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ER288 Widening of CTE from PIE to Braddell Road Interchange Pg.

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Piling
Pg
Clause Title Description Instrumentation Remark/Test
No.

a) This Section deals with the testing of a pile by the


application of a load or force. It covers vertical and raking
a) Each preliminary bored test
piles tested in compression (i.e.subjected to loads or
pile shall be uniform in diameter
forces in a direction such as would cause the pile to
along its entire shaft with
penetrate further into the ground), vertical or raking piles a) The test pile with
overbreaks not exceeding 10%
tested in tension.(i.e. subjected to forces in a direction overbreaks exceeding
of its nominal diameter at any
Pile Load Testing- such as would cause the piles to be extracted from the the specified allowable
111 5.7.1 section. b) The test pile
General ground), and vertical raking piles tested in bending (i.e. percentage shall be
with overbreaks exceeding the
subjected to horizontal forces). rejected at the discretion
specified allowable percentage
b) The percentage overbreak in the pile shall be computed of the Engineer.
shall
as the percentage excess between the concrete volume
be rejected at the discretion of
discharged per truck as indicated by the concrete delivery
the Engineer.
docket and the resulting concrete displacement in the
bored pile based on the nominal size of the piles.

a) Working Test Load: a load applied to a selected working


pile to confirm that it is suitable for the load at the
Pile Load Testing-
112 5.7.2 settlement specified. A working test load should not
Definition
normally exceed 150% of the working load on a pile. b)
Test Pile: any pile to which a test is, or is to be, applied.
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Piling

a) Where kentledge is used, the Contractor shall construct


the foundations for the kentledge and any cribwork,
beams or other supporting structures in such a manner
Pile Load Testing- that there will be no differential settlement, bending or a) The weight of kentledge shall
Safety deflection of an amount that constitutes a hazard to safety be greater than the maximum
5.7.3.2
Precautions- or impairs the efficiency of the operation. test load and if the weight is
Kentledge b) The kentledge shall be adequately estimated from the density and
bonded, tied or otherwise held together to prevent it from volume of the constituent
falling apart, or becoming unstable because of deflection materials, an adequate factor of
of the supports. safety against error shall be
allowed.

a) Where tension piles or ground anchors are used, the


Pile Load Testing- a) The bond stresses of the rods
Contractor shall ensure that the load is correctly
Safety in tension shall not exceed
transmitted to all the tie rods or bolts. b) The extension
113 5.7.3.3 Precautions- normal permissible bond
of rods by welding shall not be permitted unless it is
Tension Pile and stresses for the type of steel and
known that the steel will not be reduced in strength by
Ground Anchors grade of concrete used.
welding.

a) The Contractor shall ensure that when the hydraulic


jack and load
a) The hydraulic jack, pump,
measuring device are mounted on the pile head, the a) The maximum test
hoses, pipes, couplings and
Pile Load Testing- whole system will be load or test pressure
other apparatus to be operated
Safety stable up to the maximum load to be applied. expressed as a reading
under hydraulic pressure shall be
113 5.7.3.4 Precautions- b) Means shall be provided to enable dial on the gauge in use
capable of withstanding a test
Testing gauges to be read from a position clear of the kentledge shall be displayed and
pressure of one and a half times
Equipment stack or test frame in conditions where failure in any part all operators shall be
the maximum working pressure
of the system due to overloading, buckling, loss of made aware of this limit.
without leaking.
hydraulic pressure etc. will not constitute a hazard to
personnel.
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Piling

a) The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for a) The preliminary piles
Pile Load Testing-
acceptance, a full method statement describing the testing shall be instrumented a) The strain gauges shall be
Construction of a
equipment and procedure at least 14 day prior to the with vibrating wire strain installed in pairs at each level.
Preliminary Test
commencement of construction of a preliminary pile. gauges and b) Where preliminary piles are
114 5.7.4.3 Pile-
extensometer at every required for lateral load tests, an
Instrumentation
b) The strain gauges and extensometer shall be properly different geological inclinometer along the pile shaft
for Preliminary
fixed to the reinforcement cages of the piles, and strata and at intervals of shall also be installed.
Piles
protected from damage at all stages of pile construction. not more than 3 metres.

a)Where the Engineer requires


a) For each preliminary pile, a detailed record of the soils soil samples to be taken or in
Pile Load Testing-
encountered during boring, or of the progress during situ tests to be made in bored
114 5.7.4.4 Boring or Driving
driving shall be made and submitted to the Engineer daily pile, the Contractor shall give the
Record
on the next working day. results of such tests to the
Engineer without delay.
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Pile Load Test Plan
a) Where the pile shaft is
extended above the cut-off level
a)The pile shaft shall terminate at the cut-off level or at a
of a working pile in a soil which
Pile Load Testing- level required by the Engineer. The pile shaft shall be
would influence the load bearing
Construction of a extended where necessary above the cut-off level of
114 5.7.4.5 capacity of the pile, a sleeve
Preliminary Test working piles so that gauges and other apparatus to be
shall be installed and kept in
Pile-Cut-off Level used in the testing process will not be damaged by water
place during testing to eliminate
or falling debris.
friction which would not arise in
the working pile.

a) The pile head or cap shall be formed to give a plane


surface which is normal to the axis of the pile, sufficiently
Pile Load Testing- large to accommodate the loading and settlement-
Construction of a measuring equipment and adequately reinforced or a) The pile cap shall be
Preliminary Test protected to prevent damage from the concentrated concentric with the test pile; the
115 5.7.4.6.1 Pile - Pile Head application of load from the loading equipment. joint between the cap and the
Construction- b) Sufficient clear space shall pile shall have a strength
Compression be made under any part of the cap projecting beyond the equivalent to that of the pile.
Test section of the pile so that, at the maximum expected
settlement, load is not transmitted to the ground except
through the pile.

a) The connection between the


pile and the loading equipment
Pile Load Testing-
shall be constructed in such a
Construction of a
manner as to provide a strength
Preliminary Test a) The test load shall be axially transmitted to the pile.
115 5.7.4.6.1 equal to the maximum load
Pile - Pile Head
which is to be applied to the pile
Construction-
during the test with an
Tension Test
appropriate factor of safety on
the structural design.
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Pile Load Test Plan

a) The pile test shall not


be started until the
a) If a concrete cap is cast
sample cubes have
separately from a preliminary pile
a) Three test cubes shall be made from the concrete used acquired strength such
Pile Load Testing- or a working pile, a further three
in each of the that the applied direct
115 5.7.6 Concrete Test cubes shall be made from this
preliminary test piles and working piles as directed by the stress is less than 0.5
Cubes concrete. b) The cubes shall be
Engineer. times the cube strength.
made and tested in accordance
This requirement shall
with BS 1881.
apply to both pile and
pile cap.

a) Compression tests shall be carried out using kentledge,


tension piles or specially constructed anchorage.
Kentledge shall not be used for tests on raking piles.
b)
Pile Load Testing- Where kentledge is to be used, it shall be supported on a) Kentledge shall not be
Reaction Systems- cribwork disposed around the pile head so that its centre carried directly on the pile head,
116 5.7.7.1
Compression of gravity is on the axis of the pile. except when directed by the
Tests c) The bearing Engineer.
pressure under supporting cribs shall be such as to
ensure stability of the kentledge stack, and if necessary,
the Contractor shall provide a pile support system to the
kentledge.
a) Tension tests shall be carried out using compression
b) In all cases, the
Pile Load Testing- piles or rafts
resultant force of the reaction
116 5.7.7.2 Reaction Systems- constructed on the ground. The inclined reaction piles,
system shall be co-axial with the
Tension Tests anchors, or rafts
test pile.
may be used subject to the acceptance of the Engineer.

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Piling

a) Where kentledge is used for loading vertical piles in


compression, the distance from the edge of the test pile to
the nearest part of the crib supporting the kentledge stack
in contact with the ground shall not be less than 1.5 m.
Pile Load Testing- b) The a) Where a pile to be tested has
116 5.7.7.4 Reaction Systems- centre to centre spacing of vertical reaction piles, from a an enlarged base, the same
Spacing test pile shall not be less than 3 times the diameter of the criterion shall apply with regard
test pile/the reaction piles or 2m, whichever is the to the pile shafts, with the
greatest.Where ground anchors are used to provide a test additional requirement that the
reaction for loading in compression, no part of the section surface of reaction pile shall not
of the anchor transferring load to the ground shall be be closer to the base of the test
closer to the test pile than 3 times the diameter of the test pile by more than one half of the
pile. enlarged base diameter.
a) For any period when
a) The maximum load which shall be applied in an the load is constant,
ultimate load test is at least two and a half times the time and settlement
working load. b) Following each shall be recorded
application of load, the load shall be held for not less than immediately on reaching
Pile Load Testing- a) Testing shall continue until the
the period shown in Table 5.5 or until the rate of the load and at
Test Procedures- maximum test load has been
settlement is less than 0.25 mm/hr and slowing down. approximately 15 min
119 5.7.14.1 Ultimate Load reached or when the settlement
c) The rate of settlement intervals for 1 hr, at 30
Test by exceeds 10% of the pile
shall be calculated from the slope of the curve obtained by min intervals between 1
Maintained Load diameter
plotting values of settlement versus time and drawing a hr and 4 hr and at 1 hr
smooth curve through the points. intervals between 4 hr
d) Each stage of unloading shall proceed after and 12 hr after the
the expiry of the period shown in Table 5.5. application of the
increment of the load.

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Pile Load Test Plan
a) For any period when
the load is constant,
a) The maximum load which shall be applied in a working
time and settlement
load test on a working pile is one and a half times the
shall be recorded
working load. Following each application of an increment
immediately on reaching
Pile Load Testing- of load, the load shall be held for not less than the period
the load and at
Test Procedures- shown in Table 5.6 or until the rate of settlement is less
approximately 15 min
119 5.7.14.2 Working Load than 0.25mm/hr and slowing down.
intervals for 1 hr, at 30
Test by b) The rate of settlement shall be
min intervals between 1
Maintained Load calculated from the slope of the curve obtained by plotting
hr and 4 hr and at 1 hr
values of settlement versus time and drawing a smooth
intervals between 4 hr
curve through the points. Each stage of unloading shall
and 12 hr after the
proceed after the expiry of the period shown in Table 5.6.
application of the
increment of the load.