler Y_Euler Depth Backgrnd WndSize dZ dXY
198400 843520 198933.3 843764.7 364.11 -179.08 2000.00 10.29 56.10
198720 843520 198783.6 843775.4 374.85 -110.18 2000.00 15.60 55.21
199040 843520 198921 843788.6 356.93 -92.25 2000.00 12.68 40.19
199360 843520 199019.1 843679.9 403.67 -150.97 2000.00 16.37 41.28
199680 843520 199134.3 843618.2 239.65 -94.34 2000.00 30.29 68.01
200000 843520 199690.2 843468.7 147.48 6.89 2000.00 24.27 68.51
200320 843520 200228.5 843758.4 159.51 3.41 2000.00 33.31 95.29
200640 843520 200370.1 843603.3 171.64 17.84 2000.00 40.32 110.93
198400 843840 198540.9 843918.7 178.49 50.16 2000.00 33.63 111.33
198720 843840 198665.1 844011.8 203.09 146.85 2000.00 20.88 90.01
199040 843840 198625 843888 171.16 66.61 2000.00 16.24 73.96
199360 843840 198678.2 843643.1 288.89 -120.79 2000.00 18.43 44.97
199680 843840 198816.3 844070.6 530.42 -96.06 2000.00 32.15 39.40
200000 843840 199538.2 843993.5 277.13 -50.14 2000.00 19.51 47.10
200320 843840 199947.2 843833.8 278.29 -12.26 2000.00 7.84 30.34
200640 843840 199826.1 843719.4 261.16 0.45 2000.00 9.54 47.75
198400 844160 198539.6 844105.5 135.37 57.58 2000.00 19.79 74.56
198720 844160 198745 844121.8 146.87 131.27 2000.00 12.11 57.76
199040 844160 198696.9 844073.8 146.84 147.04 2000.00 6.64 31.34

X_Window, Y_Window: Difference between window center and dZ: Estimated error in depth.
Euler solution.
dXY: Estimated location error in solution
X_Euler, Y_Euler : Actual location of Euler solution
Depth: Solution depth (z coordinate)
Backgrnd: Background Field
WndSize: An estimate of the peaks sizes.
Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 3(4) 711-717 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

Fig 1: Digitized Aeromagnetic Map of Ajabanoko Iron Ore Deposit Area.

Fig.2: Location and the Geological Map of the Study Area

(Adapted from National Iron Ore Mining Project, Itakpe, 1994)
Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 3(4) 711-717 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

Fig.3: The dx, dy and dz gradient grid of Aeromagnetic data of study area used for Euler Deconvolution

Fig.4: Analytical Signal Map of the Aeromagnetic Data

Fig.5: The Euler Deconvolution Depth Plot of the Study Area for SI of 1.0

Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 3(4) 711-717 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

Fig. 6: The Euler Deconvolution Depth Plot of the Study Area for SI of 2.0

Fig.7: The Euler Deconvolution Depth Plot of the Study Area for SI of 3.0

Fig.8 (a) Spectrum of the Aeromagnetic data of the study Area (b) Its Radial Spectrum and Depth Estimate Plot