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Date of Submission :


Indian Economy
Export of Agriculture
Submitted By :-
Varun Narayanan - 2105 - Plantation Crops

Parth Parekh - 2029 - Commercial Crops

Rhea - -Cash Crops and Horticulture

Submitted to :-
Prof. Vijay Mishra

Plantation crops
A plantation is a large estate in a tropical or subtropical region that is cultivated by unskilled
or semiskilled labour under central direction.

A plantation is always a monoculture over a large area and does not include extensive
naturally occurring stands of plants that have economic value and because of its large size, a
plantation takes advantage of economies of scale

Crops grown on plantations include fast-

growing trees (often conifers), cotton, coffee,
tobacco, sugar cane, sisal, some oil
seeds (notably oil palms) and rubber trees.

They are the mainstay of agrarian economies

in many States and Union Territories (UTs) of
the country. They play an important role in the
agricultural and industrial development of the
country as a whole.

They also provide direct and indirect

employment to large number of people in the country, and thus tries to supplement the
poverty alleviation programmes, especially in rural sector.

Tea and coffee are the main and oldest industries in the country, which provide ample
employment opportunities to the people at large and holds immense potential for export.
India is one of the largest tea producer in the world. Coffee is the second largest traded
commodity in the world and is an extremely important foreign exchange earner. The coffee
industry of India is one of the largest producer of coffee in the world.

However, in India, plantation crops have been continuously facing the problem of lack of
investment and depressed yields, and are in great need of modernisation. Their total coverage
is comparatively less and they are mostly confined to small holdings.

Thus, the Government of India has

identified some prominent crops as high-
value crops of great economic importance.
It is taking all possible steps and initiatives
to commercialize the sector.

Tea, coffee, rubber and coconut industries

are providing greater business
opportunities to the investors worldwide.

Indias export of plantation products in

value terms could rise this year because of
a global shortage of plantation crops.
Volume of exports from the plantation sector has remained more or less the same for the last
five years. The total area under plantation crops is estimated at 1.65 million hectares.
Increasing productivity of the crops is essential for India to remain competitive and increase
it exports as the cost of production is seen high when compared to most of the competing

Two of the main plantation crops that India exports are Coffee and Tea


In Coffee, India stands second with a productivity

In 2013-14, Indias coffee exports stood at 313,025 metric tonnes, generating a revenue of
US$ 793.22 million. India exports coffee to over 45 countries, over 50 per cent of Indian
exports in 2013-14 headed to Europe. Italy is the largest market importing more than 25 per
cent from India, followed by Germany, Belgium, Turkey and the Russian Federations.

India exported over 440,000 pounds of coffee in the 2005-2006 season, slightly less than in
2005 and nearly 5 percent less than 2004. Over a quarter of the India's coffee exports go to
Italy. India is the third largest exporter of coffee however the number of exports is expected
to fall this year, due to a rally in global prices and a unseasonal rains which has greatly
impacted harvests.'
India is one of the world's leading producers of tea - 23 per cent share by volume in 2013.
The tea produced in India is among the finest in the world owing to strong geographical
indications, heavy investments in tea processing units, continuous innovation,

India has a significant share in the international tea market with a 12 per cent share of
world tea exports in 2013-14
India is also one of the world's largest consumers of tea
The tea industry is also India's second-largest employer with over 3.5 million workers
employed in over 1,500 tea-growing estates

Russia, the US, the UK, the UAE, Iran, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Germany, Australia, Japan, the
Netherlands, Ireland, Poland and Sri Lanka are some of the major global markets for exports
of Indian tea.

Between 2007-08 and 2011-12, exports grew from US$ 470 million to US$ 670 million,
growing at a rate of 9.2 per cent. In 2013-14, it stood at US$ 746.46 million and in volume
terms, India registered exports of 225.7 million kg.

India's tea exports are largely in the form of bulk tea, which accounted for approximately 78
per cent of total exports during 2013-14. In 2013-14, the Russian federation was the topmost
importer of Indian tea at 38.6 million kg, followed by UAE and Iran at 23.33 and 22.9 million
kg respectively


The cultivation of wheat dates back to more than 5000 years back during the era of Indus
valley civilization where the original species was Triticum Sphaerococcum popularly known
as Indian wheat has now disappeared and replaced by present day species- Triticum aestivum
or the common Bread Wheat, Triticum durum or the Macaroni wheat and the Triticum
dicoccum or the Emmer Wheat.

During independence, the country was dependent on wheat import to meet the food demand
of the country. Due to the lodging prone low yielding nature of Indian wheat under high
fertility conditions, there remained a continuous need for a breakthrough in wheat production.
The wheat received under PL 480 agreement continued to be the main base on which the
large population of India was dependent. It was finally the dream of Dr. Norman E. Borlaug,
the father of green revolution during mid sixties that came true to materialize the spurt of the
Green Revolution in the Indo gangetic plains by which India became a wheat surplus country
from a deficient one. This led to the achievement of as hunger free world by then as India
plays a major role in creating a global status of food security. The production level of Wheat
in India had a quantum jump from 6.46 m i l l i o n tones from an area of 9.75 million ha in
1950-51 t o more than 93 million tones from an area of about 30 million hectares during

Currently, India is second largest producer of Wheat in the world after China with about 12%
share in total world Wheat production. Now, India is surplus and in a position to export
Wheat in the international market and can earn foreign exchange. India has exported about 30
lakh tonnes of Wheat worth Rs.1,490 crore during 2001 02. Three species of Wheat namely,
(i) T. aestivum, (ii) T. durum and (iii) T. dicoccum are being cultivated in the country

Wheat is grown in India in an area of about 30 Million ha. with a production of 93 Million
tonnes. The normal National productivity is about 2.98 tonnes/ha. The major Wheat
producing States are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar,
Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, West Bengal, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu
& Kashmir. These States contribute about 99.5% of total Wheat production in the country.
Remaining States, namely, Jharkhand, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Delhi and other North Eastern
States contribute only about 0.5 % of the total Wheat production in the country.
Indian Wheat Growing Zones:
The entire wheat growing areas of the country has been categorized into 6 major zones as

Sl no. Zones States/ Regions Covered Appx Area


1. Northern Hill Hilly areas of J&K( except 0.8

Zone(NHZ) Jammu, Kathua and Samba
districts),Himachal Pradesh
(except Una & Paonta
Tarai region) & Sikkim
2. North Western Punjab,Haryana,Western 11.55
Plains UP(except Jhansi Div),Rajasthan
Zone(NWPZ) (excluding Kota& Udaipur
div),Delhi, Tarai region of
Uttarakhand, Una & Paonta
valley of
HP, Jammu,Samba & Kathua
districts of J&K and Chandigarh
3. North Eastern Eastern 10.5
Plains UP(28dist),Bihar,Jharkhand,West
Zone(NEPZ) Bengal,Assam, Odisha and other
NE states (except Sikkim)
4. Central Zone MP,Gujarat,Chattisgarh,Kota & 5.2
Udaipur Div of Rajasthan &
Jhansi Div of UP
5. Peninsular Zone Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu(except 1.6
Nilgiris & Palani
& Andhra Pradesh
6. Southern Hill Nilgiris & Palani Hills of Tamil 0.1
Zone(SHZ) Nadu

India ranks first among worlds mango producing countries accounting for about 50% of the
worlds mango production. Other major mango producing countries include China, Thailand,
Mexico, Pakistan, Philippines, Indonesia, Brazil, Nigeria and Egypt. Indias share is around
52% of world production i.e. 12 million tonnes as against worlds production of 23 million
tonnes (2002-03).

An increasing trend has been observed in world mango production averaging 22 million
metric tonnes per year. Worldwide production is mostly concentrated in Asia, accounting for
75% followed by South and Northern America with about 10% share.
Major producing States are Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa,
Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Other States where mangoes are grown include
Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Haryana, Punjab etc.

The fruit is very popular with the masses due to its wide range of adaptability, high nutritive
value, richness in variety, delicious taste and excellent flavour. It is a rich source of vitamin
A and C. The fruit is consumed raw or ripe. Good mango varieties contain 20% of total
soluble sugars. The acid content of ripe desert fruit varies from 0.2 to 0.5 % and protein
content is about 1 %.
Raw fruits of local varieties of mango trees are used for preparing various traditional products
like raw slices in brine, amchur, pickle, murabba, chutney, panhe (sharabat) etc. Presently, the
raw fruit of local varieties of mango are used for preparing pickle and raw slices in brine
on commercial scale while fruits of Alphonso variety are used for squash in coastal western

The wood is used as timber, and dried twigs are used for religious purposes. The mango
kernel also contains about 8-10% good quality fat which can be used for saponification. Its
starch is used in confectionery industry.

Mango also has medicinal uses. The ripe fruit has fattening, diuretic and laxative properties.
It helps to increase digestive capacity.

Although a lions share of Indian mango goes to the Gulf countries, efforts are being made to
exploit European, American and Asian markets. About 13,000 MT of Alphonso variety is
exported to Middle East, UK and Netherlands every year.

The different products of mango which are exported include mango chutney, pickles, jam,
squash, pulp, juice, nectar and slices. These are being exported to U.K., U.S.A., Kuwait
and Russia. Besides these, the fresh mangoes are being exported to Bangladesh, Bahrain,
France, Kuwait, Malaysia, Nepal, Singapore and U.K.

The varieties in demand at the international market include Kent, Tomy Atkin, Alphonso and
Kesar. Varieties such as Alphonso, Dashehari, Kesar, Banganapalli and several other varieties
that are currently in demand in the international markets are produced and exported from
Mahamango, a co-operative society was established in 1991 with the support of
Maharashtra State Agricultural & Marketing Board (Pune). This was mainly formed to boost
the export of Alphonso mangoes as well as for domestic marketing. Facilities like pre-
cooling, cold storages, pack house, grading packing line etc. have been made available at the
facility centre of Mahamango for which the financial assistance was given by APEDA, New
Delhi and Maharashtra State Agricultural & Marketing Board (Pune).

A similar type of association named MANGROW has been formed for the export of Kesar
mangoes from Aurangabad district of Maharashtra.

India's mango exports were estimated at 45 thousand tonnes worth Rs 100 crore (Rs 1 billion)
in 2002-03. Fresh mangoes are exported to Bangladesh, U.A.E., Saudi Arabia and U.K. and
mango pulp to U.A.E., Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Netherlands, U.S.A and U.K. Processed mango
products viz. pickle and chutney are exported to U.K., U.A.E., Saudi Arabia, Germany,
Netherlands, U.S.A and U.K

During the year 2008-09, the cotton exports

Size of the industry from the country reached at US$ 850 million
including 35 lakh bales.
It contributes about 14% to the industrial
production, 4% to the GDP and 14.42% to
the country's export earnings.
Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Maharashtra,
Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat. Andhra Pradesh,
Karnataka and Tamil Nadu
India presently produces 4.59 million tonnes
Percentage in World of cotton with 27 million bales of 170 kgs
Market each which constitutes 18% of the world
cotton production

Indian Cotton Industry's history of establishment has a rich past. English did gradual
inaugurations of a number of beneficial industries in India and the country was opening its
eyes to a whole new era of mechanisation. With 19th century India had successfully
established major production industries, owing to the initiative of the British East India
Company. Cotton was an essential staple fabric, which was needed in almost every work of
life in India.

Brief introduction
Cotton is one of the principal crops of India and is the major raw material for domestic textile
industry. The Indian Cotton Industry provides sustenance to million of farmers as also the
workers involved right from processing to trading of cotton. The Indian textile industry
consumes a diverse range of fibres and yarn, but is predominantly cotton based. The ratio of
cotton to manmade fibres and filament yarns by the domestic industry is about 56:46.

Indian Cotton Industry has an overwhelming presence in the economic life of the country.
Apart from providing one of the basic necessities of life, the Cotton industry also plays a
pivotal role through its contribution to industrial output, employment generation and the
export earnings of the country. It contributes about 14% to the industrial production, 4% to
the GDP and 14.42% to the country's export earnings. India is the only country which grows
all four species of cultivated cotton starting from Gossypium arboreum and herbaceum
(Asian cotton), G.barbadense (Egyptian cotton) and G.hirsutum (American Upland cotton).
Gossypium hirsutum represents 90% of the hybrid Indian cotton production and all the
current BT cotton hybrids are G.hirsutuim. India produces large number of cotton varieties
and hybrids. Though the number of varieties in cultivation exceeds 75, 98% of the production
is contributed by about 25 varieties only.

Indian Cotton is produced in country in three zones viz., Northern zone comprising the States
of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan & Central zone comprising the States of Maharashtra,
Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat and Southern zone comprising the States of Andhra Pradesh,
Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Cotton cultivation has gained momentum in the eastern State of
Odisha, besides these there are nine States also. In the year 2008-09 during cotton season the
country once again harvested higher cotton production for the fifth consecutive year at 4.93
million metric tons (equivalent to 29.0 million bales of 170 kgs each). In the last two decades,
the production of cotton has gone up from 7.5 million bales in 1983-84 to 16.3 million bales
of 170 kg/bale during 1998-99.

Market capitalization
Government decision to permit the export of 85 lakh bales as against the earmarked quantity
of 55 lakh bales by Cotton Advisory Board at the beginning of cotton season (Oct-Sept) has
brought down the closing stock to around 38.5 lakh bales, making to stock to use ratio at
15%. Whenever the stock to use ratio was dipped below 20 %, the cotton prices have
increased abnormally the recent notification notification had resulted in jacking up the prices
of cotton almost rs.4000 per candy of 355 kg within a month.

Size of the industry

As a part of measures to boost cotton trade, the Government of India had liberalized raw
cotton exports since July 2001, dispensing with the system of allocation of cotton export
quota in favour of different agencies and traders. Exports of cotton from the country are
under Open General Licence (OGL) since July 2001. During the year 2008-09, the cotton
exports from the country reached at US$ 850 million including 35 lakh bales.

Total contribution to the economy/ sales

As the largest private enterprise in India is having more than 100 million farm holdings,
agriculture supports more than 60% of the population, contributes nearly 19% to India's
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 11% to the total exports. Around 51% of the
geographical area in India is already under cultivation as compared to 11% of the world

Domestic and Export Share

Qty. (in lakh bales of 170 Value (in US$
kgs each) million)
2006-07 58.00 1170
2007-08 88.50 1850
2008-09 35.00 850
2009-10 55.00 NA

Government of India as a part of measures to boost cotton trade had liberalized raw cotton
exports since July 2001, dispensing with the system of allocation of cotton export quota in
favour of different agencies and traders. Exports of cotton has been done under Open General
Licence (OGL) since July 2001. During the year 2008-09 in the country, the cotton exports
reached at US$ 850 million including 35 lakh bales. The Indian Cotton industry was worth
approximately $38 billion, with growth of the industry heavily correlated with the rise and
fall of cotton prices. However, exports of cotton have grown steadily throughout the last
decade which reached $4.87 billion in 2006.
Employment opportunities

Cotton Industry has numerous opportunities for entrepreneurs, Textile companies, fabric
manufacturing companies that consume cotton raw material and supply various varieties of
finished products and value added products are benefitted. Through various job agencies,
there are various employment opportunities prevalent in India.

The Indian Cotton Industry provides livelihood to farmers, and workers engaged in ginning,
spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing and packaging, not leaving sewing and tailoring.

Latest developments

In the year 2008-09 the yield gap between the world and India was narrowed down, as
Indian yield was 5.5% to 591 kg per hectare. India still has miles to go before it can
match yield levels in countries like Australia, China and the U.S. where yield is as
high as 1840 kg, 1265 kg and 985 kg, respectively.

The major achievement for Indian cotton has been a significant improvement in
cotton yield in the last three to four years. The average national yield has almost
doubled to 560 kilograms (kg) per hectare, climbing from around 300 kg per hectare
as recently as 2002/03. Though the national yield level still compares poorly with the
global average of 785 kg per hectare, world average yield grew by just 38% between
2000/01 and 2007/08. Conversely, India's average yield posted a whopping growth of
102% during the same period.

Today Cotton crop contributes about 14 - 16% to the total agricultural-crop in India.

India has the largest area under cotton with 9 million hectares in the world
constituting 26% of total world cotton area.

India presently produces 4.59 million tonnes of cotton with 27 million bales of 170
kgs each which constitutes 18% of the world cotton production.

60 million people including 4.5 million farmers in India depend on cotton production
to earn their livelihood.

India Cotton Industry may boost the acreage to at least 10.5 million hectares. Farmers
planted the crop across 10.4 million hectares and up 9 % from a year earlier,
according to the farm ministry in the year 2009.

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