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SPECTRE

USER GUIDE
DEVELOPED IN MINNEAPOLIS
COPYRIGHT 20042014 BY AUDIOFILE ENGINEERING, LLC

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be


reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted,
in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior
consent of the publisher.
SPECTRE / SPECTRE

THE GUIDE
AT A GLANCE
1 INTRODUCTION

2 PREFERENCES

3 BASICS

4 METERS
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 1.2
INTRODUCTION LICENSING
1.1

WELCOME
SECTION 1 / WELCOME

PRODUCERS & ENGINEERS


From monitoring phase relationships and stereo width to
quantifying loudness to visualizing the frequencies of your
mixes, Spectre provides producers and engineers with a true
and thorough analysis of their audio, helping to prepare mixes
for all listening environmentsonline streaming, stereo or 5.1
surround, stadiums, you name it.
SECTION 1 / WELCOME

POST & BROADCAST ENGINEERS


Use Spectres meters to comply with industry standards, both
general (Level and Loudness) and highly specific (EBU R-128
and ITU-R BS.1770). Level, Lissajous, Correlation, LU and LU
History meters are all essential tools for removing clipping,
perfecting how a voice-over performance sits in the mix and
ensuring your audio is ready to be heard by the world.
SECTION 1 / WELCOME

COMPOSERS & SOUND DESIGNERS


Whether youre designing sound eects for a game or arranging
a full orchestra, Spectre allows you to visualize and craft your
soundscapes, both musical and non-musical. Perfect the
frequency responses of the low rumbles. Isolate and highlight
that solo violinist. Perfect the atmosphere youre crafting by
understanding even the most minute details of your audio.
SECTION 1 / WELCOME

FILMMAKERS & VIDEO EDITORS


Monitor and normalize audio loudness from the beginning to
the end of your editing project. Or go even further and use
the Correlation and Lissajous meters to ensure capability with
mono televisions. Best of all, Spectres individual metering
windows allow you to enable only the most relevant meters,
keeping your workspace clutter-free.
1.2

LICENSING
SECTION 2 / LICENSING

A NOTE ABOUT
LICENSES
AUDIOFILE STORE VERSIONS

Spectre and Spectre Student purchased through the Audiofile Store


require you to enter an Owner name and License Key in order to
authenticate. This information is available to you in your Audiofile
account and will have been emailed to you at the time of purchase.

MAC APP STORE VERSIONS

If you purchased Spectre or Spectre Student from the Mac App Store,
you do not need to enter a License Key.
SECTION 2 / LICENSING

LICENSING SPECTRE
To open the Licenses pane, choose Spectre > Licenses.
SECTION 2 / LICENSING

LICENSING SPECTRE
To add a License Key, click the "Add Key" button. If you do not yet
own a License Key, choose either Mac App Store or Audiofile Store
from the purchase options at the bottom of the pane.
SECTION 2 / LICENSING

ADDING A LICENSE
Enter Owner (your name exactly as it appears in your contact
information our website) and your License Key, then click the "Add"
button.
SECTION 2 / LICENSING

LICENSE STATUS
Teal Licensed text tells you that Spectre was successfully licensed.

Orange In Trial text tells you Spectre is in Trial mode.

Red Unavailable text tells you there is a problem with your license
(e.g. Trial period has ended, the term of your license has expired,
your license is no longer registered with Audiofile, etc.).
SECTION 2 / LICENSING

SPECTRE STUDENT
Spectre Student is a collection of the 8 most essential meters for any audio
student or educator. Spectre Student includes the Waveform, Numerical,
Oscilloscope, Lissajous, Spectrograph, Spectrogram, VU and Level meters.

You can upgrade Spectre Student to the complete version


of Spectre at any time, paying only the dierence in price.
SECTION 2 / LICENSING

IF YOU RUN INTO


TROUBLE, WERE
HERE TO HELP
Visit the Support Section of our site to view support Articles for Spectre
and all our other applications.

You can also access in-app support by choosing Spectre Support


from the Help menu.

You can also submit support requests via email at support@audiofile-engineering.com


or via our online support request form. If you happen to get stuck, don't worry.
Just get in contact and we'll get everything back on track.
CHAPTER 2

PREFERENCES
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4
GENERAL COMMANDS AUDIO BUNDLES

2.5 2.6
BALLISTICS GRADIENTS
2.1

GENERAL
SECTION 1 / GENERAL

GENERAL
Grid Brightness
Use this slider to Set the brightness of the grid on all meters.

Tip Size
Defines the size of the popover displayed when displaying
Crosshairs Tips in a meter. To display a Crosshair Tip, click and hold
within the meter window. The values for the X and Y axis at the
current mouse position, will be displayed. To display the dierence
between the clicked point and your current mouse point, hold down
the Option key while displaying the Crosshairs.
2.2

COMMANDS
SECTION 2 / COMMANDS

COMMANDS
Here, you can easily assign Keyboard Commands to menu and
Player commands.

Browse Commands
You can browse commands by expanding the categories and
scrolling through the list.

Or you can use the search field at the top right of the panel. For
example, I want to quickly find the command to create a "Level"
meter.

Assign Commands
Double-click a command in the list and a sheet is displayed
prompting you to assign a shortcut for that item. Type a Keyboard
Command and click the "OK" button. You will be warned if the
shortcut is already in use. To remove a shortcut, click "Clear."
SECTION 2 / COMMANDS

SAVE, RESTORE
IMPORT & EXPORT
Save
You can save your Keyboard Shortcuts as presets. To save your
Keyboard Shortcuts, select "Save..." from the drop-down menu
at the upper left of the panel. Presets are automatically saved
to this location:

/Users/*YourUserName*/Library/Application Support/Audiofile/
Spectre/Keyboard Shortcuts

Presets automatically saved to this location are added to the


drop-down menu.

Restore Defaults
Restores applications default commands.

Import
To import a Keyboard Shortcuts file, choose "Import..." and locate
the file in the Finder. Loading a file this way will automatically add it
to the Keyboard Shortcuts folder, thus making it instantly accessible
via the drop-down menu.

Export
If you wish to specify the save location, select "Export..." from the
drop-down menu.
2.3

AUDIO INPUT
SECTION 3 / AUDIO INPUT

AUDIO INPUT
There are three sources from which Spectre can receive incoming
audio:

1 The selected hardware device (Built-in Audio, MOTU UltraLite,


Mbox, etc.)

2 Network delivery via Apple AUNetReceive

3 Spectre's built-in Player

Default Input
The selected device will be used as the default input trace
source when creating new meters.

Network
Enable and configure the network audio source to use for receiving
audio for analysis in Spectre. The network connection must be
established by the user when Spectre launches.

Player
Enable Spectres built-in Audiofile Player. Use the Format dropdown
to select the number of channels of output from the Player.
2.4

AUDIO OUTPUT
SECTION 4 / AUDIO OUTPUT

AUDIO OUTPUT
Select the connected audio hardware output device to use for the
Players output. The channel selection view is used to assign which
channels the player should output to. Clicking Configure will open
the systems Audio and MIDI Setup app where you can set the
sample rate and bit depth for the device.
2.5

BUNDLES
SECTION 5 / BUNDLES

BUNDLES
Using bundles is a way of selecting a set of channels of your audio
input hardware without having to do it for each meter. This way you
can change your inputs and have it apply to all your meters at the
same time.

By default, Spectre creates three bundles for each audio interface it


sees: Channel A, Channel B, and Channel A+B. When they're
created, they reference the first two channels of the audio interface.

Modify and Rename


You can modify the channels a Bundle uses by selecting it in the
table and clicking the checkboxes next to the channels in the table
on the right. You can rename a bundle by editing the name in the
table.

Create and Delete


You can create and delete Bundles by using the + and - buttons
at the bottom of the table.
2.6

BALLISTICS
SECTION 6 / BALLISTICS

WHAT ARE BALLISTICS?


Ballistics are the measurements that define the visual response If a new value for a trace or indicator is higher than the previous
of a trace or indicator. Moving a trace or indicator at the per- value, the rise time defines how long it takes for an indicator to
sample rate (for perfect accuracy) would make most meters increase by a rise amount. The hold time defines how long the
unreadable by their speed - ballistics were designed to make trace or indicator will hold it's peak position before beginning to
the response easier to see or to follow the response of human fall, if all of the new values are below the current value. If a new
hearing. There are various standards for meter ballistics, which value for a trace or indicator is lower than the previous value, the
are all included in Spectre, and you can also create your own fall time defines how long it takes for an indicator to decrease by
ballistics to get a customized "feel" of your own. the fall amount.
SECTION 6 / BALLISTICS

BALLISTICS
Ballistics are available in meters where they're applicable, and the list
shown in the panel is the same list shown in popup buttons. You can
add and remove your own ballistics by clicking the "+" and "-" buttons
below the list. You cannot remove or change the preset ballistics.

Digital: A ballistic mostly used with modern digital level meters.


Has a quick rise time (good for peaks) and a relatively fast fall time.

VU: Generally used for VU meters. Has a fast rise and fall time,
but is best used for showing RMS values instead of peaks.

PPM Type I: An older peak meter standard.



PPM Type II: Another older peak meter standard.

Peak Hold Short: Used to hold the maximum value for a relatively
short period of time before falling.

Peak Hold Long: Used to hold the maximum value for a relatively
long period of time before falling.

Peak Hold: will hold the maximum value until reset.


2.7

GRADIENTS
SECTION 7 / GRADIENTS

GRADIENTS
Gradients shows a list of the colors used to represent levels in
various traces in Spectre.

There are a number of useful factory gradients, ranging from the


standard green-yellow-red set to multi-colored ranges best used in
Spectrograms. Usually you will be able to find one that fits your
meter, but you can add and edit gradients of your own.

To add your own gradient, click the plus button at the bottom of the
list. This will add a new gradient to the list.

A "stop" is an absolute color point in the range. You can add as many
color stops as you want to a gradient. They can be positioned at any
level and be any color (including transparent). The stops at the
bottom and top of the range are unmoveable and unremoveable,
though you can still change their color and other attributes.

Each stop has a midpoint where the color before (or after) the
selected stop is blended equally with the following (or previous) stop.
Moving this will change the rate at which the color changes - you
have more control over the color range. When Blend is o, the
color will change immediately at the midpoint from one color to
the next instead of slowly changing.

To remove a stop, select it and click Remove. The stops at the


bottom and top of the range are not removeable.
CHAPTER 3

BASICS
3.1 3.2 3.3

HARDWARE NETWORK THE PLAYER


3.1

HARDWARE
SECTION 1 / HARDWARE

Audio Hardware Network Player

There are three sources from which Spectre can receive incoming
audio: Audio Hardware, Network (AUNetReceive) and the Player.

Meter Trace Trace
After these input sources are setup, youll need to use Bundles
and/or a Meters popover menu to pipe the input to a specified
meters trace.
Meter Trace Trace

Meter Trace Trace


SECTION 1 / HARDWARE

AUDIO HARDWARE
The Audio Hardware input is the most common way to get audio
into Spectre. Spectre will recognize any CoreAudio compatible
hardware device connected to your computer. Use Hardware Input
(located in Preferences > Audio) to select the hardware you wish to
be made available to meters.

Select the hardware device from which you want to retrieve input
within the Devicedrop down menu. The 'Configure...' button will
open the utility application assigned to that hardware device for
further setup.

The Input Name is the title given to the input by the hardware itself
(or its driver). The Title of the input is given the Input Name by
default, but you can change it by double clicking the title and
entering a new title.

If you want to use multiple hardware devices at the same time, use
the Audio MIDI Setup utility and create a new Aggregate Device,
which is a combination of multiple devices. This new aggregate
device will be available in Spectre alongside your physical devices.
SECTION 1 / HARDWARE

NETWORK
AUNetReceive

The Network panel provides a way of obtaining audio input from


another application, either on the local computer or across a
network. Use the Network panel (located in Spectre's Input
Preferences) to setup the network input.

AUNetSend/Receive

Configuring AUNetSend is a simple process. First, add an AUNetSend


Audio Unit to the source you wish to monitor, in your Audio Unit
compatible host.

In the example shown, weve added AUNetSend as an Eect


in Triumph.
SECTION 1 / HARDWARE

Your DAW or editor of choice should allow you to rename the


AUNetSend, as well as choose the data format, port, and even
assign it a password.

In Spectre, open up the Preferences, navigate to the Input panel


and choose Configure within the Network panel.
SECTION 1 / HARDWARE

In the configuration panel, you can choose from all of the visible
AUNetSends on your local machine and the network. Select the
desired AUNetSend in the Directory list and click Select Host,
then select Connect. In a few seconds the status will change to
Connected.
SECTION 1 / HARDWARE

CREATE A METER
& SETUP TRACES
Establishing a connection to your AUNetSend

Choose a meter from the Create menu. For this example, well
create a Spectrograph meter.

Click the "i" at the top-right of the meter to view


the meters popover menu.
SECTION 1 / HARDWARE

SELECT A SOURCE
In the Meters Traces Pane (also called Needles in certain meters)
choose "Source" and select one of the network inputs from the
dropdown menu.

Now, hit play in your host application. Spectre will display the analysis
of the Triumph audio being sent through the AUNetSend. In the
Spectrograph example shown, Spectre is displaying the spectrum of
the host applications audio being sent through AUNetSend.
3.2

PLAYER
SECTION 2 / PLAYER

THE PLAYER
Open the Player by selecting Window > Player

The Player input is a way of analyzing audio files in real time.


Rather than attempting to obtain audio from iTunes or some
other audio playback application (a complex task at best),
we added a basic audio file player to Spectre.

Use the + and keys to add or remove tracks from your


playlist. Tracks can also be dragged and dropped into the
playlist area to be added to the playlist.
SECTION 2 / PLAYER

PLAYER PREFERENCES
Access Player Preferences by selecting Spectre > Preferences >
Input

Enabled: Toggle whether or not the player is enabled.

Output Format: Choose if the player outputs stereo or 5.1 surround.


3.3

BUNDLES
SECTION 3 / BUNDLES

BUNDLES
Using bundles is a way of selecting a set of channels of your audio
input hardware without having to set it up for each meter individually.
This way you can change your inputs and have it apply to all your
meters at the same time.

By default, Spectre creates three bundles for each audio interface it


sees: "Channel A", "Channel B", and "Channel A+B". When they're
created, they reference the first two channels of the audio interface.

Modify and rename


You can modify the channels a Bundle uses by selecting it in the
table and choosing which channels it will use from the list on the
right. You can rename a bundle by editing the name in the table.

Create and delete


You can create and delete Bundles by using the + and - buttons
at the bottom of the table.
CHAPTER 4

METERS
4.1 4.2 4.21

METERS METERS
OVERVIEW
4.1

METERS
OVERVIEW
SECTION 1 / METERS OVERVIEW

GOODBYE INSPECTOR.
HELLO POPOVERS.
Each of Spectre's meters comes packed with customizable Meter and
Trace options, allowing you to build around your own workflow and
metering environments.

Best of all, they're neatly contained in popover menus, meaning
Spectre keeps your workspace free of clutter and confusing menus.
SECTION 1 / METERS OVERVIEW

METER SETTINGS
Name Traces Overlay/Separate &
This allows you to rename the Waveforms Overlay/Separate
window title of a created meter. Choose whether multiple Traces or Waveforms are
displayed on top of each other or given their own area.
Grid Type
For meters that use a grid, this allows you to select Vertical/Horizontal Zoom
the type of grid to display behind the traces. Adjusts the scaling of the waveform display.

Show Grid Speed


For meters that use a grid, this allows you to Adjusts the rate at which the analyzed data moves across the
determine whether or not the grid is displayed. metering area.

Rulers Gradient
For meters that use a grid, show or hide rulers The range of colors used to display analysis results.
within the Meters window. Almost always used with respect to the amplitude
(dB) of a result.
Labels
Choose whether or not Trace labels are displayed
and at what size.
SECTION 1 / METERS OVERVIEW

TRACE & NEEDLE SETTINGS


In Spectre, Trace and Needle are used interchangeably, depending on the style of Meter.

SOURCE

Source Dierence: the input streams are subtracted from each other, similar to a
Select a Bundle for the selected trace from the pop-up menu. mixer with every other input's phase being reversed.
Bundles can be configured in Preferences > Bundles.
Average Dierence: the input streams are subtracted from each other,
Combine then averaged.
The Combine menu is available when a trace can use multiple
inputs - this menu describes the method by which the inputs are Gain
combined or "mixed" into one stream for analysis: Add a positive or negative amount of gain to the selected trace.

Sum: The input streams are added together, similar to a mixer with Measurement
the fader values at 0dB. Select the calculation method used to determine the trace's value.

Average: the input streams are averaged, similar to a mixer with Ballistics
the fader values at -6dB (for two streams - the attenuation is For a description of every available ballistic see the
greater for more streams). Preferences chapter.
SECTION 1 / METERS OVERVIEW

TRACE & NEEDLE SETTINGS


FILTER

Enable
Toggle whether or not the filter is active on the selected trace.

Kind
Choose between Lowpass, Bandpass, Highpass, A-weighting,
B-weighting, C-weighting, ITU-R 468, Leq(M), Leq(RLB),
Leq(K) or DC.

Frequency
Use this to set the center frequency for the filter.

Bandwidth
Use this to set the bandwidth or resonance of the filter.
SECTION 1 / METERS OVERVIEW

TRACE & NEEDLE SETTINGS


DISPLAY

This section is meter specific. Please see each Meters


respective section for more information.

CONTROL

Individual traces can be made active/inactive and hidden/visible.


The following meters also have a Speed setting: Low End, High End,
Spectrograph, Compare Spectre, Compare Phase, Coherence
SECTION 1 / METERS OVERVIEW

Presets Menu

Default
Load the factory settings for this meter.

Load
Load meter settings from a file.

Save
Save meter settings to a file.

Save as default
Set the current settings to be the default for
newly created meters of this type.

Revert to default
Load the meter settings from the user-set default.
(If none has been set, the factory default is loaded.)
4.2

LEVEL
SECTION 2 / LEVEL

LEVEL METER
The Level Meter is a commonly used and recognized meter - in
short, it shows the volume of the audio. Spectre's level meters
utilize various Traces in any number of Bars. Generally a bar shows
audio for a single channel, though this doesn't need to be the
case. Each trace can listen to any number of channels, combine
them, filter them, add ballistics and show it's value as a solid or
gradient bar, triangle, peak bar or "over light".
SECTION 2 / LEVEL

LEVEL METER

Bar Indicator Indicator Indicator Indicator

Bar Indicator Indicator Indicator Indicator

Combine

Analyze

Filter

Ballistics

Value
SECTION 2 / LEVEL

SETTINGS
Scale
There are a number of scales that can be used in the level meter.
The standard scale shows the value against 0dbFS
The VU scale has 0dbFS as +14dB
The UK (BBC) scale has a custom numbering from 1 to 7
The EBU PPM scale has 0dbFS as +18dB
The DIN PPM scale has 0dBFS as +12dB
The Nordic PPM scale has 0dBFS as + 18dB
The K-20, K-14 and K-12 scales utilize the K-System
scaling method

Range
The range of the level meter sets the lowest level visible on the meter.
The meter is always visible from the value on the slider to 0dBFS.

Orientation
Here you can change whether the meter is horizontal or vertical.

Bars
The Level Meter can contain any number of Bars. Select "+" to create
a new bar and give it a name, or "-" to remove an existing bar.
SECTION 2 / LEVEL

TRACE DISPLAY
Bar
Choose the Bar that you want the trace to appear in.

Style
This popup button lists the ways the trace's value can be displayed.
Solid Bar fills in all the meter elements from the bottom of the
scale to the value of the volume
Peak Bar is a single-element bar that shows the value of the
volume
Triangle displays small triangles on either side of the bar at the
value of the volume
Over light displays the color in the "over light" position at the
top of the bar

Gradient
This popup selects the set of colors used to display the level of a
trace.
4.3

LEVEL HISTORY
SECTION 3 / LEVEL HISTORY

LEVEL HISTORY METER


The Level History meter is a meter that displays the level of inputs
over time. It acts much like the Level Meter, but has the ability to
show the history of the level values before the current time.
SECTION 3 / LEVEL HISTORY

LEVEL HISTORY
Indicator Indicator
METER

Combine

Filter

Analyze

Ballistics

Value
SECTION 3 / LEVEL HISTORY

TRACE DISPLAY
Bar
Choose the Bar that you want the trace to appear in.

Style
This popup button lists the ways the trace's value can be displayed.
Solid Bar fills in all the meter elements from the bottom of the
scale to the value of the volume
Peak Bar is a single-element bar that shows the value of the
volume
Triangle displays small triangles on either side of the bar at the
value of the volume
Over light displays the color in the "over light" position at the
top of the bar

Fill
This popup button lists the ways the trace can be filled in
None - only the shape is drawn, no fill is applied
Solid - the area under the values for frequencies is filled in
with trace's color with no translucence
Translucent - the area under the values for frequencies is filled
in with a translucency of the trace's color
Faded - the area under the values for frequencies is shaded
from completely transparent at the lowest level to
opaque at 0dB
4.4

VU
SECTION 4 / VU

VU METER
The VU Meter is a commonly used and recognized meter - in short,
it shows the volume of the audio. The reference scale is oset by
-14dB. Each Indicator needle can listen to any number of channels,
combine them, filter them, and move to a defined ballistic (which is
generally the VU ballistic).
SECTION 4 / VU

VU METER Indicator

Combine

Filter

Analyze

Ballistics

Value
SECTION 4 / VU

METER SETTINGS
Calibration
This is the oset from the display level of the meter versus the
measured level of the audio. The VU standard defines that a
measured input of -14dbFS be displayed on the VU meter
as 0dB.

Peak LED
Peak LED is similar to a traditional peak light. The indicator will
activate and change color as the source level approaches peak.
4.5

BBC
SECTION 5 / BBC

BBC METER
A BBC Meter is a meter similar to a VU meter that uses a dierent
scale and set of ballistics. It is commonly used in audio consoles
designed in the UK and even more commonly used for radio
broadcasting.
SECTION 5 / BBC

BBC METER Indicator

Combine

Filter

Analyze

Ballistics

Value
SECTION 5 / BBC

METER SETTINGS
Calibration
This is the oset in decibels from the display level of the meter
versus the measured level of the audio. The BBC standard is used
when the calibration is set at 0dB.
4.6

SPECTROGRAPH
SECTION 6 / SPECTROGRAPH

SPECTROGRAPH
The Spectrograph displays the frequency content of the audio. Low
frequencies are on the left and high frequencies are on the right.
Spectre interpolates the results so that they're easier to read than
conventional spectrographs. The spectrograph can have any
number of traces, which can use any number of channels, and have
their own ballistics and display characteristics.

Clicking and dragging in the Spectrograph will show the mouse


position in frequency and amplitude coordinates. For more
information on Crosshairs Tips, please visit Chapter 2, Section 1
(Preferences > General).
SECTION 6 / SPECTROGRAPH

SPECTROGRAPH Trace Trace

Combine

Analyze

Ballistics

Spectrum
SECTION 6 / SPECTROGRAPH

METER SETTINGS
Maximum/Minimum Frequency
Set the frequencies at the extreme left and right of the meter
window. All frequencies between the defined Minimum and
Maximum will be displayed.

Maximum/Minimum Amplitude
Set the amplitudes at the extreme top and bottom of the meter
window. All amplitudes between the defined Minimum and
Maximum will be displayed.
SECTION 6 / SPECTROGRAPH

ANALYSIS SETTINGS
FFT Window
This popup button chooses the FFT window applied to the audio
before the analysis. The dierences between the windows are
subtle, but have to do with dierent types of separation between
frequency bands. Usually the default is acceptable for most
situations.

Resolution
This popup button chooses the number of samples in each FFT
analysis. The higher the resolution, the more frequency detail you
get in return (much more noticeable in the lower frequencies), but
the slower the analysis results will be displayed.

Interpolation
This popup sets the width of the bands that are displayed by the
analysis. The Critical bands are a pre-defined set of bandwidths that
are designed around human hearing response.

Weighting
Choose what the analysis considers "flat". The selected noise shape
will be shown on the meter as flat. In most cases, music works best
with Pink Noise as flat.
4.7
LOW END
SECTION 7 / LOW END

LOW END METER


This meter is a specialized Spectrograph that is designed to show
low frequencies at an interval of 1Hz from 1Hz to a user-adjustable
top frequency. The meter will appear to move slowly, but that's so
that it can accurately measure frequency dierences of 1Hz.
SECTION 7 / LOW END

LOW END METER Trace Trace

Combine

Analyze

Ballistics

Spectrum
SECTION 7 / LOW END

METER SETTINGS
Maximum Frequency
Set the frequencies at the extreme left and right of the meter
window. All frequencies between the defined Minimum and
Maximum will be displayed.

Maximum/Minimum Amplitude
Set the amplitudes at the extreme top and bottom of the meter
window. All amplitudes between the defined Minimum and
Maximum will be displayed.
SECTION 7 / LOW END

ANALYSIS SETTINGS
FFT Window
This popup button chooses the FFT window applied to the audio
before the analysis. The dierences between the windows are
subtle, but have to do with dierent types of separation between
frequency bands. Usually the default is acceptable for most
situations.

Resolution
This popup button chooses the number of samples in each FFT
analysis. The higher the resolution, the more frequency detail you
get in return (much more noticeable in the lower frequencies), but
the slower the analysis results will be displayed.

Low Resolution = 32768 samples


Medium Resolution = 65536 samples
High Resolution = 131072 sample

Weighting
Choose what the analysis considers "flat". The selected noise shape
will be shown on the meter as flat. In most cases, music works best
with Pink Noise as flat.
4.8
HIGH END
SECTION 8 / HIGH END

HIGH END METER


This meter is a specialized Spectrograph that is designed to show
high frequencies faster and with the most detail. The user can adjust
the low end of the meter, and the measurements always go to the
Nyquist frequency. There is no interpolation in this meter - all
measured frequencies are shown given the physical size of the
display.
SECTION 8 / HIGH END

HIGH END METER Trace Trace

Combine

Analyze

Ballistics

Spectrum
SECTION 8 / HIGH END

METER SETTINGS
Maximum/Minimum Frequency
Set the frequencies at the extreme left and right of the meter
window. All frequencies between the defined Minimum and
Maximum will be displayed.

Maximum/Minimum Amplitude
Set the amplitudes at the extreme top and bottom of the meter
window. All amplitudes between the defined Minimum and
Maximum will be displayed.
SECTION 8 / HIGH END

ANALYSIS SETTINGS
FFT Window
This popup button chooses the FFT window applied to the audio
before the analysis. The dierences between the windows are
subtle, but have to do with dierent types of separation between
frequency bands. Usually the default is acceptable for most
situations.

Resolution
This popup button chooses the number of samples in each FFT
analysis. The higher the resolution, the more frequency detail you
get in return (much more noticeable in the lower frequencies), but
the slower the analysis results will be displayed.

Low Resolution = 1024 samples


Medium Low Resolution = 2048 samples
Medium Resolution = 4096 samples
High Resolution = 8192 samples

Weighting
Choose what the analysis considers "flat". The selected noise shape
will be shown on the meter as flat. In most cases, music works best
with Pink Noise as flat.
4.9

OSCILLOSCOPE
SECTION 9 / OSCILLOSCOPE

OSCILLOSCOPE
The Oscilloscope displays the waveform of the audio at a very high
magnification. The Oscilloscope can display any number of traces
either overlapping or separately. Traces can listen to any number of
channels, combine them, filter and display as any color.

Clicking and dragging in the Oscilloscope will show the mouse


position in time (and frequency) coordinates.

The grid is always set to an 8 x 10 display.


SECTION 9 / OSCILLOSCOPE

OSCILLOSCOPE Trace Trace

Combine

Filter

Trigger

Waveform
SECTION 9 / OSCILLOSCOPE

TRIGGER SETTINGS
The Oscilloscope has a trigger that will make the waveforms easier
to see. New waveforms are drawn based on an up- or down-slope
of the waveform. Use the controls in the "Trigger" settings to set the
thresholds and slope direction to get the desired display control.
You can also select a "master trigger", or "sync trace", from which all
traces will get their sync.

Threshold & Direction

Set the level above or below which the waveform will begin to be
drawn, starting on the left side of the meter. The waveforms left-
most pixel is defined by the point at which the threshold is crossed,
either in a downward or upward direction, depending upon the
setting in the Direction control.

Master Sync

Use Master Sync to select the Trace that will define the drawing start
frame. All other Traces will be drawn from the same start frame.
4.10

WAVEFORM
SECTION 10 / WAVEFORM

WAVEFORM METER
The Waveform Meter displays the volume of the audio over time.
The Waveform Meter can display any number of traces either
overlapping or separately. Traces can listen to any number of
channels, combine them, filter and display as any color.

Each vertical bar on the grid notates one second.


SECTION 10 / WAVEFORM

WAVEFORM METER Trace Trace

Combine

Filter

Analyze

Values
SECTION 10 / WAVEFORM

METER SETTINGS
Style
Style defines how the waveform is drawn with respect to the zero
line. In Full Wave mode, the positive and negative components of
the wave are drawn above and below the zero line. In Rectified
mode, the maximum magnitude of the waveform is displayed only
above the zero line.

Scale
The Scale setting defines the height of the magnitudes in the
waveform.

When set to Linear, the heights are determined by the absolute


sample value, meaning that a sample value that is at half of full scale
will be drawn at half of the waveform height.

When set to Logarithmic the heights are determined by the


calculated decibel value referenced to -96 dB, meaning, for
example, a waveform value at -48 dB will be drawn at half the
waveform height.
4.11

SPECTROGRAM
SECTION 11 / SPECTROGRAM

SPECTROGRAM
The Spectrogram displays the frequency content of the audio over
time, using a specified set of colors to show the volume of the audio
at that frequency. Spectre interpolates the results so that they're
easier to read than conventional spectrograms. The spectrogram
can have any number of traces, which can use any number of
channels, and have their own ballistics and display characteristics.

Each bar on the grid notates one second.


SECTION 11 / SPECTROGRAM

SPECTROGRAM Trace Trace

Combine

Analyze

Spectrum
SECTION 11 / SPECTROGRAM

METER SETTINGS
Maximum/Minimum Frequency
Set the frequencies at the extreme top and bottom of the meter
window. All frequencies between the defined Minimum and
Maximum will be displayed.
SECTION 11 / SPECTROGRAM

ANALYSIS SETTINGS
FFT Window
This popup button chooses the FFT window applied to the audio
before the analysis. The dierences between the windows are
subtle, but have to do with dierent types of separation between
frequency bands. Usually the default is acceptable for most
situations.

Resolution
This popup button chooses the number of samples in each FFT
analysis. The higher the resolution, the more frequency detail you
get in return (much more noticeable in the lower frequencies), but
the slower the analysis results will be displayed.

Interpolation
This popup sets the width of the bands that are displayed by the
analysis. The Critical bands are a pre-defined set of bandwidths that
are designed around human hearing response.

Weighting
Choose what the analysis considers "flat". The selected noise shape
will be shown on the meter as flat. In most cases, music works best
with Pink Noise as flat.
4.12

LU
SECTION 12 / LU

LU METERS
The LU meter is a VU-styled meter that displays the Loudness Unit
value of specified audio input. The Loudness Unit is defined by the
EBU R 128 standard (found here: http://tech.ebu.ch/docs/tech/
tech3341.pdf).

The meter follows the EBU R 128 standard, and displays values in
Momentary, Short-Term, or Integrated windows of time. You can
select the EBU +9 or EBU +18 scale for range display. Because the
standard for LU meters is very strict, there are no other options
(outside of needle color) for customization.
SECTION 12 / LU

LU SETTINGS
Scale
Either EBU +9 or EBU +18 can be selected as your scale for
your display.
4.13

LU HISTORY
SECTION 13 / LU HISTORY

LU HISTORY
The LU History Meter calculates the same values as the LU meter, but
shows the values over time.

The Loudness Unit is defined by the EBU R 128 standard (found here:
http://tech.ebu.ch/docs/tech/tech3341.pdf).
SECTION 13 / LU HISTORY

METER SETTINGS
Scale
Either EBU +9 or EBU +18 can be selected as your scale for your
display but because of standardization rules there are no other
options.
4.14

LEQ
SECTION 14 / LEQ
SECTION 14 / LEQ

LEQ METER
The Leq meter measures the energy of a section of audio, often There are dierent types of filters you can choose from. A-
referred to as the "loudness." It's unlike the level meters that show weighting, B-weighting and C-weighting are commonly known filters
you the volume of your audio at that very moment. Instead, it takes for this task, but have been rendered somewhat obsolete in favor of:
an average over time so you can get an idea of how much energy is Leq(RLB) - a filter that is fairly flat, but with the low end gently
implied during a range of time. rolled o
Leq(R2LB) - generally the same as Leq(RLB), but with a high-
Taking a good Leq measurement requires you to have a start point end boost to mimic the eects of the human head
and end point of your measurement range. You can pause, clear and ITU-R 468 - a dramatic filter that's a good for measuring
run the meter again to reset it and start with a new measurement. If "loudness"
you don't do this, the average will be calculated from the point at Leq(M) - similar to the ITU-R 468 filter, but with the level
which the meter was created (which may be too long for most brought down slightly (great for measuring loudness in movie
purposes) and the calculation may include silences or other material trailers, specifically)
not meant to be measured.
With these filters enabled on a trace in the Leq meter, you can get a
Another important part of measuring loudness is that it is best NOT good measurement of the implied "loudness" of a range of audio or
measured with clean, raw audio. Since the human ear is sensitive to music and tailor your mixes or songs to match better. That's just one
dierent frequencies at dierent levels, an unaected measurement of many possible applications.
is not the best representation. In most cases a *filter* is placed on a
trace to balance it better with the human ear.
SECTION 14 / LEQ

Leq Trace Trace Trace Trace

Inputs

Gain

Filter

Accumulate

Calculation

Value
SECTION 14 / LEQ

METER SETTINGS
Calibration
This is the oset from the display level of the meter versus the
measured level of the audio.

Analysis Length
Change the analysis size length.
4.15

LISSAJOUS
SECTION 15 / LISSAJOUS

LISSAJOUS METER
The Lissajous Meter displays coherence between two audio
channelsit is most useful in showing the stereo field of a signal
and possible phase issues. The Lissajous Meter can display any
number of traces. Traces use two distinct inputs, and can filter and
display as any color.
SECTION 15 / LISSAJOUS

Lissajous Trace Trace Trace

Filter

Analyze

Positions
SECTION 15 / LISSAJOUS

METER SETTINGS
Auto Zoom
When this is selected the traces will fill up the avail- able space in
the window.
SECTION 15 / LISSAJOUS

TRACE SETTINGS
Source X & Source Y
Source X defines the audio source that will determine the value
along the X-axis. Source Y defines the audio source that will
determine the value along the Y-axis.

Delay Time & Delay Source


The Delay Time defines the amount of time that either the X or Y
source will be delayed to compensate for phase dierences.

Note: The Lissajous Meter only accepts single-channel trace


sources. That is, both X and Y can only monitor bundles that
include one channel, but they can, and should, be dierent
channels.
SECTION 15 / LISSAJOUS

TRACE DISPLAY
Mode

X-Y: This mode is the most common in conventional lissajous


meters; the X coordinate is the amplitude of channel 1 and the Y
coordinate is the amplitude of channel 2. A mono sig- nal shows as
a 45-degree line.

Vector: The vector mode is the X-Y mode tilted 45 degrees


counterclockwise, made to appear more readable.

Stereo: The stereo mode shows the signal in a 180 degree "stereo
field", with out-of-phase material tending toward the side edges and
mono material in the center. It is easier to see the position or
tendency of the audio in this mode.

Inverted Stereo: This mode is similar to the stereo mode, but


instead of the level at on the field having the origin at a central
point, the origin is at their position in the field. This display can
visually simulate a listening experience.
4.16
POWER BALANCE
SECTION 16 / POWER BALANCE

POWER BALANCE
The Power Balance Meter displays the dierence in power between
two audio channels. The Power Balance Meter can display any
number of traces. Traces use two distinct inputs, and can filter and
display as any color.

Each vertical bar on the grid notates one second.


SECTION 16 / POWER BALANCE

POWER BALANCE Trace Trace

Filter

Analyze

Values
SECTION 16 / POWER BALANCE

TRACES SETTINGS
Source X & Source Y
Source X defines the audio source that will determine the value
along the X-axis. Source Y defines the audio source that will
determine the value along the Y-axis.

Delay Time & Delay Source


The Delay Time defines the amount of time that either the X or Y
source will be delayed to compensate for phase dierences.
4.17
CORRELATION
SECTION 17 / CORRELATION

CORRELATION
The Correlation Meter displays the phase coherence between two
audio channels in an indicator and optionally over time. The
Correlation Meter can display any number of traces. Traces use two
distinct inputs, and can filter and display as any color.

Each bar on the grid notates one second.


SECTION 17 / CORRELATION

POWER BALANCE Trace Trace

Filter

Analyze

Values
SECTION 17 / CORRELATION

METER SETTINGS
Orientation
This button controls whether the correlation history is shown going
from bottom to top (horizontally) or from right to left (vertically).
4.18
NUMERICAL
SECTION 18 / NUMERICAL

NUMERICAL
This meter shows numerical values for the values of the traces.
The traces can be built just like most other meters, with a few
additional features.
SECTION 18 / NUMERICAL

NUMERICAL Trace Trace

Combine

Filter

Analyze

(Ballistics)

Value
SECTION 18 / NUMERICAL

TRACE SETTINGS
Unlike other meters, the Numerical requires that Traces be placed in
a specific order. Therefore, its Traces are displayed in a table along
the left-hand side rather than a dropdown menu. You can drag and
drop a Trace to change its order.
SECTION 18 / NUMERICAL

TRACE DISPLAY
Size
Determines the size of the text displayed in the meter.

Fractional Digits
Determines the number of digits displayed to the right of the
decimal point.

Divider Above & Below


Determines whether or not a dividing line is created above or below
a numerical trace. Use this to organize the metering window.
4.19
COMPARE SPECTRA
SECTION 19 / COMPARE SPECTRA

COMPARE SPECTRA
This meter compares the frequency response of two signals over
time. The two inputs come from two separate sources, one of which
can be delayed by a given amount of time, and their dierence is
displayed in the meter. The center line means there is a dierence
of 0dB (no dierence) - when the levels tend upward it means there
is more power at that frequency in channel X; when they tend
downward there is more power in channel Y.
SECTION 19 / COMPARE SPECTRA

COMPARE SPECTRA Trace Trace

Analyze

(Time Average)

Spectrum
SECTION 19 / COMPARE SPECTRA

METER SETTINGS
Amplitude Range
The Amplitude Range defines the range of amplitudes dierences,
both above and below zero, that will be shown in the meter window.

Maximum/Minimum Frequency
Set the frequencies at the extreme left and right of the meter
window. All frequencies between the defined Minimum and
Maximum will be displayed.

Maximum/Minimum Amplitude
Set the amplitudes at the extreme top and bottom of the meter
window. All amplitudes between the defined Minimum and
Maximum will be displayed.
SECTION 19 / COMPARE SPECTRA

ANALYSIS SETTINGS
FFT Window
This popup button chooses the FFT window applied to the audio
before the analysis. The dierences between the windows are
subtle, but have to do with dierent types of separation between
frequency bands. Usually the default is acceptable for most
situations.

Resolution
This popup button chooses the number of samples in each FFT
analysis. The higher the resolution, the more frequency detail you
get in return (much more noticeable in the lower frequencies), but
the slower the analysis results will be displayed.

Interpolation
This popup sets the width of the bands that are displayed by the
analysis. The Critical bands are a pre-defined set of bandwidths that
are designed around human hearing response.
4.20
COMPARE PHASE
SECTION 20 / COMPARE PHASE

COMPARE PHASE
This meter compares the phase of two signals over time. The two
inputs come from two separate sources, one of which can be
delayed by a given amount of time, and their dierence is displayed
in the meter. The center line means there is a dierence of 0
degrees (no dierence) - when the levels are o center, there is a
phase shift at that frequency. The bottom of the meter is -180
degrees and the top is +180 degrees.
SECTION 20 / COMPARE PHASE

COMPARE PHASE Trace Trace

Analyze

(Time Average)

Spectrum
SECTION 20 / COMPARE PHASE

METER SETTINGS
Maximum/Minimum Frequency
Set the frequencies at the extreme left and right of the meter
window. All frequencies between the defined Minimum and
Maximum will be displayed.

Maximum/Minimum Amplitude
Set the amplitudes at the extreme top and bottom of the meter
window. All amplitudes between the defined Minimum and
Maximum will be displayed.
SECTION 20 / COMPARE PHASE

TRACES SETTINGS
Source X & Source Y
Source X defines the audio source that will determine the value
along the X-axis. Source Y defines the audio source that will
determine the value along the Y-axis.

Delay Time & Delay Source


The Delay Time defines the amount of time that either the X or Y
source will be delayed to compensate for phase dierences.

Averaging
Averaging will display the average phase dierence over the period
of time defined in the dropdown menu.
SECTION 20 / COMPARE PHASE

ANALYSIS SETTINGS
FFT Window
This popup button chooses the FFT window applied to the audio
before the analysis. The dierences between the windows are
subtle, but have to do with dierent types of separation between
frequency bands. Usually the default is acceptable for most
situations.

Resolution
This popup button chooses the number of samples in each FFT
analysis. The higher the resolution, the more frequency detail you
get in return (much more noticeable in the lower frequencies), but
the slower the analysis results will be displayed.

Interpolation
This popup sets the width of the bands that are displayed by the
analysis. The Critical bands are a pre-defined set of bandwidths that
are designed around human hearing response.
4.21
COHERENCE
SECTION 21 / COHERENCE

COHERENCE
This meter measures the coherence of two signals over time. The
two inputs come from two separate sources, one of which can be
delayed by a given amount of time, and their dierence is displayed
in the meter. At the top, the coherence at that frequency is high and
at the bottom the coherence at that frequency is low.
SECTION 21 / COHERENCE

COHERENCE Trace Trace

Combine

Spectrum
SECTION 21 / COHERENCE

METER SETTINGS
Maximum/Minimum Frequency
Set the frequencies at the extreme left and right of the meter
window. All frequencies between the defined Minimum and
Maximum will be displayed.
SECTION 21 / COHERENCE

TRACES SETTINGS
Source X & Source Y
Source X defines the audio source that will determine the value
along the X-axis. Source Y defines the audio source that will
determine the value along the Y-axis.

Delay Time & Delay Source


The Delay Time defines the amount of time that either the X or Y
source will be delayed to compensate for phase dierences.

Averaging
Averaging will display the average phase dierence over the period
of time defined in the dropdown menu.
SECTION 21 / COHERENCE

ANALYSIS SETTINGS
FFT Window
This popup button chooses the FFT window applied to the audio
before the analysis. The dierences between the windows are
subtle, but have to do with dierent types of separation between
frequency bands. Usually the default is acceptable for most
situations.

Resolution
This popup button chooses the number of samples in each FFT
analysis. The higher the resolution, the more frequency detail you
get in return (much more noticeable in the lower frequencies), but
the slower the analysis results will be displayed.

Interpolation
This popup sets the width of the bands that are displayed by the
analysis. The Critical bands are a pre-defined set of bandwidths that
are designed around human hearing response.